Rg Veda, Kathopanishad, Gita – KSOU – Paper 6

This document covers the important points from Paper 6 of KSOU MA which includes Rg Veda, Kathopanishad and Karma Yoga from Gita. For more information, refer the video recordings of the sessions by Smt. Divya and Smt. Harini (MA Students) on Vedic Suktas and the sessions by me (Nivedita – MA Student) on Gita, Kathopanishad and the Vedic Accents. Here is a downloadable file with the table of contents.

This document covers the important points from Paper 6 of KSOU MA which includes Rg Veda, Kathopanishad and Karma Yoga from Gita. For more information, refer the video recordings of the sessions by Smt. Divya and Smt. Harini (MA Students) on Vedic Suktas and the sessions by me (Nivedita – MA Student) on Gita, Kathopanishad and the Vedic Accents. Here is a downloadable file with the table of contents. paper-1-vedic-sukta-summary-kathopanishad-gita

Rg Veda – Important suktas covered in 2016 contact class

ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं Mantra Rig 01.035.001 Savitr (HiranyaStupa)

ऋषि: (Rishi) :- हिरण्यस्तूप आङ्गिरसः
देवता (Devataa) :- (अग्निर्मित्रावरुणौ, रात्रिः) सविता
छन्द: (Chhand) :- जगती

संहिता

ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं प्र॑थ॒मं स्व॒स्तये॒
ह्वया॑मि मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से ।
ह्वया॑मि॒ रात्रीं॒ जग॑तो नि॒वेश॑नीं॒
ह्वया॑मि दे॒वं स॑वि॒तार॑मू॒तये॑ ॥

पदपाठः

ह्वया॑मि । अ॒ग्निम् । प्र॒थ॒मम् । स्व॒स्तये॑ ।
ह्वया॑मि । मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ । इ॒ह । अव॑से ।
ह्वया॑मि । रात्री॑म् । जग॑तः । नि॒वेश॑नीम् ।
ह्वया॑मि । दे॒वम् । स॒वि॒तार॑म् । ऊ॒तये॑ ॥

मनुष्यैरहर्निशं सुखायाग्निवायुसूर्याणां सकाशादुपयोगं गृहीत्वा सर्वाणि सुखानि प्राप्याणि नैतदादिना विना कदाचित् कस्यचित् सुखं संभवतीति ॥१॥

I call on Agni first for welfare. I call on Mitraa-Varuna for aid; I call on Night that brings the world to rest; I call on God Savitru for help.

Remember

No Avagraha symbol for मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ  — no itikarana as there is no ईकार or एकार |

हा split ह । अ – both udaatta

विष्णो॒र्नु कं॑ Mantra Rig 01.154.001 Vishnu (दीर्घतमस्)

ऋषि: (Rishi) :- दीर्घतमा औचथ्यः
देवता (Devataa) :- विष्णुः
छन्द: (Chhand) :- त्रिस्टुप्

संहिता

विष्णो॒र्नु कं॑ वी॒र्या॑णि॒ प्र वो॑चं॒
यः पार्थि॑वानि विम॒मे रजां॑सि ।
यो अस्क॑भाय॒दुत्त॑रं स॒धस्थं॑
विचक्रमा॒णस्त्रे॒धोरु॑गा॒यः ॥

पदपाठः
विष्णोः॑ । नु । क॒म् । वी॒र्या॑णि । प्र । वो॒च॒म् ।
यः | पार्थि॑वानि | वि॒ऽम॒मे | रजां॑सि ।
यः । अस्क॑भायत् । उत्ऽत॑रम् ।  स॒धऽस्थ॑म् ।
वि॒ऽच॒क्र॒मा॒णः । त्रे॒धा । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यः ।

I would want to declare the mighty deeds of Vishnu, of him who measured out the earthly regions, who supported the highest place of congregation, thrice setting down his footstep, widely striding, who is excessively praised.

Remember

Avagraha in samasta pada स॒धऽस्थ॑म् , उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यः and in words with prefixes वि॒ऽम॒मे,  वि॒ऽच॒क्र॒मा॒णः , उत्ऽत॑रम्

Split – त्रे॒धोरु॑गा॒यः as त्रे॒धा । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यः ।

नु । क॒म् – very quickly विष्णोः॑ । वी॒र्या॑णि  – vishnu’s valour । प्र । वो॒च॒म्  – I should proclaim यः | पार्थि॑वानि | रजां॑सि । वि॒ऽम॒मे  – measured the terrestrial regions | यः । उत्ऽत॑रम् ।  स॒धऽस्थ॑म् । अस्क॑भायत् has established an upper gathering space named satya loka | वि॒ऽच॒क्र॒मा॒णः Doer of heroic acts  त्रे॒धा । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यः – took three huge steps, another definition by saayana is that he has been sung by many in different ways.

हिर॑ण्यपाणिः Mantra Rig 01.035.009 – Savitr (HiranyaStupa)

ऋषि: (Rishi) :- हिरण्यस्तूप आङ्गिरसः
देवता (Devataa) :- सविता
छन्द: (Chhand) :- निचृज्जगती

संहितापाठः

हिर॑ण्यपाणिः सवि॒ता विच॑र्षणि-
रु॒भे द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी अ॒न्तरी॑यते ।
अपामी॑वां॒ बाध॑ते॒ वेति॒ सूर्य॑-
म॒भि कृ॒ष्णेन॒ रज॑सा॒ द्यामृ॑णोति ॥

पदपाठः

हिर॑ण्यऽपाणिः । स॒वि॒ता । विऽच॑र्षणिः ।
उ॒भे इति॑। द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी इति॑। अ॒न्तः। ई॒य॒ते॒ ।
अप॑ । अमी॑वाम् । बाध॑ते । वेति॑ । सूर्य॑म् ।
अ॒भि । कृ॒ष्णेन॑ । रज॑सा । द्याम् । ऋ॒णो॒ति॒ ॥

अत्र वाचकलुप्तोपमालङ्कारः। हे सभापते यथायं सूर्योबहुभिर्लोकैः सहाकर्षणसंबन्धेन वर्त्तमानः सर्वं वस्तूजातं प्रकाशयन् प्रकाशपृथिव्योरान्तर्यं करोति तथैव त्वया भवितव्यमिति ॥९॥

Meaning:

The golden-handed Savitr, far-seeing, goes on his way between the earth and heaven, drives away sickness, bids the Sun to approach us, and spreads the bright sky through the darksome region.

Notes

उ॒भे, द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी – Dvivachanam ending in ए and ई – प्रगृह्यम् – इतिकरणम्

Remember

अपामी॑वां॒ to be split as अप॑ । अमी॑वाम् ।

Split अ॒न्तरी॑यते as अ॒न्तः। ई॒य॒ते॒ ।

Avagraha in samasta pada and in words with prefixes  — हिर॑ण्यऽपाणिः , विऽच॑र्षणिः,

हिर॑ण्यऽपाणिः ।golden hand  स॒वि॒ता । विऽच॑र्षणिः  – far sighted (saayana) or active (Mac donal) उ॒भे  द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी  अ॒न्तः – between the heaven and earth ई॒य॒ते॒ – goes
अमी॑वाम्  diseases। अप॑ बाध॑ते  – drives away   सूर्य॑म्  वेति॑ । Guides the sun. कृ॒ष्णेन॑ । रज॑सा । through the darksome region द्याम् । अ॒भि । ऋ॒णो॒ति॒ spreads the bright sky.

यो जा॒त ए॒व प्र॑थ॒मो – rig-02-012-001  – Indra (Grtsamada)

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- गृत्समदः शौनकः
देवता (Devataa) :- इन्द्र:
छन्द: (Chhand) :- त्रिष्टुप् संहितापाठः

यो जा॒त ए॒व प्र॑थ॒मो मन॑स्वान्-     दे॒वो दे॒वान्क्रतु॑ना प॒र्यभू॑षत् ।
यस्य॒ शुष्मा॒द्रोद॑सी॒ अभ्य॑सेतां       नृ॒म्णस्य॑ म॒ह्ना स ज॑नास॒ इन्द्र॑: ॥

पदपाठः

यः । जा॒तः । ए॒व । प्र॒थ॒मः । मन॑स्वान् ।
दे॒वः । दे॒वान् । क्रतु॑ना । प॒रि॒ऽअभू॑षत् ।
यस्य॑। शुष्मा॑त् । रोद॑सी॒ इति॑। अभ्य॑सेताम् ।
नृ॒म्णस्य॑ । म॒ह्ना । सः । ज॒ना॒सः॒ । इन्द्रः॑।

Meaning

यः । जा॒तः । ए॒व । He soon after birth  प्र॒थ॒मः । मन॑स्वान् ।  दे॒वः । first and foremost of the wise gods  क्रतु॑ना । by his actions दे॒वान् ।  प॒रि॒ऽअभू॑षत् । dethroned or surpassed the other devas that were in power यस्य॑। नृ॒म्णस्य॑ । शुष्मा॑त् म॒ह्ना  by the fierceness of the army  रोद॑सी॒ the two worlds अभ्य॑सेताम्  trembled । सः ।  इन्द्रः॑। ज॒ना॒सः॒ ।  – Know him to be Indra.

Notes

रोद॑सी॒ – Dvivachanam ending in ई – प्रगृह्यम् – इतिकरणम्

Remember

No Udaatta in ज॑नास॒

Visarga in जा॒तः ए॒व, ज॒ना॒सः॒

यस्याश्वा॑सः प्र॒दिशि॒ – rig-02-012-007 – Indra (Grtsamada)

ऋषि: (Rishi) :- गृत्समदः शौनकः
देवता (Devataa) :- इन्द्र:
छन्द: (Chhand) :- निचृत्त्रिष्टुप् संहितापाठः

यस्याश्वा॑सः प्र॒दिशि॒ यस्य॒ गावो॒      यस्य॒ ग्रामा॒ यस्य॒ विश्वे॒ रथा॑सः ।

यः सूर्यं॒ य उ॒षसं॑ ज॒जान॒      यो अ॒पां ने॒ता स ज॑नास॒ इन्द्र॑: ॥

पदपाठः

यस्य॑ । अश्वा॑सः । प्र॒ऽदिशि॑। यस्य॑। गावः॑

यस्य॑ । ग्रामाः॑ । यस्य॑ । विश्वे॑ । रथा॑सः ।

यः। सूर्य॑म् । यः । उ॒षस॑म् । ज॒जान॑ ।

यः। अ॒पाम् । ने॒ता। सः। ज॒ना॒सः॒ । इन्द्रः॑ ॥

Meaning

In whose control are the horses, cows, clans, all chariots; who creates the sun, the dawn; who is the guide of the waters; he, O men is Indra

यस्य॑ । अश्वा॑सः । प्र॒ऽदिशि॑।  One who has control over the horses, यस्य॑। गावः॑  cows, यस्य॑ । ग्रामाः॑ । clan or jana padas,  । यस्य॑ । विश्वे॑ । रथा॑सः । chariots, यः। सूर्य॑म् । यः । उ॒षस॑म् । ज॒जान॑ । one who creates the sun and dawn, यः। अ॒पाम् । ने॒ता। one who guides the water, सः। ज॒ना॒सः॒ । इन्द्रः॑  such a  person know him to be Indra

Notes

यस्याश्वा॑सः – यस्य॑ । अश्वा॑सः due to the udaatta in the first letter of the first word and the Svarita in the second word.

