Dhvanyaloka of Anandavardhana

This document covers the important points from all the four Udyotas of Anandavardhana’s Dhvanyaloka. This has been consolidated from the various posts in the blogs on this topic which covered the sessions by Prof. H.V. Nagaraja Rao, Prof. Sivakumaraswamy, and Prof. Vanitha Ramaswamy. The coverage is limited to the important aspects, based on the earlier KSOU MA exam question papers. The phrases asked in KSOU MA exam सन्दर्भ questions have been underlined with bold font (mostly along with this indicator <*>). Some additional information mentioned by the speakers during the class room sessions have been marked as “Side notes”. They may not be important from the exam point of view. They have been included either to understand the context or just for information. Here is a downloadable file which additionally includes an elaborate table of contents and a few SmartArt graphic images. Click here –> dhvanyaaloka-of-anandavardhana

Introduction

Background Information

Aaloka means light (jyothi / prakaasha). Since it throws light on the matter regarding Dhvani or suggestion, it is named as Dhvanyaaloka. Dhvani was a new concept from the perspective of the earlier Alamkaarikas. So it was not readily accepted. Dhvanyaaloka’s intent was to assert that Dhvani is the soul of poetry.To understand why Dhvanyaaloka was written, we need to know about Alamkara Sashtra.

Shashtra

Shash शास्means “to command”. “शासते इति शास्त्रम्” — That which rules or commands is the scripture.  There are different shashtras like Tarka, Vyakarana, Meemaamsa, etc. Dhvanyaaloka comes under Sahitya Shashtra or Alamkaara Shashtra.

[Side note: Only when Veda approves, it can be accepted. Bhaamaah proved that Kavya is accepted by the Vedas.]

Sahitya Shashtra

The first of such poets to think about the nature of poems was Bharata. He lived before 500 BC. There have been many Aalankarikaas or Literary critics after him. The Shahitya Shashtra has evolved over the centuries.

Classification of Sammitaa

The literary works (Sammitaa or Saahityaa) can be classified into 3 types:

Prabhu Sammitaa Peremptory or dictatorial commands – In the tone of इदमित्तं–This is how it has to be done – the lord’s orders. Eg. Veda.
Mitra Sammitaa Friendly advice.  Itihaasa – Epics – Ramayana and Mahabharata
Kaantaa Sammitaa Lover’s words – Sweet Persuation Eg. Kaavyas

[Side Note: In Shakuntalam, while As Kalidasa puts it, अशिक्षित-पटुत्वं– women are very smart which is not taught by anyone. ]

Alankaara

Alamkaara is a concept (Parikalpana) in Sanskrit. In Kavya Shastra, the term Alamkaara means that which beautifies the poem. The definition of Alamkaara as mentioned in काव्यादर्श is काव्यशोभाकरान् धर्मान् अलंकरान् प्रचक्षते| The properties (dharmas) which beautify the poem are Alamkaras – says Dandi in his Kaavyaadarsha. Alankaara Shashtram is Literary Criticism. One who knows fully about Alamkaara is an Aalankaarika.  Literary critics are those who write about Alamkaaras. These critics attempted to definethe soul of poetry.

[Side Note: Dhvanyaaloka is a Lakshana Grantha that describes certain concepts related to poetry. (See the details about Lakshana Grantha and Lakshya Grantha  – https://nivedita2015.wordpress.com/kavya-prakasha-by-mammata/) ]

Soul of Kavya

काव्यम् = काव्य-आत्मा + काव्य-शरीरम् (अङ्गम् + अङ्गी). Kavya is word and its meaning or meaningful words. शब्दार्थौ सहितौ काव्यम् | All literary critics discuss only about the Kaavya Shareera and the Soul. When we talk about Kaavya Shareera, it has its limbs. There will be a main aspect. The other aspects will be just an अङ्ग or supplementary or auxiliary. अलंकारः,  गुणः, रीतिः, etc. We can present or express our feelings through the alamkaaras like Upamaa, Rupaka, etc. These organs assist or supplement the composition of the work. Right from the days of Bharata, there has been the debate on which should be the limbs and which should be the soul of poetry.  रसात्मकं काव्यम् says Bharata. He was a literary critic or alamkaarika or laakshanikaa. Various critics or alamkaarikas have propounded numerous theories.