Remember

Avagraha – प्र॒ऽदिशि॑

ग्रामा॒  – ग्रामाः॑ ।

जन॑स्य गो॒पा – rig-05-011-001   – Agni (सुतंभर आत्रेयः )

संहितापाठः

जन॑स्य गो॒पा अ॑जनिष्ट॒ जागृ॑वि-    र॒ग्निः सु॒दक्ष॑: सुवि॒ताय॒ नव्य॑से ।
घृ॒तप्र॑तीको बृह॒ता दि॑वि॒स्पृशा॑     द्यु॒मद्वि भा॑ति भर॒तेभ्य॒: शुचि॑: ॥

पदपाठः

जन॑स्य । गो॒पाः । अ॒ज॒नि॒ष्ट॒ । जागृ॑विः ।
अ॒ग्निः । सु॒ऽदक्षः॑ । सु॒वि॒ताय॑ । नव्य॑से ।
घृ॒तऽप्र॑तीकः । बृ॒ह॒ता । दि॒वि॒ऽस्पृशा॑ ।
द्यु॒ऽमत् । वि । भा॒ति॒ । भ॒र॒तेभ्यः॑ । शुचिः॑॥

Meaning

जन॑स्य । गो॒पाः । Protector of the people;  जागृ॑विः । watchful person; सु॒ऽदक्षः॑ ।  a skillful person ;  अ॒ग्निः Agni ;  अ॒ज॒नि॒ष्ट॒ ।  has been born नव्य॑से । सु॒वि॒ताय॑ । For the fresh (renewed) welfare of the people;   घृ॒तऽप्र॑तीकः । He has the face of ghee or butter; शुचिः॑  – agni who is pure; द्यु॒ऽमत् । वि भा॒ति॒ । brilliantly shines | बृ॒ह॒ता । दि॒वि॒ऽस्पृशा॑ । with the lofty flames that touch the heaven; भ॒र॒तेभ्यः॑ for the family of rishis that praise him.

The watchful Guardian of the people hath been born, Agni, the very strong, for fresh prosperity. With oil upon his face, with high heaven touching flame, he shines splendidly, pure, for the Bharatas.

Remember

Visarga – गो॒पाः

Avagraha  – सु॒ऽदक्षः॑ | घृ॒तऽप्र॑तीकः । दि॒वि॒ऽस्पृशा॑ । द्यु॒ऽमत् ।

Split – द्यु॒मद्वि  as द्यु॒ऽमत् । वि ।

Other exam questions

आ कृ॒ष्णेन॒ रज॑सा॒  Savitr

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- हिरण्यस्तूप आङ्गिरसः
देवता (Devataa) :- सविता
छन्द: (Chhand) :- विराट्त्रिस्टुप्

 कृ॒ष्णेन॒ रज॑सा॒ वर्त॑मानो निवे॒शय॑न्न॒मृतं॒ मर्त्यं॑   हि॒र॒ण्यये॑न सवि॒ता रथे॒ना दे॒वो या॑ति॒ भुव॑नानि॒ पश्य॑न् 

आ । कृ॒ष्णेन॑ । रज॑सा । वर्त॑मानः । नि॒ऽवे॒शय॑न् । अ॒मृत॑म् । मर्त्य॑म् । च॒ । हि॒र॒ण्यये॑न । स॒वि॒ता रथे॑न । आ । दे॒वः । या॒ति॒ । भुव॑नानि । पश्य॑न् ॥

Rolling through the dark spaces, laying the dead and living souls to rest, travels on a golden chariot, seeing all the creatures.

Remember

निवे॒शय॑न्न॒मृतं॒ à नि॒ऽवे॒शय॑न् । अ॒मृत॑म्

रथे॒ना à रथे॒न॑ । आ

Avagraha नि॒ऽवे॒शय॑न् ।

ति॒स्रो द्याव॑:  Savitr

ति॒स्रो द्याव॑सवि॒तुर्द्वा उ॒पस्थाँ॒ एका॑ य॒मस्य॒ भुव॑ने विरा॒षाट्  आ॒णिं  रथ्य॑म॒मृताधि॑ तस्थुरि॒ह ब्र॑वीतु॒  उ॒ तच्चिके॑तत् 

ति॒स्रः । द्यावः॑ । स॒वि॒तुः । द्यौ । उ॒पऽस्था॑ ।  एका॑ ।  य॒मस्य॑  ।  भुव॑ने ।  वि॒रा॒षाट् ।  आ॒णिम् । न । रथ्य॑म् । अ॒मृता॑ । अधि॑ । त॒स्थुः॒ । इ॒ह । ब्र॒वी॒तु॒ । यः । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । तत् । चिके॑तत् ॥

 

There are three heavens. Two are the laps of Savitr. i.e., two worlds (dyu and bhu loka) are near Savitr. (These two are illumined by Surya). The One overcoming men, is in the abode of Yama. All immortal things rest on him as (न) on the axle-end of a car; let him who may understand this tell it here.

Note:

द्वा changes to द्वौ / द्यौ | TODO how सवि॒तुर्द्वा becomes (स॒वि॒तुः । द्यौ) । May be दिव् gets द्यावादेश |
उ॒ ऊँ॒ इति॑

Remember:

Of the the three world – dau, antariksha and bhooloka, Dau and Bhooloka are near Savitru deva. They are illumined by Surya. He harbours (or gives shelter to) (viraashat) the immortal souls in Yama’s place like (न) the axle of a ratha. Let the one who knows this, tell it here.
तस्थुरि॒ह
  à त॒स्थुः॒ । इ॒ह

Avagraha उ॒पऽस्था॑  (sthaa is always Anudaatta – sarvaanudaatta)

वि सु॑प॒र्णो  Savitr

मन्त्र

वि सु॑प॒र्णो अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाण्यख्यद्गभी॒रवे॑पा॒ असु॑रः सुनी॒थः । क्वे॒३॒॑दानीं॒ सूर्य॒: कश्चि॑केत कत॒मां द्यां र॒श्मिर॒स्या त॑तान ॥

पदपाठः

वि । सु॒ऽप॒र्णः । अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि । अ॒ख्य॒त् । ग॒भी॒रऽवे॑पाः । असु॑रः। सु॒ऽनी॒थः । क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॑म् । सूर्यः॑ । कः । चि॒के॒त॒ । क॒त॒माम् । द्याम् । र॒श्मिः । अ॒स्य॒ । आ । त॒ता॒न॒ ॥

(Note: Online sites including Vedakosh have a different version which seems to be incorrect to me).
वि । सु॒ऽप॒र्णः । अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि । अ॒ख्य॒त् । ग॒भी॒रऽवे॑पाः । असु॒रः। सु॒ऽनी॒थः । क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॒म् । सूर्यः॑ । कः । चि॒के॒त॒ । क॒त॒माम् । द्याम् । र॒श्मिः । अ॒स्य॒ । आ । त॒ता॒न॒ ॥

The bird with charming feathers (sun’s rays) (सु॒ऽप॒र्णः) has surveyed (वि अ॒ख्य॒त्)  the atmospheric regions (अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि), the divine spirit असु॒रः, of deep inspiration ग॒भी॒रऽवे॑पाः , of good guidance सु॒ऽनी॒थः . What is now the sun  क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॒म् । सूर्यः॑ । ? Who has understood (it) कः । चि॒के॒त॒ ? To what heaven his ray extended क॒त॒माम् । द्याम् । र॒श्मिः । अ॒स्य॒ । आ । त॒ता॒न॒ ?

Note:

क्व॑ – always Svarita

 

Remember:

Avagraha –  सु॒ऽप॒र्णः   ग॒भी॒रऽवे॑पाः ।  सु॒ऽनी॒थः ।

ग॒भी॒र – deep वे॑पाः  – quivering sound  | सु॒ऽनी॒थः – guides well । असु॑रः – one who throws away the enemies – the divine being ।  त॒ता॒न॒  – to continue or spread | सु॒ऽप॒र्णः  – the rays of the sun diffused all over – compared to a bird with charming features | अ॒ख्य॒त् – surveyed |  अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि  – all the worlds of atmospheric regions  क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॑म् । सूर्यः॑  – where is that sun now? ।  क॒त॒माम्  द्याम् ।  अ॒स्य॒ । र॒श्मिः ।  आ । त॒ता॒न॒ – till which region has his rays extended? कः । चि॒के॒त॒ । – who has understood this?

Remember

र॒श्मिर॒स्या à अ॒स्य॒ । आ । Udaatta only for aa.

प्र तद्विष्णु॑: स्तवते  – vishnu

मन्त्र

प्र तद्विष्णु॑स्तवते वी॒र्ये॑ण मृ॒गो  भी॒मः कु॑च॒रो गि॑रि॒ष्ठाः  यस्यो॒रुषु॑ त्रि॒षु वि॒क्रम॑णेष्वधिक्षि॒यन्ति॒  भुव॑नानि॒ विश्वा॑ 

पदपाठः प्र । तत् । विष्णुः॑ । स्त॒व॒ते॒ । वी॒र्ये॑ण । मृ॒गः । न । भी॒मः । कु॒च॒रः । गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः । यस्य॑ । उ॒रुषु॑ । त्रि॒षु । वि॒ऽक्रम॑णेषु । अ॒धि॒ऽक्षि॒यन्ति॑ । भुव॑नानि । विश्वा॑ ॥

By reason of his heroic power; like a dread beast that wanders at will, that haunts the mountains, Vishnu is praised aloud for that; he in whose three wide strides all beings dwell.

Notes:

वी॒र्ये॑ण – anuswara is followed by a Svarita as it is a Jaateeyasvarita. By the sutra तित् स्वरितम्, तित् are Svaritas. Here we have वीर् + यत् where यत् is a तित् |

Remember:

गि॑रि॒ष्ठाः  à गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः   shthaa becomes sthaa

Avagraha — गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः , वि॒ऽक्रम॑णेषु  , अ॒धि॒ऽक्षि॒यन्ति॑

प्र । तत् । विष्णुः॑  – that vishnu वी॒र्ये॑ण ।  for heroism । स्त॒व॒ते॒   being praised aloud | न like  भी॒मः । मृ॒गः ।  terrific beast | गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः । that stays in mountain कु॒च॒रः – wanders at will ।  यस्य॑ ।  त्रि॒षु । वि॒ऽक्रम॑णेषु । उ॒रुषु॑ ।  – in whose 3 steps विश्वा॑ | भुव॑नानि । अ॒धि॒ऽक्षि॒यन्ति॑ ।  – the three worlds dwell |

प्र विष्ण॑वे शू॒षमे॑तु॒ – vishnu

प्र विष्ण॑वे शू॒षमे॑तु॒ मन्म॑ गिरि॒क्षित॑ उरुगा॒याय॒ वृष्णे॑   इ॒दं दी॒र्घं प्रय॑तं स॒धस्थ॒मेको॑ विम॒मे त्रि॒भिरित्प॒देभि॑

प्र । विष्ण॑वे । शू॒षम् । ए॒तु॒ । मन्म॑ । गि॒रि॒ऽक्षिते॑ । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒याय॑ । वृष्णे॑ । यः । इ॒दम् । दी॒र्घम् । प्रऽय॑तम् । स॒धऽस्थ॑म् । एकः॑ । वि॒ऽम॒मे । त्रि॒ऽभिः । इत् । प॒देभिः॑ ॥

Let my inspiring (or that which is born out of my deeds) hymn go forth for Vishnu, te mountain dwelling wide-pacing bull (or one who showers desires), who alone, with three steps has measured out this long far-extended gathering-place.”

Note:

No avagraha for प॒देभिः॑ as it has undergone changes

Remember:

Avagraha – गि॒रि॒ऽक्षिते॑ । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒याय॑ । प्रऽय॑तम् । स॒धऽस्थ॑म् ।  वि॒ऽम॒मे । त्रि॒ऽभिः ।

Split शू॒षमे॑तु॒  = शू॒षम् । ए॒तु॒ ।

प्र ।  ए॒तु॒ । मन्म॑ – my prayer | शू॒षम् – born out of my deeds (Sayana) or inspiring (Mac Donald) विष्ण॑वे ।  let it go to Vishnu  गि॒रि॒ऽक्षिते॑ । to one who resides in mountain उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒याय॑ । to one who has wide steps वृष्णे॑  – to one who showers desires (Sayana) or to the bull (Mac D),  Donald) यः । एकः॑ । इ॒दम् । दी॒र्घम् । प्रऽय॑तम् । स॒धऽस्थ॑म् ।  वि॒ऽम॒मे । One who had measured the long far extending dwelling space त्रि॒ऽभिः प॒देभिः॑  by three steps। इत् ।  ॥

तद॑स्य प्रि॒यम॒भि पाथो॑  – vishnu

मन्त्र

तद॑स्य प्रि॒यम॒भि पाथो॑ अश्यां॒ नरो॒ यत्र॑ देव॒यवो॒ मद॑न्ति । उ॒रु॒क्र॒मस्य॒ स हि बन्धु॑रि॒त्था विष्णो॑: प॒दे प॑र॒मे मध्व॒ उत्स॑: ॥

पदपाठः

तत् । अ॒स्य॒ । प्रि॒यम् । अ॒भि । पाथः॑ । अ॒श्या॒म् । नरः॑ । यत्र॑ । दे॒व॒ऽयवः॑ । मद॑न्ति । उ॒रु॒ऽक्र॒मस्य॑ । सः । हि । बन्धुः॑ । इ॒त्था । विष्णोः॑ । प॒दे । प॒र॒मे । मध्वः॑ । उत्सः॑ ॥

Avagraha –  उ॒रु॒ऽक्र॒मस्य॑  | दे॒व॒ऽयवः॑ (this one not mentioned in vedakosh).

अ॒भि अ॒श्या॒म् । I shall attain तत् । अ॒स्य॒ । प्रि॒यम् । पाथः॑ । that dear domain यत्र॑ । दे॒व॒ऽयवः॑ । where the people who desire the divine or devoted to Vishnu मद॑न्ति । rejoice |  सः । हि । बन्धुः॑ । He is the relative  विष्णोः॑ । प॒र॒मे । प॒दे ।  in that highest step of Vishnu मध्वः॑ । उत्सः॑  – fountain of nectar | It is a point of no return.

Remember

Split तद॑स्य  = तत् । अ॒स्य॒ ।

मा त्वा॑ रुद्र चुक्रुधामा॒   – Rudra

मन्त्र

मा त्वा॑ रुद्र चुक्रुधामा॒ नमो॑भि॒र्मा दुःष्टु॑ती वृषभ॒ मा सहू॑ती । उन्नो॑ वी॒राँ अ॑र्पय भेष॒जेभि॑र्भि॒षक्त॑मं त्वा भि॒षजां॑ शृणोमि ॥

पदपाठः

मा । त्वा॒ । रु॒द्र॒ । चु॒क्रु॒धा॒म॒ । नमः॑ऽभिः । मा । दुःऽस्तु॑ती । वृ॒ष॒भ॒ । मा । सऽहू॑ती । उत् । नः॒ । वी॒रान् । अ॒र्प॒य॒ । भे॒ष॒जेभिः॑ । भि॒षक्ऽत॑मम् । त्वा॒ । भि॒षजा॑म् । शृ॒णो॒मि॒ ॥

Rudra is known for his anger (क्रु॒ध्). The hymns will be to pacify him in the Rudra suktas. He is the physician having the medicines.

मा । त्वा॒ । रु॒द्र॒ । चु॒क्रु॒धा॒म॒ May we not anger you, नमः॑ऽभिः । by the improper salutations, । मा । दुःऽस्तु॑ती । by ill-praises, मा । सऽहू॑ती ।  by joint invocation along with some other deity, वृ॒ष॒भ॒ One who is on the bull, उत् । नः॒ । वी॒रान् ।  elevate our heroes भे॒ष॒जेभिः॑ ।  अ॒र्प॒य॒ । bestow us with the remedies. त्वा॒ । भि॒षजा॑म् भि॒षक्ऽत॑मम् । शृ॒णो॒मि॒ ॥ you are the best of the physician is what I hear.

नमो॑भि॒र्मा  à नमः॑ऽभिः । मा | उन्नो॑ à उत् । नः॒ ।  वी॒राँ à वी॒रान् | भेष॒जेभि॑र्भि॒षक्त॑मं à भि॒षक्ऽत॑मम्|

चुक्रुधामा॒ becomes चु॒क्रु॒धा॒म॒   | दुःष्टु॑ती becomes दुःऽस्तु॑ती |

स्तु॒हि श्रु॒तं ग॑र्त॒सदं॒  Rudra

मन्त्र

स्तु॒हि श्रु॒तं ग॑र्त॒सदं॒ युवा॑नं मृ॒गं  भी॒ममु॑पह॒त्नुमु॒ग्रम्  मृ॒ळा ज॑रि॒त्रे रु॑द्र॒ स्तवा॑नो॒ऽन्यं ते॑ अ॒स्मन्नि व॑पन्तु॒ सेना॑

पदपाठः

स्तु॒हि । श्रु॒तम् । ग॒र्त॒ऽसद॑म् । युवा॑नम् । मृ॒गम् । न । भी॒मम् । उ॒प॒ऽह॒त्नुम् । उ॒ग्रम् । मृ॒ळ । ज॒रि॒त्रे । रु॒द्र॒ । स्तवा॑नः । अ॒न्यम् । ते॒ । अ॒स्मत् । नि । व॒प॒न्तु॒ । सेनाः॑ ॥

 

स्तु॒हि praise him, श्रु॒तम् । one who is famous, ग॒र्त॒ऽसद॑म् । gartha is the seat of a war chariot, one who sits on that sit, युवा॑नम् । he is young,  उ॒प॒ऽह॒त्नुम् one who slays भी॒मम् । मृ॒गम् । न । like a fearful beast, उ॒ग्रम् । fierce and mighty. स्तवा॑नः । Having been praised, मृ॒ळ । please show mercy, ज॒रि॒त्रे । to the invoker रु॒द्र॒ । O Rudra ते॒ । सेनाः॑ let your army अ॒स्मत् । अ॒न्यम् । नि । व॒प॒न्तु॒ । harm someone else other than us.

Remember

अ॒स्मन्नि – अ॒स्मत् । नि

Avagraha – ग॒र्त॒ऽसद॑म्  , उ॒प॒ऽह॒त्नुम्

कु॒मा॒रश्चि॑त्पि॒तरं॒ वन्द॑मानं॒ – Rudra

मन्त्र

कु॒मा॒रश्चि॑त्पि॒तरं॒ वन्द॑मानं॒ प्रति॑ नानाम रुद्रोप॒यन्त॑म् । भूरे॑र्दा॒तारं॒ सत्प॑तिं गृणीषे स्तु॒तस्त्वं भे॑ष॒जा रा॑स्य॒स्मे ॥

पदपाठः

कु॒मा॒रः । चि॒त् । पि॒तर॑म् । वन्द॑मानम् । प्रति॑ । न॒ना॒म॒ । रु॒द्र॒ । उ॒प॒ऽयन्त॑म् । भूरेः॑ । दा॒तार॑म् । सत्ऽप॑तिम् । गृ॒णी॒षे॒ । स्तु॒तः । त्वम् । भे॒ष॒जा । रा॒सि॒ । अ॒स्मे इति॑ ॥

वन्द॑मानम् । पि॒तर॑म् । प्रति॑ । उ॒प॒ऽयन्त॑म् । कु॒मा॒रः । Like the son who is moving towards the father who is blessing, न॒ना॒म॒ । रु॒द्र॒  I turn towards Rudra, भूरेः॑ । दा॒तार॑म् । Giver of much, गृ॒णी॒षे॒ I praise  सत्ऽप॑तिम् । the true lord. स्तु॒तः त्वम् ।  You being thus praised, भे॒ष॒जा ।  अ॒स्मे । रा॒सि॒ । give us the medicines.

Note:

पि॒तर॑म्  mentioned as पि॒तर॒म्  in vedakosh site.

रा॑स्य॒स्मे à रा॒सि॒ । अ॒स्मे इति॑ ॥   नानाम à न॒ना॒म॒

Remember

रुद्रोप॒यन्त॑म् à । रु॒द्र॒  | उ॒प॒ऽयन्त॑म्

भूरे॑र्दा॒तारं॒ à भूरेः॑ । दा॒तार॑म् ।

Avagraha – सत्ऽप॑तिम्  उ॒प॒ऽयन्त॑म्

कु॒मा॒रश्चि॑त्पि॒तरं॒ à कु॒मा॒रः । चि॒त् । पि॒तर॑म् ।

ता आ च॑रन्ति सम॒ना  – Ushas

मन्त्र

ता आ च॑रन्ति सम॒ना पु॒रस्ता॑त्समा॒नत॑: सम॒ना प॑प्रथा॒नाः । ऋ॒तस्य॑ दे॒वीः सद॑सो बुधा॒ना गवां॒ न  सर्गा॑ उ॒षसो॑ जरन्ते ॥

पदपाठः

ताः । आ । च॒र॒न्ति॒ । स॒म॒ना । पु॒रस्ता॑त् । स॒मा॒नतः॑ । स॒म॒ना । प॒प्र॒था॒नाः । ऋ॒तस्य॑ । दे॒वीः । सद॑सः । बु॒धा॒नाः । गवा॑म् । न । सर्गाः॑ । उ॒षसः॑ । ज॒र॒न्ते॒ ॥

स॒म॒ना – two meanings – uniformly or something that is there together .
स॒म॒ना । आ च॒र॒न्ति॒ । approaches or moves everywhere uniformly ; ताः  The rays of dawn ; पु॒रस्ता॑त्  from the eastern end; स॒मा॒नतः॑   स॒म॒ना ।  Uniformly, altogether from one point ; प॒प्र॒था॒नाः । they spread ; दे॒वीः । the goddesses ऋ॒तस्य॑ ।  सद॑सः ।  from the seat of yagna or cosmic order बु॒धा॒नाः । arousing or originating.  गवा॑म् ।  सर्गाः॑ । न । It is like the water that is being released (sayana) or the herd of cows that are let loose (Mac D) उ॒षसः॑ । ज॒र॒न्ते॒  They make noise.

Remember

ता आ à ताः । आ ।

सर्गा॑ उ॒षसो॑ à  सर्गाः॑ । उ॒षसः॑ ।

धीरा॒ त्व॑स्य महि॒ना  Varuna

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- वसिष्ठः
देवता (Devataa) :- वरुणः
छन्द: (Chhand) :- निचृत्त्रिष्टुप्

संहिता

धीरा॒ त्व॑स्य महि॒ना ज॒नूंषि॒ वि यस्त॒स्तम्भ॒ रोद॑सी चिदु॒र्वी । प्र नाक॑मृ॒ष्वं नु॑नुदे बृ॒हन्तं॑ द्वि॒ता नक्ष॑त्रं प॒प्रथ॑च्च॒ भूम॑ ॥

पदपाठः

धीरा॑ । तु । अ॒स्य॒ । म॒हि॒ना । ज॒नूंषि॑ । वि । यः । त॒स्तम्भ॑ । रोद॑सी॒ इति॑ । चि॒त् । उ॒र्वी इति॑ । प्र । नाक॑म् । ऋ॒ष्वम् । नु॒नु॒दे॒ । बृ॒हन्त॑म् । द्वि॒ता । नक्ष॑त्रम् । प॒प्रथ॑त् । च॒ । भूम॑ ॥

धीरा॑  The intelligent or the courageous ones;  ज॒नूंषि॑   The generations ; अ॒स्य॒ । म॒हि॒ना ।  by his might; यः । वि ।  त॒स्तम्भ॑ ।  one who supported or sustained उ॒र्वी  – two wide worlds; रोद॑सी॒  – heaven and earth. ऋ॒ष्वम् darshaneeyam (saayana) or high (Mac D) द्वि॒ता  – dual;  बृ॒हन्त॑म् । नाक॑म् । lofty sky and नक्ष॑त्रम् । day star (Sun) , प्र । नु॒नु॒दे॒ । pushed;  भूम॑  प॒प्रथ॑त् । च॒ । he spread out the earth;

Intelligent indeed are the generations by the might of him who has propped (supported) asunder even the two wide worlds. He has pushed away the high, the lofty firmament (sky) and the daystar as well and he spread out the earth.

Note:

धीरा॒ त्व॑स्य — Anudaatta followed by क्षैप्रस्वरित kshaipra-svarita  due to क्षैप्रसन्दिः (यण् sandhi)

Notes Reproduced From #SanskritAppreciationHour

Varuna is unique among early Vedic gods in that you cannot just praise him, sacrifice to him and appease him. He is the keeper of ऋत and will tolerate no transgression of his law. There are minor and major transgressions as we will see and for Varuna, things like gambling, drinking and so on are minor misdeeds – the worst most unacceptable sin of all is un-truth, i.e., to lie. His eye is the Sun with which he watches all our actions. He has spies everywhere. He is ruthless with transgressors but is also kind to those who are truly repentant and seek expiation for their misdeeds. In this hymn, poet Vasishtha knows not what he has done, but he knows he has angered Varuna. Let us see what he has to say to the god.