History of Kaavya Shaastra

List of Famous Alamkaarikas and their Theories

Author Lakshana Grantha Theory Highlight Time
Bharata Muni Naatya Shaastra
36 chapters
Rasa is important. 10 types of dramas रसात्मकंकाव्यम् |
इतिवृत्तम्तुकाव्यस्यशरीरम् |
(काव्यस्यआत्मारसः)
500 BC
Bhaamaha Kaavyaalamkaara Alamkara शब्दार्थौसहितौकाव्यम् |
(काव्यस्यआत्माअलंकारः )
700 AD (P.V. Kane – 8th)
Dhandi Kaavyaadharsha 10 Gunas, दशगुणाः(Alamkara Lakshanamand kaavya lakshanam, चम्पु) काव्य शोभाकरान्धर्मान्अलंकरान्प्रचक्षते|…शरीरंतावदिष्टार्थव्यवच्छिन्नापदावली| (It is ok without Prathibha, if a person having vyutpatti and abhyaasa is sincere) 7th AD

Kanchi, great grandson of Bhaaravi

Vaamana Kaavyaalankaara Sutra and its Vrutti Reeti (way of expression) रीतिरात्माकाव्यस्य | First to think of soul

काव्यशोभायाःकर्तारो धर्मागुणाः।तदतिशय-हेतवस्त्वलङ्कारः | पूर्वेनित्यः|

Alamkara enhance the beauty. Guna causes them and are essential.3 kinds of reetis. काव्यशब्दोयं गुणालंकारसंस्कृत्योःशब्दार्थयोःवरर्तते|

8th AD Jayapida’s court, Kashmir
Udbatta Kaavyalamkara Sara Sangraha 9th Shantha Rasa Staayibhaava Nirveda for Shantha; Also wrote commentary on Bhaamaha’s work 8th AD Jayapida’s court, Kashmir
Rudrata Kaavyalamkaara 10th Preyas Rasa Staayibhaava preethi or vaatsalya 9thAD

(850)

Anandavardhana Dhvanyaaloka Dhvani काव्यस्यआत्माध्वनिः | 9th AD

(820 – 890)

Rajashekara
राजशेकरः
Kavyamimamsa Investigation of Poetics (Kaavya Lakshanam) कवेःकर्मकाव्यम् | kavishiksha or training of poets 9th-10th AD
Abhinava Gupta Commentaries Lochana on Dhvanyaaloka, Abhinava Bhaarati on Naatya Shaastra Rasaanubhava Process of realization of Rasa 980 to 1020
Kuntaka Vakrookti Jivitam Vakrotti
(crooked speech)

(Kaavya Lakshanam)

शब्दार्थौसहितौवक्रकविव्यापारशालिनि।बन्धेव्यवस्थितौकाव्यंतद्विदाह्लादकारिणि। (Opposed classification as Adhama kaavya) 10th

950–1050

Dhananjaya (and Dhanika) Dasharoopaka (and commentary Avaloka) Taatparya (opposed Dhvani) 10th
Bhoja Deva / Bhoja Raja Srngaaraprakaasha and सरस्वतीकण्ठाभरण Srngaara and Sanskrit Grammar Srngaara is the only rasa; Revised edition of Sanskrit Grammar 10th  AD Malwa

(till 1055)

Hemachandra Siddha-Hema-Śabdanuśāśana Grammar Grammar in paninian style Jain – 1088-1173
Mahima Batta Vyaktiviveka Anumaana

(opposed Dhvani)

Defects in Dhvani and showed that anumaana is present in Dhvani examples. Elaborated on Anauchitya 11th Kashmir
Kshemendra Auchitya Vichaara Charcha Auchitya Auchitya is the jivita of rasa. 27 types of auchitya. 11th AD

student of Abhinavagupta

Mammatta

मम्मट

Kaavya Prakaasha (Kaavya Lakshanam) तददोषौशब्दार्थौसगुणावनलंकृतीपुनःक्वापि 12th
Vishwanatha

विश्वनाथः

Saahitya Dharpana Ukti

 

उक्तिविषेशःकाव्यम् |

वाक्यंरसात्मकंकाव्यम् |

14th Orissa
Rupagoswami Bhaktirasa-amritasindhu Bhakti Rasa Like Madhusoodhana Saraswati, Bhakti rasa 15th – 16th
Appayya Dikshita Kuvalayaananda, Chitra Meemaamsa 100 alamkaaras 100 works on various subjects; chitra meemaamsa written in shastric manner – for which khandana was written by Jagannatha 16th  Tamil Nadu
जगन्नाथःJagannatha Pandita Raja title given by Shah Jahan Rasa Gangadhaaraa, Chitra Meemaamsa Khandana (Kaavya Lakshanam only shabda) Rasa Sutra explanation रमणीयार्थ-प्रतिपादकःशब्दःकाव्यम् | Only 9 rasas. Only prathibha is the cause of kavya (more than nipunata and abhyaasa). Dhvani follower but splits shabda chitra and artha chitra into two separate levels. Rasa – indescribable emotion. Critic of Appaiya and Bhattoji Dikshita 17thTelugu Brahmin 1620-1665

There were many other aalamkaarikaas –Lolata, Kaiyatta, etc.

Creativity in Poetry

To understand the difference between ordinary statements and poetry, consider these two sentences. “कश्चित् वृक्षः तिष्ठत्यग्रे”and “नीरसतरुरिव भाति पुरा”.The first one simply states that a tree is present in front. The other one describes it interestingly by saying that it seems to be a tree devoid of any life or aesthetic sentiment. It also has alliteration or anupraasa alamkara due to the repeated occurrence of the same letter “ra”. Along with that shabda alamkara, it also has arthaalamkara by upama or Simile to describe the dry tree. It brings out the various rasas or aesthetic pleasures to different people.  The term Niirasa conveys different feelings to different people like a traveler or a young couple.

Poetry

The plot or कथा वस्तु, the theme of the story, is iti vruttamइति वृत्तम्. It is the body of the poem according to Bharata. The body is beautified with alamkaaras. Everyone accepted Bharata’s opinion about the body of the poem. Bhaamah states in काव्यालंकार that Kavya comprises of words and their meanings -शब्दार्थौ सहितौ काव्यम् | Also it is saidthat the work of the poet is poem, कवेः कर्म काव्यम् | There are more definitions of Kavya. रमणीयार्थप्रतिपादकं काव्यम् | Highlighting the creativity of the poet, it is said प्रतिभायुक्तं काव्यम् Poem is one that has this scope for creativity where Prathibha is defined in this way – नवनवोन्मेषशालिनी प्रतिभा – That which produces newer and newer meaning is Prathibha.

प्रधानानामालङ्कारिकाणां काव्यलक्षणानि इमानि सन्ति ।

१. शब्दार्थौ सहितौ काव्यम् – भामहः ।

२. काव्यशब्दोऽयं गुणालङ्कारसंस्कृतयोः शब्दार्थयोर्वर्तते – वामनः ।

३. शरीरं तावदिष्टार्थव्यवच्छिन्ना पदावलिः – दण्डी ।

४. शब्दार्थौ काव्यम् – रुद्रटः ।

५. गुणालङ्काररीतिरसोपेतः साधुशब्दार्थान्दर्भः काव्यम् – वाग्भटः ।

६. तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ सगुणावनलङ्कृती पुनः क्वापि – मम्मटः ।

७. शब्दार्थशरीरं तावत् कव्यम् – आनन्दवर्धनः ।

८. शब्दार्थौ निर्दोषौ प्रायः सालङ्कारौ च काव्यम् – उद्भटः ।

९. निर्दोषा लक्षणवती सरीतिर्गुणभूषिता ।सालङ्काररसानेकवृत्तिर्वाक् काव्यनामभाक् ॥ – जयदेवः ।

१०. अदोषौ सगुणौ सालङ्कारौ च शब्दार्थौ काव्यम् – हेमचन्द्रः ।

११. गुणालङ्कारसहितौ शब्दार्थौ दोषवर्जितौ ।काव्यम् . . . ॥ – विद्यानाथः ।

१२. शब्दार्थौ वपुरस्य… – विद्याधरः ।

१३. वाक्यं रसात्मकं काव्यम् – विश्वनाथः ।

१४. रमणीयार्थप्रतिपादकः शब्दः काव्यम् – जगन्नाथः ।

[Side note: चर्वित चर्वनं मा भवेत् | Let there be noimitation i.e., chewing of that which is already chewed. So each one came up with his own idea]

[Side note: प्रयोजनमनुद्दिश्य मन्दोऽपि न प्रवर्तते | Even a dullard does not venture into a task without considering its benefit].