धीरा (धीराणि) intelligent तु indeed जनूंषि [are] generations (जनुस्) अस्य महिना by the greatness/might यः [of] him who वि- तस्तम्भ held, propped as under, apart उर्वी wide रोदसी worlds चिद् indeed प्र-नुनुदे he pushed [the] ऋष्वं high बृहन्तं vast, great नाकम् the vault of heaven, firmament द्विता doubly/also नक्षत्रं day star (sun)पप्रथत् च and spread out भूम the earth ॥ RV 7.86.1

प्रा॒वे॒पा मा॑ बृह॒तो  – Aksha

मन्त्र

प्रा॒वे॒पा मा॑ बृह॒तो मा॑दयन्ति प्रवाते॒जा इरि॑णे॒ वर्वृ॑तानाः । सोम॑स्येव मौजव॒तस्य॑ भ॒क्षो वि॒भीद॑को॒ जागृ॑वि॒र्मह्य॑मछान् ॥

पदपाठः

प्रा॒वे॒पाः । मा॒ । बृ॒ह॒तः । मा॒द॒य॒न्ति॒ । प्र॒वा॒ते॒ऽजाः । इरि॑णे । वर्वृ॑तानाः । सोम॑स्यऽइव । मौ॒ज॒ऽव॒तस्य॑ । भ॒क्षः । वि॒ऽभीद॑कः । जागृ॑विः । मह्य॑म् । अ॒छा॒न् ॥

प्रा॒वे॒पाः । The dangling ones – trembling ones – the dice; प्र॒वा॒ते॒ऽजाः । born in a windy place ; बृ॒ह॒तः – huge वि॒ऽभीद॑कः । the tree (which grows in a windy place) whose nut is used to make the dice;   इरि॑णे On the board, वर्वृ॑तानाः when it rolls,  । मा॒द॒य॒न्ति॒ it gladdens मा॒ me (मा = माम् of अस्मद् शब्द) ;  मह्य॑म् अ॒छा॒न् has pleased me ; मौ॒ज॒ऽव॒तस्य॑ । सोम॑स्यऽइव भ॒क्षः like the drink of soma which is obtained from the mujavathi mountain.

Note:

प्रा॒वे॒पाः visarga

Avagraha – प्र॒वा॒ते॒ऽजाः , सोम॑स्यऽइव  मौ॒ज॒ऽव॒तस्य॑   वि॒ऽभीद॑कः

जा॒या त॑प्यते – Aksha

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- कवष ऐलूष अक्षो वा मौजवान्
देवता (Devataa) :- अक्षकितवनिन्दा
छन्द: (Chhand) :- विराट्त्रिस्टुप्

संहिता

जा॒या त॑प्यते कित॒वस्य॑ ही॒ना मा॒ता पु॒त्रस्य॒ चर॑त॒: क्व॑ स्वित् । ऋ॒णा॒वा बिभ्य॒द्धन॑मि॒च्छमा॑नो॒ऽन्येषा॒मस्त॒मुप॒ नक्त॑मेति ॥

पदपाठः

जा॒या । त॒प्य॒ते॒ । कि॒त॒वस्य॑ । ही॒ना । मा॒ता । पु॒त्रस्य॑ । चर॑तः । क्व॑ । स्वि॒त् । ऋ॒ण॒ऽवा । बिभ्य॑त् । धन॑म् । इ॒च्छमा॑नः । अ॒न्येषा॑म् । अस्त॑म् । उप॑ । नक्त॑म् । ए॒ति॒ ॥

कि॒त॒वस्य॑ । ही॒ना । जा॒या । त॒प्य॒ते॒ । — The forsaken wife of the gambler grieves; क्व॑ । स्वि॒त् । चर॑तः । पु॒त्रस्य॑ । मा॒ता । — The  mother also grieves not knowing the whereabouts of the son; बि॒भ्य॒त् । being scared ऋ॒ण॒ऽवा – a person who is indebted ; धन॑म् । इ॒च्छमा॑नः । desiring money; उप॑ । ए॒ति॒  – He goes; अ॒न्येषा॑म् । नक्त॑म् – other’s house ; अस्त॑म् । at night  ;

Note

कि॒त॒वस्य॑ (given as कित॒वस्य॑ in vedakosh)  क्व॑ – always Svarita0

Remember

ऋ॒णा॒वा à ऋ॒ण॒ऽवा

अ॒क्षैर्मा दी॑व्यः – Aksha

अ॒क्षैर्मा दी॑व्यः कृ॒षिमित्कृ॑षस्व वि॒त्ते र॑मस्व ब॒हु मन्य॑मानः । तत्र॒ गाव॑: कितव॒ तत्र॑ जा॒या तन्मे॒ वि च॑ष्टे सवि॒तायम॒र्यः ॥

अ॒क्षैः । मा । दी॒व्यः॒ । कृ॒षिम् । इत् । कृ॒ष॒स्व॒ । वि॒त्ते । र॒म॒स्व॒ । ब॒हु । मन्य॑मानः ।  तत्र॑ । गावः॑ । कि॒त॒व॒ । तत्र॑ । जा॒या । तत् । मे॒ । वि । च॒ष्टे॒ । स॒वि॒ता । अ॒यम् । अ॒र्यः ॥

अ॒क्षैः । मा । दी॒व्यः॒ । – Don’t play the dice; कृ॒षिम् । इत् । कृ॒ष॒स्व॒ । Plough your lands ब॒हु । मन्य॑मानः । — considering it to be more; वि॒त्ते । र॒म॒स्व॒ । — enjoy your limited wealth तत्र॑ । गावः॑ । – your cattle is here  कि॒त॒व॒ । O gambler ; तत्र॑ । जा॒या । there is your wife; स॒वि॒ता । अ॒यम् । अ॒र्यः – This noble savitr तत् । वि । च॒ष्टे॒ । this revealed this मे॒ । to me.

 

Note:

In तत्र॑ ta is not Ekashruti as it is in a new line separate from the earlier line.

तन्मे॒ = तत् । मे॒

कृ॒षिमित्कृ॑षस्व = कृ॒षिम् । इत् । कृ॒ष॒स्व॒ ।

 

Short Notes / Essay questions

Rig veda

  • Veda means knowledge. विद्यतेअनेन इति वेदः | It is that literature which sheds light on the transcendental means of achieving what is desirable and avoiding what is not.
  • It is alaukika – beyond the scope of perception and inference.
  • Apaurusheya – not composed by humans.
  • Mantras and brahmanas put together constitute veda.
  • Veda classified into para and apara.
  • Jnanakanda [upanishadic lore] and karmakanda [religious lore].
  • Rig, Yajus, Sama and Atharva.
  • Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads are 4 parts of a veda.
  • Samhita has suktas. Brahmanas have theological treatises in prose form dealing with sacrificial ceremonies. Aranyakas are concluding part of brahmanas, theosophical contents for pious men who have retired to forests [vanaprastha]. Upanishads deal with the highest philosophical thought.
  • All branches of Indian literature and systems of thought find their root in the Rigveda.
  • RV is the earliest available record. It is the only source of information regarding the early history of Indian people and their society.
Mandala Suktas Mantras Name of Rishis
1 191 2006 Maducchanda,Medhatithi,
Gotama and many others
2 43 429 Gritasamada and his family
3 62 617 Vishvamitra and his family
4 58 589 Vamadeva and his family
5 87 727 Atri and his family
6 75 765 Bhardvaja and his family
7 104 841 Vashistha and his family
8 103 1716 Kanva, Angira and their family
9 114 1108 Soma Devata but different Rishis
10 191 1754 Vimada, Indra, Shachi and many
other

 

Sr.# Sookta मण्डल,# Rishi Chandas # मन्त्र
1

 

सवितृ 1, 35 हिरण्यस्तूपः 1&9जगती,

Rest त्रिष्टुभ

11
2 विष्णु 1, 154 दीर्घतमस् त्रिष्टुभ 6
3 इन्द्र 2,12 गृत्समदः त्रिष्टुभ 15
4 रुद्र 2,33 गृत्समदः त्रिष्टुभ 15
5 उषस 4,51 वामदेव त्रिष्टुभ 11
6 अग्नि 5,11 सुतंभर आत्रेयः जगती 6
7 वरुण 7,86 वसिष्ठः त्रिष्टुभ 8
8

 

अक्ष  (Devataa – अक्षमौजवानदेवता) 10,34 कवष ऐलवः

 

7-जगती

Rest त्रिष्टुभ

14
9

 

भाववृत्त / नासदीय (devataa – परमात्मन्) 10,129 परमेष्टिन त्रिष्टुभ 7

 

Arrangement of Rigveda

  • RV has 1028 hymns (Suktas) and 10,552 mantras.
  • It is arranged in 2 methods.
  • First method – it is divided into 8 Astakas each containing 8 aadhyayas. The 64 Adhyayas are divided into vargas which is a collection of 5-6 mantras. [ 5-6 mantras àvarga, gp of vargasàadhyaya, 8 adhyayasàashtaka, 8 ashtakaà complete RV]
  • This method is for Vedic students to learn each varga by heart each day.
  • The second method classifies Rgveda into 10 Mandalas, 85 Anuvaakas and 1028 Suktas.
  • There are a total of 10 mandalas of varying length.
  • Suktas are groups of mantras on a particular deity and the number of mantras in each sukta is
  • Mandals 2 to 7 are similar. Homogenous in the nature of arrangement of the suktas.
  • These mandalas 2-7 are called Vamshiyamandals because each of them contains hymns belonging to a single family of seers.
  • The families of seers are Grtsamada [2], Visvamitra [3], Vamadeva [4], Atri [5], Bharadvaja [6] and Vasista [7]
    [Harini’s Tips for Remembering: Great Visvamitra Vanted A Bhramarishi title but Vasista declined]
  • All these mandalas start with Agni sukta, then Indrasukta and then the rest. Also the number of mantras in each sukta is in descending order.
  • The mandalas are themselves arranged in ascending order of the number of suktas. Second mandala has 43, third 62, sixth has 75 and seventh has 104.
  • Mandalas 1, 8 and 10 are called heterogeneous because they don’t belong to any particular family of seers.
  • They contain hymns belonging to individual seers.
  • The first and the 10th mandala have 191 suktas each.
  • 8thmanadala has majority of suktas belonging to Kanva rishi family, but unlike the other mandalas, the first sukta is not of agni.
  • 9th mandala is very different from the rest. All suktas addressed to Pavamanasoma. These are the selected verses from Rig veda that is chanted by Udgaatru – the priest for Saama veda.

Message of RgVeda

Vedas approach nature not as an object of enjoyment and exploitation but as ‘Mother Goddess’ Vedic seers believed in universal brotherhood and fraternity.  According to the Vedic thought, the entire cosmos is teleological, purposive and goal oriented.  The built in Rita sustains controls and directs the entire world. The Vedas emphasize participatory living in a community.  Move together. Speak with one voice. Try to understand each others mind-advise the Vedas. Vedic messages are universal in nature.

http://www.sanskrit.nic.in/aboutsanskrit1.htm

Contents of RgVeda

  • Religious hymns, secular hymns and cosmogenic hymns.
  • Rig veda is the knowledge of the mantras containing the prayer directed towards God. It is to be noted that the natural and cosmic phenomena which have been idolized as Gods.
  • If the Rigveda is theory, Yajurveda is practical. If the Rigveda is related to knowledge, the Yajurveda is related to action. ‘Which mantras should be chanted for achieving the desired object, what type of offering should be offered, how big and of what shape should be the altar, all this practical knowledge is the subject matter of Yajurveda .
  • In fact all the three Vedas are complementary and interdependent. The Rigveda contains the mantras offered to various gods, the Samveda teaches how to chant them correctly with proper high & low notes while the Yarjurveda explains the sacrificial acts accompanying the same . Thus Rigveda is related to knowledge, the Samveda to devotional sentiments and the Yajurveda to action.
  • Religious hymns form the majority. Invocation to Gods accompanied by oblation of ghee and soma rasa. All these end with a prayer to gods to grant wealth, cows, material prosperity, heroic sons and longevity. “धान्यं धनं पशुं बहुपुत्रलाभं शतसंवत्सरं दीर्घमायुः” – श्रीसूक्तम्
  • Secular hymns are only about 35. They deal with marriage, funeral practices, literary pursuits, sport and pastime of that period. Funeral hymns are addressed to deities concerned with future life. There is information about burial and cremation that was in vogue. Also a reference about widow remarriage can be found. Dialogue hymns such as ones between Yama – yami, Pururva- Urvashi and Vishwamitra-the Rivers are considered as precursors of Sanskrit drama. Akshasukta, Asyaavaamiyasukta [riddles] and Daanastutis [about liberal patrons] are all seen in RgVeda.
  • Cosmogonic and philosophical hymns are about 6 in number. They speculate about the origin of the world and provide a pantheistic idea of the Universal soul. The creator is called Purusha, Vishwakarman, Hiranyagarbha or Prajapathi.
  • Naasadeeyasukta is an important example in this category. It says, neither sat nor asat existed before the creation. It also speaks of the “one” [tad ekam], which was breathing with its own Shakti [svadhe] when there was no wind. Then desire to create [sisrksha] arose. [kaamastad-agre-samavartataadhi] then there was creation. This conception of ekam has close affinity to the Brahman of the Upanishads.