On correctness ofKaavyam साधु काव्यम् and on the purpose of poetry  काव्यस्य प्रयोजनम् , Abhinava Gupta says this in the Lochana:

धर्मार्थकाममोक्षेषु वैचक्षण्यं कलासु च |करोति कीर्थिं प्रीतिं च साधु काव्यनिषेवणम् ||

There are different criteria for a Kavya to be considered as a उत्तमकाव्यम्. A superior poem is one that

  • Provides intense, special, efficient knowledge or expertise वैचक्षणम् in the four purushaarthas namely Dharma, Artha, Kaama and Moksha.
  • Provides the expert knowledge about the 64 Kalas.
  • Becomes the cause for gaining the loving respect and glory करोति कीर्थिं प्रीतिम्

Basic Concepts – Three types of Meanings

We will see the concepts (परिकल्पनानि) that are needed to understand Dhvani.

Vaachaka denotative Expressed or denoted meaning Abhidaa vyapara / अभिधावृत्तिः Koshaarthah, Vaachyaartha, शक्यार्थ The power of the word conveyed by the dictionary meaning
Laakshanika indicative Indicated or suppressed meaning Lakshanaa vyapara / लक्षणावृत्तिः Lakshyaarthah, Lakshanaarthah,
भाक्त
Some element is suppressed (The word bank is suppressed in Gangaayaam goshah – Hamlet on the banks of Ganga and not in Ganges)
Vyanjaka suggestive Suggested meaning Vyangyaa vyapara / व्यञ्जनावृत्तिः Dhvanyarthah, Vyanjanaarthah, vyangyaarthah It shows or reflects or suggests some other meaning. The tone of “Go, go!” might mean “Don’t go”

Vaachyaartha – Dictionary Meaning

Shakti has many synonyms. कोशार्थः, वाच्यः, वाच्यार्थः, शक्यार्थः, मुख्यार्थः, अभिधावृत्तिः, अभिधाव्यापारः, सङ्केतार्थः |Vritti is defined as the relation of the word with its meaning पदपदार्थयोः संबन्धः वृत्तिः | वृत्तिःor व्यापारः means function or activity.

Abhidhaa vyaapaarah is defined as that activity by which the dictionary meaning is understood by us – कस्मात् व्यापारात् कोशार्थं अस्माभिः अवगन्तुं शक्यते | We understand the word Pustakam to mean a book. So this term is Koshaartha.

Lakshyaartha – Secondary Meaning

Bhakti is लक्षणा वृत्तिः |The primary power of the word to convey a meaning is called अभिधा. The primary meaning is शक्तिः. In some cases, we indicate a meaning which is different from the primary meaning. For example, when we say that a person is Mercury, it indicates certain quality of Mercury like being very brisk and active. In this case, the primary meaning is not taken. This secondary meaning is called लक्षणार्थः. The famous example is गङ्गायां घोषः | It means – आभीरपल्ली – the hamlet of cowherds.A person is selling milk and milk products. A housewife enquires “भद्रा! क्व ते घोषः ?” The milkman says “अम्ब! गङ्गायां घोषः”. Since the housewife wants to know if the person’s village is having good water resource which would result in a fertile land causing the cows to give good quality milk, the milkman gives an apt reply that his village is in the Ganges. Though he mentions only Ganga, it is understood as “गङ्गातीरे”. The power of the word to indicate a secondary meaning which is different from the primary meaning is called लक्षणा. Another term for it is भक्ति.