Gods / Religion of the Rigveda

  • Deities largely the personifications of the powers of nature.
  • Agni, Indra, Varuna etc.
  • It was essentially polytheistic but later hymns assumed a monotheistic or pantheistic idea.
  • Ekam sad vipraaha bahudha vadanti – from Asyavamiya sukta speaks of sat as one but called by different names. This links RV and the Upanishadic philosophy.
  • Gods can be classified as Prithvisthaanah – terrestrial, Antarikshasthanah – atmospheric and Dyusthanah – celestial.
  • Terrestrial deities are Agni, Soma and Prithvi. [Harini’s Tips for remembering: Afghan, Pak and SL are our neighbours]
  • Atmospheric deities are Indra, Apam-Napaat (thunder), Rudra, Maruts, Vayu, Parjanya (Rain) and Aapas (water) [Harini’s Tips for remembering: Indra under the guidance of Rudra, directs the Vayu who with the help of the Maruts produces Apam-Napaat and then Parjanya flows as rain and becomes Aapas]
  • Celestial deities are Dyaus, Ratri, Usas, Mitra, Surya, Savitr, Varuna, Pusan and Asvins [Harini’s Tips for remembering: DRUMSStick Very Potent and Savoury]
  • (Rudra – hurricane, usas – dawn, savitru – dawn and dusk, apaamnapath – lightening, parjanya – rain, apa – water, indra – releases water from the clouds)

Age of Rigveda:

  • 2 theories are there. One based on the literary or linguistic considerations and the other on astronomical calculations.
  • Max Muller has divided the Vedic literature into 4 parts, Chandas, Mantras, Brahmanas and Sutra. It has been presumed that one was followed by the other in the same order.
  • Katyayana who is a prominent writer on Anukramani is believed to be Vararuchi who lived in 355BC.
  • So Max Muller says that sutra period was from 200BC to 600 BC backwards.
  • Brahmanas from 600 – 800 BC.
  • Mantra from 800 – 1000BC.
  • Chandas from 1000 – 1200 BC.
  • Flaws: identity of Katyana as Vararuchi not established. Secondly why only 200 years gap between each period. It can be even more.
  • Astronomically, Haug says Samhita period was 2000 – 1400 BC. Oldest hymn was 2400 – 2000BC
  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak takes into account the vernal equinox and comes up with 6000 – 4500 BC
  • Jacobi also 4500 BC.

Sayana: 1315 – 1387 AD.

  • Andhra Brahmin of bharadwaja gothra, who served as the PM of Kampana the younger brother of Harihara of Vijayanagar kingdom.
  • Father – Mayana and mother – Srimati. Elder brother –Madhava, younger brother – Bhoganatha.
  • Disciple of Vidyathirtha, Bharatithirta and Srikantacharya.
  • His work is called Madhaveeya-vedartha-prakasha-Rk-samhitaa-bhashya.
  • He is an ardent follower of Yagnika method of interpretation. But has followed Nairukta method also.
  • Relies on Panini’s Ashtadhyayi for explaining the peculiarities of accents and forms.
  • Sayana’s Rig bhashya is the only true representative of the traditional interpretation of RV in its entirety and it is an indispensable guide for understanding the RV.
  • Sayana has also written bhashyas on Taittiriyasamhita, Samavedasamhita, Kanvasamhita and Atharvavedasamhita. And also for many brahmanas and aranyakas.
Veda Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Rgveda Shakala recension 1028 suktas. 10 mandalas. Aitareya and Kaushitaki Aitareya and Kaushitaki Aitareya and Kaushitaki
Krishna Yajurveda Katha, Maitrayaniya – 4 kandas 54 prapatakas. Taittiriya – 7 Ashtaka 44 prapataka Taittiriya Taittiriya Katha, Svetaasvatara, Maitrayaniya, MahaNarayaniya&Taittiriya
Shukla Yajurveda Vajasaneyi – 40 adhyayas Satapatha Brihadaaranyaka Brihadaaranyaka, Isavasya
Sama-veda Archika – 585 mantras Uttararchika – 964 mantras Tandya, Talavakaara, Chandogya, Samavidhaana, Vamsa Chandogya Chandogya, kena
Atharva-veda 20 kandas 731 Suktas Gopatha  ———– Mundaka, Prashna, Mandukya

Vedic chandas

  • One of the 6 vedangas
  • Meter employed to compose the mantras
  • Certain are limited only to the Vedas –
  • Gayatri 24, Anushtub 32, Trishtub 11*4 = 44, Jagati 12*4 = 48

Rudra

  • Rudra represents the most terrible and most gracious fertilizing aspects of nature.
  • Vajra Bhaahu
  • Rugby brown and whitish color
  • Ornaments and necklace
  • Bow and arrow – sthiradhanvan
  • Seers are scared of his anger
  • Best physician among the physicians.
  • Gartasadah – sits on the seat of war chariot

Rigveda Loukikavichar

  • Laukika suktas, Religious, philosophical
  • There are 35 secular hymns in the Rig Veda
  • Aurdva-daihika — Funeral Practices – There were both cremation and burial. In burial, they mention to the dead body to enter the mother earth and that she will keep you safely. Widow remarriage is also mentioned.
  • DaanaStuti – Suktas praising Patrons who have given daana
  • Manduka Sukta – chanted by Vashishta when he invokes the rain
  • The frogs also join him. He mentions about them. Like the students who repeat the lessons of the guru, the frogs follow what one frog does.

Samvaada sukta

  • Origin of Dramas
  • Discussions
    • Vishwamitra and Nadi (the sangamasthana of two rivers)
    • He asks the rivers to subside
    • The rivers mention that they are following Indra’s order.
    • They oblige and allow
  • Indra Aditi and vamadeva
  • Agasthya and Lopamudra – A student overhears the conversation of this couple and for that sin, he has to (TODO … Incomplete).
    • Lopamudra is credited with two stanzas in a hymn dedicated to love where a strange dialogue is portrayed. Tired of her husband’s practices of austerity and continence, the wife, who had served faithfully for a long period, feels herself neglected and makes an impassioned appeal for his love and company. She writes:

      For many long years in the past, both by day and by night,
      And in the mornings, have I wearied myself serving you;
      Now decay impairs the beauty of my limbs;What then?
      —Let husbands approach their wives.
      The ancient sages who attained truth,
      And talked of truth with the very gods,
      They did beget children, but did not break their penance
      Therefore should the wives be approached by their husbands.

  • Yama and Yami – Prohibition of relationship between brother and sister
  • Pururavas and Urvashi – King and damsel. He finds her. She gives her son. She asks him to come to svarga so that they can be together. Vikramoorvashiya of Kalidasa is inspired by this.
  • Sarama and Panis – Indra’s dog and the rakshashaas. The latter steal the cow of Bruhaspati. They try to offer friendship to the dog. They enquire the dog how it crossed the rasa nadhi. The dog (She) says that she does not want their friendship and wants to take back the cattle.
  • One of the Agnis and devas – The brother Agni goes and hides in the river. The devas find him and have this conversation. That agni asks “who has seen all my forms?” The devas list the places where they can find him. A deal is set up between agni and devata. There are 3 suktas which are like three scenes in a drama.
  • Vivaaha Sukta – Sun God’s daughter and Soma. Some of the mantras are still used in the current day marriages.
  • Aitihaasika suktas – historical accounts – the kings and their dynasty. It is like a record of what happened in those times. The fight between Indra and others. The patrons are also praised here.
  • Some suktas are to be chanted when some inauspicious words are heard.
  • Subhaashitas or teachings
  • Riddles

Naasadiya sukta

  • Na-asat aaseet – na sat aaseet tataaneem starting word
  • There was no sat or asat before the creation
  • No night or day
  • That had the desire to create
  • Also called Bhaava Vrutta and Shrusti Sukta
  • It is at the end of the sukta
  • How creation happened – the sages got to know about this through their tapas.
  • The supreme controller was breathing without even the air
  • We don’t know even if that controller knows

Shreya and preyas (kathopanishad)

  • Bind people
  • He becomes good. Other deviates from purushaartha.
  • Deerah analyses and chooses shreyas.
  • The idiots choose preyas for yoga-kshema.

Vedanaam praamanya

  • Shabda Praamaanyam
  • Self-authoritative Svatha praamaanyam

Shruti – Smriti

  • Shruti – heard by the sage. Vedas
  • Smriti – composed by the sages.

Aranyaka

  • Vanaprastha
  • Preparing for Upanishadic knowledge

Brahmana

  • Mantra bhrahmanayor veda naama deyam
  • One of the 4 parts
  • Brahmana is in prose – describing the ritual
  • Samhita gives the mantra; Brahmana explains how the ritual is done and its significance.
  • Vidhi – diction – commands; Arthavaada – nirukta (meaning of words), suthi (praise), Akhyaana (tale – narration about the event), hetu-vachana (significance)
  • Which mantra to be chanted for which ritual
  • Philosophical Interpretation
  • Articles that should not be used and those that need to be used in the yagna
  • Krishna Yajur – Taitteriya, Sukla Yajur – Shatapata Brahmana. Atharva veda – Gopata Brahmana.

Gods of Rig Veda

  • Agni, prithvi and soma – in prithvi
  • Indra, apaamnapaath – in anthariksha
  • Nature was worshipped. Many gods were there. Then the concept of one God evolved during the time of the Upanishads.

Savitr Sukta

  • हिरण्यस्तूपआङ्गिरसः is the rishi
  • Stimulator of solar power – Deity of day and night
  • This is about the God of day light and night, a solar deity; Often identified with Sun. Otherwise, considered as a messenger
  • प्रचोदकशक्ति of sunrise and sunset
  • हिरण्मयत्व- हिरण्यहस्त , हिरण्याक्ष, हिरण्यपाणि, chariot and parts are golden
  • 2 white horses called श्याव, travels in the clean dustless roads of अन्तरिक्ष – goes both upwards and downwards
  • Protects from demons, sorcerers (witch) and bad dreams – takes out paapa
  • 11 Mantras
  • Transports the departed souls to the appropriate loka
  • Controls water and wind
  • Bringer of happiness after death

Vishnu Sukta

  • Three wide strides – उरुगाय उरुक्रमा
  • Helps Indra in the great battle against Vrtra
  • Measures the 3 worlds (पृथ्वि, अन्तरिक्ष , द्यु ) with 3 foot steps. Third being the abode of gods, where they enjoy ‘madhu’
  • Protector of all the living beings, omnipresent
  • ‘Vish’ dhatu – vyapana

Indra

  • Gritsamada is considered as Indra. 3 stories about this. Most of the mantras end with ‘स जनास इन्द्रः’
  • First: Grtsamada out of devotion takes the form of Indra and is attacked by demons; Dhuni and Chumuri’.
  • Second: Vainya performs yaga, in which Grtsamada is a Ritvik. Indra attends. When the demons come to attack Indra, he disguises himself as Grtsamada and slips out of the yaagashaala. When the actual sage comes out they catch him and he describes the greatness of Indra with these words.
  • Third: Similar to the previous version. But here the yaga is performed by Grtsamada himself
  • Indra is the son of Dyous and Aditi. Twin of Agni. Pooshan is his brother. Indrani is his wife and Airavata is the vahana.
  • Tvashtr gives him the ‘vajraayudha’.
  • Famous for drinking Soma. He helps in the extraction of Somarasa.
  • Battle with Vrtra is well known.
  • Destroys a snake ‘sarpa’ and lets the 7 rivers free. Protected the cows.
  • Cut the wings of flying mountains.

रुद्रसूक्तम्

  • Father of Marut (God of Wind)
  • If we compare the Gods with natural elements – Rudra is close to hurricane.
  • Derived from Rud dhaatu which means making loud noise
  • Brown in colour. Called as Vajrabahu. Carries bow and arrow. Wears golden ornaments.
  • Called ‘kapardin’ because of his ‘jataa’
  • ‘Mrduudara’ and beautiful nose.
  • Famous for his two nature – Ugra and Shanta. Bhayankara vs Shanta.
  • Ugra – Form, nature and name. Prayers offered to him not to be angry with us.
  • Shanta and Shankara – kind, helpful, calm. He gives medicines – for ailments, for ‘dvesha’, etc.

उषससूक्तम् — Ushas

  • About Ushas devata
  • Vamadeva rishi, Ushas devata, trishtub chandas
  • In east, the rays of sun come out.
  • These suktas give the beautiful description of nature during sun rise
  • She is decked in light.
  • She awakens the sleeper.
  • Sun is her son.
  • Sister of Ratri.
  • Daughter of Heaven.
  • Takes birth again and again. She is also ancient.
  • They spread together like a herd of cows – they are identical and move together
  • Most poetical verses; origin of ‘Kavya’ dates back to this sukta.
  • Goddesses of dawn. Plural because she comes fresh each day. May be the concept of ‘rays’.
  • The outfit of ‘light’ adorns her. Wakes the two legged and four legged beings every day.
  • She is the most beautiful. Depicted as the wife of Surya in some mantras.
  • Like the poles (yoopa) of yajnashala, they stand in the eastern sky.
  • They open the doors of the heaven, chase away the ‘dark’ (night) demons.
  • Let them wake the generous people. Let the stingy, non-generous sleep for more time!
  • They are of similar appearances. Together they shine move covering the darkness.
  • Let them bless us with good santati and aishwarya.

अग्निसूक्तम् Agni

  • Agni is present in three levels. That is why Agni is considered as the mouth of the devataas and the havis is sent through Agni to the higher worlds. अग्निर्मुखो वै देवाः |
  • He is considered to be born in 3 ways – from 2 fire sticks, from water and in Swargaloka.
    • First – From two ‘Arani’s. When the Arani’s were forcefully rubbed, fire is created. So, he is called ‘Sahasasputra’ or ‘Ojonapath’
    • Second – From water. From the clouds at the sky. Therefore he is also called ‘Apaamnapat’. (Note this is not the lightening)
    • Third – He is born in swarga. Matarishvaan brought him to the earth, which is a great gift for the mankind.
  • He is the only god who is addressed by all the 4 ritviks at different instances – होतृ, अध्वर्यु, उद्गातृ & ब्रह्म (all the 4 ritviks) in different mantras. He represents the ‘purohitatva’.
  • Food is ghee, soma and Arani.
  • He visits each household and takes the ‘ahuti’. The sukta prays for him to come early. Bless us with santati, samruddhi and sampat He is the guest of human households. He visits daily and receives the offerings.
  • Agni gets a lot of importance in Rigveda. He is the messenger between men and Gods. Every mandala has agni
  • Son of dyous or dyavaa- He is also known as the son of water. He is the twin of Indra.
  • Agni is secretly present in every tree/wood. ‘Angira’ sage brought him to light.
  • He is known as ‘Ghrtadehi’, he gets power by the ghee. Aranis and ghee are his food. He also drinks ghee and Soma. He has 3 meals.
  • He is ‘Tejaswi’. Shines with flames touching ‘antariksha’. Since his dhooma touches the sky he is also called ‘Dhoomaketu’. Smoke is his dhwaja.
  • He expels darkness and brightens the day.
  • Forest fire is compared to a barber – clearing the surface.

वरुणसूक्तम् Varuna

  • He is the kartru – controller. He is the ‘niyamaka’ of the systems (bhautika and naitika)
  • Assigns the job to Surya, Chandra, dyaavaa prithvi,
  • A dyuloka Devata
  • If anyone breaks the rule, he punishes them. Therefore the sukta is mainly a prayer asking for his forgiveness and blessing.
  • He is kind enough to forgive if one repents for the mistakes.
  • Vasishta asks for forgiveness. The sage asks for the mercy of Varuna for the sins committed by him. He also wishes for the ‘jnanasampat’.
  • Varuna – sarva vyaapaka
  • Represents the natural element of akaasha (Rudra – hurricane, usas – dawn, savitru – dawn and dusk, apaamnapath – lightening, parjanya – rain, apa – water, indra – releases water from the clouds)
  • Because of Varuna’s maya – the ocean does not overflow and the rain flows from Anthariksha.
  • Varuna is close to ‘Mitra’. Surya is his eye. Far sighted. Vayu is his breath. Wears shining outfit/cloak. Also known as ‘sahasraksha’.
  • He is called ‘Dhrtavrata’ because of his strict laws.
  • Varuna can be compared to ‘Akasha’
  • ‘Vr’ dhatu – Acchaadanaa – So, he is sarvavyapi.

अक्षसूक्तम् Aksha Sukta

  • Loukika sukta – kitava sukta
  • The plight of the gambler – How he gets attracted to the rolling dice which is compared to the intoxication of the drink प्रा॒वे॒पाः । मा॒ । बृ॒ह॒तः । मा॒द॒य॒न्ति॒ ।
  • His family is impacted due to his addiction जा॒या त॑प्यते कित॒वस्य॑ ही॒ना
  • Savitr says don’t be addicted and do farming work. Don’t be greedy. अ॒क्षैः । मा । दी॒व्यः॒ ।
  • This is about an addict of Dyuta game. He is called ‘kitava’. The game board is called ‘iriNee’. The pieces are called ‘aksha’ or ‘vibheedakaa’.
  • The akshas are made from the tall trees standing in the heavy wind. The rolling of the akshas on the board excites him like the Maujavata-somapana.
  • How the Kitava gets attracted to the game. How he loses and the way he rejects his wife and is rejected by his own family & friends is explained here.
  • Because of a wrong aksha, he abandons his good natured wife. His mother in law hates him. His wife is angry. He is treated like an old horse that is for sale.
  • Others eye at his wife. The opponents (in the game) eye at his remaining wealth. His family disowns him.
  • He decides not to go with his friends to play. But the attraction of the brown akshas pulls him back like magic. He hopes to win and enters the game. The initial wins make him happy.
  • But the akshas are merciless. They pierce with ankusha, they cheat him, burn him.
  • Even the kings bow to them. They move on the board like Savitr Deva himself.
  • They roll and jump. Though without arms, control those who have arms. They are like burning coals on the board – even burns the heart of the cold person (uninterested) .
  • His wife and mother are sad. He is in debt. As he is afraid, he goes to others houses at night for money.
  • He compares his wife with other ladies and is sad that she is not kept well. But he continues to play during the day and falls near the fire at night. He begs them (akshas) to spare him.
  • Savitr says “Don’t play the game. Do agriculture. Earn what you can and be content.’ He shows him his wife and cattle. This is the important mantra of this.

भाववृत्त / नासदीयसूक्तम्

  • This talks about the origin of the creation. One of the few suktas about philosophy.
  • This is the basis of Upanishads and Sankhyadarshanas.
  • What was there before Srushti? It cannot be described as ‘sat’ or ‘asat’. Vayu and Akasha were not present then. Was it filled with only water? What did it have? Who was controlling it? There was neither death nor immortality. Neither day nor night. No surya, not even Chandra. But there was one that is ‘Paravastu’. Even without Vayu, it breathed by its own power.
  • A very dark state is explained. It was covered by water. A kind of ‘Shoonyatva’ or emptiness.
  • Srushti happened because of that paravastu’s tapasya. First came ‘Kama’, which is the desire to create. That is the seed of the mind. The sages found the relation of sat and asat.
  • The seed becomes purusha and stree-tattva. i.e., Bhoktr-Bhojya tattva. Bhoktr is ‘retodha’ (prayati), bhojya is called mahima (swadha).
  • Who knows the secret of the srushti? Even the Gods don’t know this, because they too came because of srushti.
  • The adhyaksha ‘Parameshwara’ may alone know the secret of it, or may be not!

Accents

Udatta, anudaatta, Svarita and Eka shruti (same as prachaya). Udaatta is the most important swara that was identified by the Rishis when they perceived the mantra. Like the monarch who is preceded and followed by his people, Udaatta is preceded and followed by swaras that are not Udaattas which enable us to identify the Udaatta. (उदात्तः अनुदात्तः स्वरितः एकसृतिः are the types)

Anudaatta is that which is not Udaataa न उदात्तः अनुदात्तः | So technically, all swaras which are not udaattas are anudaattas only. They get different names based on their position. If it is before the Udaatta, it is called Anudaatta or Nighaata or Anudaattataraa or Nighaata swara. The Swara that follows Udaatta is called Svarita. After the Svarita, the swaras are not marked and they are referred to as Ekashruti or Prachaya. It is referred as Monotone.

  • Avagraha symbol
    • Words in Samasta padam
      • गिरि॒स्थाः à गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः
    • Upasarga or prefix and the main word
      •  वि॒क्रम॑णेषु  –>  वि॒ऽक्रम॑णेषु ।
    • भ्याम्, भिस्, भ्यस् when they have not undergone changes
      • त्रि॒ऽभिः ।  भे॒ष॒जेभिः॑ । प॒देभिः॑ ।
    • सु प्रत्यय under certain conditions
      • अप्सु à अपऽसु
    • त्व, तरप्, तमप् प्रत्ययाः
      • देवत्वं à देवऽत्वम्
    • More… (UGC NET/J.R.F/SET Sanskrit)
  • प्रगृह्यम्
    • The purpose of this संज्ञा is to indicate that the absence of sandhi
    • Counter example – ओ is due to sandhi in the case of रामो
    • Different cases
      • Sambhodhana ओ (विष्णो इति)
      • The word ओ (ओ इति)
      • The words ending in the suffix ओ (अथो इति)
      • ई, ऊ and ए endings in dual number (इन्द्रावायू इति)
      • ई or ऊ endings of vocative case (गौरी इति)
      • Four specific words अस्मे, युष्मे, त्वे, अमी
  • इतिकरण
    • उ becomes ऊँ इति
    • प्रगृह्यम् identified by इति
      • Examples from some suktaas in KSOU material
      • ई, ऊ and ए endings in dual number
        • उ॒भे इति॑ । द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी इति॑ । उ॒र्वी इति॑ । रोद॑सी॒ इति॑ ।
      • Four specific words
        • अ॒स्मे इति॑
  • स्वरितः
    • Svarita is classified as शुद्धस्वरित (Pure or dependent) or जात्यस्वरित (Independent)
    • The Pure or dependent Svarita is naturally an anudaatta occuring after an udaatta.
      • It is unstable since it becomes anudaata if it is followed by an udaatta
    • The Svarita which arises in a different manner ( i.e . without the Udaatta being present before it) is known as Jaatya (Independent)
  • जात्यादिस्वरितः
    • जात्यस्वरित – Svarita which appears right after an anudaatta or in the beginning of a Pada, when the combination of udaatta and anudaatta lies further back or hidden and when it is natural to the word. Eg. क्व
    • क्षैप्रस्वरित – Join of Udaatta and Anudaatta due to यण्
    • प्रश्लिष्टस्वरित – Join comes due to सवर्णदीर्घसन्धिः
    • अभिनिहितस्वरित – Join comes due to पूर्वरूपसन्धिः
    • A कम्प or a shake is created when जात्यस्वरित is followed by another जात्यस्वरित  or udaatta. If the vowel is short then १ is put. For long vowels, ३ along with anudaatta and svarita are put.
      • Eg. सुनी॒थः । क्वे॒३॒॑दानीं॒ == सु॒ऽनी॒थः । क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॒म् ।
  • Aamantrita svara
  • Aamantrita relates to the Vocative case declenation or sambhodana prathama vibhakti.
  • This is used when some person is being called – when some deity is being invoked.
  • The first swara will be udaatta if the vocative word is in the beginning of the Paada. This Aadi-udaatta is by the sutra आमन्त्रितस्य च in sixth chapter. Eg. अग्ने॒ यं य॒ज्ञम॑ध्व॒रम् … अग्ने॑ । यम् । य॒ज्ञम् ।
  • When the vocative is not in the beginning of a paada, it is always unaccented. This sarvaanudaatta or Nighaata is by the sutra आमन्त्रितस्य च in eighth chapter. Eg. उप॑ त्वाग्ने … उप॑ । त्वा॒ । अ॒ग्ने॒ ।

Kathopanishad

Important questions

  1. Conversation between Yama and Nachiketa in prathamavalli (2010) (2012)

Yama comes to know that Nachiketa has remained unfed for three days. To atone for the inhospitality Lord Yama offers him three boons. For the first boon Nachiketa chooses to return to his father who would feel happy to receive his son back. For the second boon, Nachiketa gains the knowledge of the fire sacrifice, leading to immortality. For the third boon he chooses the knowledge concerning the meaning of the great passing beyond. Lord Yama tests Nachiketas by offering instead everything that men usually value – sons, wealth, power, longevity and every other kind of pleasure. However, Naciketas has realized their transient nature and he rejects them all. Therefore, he consistently requests Yama to disclose the secret of what lies beyond death.

  1. Trinachiketaagni / svarga-saadana-bhootaam-agni-vidhyaam (2007) (2011)

Nachiketa gets to know this sacrificial ritual from Yama as his second boon. This rite serves as the means of attaining the well being in the life hereafter. Yama explains which bricks are to be used, how many bricks are to be used, and the manner in which it should be used. Yama elaborates the efficacy of the Fire-rite. When Nachiketa confirms his understanding by saying it back to Yama, Yama becomes very happy. He gives a multi-coloured jewel and also names the fire-ritual after Nachiketas.

  1. Svargyaagnividhyaamahatvam (2009)
    He who performs thrice, the Nachiketa sacrifice after knowing these three factors on which bricks are to be used, how many bricks are to be used, and the manner in which it should be used, and he who meditates upon Agni casts off the shackles of death before the falling of this body, overcomes sorrow and rejoices in the heavenly world.
  2. Nachiketa’s thirst for Adhyaatmagnaana (2014)
  • येयं प्रेते विचिकित्सा मनुष्ये — अस्तीत्येके नायमस्तीति चैके । एतद्विद्यामनुशिष्टस्त्वयाऽहं वराणामेष वरस्तृतीयः ॥ १.१.२० ॥
  • शतायुष: पुत्रपौत्रान्वृणीष्व बहून्पशून्हस्तिहिरण्यमश्वान् ।  भूमेर्महदायतनं वृणीष्व स्वयं च जीव शरदो यावदिच्छसि ॥२३॥
  • एतत्तुल्यं यदि मन्यसे वरं वृणीष्व वित्तं चिरजीविकां च । महाभूमौ नचिकेतस्त्वमेधि कामानां त्वा कामभाजं करोमि ॥ १.१.२४॥
  • ये ये कामा दुर्लभा मर्त्यलोके — सर्वान् कामाँश्छन्दतः प्रार्थयस्व ।
    इमा रामाः सरथाः सतूर्या — न हीदृशा लम्भनीया मनुष्यैः ।
    आभिर्मत्प्रत्ताभिः परिचारयस्व — नचिकेतो मरणं माऽनुप्राक्षीः ॥ २५ ॥
  • नवित्तेनतर्पणीयोमनुष्यो लप्स्यामहे वित्तमद्राक्ष्म चेत्त्वा । जीविष्यामो यावदीशिष्यसि त्वं वरस्तु मे वरणीयः स एव ॥ २७ ॥
  • अजीर्यताममृतानामुपेत्य जीर्यन्मर्त्यः क्वधःस्थः प्रजानन् । अभिध्यायन् वर्णरतिप्रमोदान् अतिदीर्घेजीवितेकोरमेत॥२८॥
  1. Shreyas Vs Preyas (2008)
  • अन्यच्छ्रेयोऽन्यदुतैव प्रेय-स्ते उभे नानार्थे पुरुषँ सिनीतः । तयोः श्रेय आददानस्य साधुभवति हीयतेऽर्थाद्य उ प्रेयो वृणीते ॥ १.२.१ ॥
  • श्रेयश्च प्रेयश्च मनुष्यमेतः तौ सम्परीत्य विविनक्ति धीरः । श्रेयो हि धीरोऽभि प्रेयसो वृणीतेप्रेयो मन्दो योगक्षेमाद्वृणीते ॥ १.२.२ ॥
  1. Aatmagnaanam (2008)
  • अविद्यायामन्तरे वर्तमानाः स्वयं धीराः पण्डितंमन्यमानाः । दन्द्रम्यमाणाः परियन्ति मूढा अन्धेनैव नीयमाना यथान्धाः ॥ १.२.५ ॥
  • श्रवणायापि बहुभिर्यो न लभ्यः शृण्वन्तोऽपि बहवो यं न विद्युः । आश्चर्यो वक्ता कुशलोऽस्य लब्धा आश्चर्यो ज्ञाता कुशलानुशिष्टः ॥ १.२.७ ॥
  • तं दुर्दर्शं गूढमनुप्रविष्टंगुहाहितं गह्वरेष्ठं पुराणम् । अध्यात्मयोगाधिगमेन देवंमत्वा धीरो हर्षशोकौ जहाति ॥ १.२.१२ ॥
  • पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयम्भू-स्तस्मात्पराङ्पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् ।
    कश्चिद्धीरः प्रत्यगात्मानमैक्ष-दावृत्तचक्षुरमृतत्वमिच्छन् ॥ २.१.१ ॥
  • पराञ्च: कामाननुयन्ति बाला- स्ते मृत्योर्यान्तिविततस्य पाशम् | अथ धीराः अमृतत्वं विदित्वाध्रुवमध्रुवेष्विह न प्रार्थयन्ते || [2.1.2]

 

  1. Aatmasvaroopam – as told by Yama (2007) (2010) (2011) (2012) (2014)
  • तं दुर्दर्शं गूढमनुप्रविष्टंगुहाहितं गह्वरेष्ठं पुराणम् । अध्यात्मयोगाधिगमेन देवंमत्वा धीरो हर्षशोकौ जहाति ॥ १.२.१२ ॥
  • सर्वे वेदा यत्पदमामनन्ति — तपाँसि सर्वाणि च यद्वदन्ति ।
    यदिच्छन्तो ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति — तत्ते पदँ सङ्ग्रहेण ब्रवीम्योमित्येतत् ॥ १.२.१५ ॥
  • एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं ब्रह्म एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं परम् । एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं ज्ञात्वा यो यदिच्छति तस्य तत् ॥ १.२.१६ ॥
  • एतत् आलम्बनं श्रेष्ठम् एतत् आलम्बनं परम् । एतत् आलम्बनं ज्ञात्वा ब्रह्मलोके महीयते ॥ 2.१७
  • न जायते म्रियते वा विपश्चिन्नायं कुतश्चिन्न बभूव कश्चित् । अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणो न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ॥ १८ ॥
  • अणोरणीयान्महतो महीयान् — आत्मास्यजन्तोर्निहितं गुहायां | तमक्रतुः पश्यति वीतशोको — धातुः प्रसादात् महिमानमात्मनः | १.२.२०|
  • अशरीरँ शरीरेष्वनवस्थेष्ववस्थितम् । महान्तं विभुमात्मानं मत्वा धीरो न शोचति ॥ 2.२२॥
  1. Paramaatmanahsvaroopam (2009) (2013)
    1. The world is compared to an inverted peepal tree, whose unseen root is Brahman. He is mysterious awful living energy from whom the Universe originates and whom its powers must ever obey.
  • अग्निर्यथैको भुवनं प्रविष्टो — रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव |
    एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मारूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बहिश्च  [2.2.9]
  • वायुर्यथैको भुवनं प्रविष्टो रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव ।
    एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा  रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बहिश्च ॥ १० ॥
  • सूर्यो यथा सर्वलोकस्य चक्षु: — न लिप्यते चाक्षुषैर्बाह्यदोषै: |
    एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा — न लिप्यते लोकदुःखेन बाह्य: || [2.11]
  • ऊर्ध्वमूलोऽवाक्शाख एषोऽश्वत्थः सनातनः । तदेव शुक्रं तद्ब्रह्म तदेवामृतमुच्यते ।
    तस्मिँल्लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे तदु नात्येति कश्चन ।एतद्वै तत् ॥ २.३.१ ॥
  • भयादस्याग्निस्तपति भयात्तपति सूर्यः ।
    भयादिन्द्रश्च वायुश्च मृत्युर्धावति पञ्चमः ॥ 3.३ ॥

Important verses

  • Refer the video and the associated page for the full list of important shlokas with meaning.
  • पीतोदका जग्धतृणा दुग्धदोहा निरिन्द्रियाः । अनन्दा नाम ते लोकास्तान् स गच्छति ता ददत् ॥ १.१.३ ॥
  • अनुपश्य यथा पूर्वे प्रतिपश्य तथाऽपरे । सस्यमिव मर्त्यः पच्यते सस्यमिवाजायते पुनः ॥ १.१.६ ॥
  • एतत्तुल्यं यदि मन्यसे वरं वृणीष्व वित्तं चिरजीविकां च । महाभूमौ नचिकेतस्त्वमेधि कामानां त्वा कामभाजं करोमि ॥ १.१.२४॥
  • ये ये कामा दुर्लभा मर्त्यलोके — सर्वान् कामाँश्छन्दतः प्रार्थयस्व ।
    इमा रामाः सरथाः सतूर्या — न हीदृशा लम्भनीया मनुष्यैः ।
    आभिर्मत्प्रत्ताभिः परिचारयस्व — नचिकेतो मरणं माऽनुप्राक्षीः ॥ २५ ॥
  • नवित्तेनतर्पणीयोमनुष्यो लप्स्यामहे वित्तमद्राक्ष्म चेत्त्वा । जीविष्यामो यावदीशिष्यसि त्वं वरस्तु मे वरणीयः स एव ॥ २७ ॥
  • अजीर्यताममृतानामुपेत्य जीर्यन्मर्त्यः क्वधःस्थः प्रजानन् । अभिध्यायन् वर्णरतिप्रमोदान् अतिदीर्घेजीवितेकोरमेत॥२८॥
  • अन्यच्छ्रेयोऽन्यदुतैव प्रेय-स्ते उभे नानार्थे पुरुषँ सिनीतः । तयोः श्रेय आददानस्य साधुभवति हीयतेऽर्थाद्य उ प्रेयो वृणीते ॥ १.२.१ ॥
  • श्रेयश्च प्रेयश्च मनुष्यमेतः तौ सम्परीत्य विविनक्ति धीरः । श्रेयो हि धीरोऽभि प्रेयसो वृणीतेप्रेयो मन्दो योगक्षेमाद्वृणीते ॥ १.२.२ ॥
  • अविद्यायामन्तरे वर्तमानाः स्वयं धीराः पण्डितंमन्यमानाः । दन्द्रम्यमाणाः परियन्ति मूढा अन्धेनैव नीयमाना यथान्धाः ॥ १.२.५ ॥
  • तं दुर्दर्शं गूढमनुप्रविष्टंगुहाहितं गह्वरेष्ठं पुराणम् । अध्यात्मयोगाधिगमेन देवंमत्वा धीरो हर्षशोकौ जहाति ॥ १.२.१२ ॥
  • न जायते म्रियते वा विपश्चिन्नायं कुतश्चिन्न बभूव कश्चित् । अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणो न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ॥ १८ ॥
  • अशरीरँ शरीरेष्वनवस्थेष्ववस्थितम् । महान्तं विभुमात्मानं मत्वा धीरो न शोचति ॥ 2.२२॥
  • नायमात्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्योन मेधया न बहुना श्रुतेन । यमेवैष वृणुते तेन लभ्यःतस्यैष आत्मा विवृणुते तनूँ स्वाम् ॥ १.२.२३ ॥
  • उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान्निबोधत । क्षुरस्य धारा निशिता दुरत्यया | दुर्गं पथस्तत्कवयो वदन्ति ॥ १.३.१४ ॥
  • पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयम्भू-स्तस्मात्पराङ्पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् ।
    कश्चिद्धीरः प्रत्यगात्मानमैक्ष-दावृत्तचक्षुरमृतत्वमिच्छन् ॥ २.१.१ ॥
  • स्वप्नान्तं जागरितान्तं चोभौ येनानुपश्यति । महान्तं विभुमात्मानं मत्वा धीरो न शोचति ॥ ४ ॥
  • अरण्योर्निहितो जातवेदा गर्भ इव सुभृतो गर्भिणीभिः । दिवे दिव ईड्यो जागृवद्भिर्हविष्मद्भिर्मनुष्येभिरग्निः ।एतद्वै तत् ॥ २.१.८ ॥
  • मनसैवेदमाप्तव्यं नेह नानाऽस्ति किंचन । मृत्योः स मृत्युं गच्छति य इह नानेव पश्यति ॥ 1.११ ॥
  • न तत्र सूर्यो भाति न चन्द्रतारकंनेमा विद्युतो भान्ति कुतोऽयमग्निः । तमेव भान्तमनुभाति सर्वंतस्य भासा सर्वमिदं विभाति ॥ २.२.१५ ॥
  • ऊर्ध्वमूलोऽवाक्शाख एषोऽश्वत्थः सनातनः । तदेव शुक्रं तद्ब्रह्म तदेवामृतमुच्यते । तस्मिँल्लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे तदु नात्येति कश्चन ।एतद्वै तत् ॥ २.३.१ ॥
  • भयादस्याग्निस्तपति भयात्तपति सूर्यः । भयादिन्द्रश्च वायुश्च मृत्युर्धावति पञ्चमः ॥ 3.३ ॥

Bhagavad Gita

Exam questions

  • 02 gita sugita kartavya, kim anyaih sastra vistaraih ya svayam (Gita Mahatmya by Adi Sankara)
  • 02 sarva vedamayi gita
  • 01 tad idam gita-sastram samasta-vedartha-sarasangraha-bhutam (Adi Sankara)
  • 01,2013.02 What is the importance of BG as the essence of all Upanishads?
  • 01 the tatparya behind the relationship between Gita and Upanishad.
  • 02 The place of BG in Prasthana traya.
  • 01 Greatness of BG.
  • 01, 2009.01 In the Vedantic world, what is the greatness of BG?

Karma Yoga

  • 02, 2013.01 Explain Karma Yoga in BG.
  • 01 Explain the vailakshanya (difference) of Karma and Karma Yoga.
  • 02 What is the specialty of Karma Sanyaasa in BG?
  • 01 the aptness of naming 3rd chapter as Karma Yoga.

Intro

  • Bhagavat Gita – is the most popular religious philosophical poem in Sanskrit literature.
  • Gita is in the Bhishma Parva of Mahabharata, which is considered as Panchamo Vedah.
  • Bhagavad Gita means “The Song by Bhagavan”
  • It comprises of Lord Krishna’s advice to Arjuna, around 5150 years ago at Kurukshetra battle field.

Essence of Vedas and Upanishads

  • The Mahabharata says “सर्वशास्त्रमयी गीता” meaning that the Gita comprises of all the scriptures.
    • A शास्त्रम् gives a holistic treatment towards a subject area and reveals important definitions, techniques and processes to achieve the desired results, without causing undue harm to the environment.
  • The science of understanding God is covered in the Gita. This is the subject matter of the Vedas also. The theme of the Upanishads is also the same.
  • गीतासुगीताकर्तव्याकिमन्यैःशास्त्रविस्तरैः।यास्वयंपद्मनाभस्यमुखपद्माद्विनिःसृता॥
    gita sugita kartavya kim anyaih shastra vistaraih
    ya svyam padama nabhaayasa mukha padmad vinih srita (Gita-mahatmya 4)
    This Gita which has come out of the lotus-like face of the Lord (He who has the lotus in His navel) and which is so melodious, should be studied. There is no need to study any other scriptures in detail.
  • Sri Shankaracarya states in the introduction to his Gita commentary, तत्इदम्गीताशास्त्रम्समस्तवेदार्थसारसंग्रहभूतम् tad idam gita-sastram samasta-vedartha-sarasangraha- bhutam, meaning “This Gita-sastra is the essence of the purport of all the Vedas”.
  • सर्वोपनिषदो गावो दोग्धा गोपाल नन्दनः ।पार्थोवत्सःसुधीर्भोक्तादुग्धंगीतामृतंमहत्॥६॥

The Bhagavad Gita is compared to a cow endowed with the rich milk containing the essence of the teachings of the Upanishads. Lord Krishna is compared to a skillful milkman who brings out that precious milk for the wise and Arjuna is compared to a calf, without which it is not possible to milk the cow easily.

  • सर्ववेदमयीगीतासर्वधर्ममयोमनु: ।सर्वतीर्थमयीगंगासर्वदेवमयोहरि: ।।9 ।।

Gita contains all the Vedas. The Manu Smriti contains all the dharmas. The benefit of all the sacred waters is in Ganga. All the gods are in Vishnu.

  • Prasthanatraya प्रस्थानत्रयी means the three sources of authority (in the Vedantic world). It is the collective name given to the Upanishads, Bramha Sutra and Srimad Bhagavat Gita, which are accepted as three sources from which the different schools of Vedanta derived their authority.
    • Bramha Sutras ब्रह्मसूत्र are a compendium of 555 aphorisms by Sage Bhagavan Veda Vyasa.  They present in concentrated form the entire philosophy of the Upanishads. It is the text book for post graduate study for a student of Vedanta.
    • The Upanishads उपनिषद् generally form the end of the aranyakas of the Vedas and therefore the philosophy obtaining therein is called as Vedanta meaning `end of the Vedas’.  They contain the essence of Vedic teachings.  They are the foundations on which most of the later philosophies and religions of India rest.

Greatness of Gita

  • Gita mahaatmyam or the Glory of Gita is hence unlimited and beyond description. It contains the essence of all the four vedas and yet its style is so simple that after a little study, anyone can easily follow the structure of the words. Yet it is so profound that even a lifelong study may not reveal the depth of meaning. As a reader grows in maturity, the same words reveal more and more facets of thought and hence the Gita remains eternally new.
  • गीताश्रयेऽहं तिष्ठामि गीता मे चोत्तमं गृहम् ।गीताज्ञानमुपाश्रित्य त्रींलोकान्पालयाम्यहम् ॥ ७॥The Lord Himself says in the varaahapuraaNaathat He has made Gita his abode and maintains the three worlds on the strength of the wisdom contained in the Gita.
  • The Bhagavad Gita has lessons for the young and old of any caste, creed and religion and teaches the technique of perfect living for all times.

Contents

  • Gita conveys sublime teaching on religion, philosophy, ethics and the art and science of correct and efficient living and attitude towards life and its problems.
  • 1) the first six chapters (called karma-shatkam) talk about the concept of renunciation of the deeds of karma as a method of liberation, (2) the next six chapters (called bhakti-shatkam) talk about the love of the personal God as a method of liberation and (3) the last six chapters (called gyana-shatkam) talk about the way of knowledge as a method of liberation.
  • By performing the prescribed duties, with unshakeable knowledge and desirelessness, one can get into and practice the path of devotion to attain the Almighty controller Sriman Narayana, called as Brahman

Karma Yoga

  • Yoga means linking oneself to the supreme personality or Godhead.
  • The main purpose of Bhagavad Gita is to induce people to action. Sri Krishna urges all to do their duty sincerely, as per existing laws and without attachment or expectation of results. Here the stress is on KARMA YOGA as the suitable path for advancement of mankind.
  • What does Karma Yoga mean?
    • KARMA: The word originated from the root “KRU” meaning do, work, etc. Karma thus means action or work, and not the popular meaning of “fate”. There are two types of Karma – 1) Niskama Karma- work without attachment, which produces no bondage, and 2) Sakama Karma-all work done for some end result, which leads to bondage for the doer. The work may be to maintain your body, meet your official obligations, to upkeep your family, prayers & other religious activities, service to society or many other things. In Gita, the word Karma is used to denote all human activities.
    • YOGA: This is a much more confusing word. Yoga is generally understood as the activity of breath control or taking different body postures, or the activities mentioned by Pathanjali. But in Gita this word has a much wider and somewhat different meaning.
      The word Yoga originated from the root ”YUJ” meaning Joining, tieing together, etc. This word is used at innumerable places in the Gita with meanings like appropriateness, joining, expertise, attainment, etc. The essential meaning of Yoga is explained by Sri Krishna himself as योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् (Gita 2.50). Kausalam means a special talent, expertise or skill in doing something. So doing things with expertise is Yoga. A Yogi is one who does something with expert knowledge or skill.
    • Karma yoga goes beyond simple daily chores and extends to the whole life. It is meant not only for spiritual aspirants but also for worldly people, to whom work is the way of life and who have to deal with tougher challenges and greater distractions as they are engaged in the act of living. Karma Yoga or the path of action as suggested in the Bhagavad-Gita teaches people how to cope with the pains and pleasures of life without choosing and without escaping. It teaches people how to remain engaged with the process of living, however difficult and distasteful the circumstances may be. This is in stark contrast to the popular opinion that men should renounce their worldly things, go to a forest or some secluded place, away from society like a cave and perform tapas or meditation in order to achieve self-realization.

Summary of Chapter 3

  1. The importance of karma in life
    • Without action no one can live at all, so we have no choice except to learn about the various aspects of action.
    • As long as we have inclination to attain or enjoy something we must resort to karma, otherwise such a person is a hypocrite
  2. When does karma bind & when does it help us gain real freedom.
    • The right art of karma is indicated by the word ‘Yagna’.Yagna is about doing action to the best of one’s ability with an attitude of love, living in harmony with the existing order.
    • Work elevates the person when done in the right spirit without attachment or egoism.All other work is binding.
  3. The exact nature of Karma Yoga.
    • The ideal field of a person’s work is Svadharma. A Karma Yogi, identifies his Svadharma and performs that with the right attitude and motivation.
    • “Svadharma – Your Core Interest” from “Profile Of A Perfect Person, Part 2” By Jaya Row
      • The first step is to identify your own unique calling in life, your svadharma. Each of us has some inborn talent. A deeply embedded interest, leaning, gift. Identify that and in that field fix a higher ideal. A goal beyond your selfish interests, one that includes a larger segment of humanity.
      • To perform Karma Yoga you do not have to change the field of activity you are engaged in. You only need to fine-tune your action. Change your attitude towards it. An architect need not become a social worker to be a karma yogi. He just needs to work dedicatedly in the field of architecture for the larger good.
    • This way man learns to enjoy every karma, and while there may be some desire in him he is not bothered about it, but takes the results in strides as a prasad from his beloved devata or God. This Yagna-spirit is the right way to act, and it paves the way for spiritual unfoldment too.
  4. Understanding & handling desires.
    • Desire & anger which are revealed as the only obstacles have to be slowly overcome so that we live like their masters rather than their helpless slaves.
    • True Happiness lies in serving a larger cause. While serving a larger cause, the selfish desires decrease. When the mind is fixed on a higher goal, it does not stray into selfish desires. The unfed and starved desires wane away. The highest gets reinforced and the lower vanishes. This is the benefit of Karma Yoga.

Karma Sanyaasa Yoga – Different from Karma Yoga

संन्यासं कर्मणां कृष्ण पुनर्योगं च शंससि। यच्छ्रेय एतयोरेकं तन्मे ब्रूहि सुनिश्चितम् ||

O Krishna, You praised or extolled the yoga of renunciation of action and then again the yoga of action. Of these two, tell me for sure which is better.  5-1

Lord Krishna starts his discourse by telling Arjuna that both Sanyasa & Karma Yoga are parts of the package to awaken to the truth within, but one should be very clear that for a person who is yet to be fully ready, resorting to Karma Yoga is far better. The essence of sanyasa is to attain a state wherein one neither has any aversion for things outside nor does he associates too great an importance to extraneous things. This ability alone is aimed to be developed & polished by Karma Yoga. So both these sadhanas aim at one goal alone.
While the earlier chapters (three and four) revealed the extreme necessity of karma in life, and then emulating the action done by Lord Krishna himself to get the best out of our life, the fifth chapter reveals a subtler & subjective dimension of this process of transcending the process of karma.

 

Reference

http://www.vedakosh.com/rig-veda/

http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rigveda/rv02012.htm

http://www.sanskrit.nic.in/aboutsanskrit1.htm