Why do we need Lakshanaa vyaapaara? मुख्यार्थस्य बाधः एव लक्षणा-व्यापारस्य आधारः | Lakshanaa obstructs the mukhyaartha. बाधःmeans to reject or not accept. So we go to the indicatory or suppressed meaning. Eg. Gangaayaam gosha – Here the expressed meaning is not acceptable, so the indicatory meaning is taken. To enhance the beauty of the poem, such indicatory meanings are used. गूढंसत् चमत्करोति | These latent / hidden / suppressed / indicatory (गूढ) meanings cause fascination and excitement. There is always a relationship (संबन्धः) between the mukhyaartha and the suppressed meaning.

Dhvani or व्यङ्गार्थ – Suggestion

How is व्यङ्गार्थ different from this suppressed or indicated meaning? For Dhvani, there are no conditions like it should obstruct or have a relationship with the original meaning. The characteristics of Dhvani are described later. To arrive at the suggested meaning, the characters and the context are important. Anandavardhana tells again and again that Dhvani is the प्रतीयमानार्थः – the meaning that flashes in the mind. मनसि प्रकाशते | मनसि उद्भवः भवति | When the mother tells a boy going to the movie, “Go, Go!”, based on the context, it could have the opposite meaning of “Don’t go!” So, here, it is neither the dictionary meaning nor a suppressed meaning. Here it is the suggested meaning. This is an example of Vastu Dhvani. The 3 types are Vastu Dhvani, Alamkaara Dhvani and Rasa Dhvani. The supreme amongst these is the Rasa Dhvani.

Once Anandavardhana put forth his theory that Dhvani is the soul of poetry, there arose prima facie arguments against it, among his critics referred to as Dhvani Virodha vaadis.Abhaavavaadis are those who claim that is no such thing as Dhvani. Anandavardhana partially accepts some of the earlier theories and he also denies some of the earlier theories (पूर्वसिद्धान्तानां निराकरणम्). He accepts that there is importance for Rasa, Guna, Alamkaras, Reeti, Vakroktihi, etc. But he claims that the soul is the Dhvani.

Introduction to Dhvanyaloka

Life and works of Aanandavardhana

Aanandavardhana is credited with creating the Dhvani theory. He wrote of dhvani (literally meaning sound, or resonance) in regard to the “soul of poetry.” Anandavardhana said that “When the poet writes, he creates a resonant field of emotions.”

आनन्दवर्धनः कस्य नासीत् आनन्दवर्धनः | “Whose Ananda did Anandavardhana fail to increase?” In our country, the centre of all Shaastric studies has been Kashmir. Between the 8th century and 11th century, many great thoughts, be it in Nyaya, or Alamkaara or Naatya, originated from Kashmir. Anandavardhana is also from Kashmir. Anandavardhana had that title of “राजानक” that was awarded only in Kashmir. आनक is the drum. राजानक means the poet who makes the fame of the king be known everywhere.Anandavardhana lived in the second half of 9th century from 820 to 890 AD. Kalhana’s Rajatarangini is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly about the kings of Kashmir. It was written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri Brahmin, Kalhana, in the 12th century AD. While describing the king’s rule, he also mentions the poets that adorned their courts and the works produced by them. A king named King Avantivarma is mentioned in this Raajatarangini to have been ruling in the later half of 9th century. He wrote – मुक्ताकणः शिवस्वामी कविरानन्दवर्धनः । प्रथां रत्नाकराश्चागात् साम्राज्येऽवन्तिवर्मणः ॥ In King Avantivarma’s court, these poets were present – Muktaakana, Shivasvaami, Kavi Aanandavardhana and Ratnaakara.

Anandavardhana was an expert in Sanskrit and Prakruti languages. While citing examples in Dhavanyaaloka, he would quote from his own works. For example, he would state “यथा मम विषमभानलीलायाम्” – “As mentioned in my work – Vishama Bhaana Leela” and cite the example. Vishama Bhaana Leela has been written in Prakruta. His works are Dhvanyaaloka – lakshana granta, अर्जुनचरितम् – a mahaakavya;तत्त्वालोक – a dharshanika granta – a philosophical treatise; Vishama Bhaana Leela; धर्मोत्तार्त्विवृति Dharmottartvivrti–a Buddhist doctrine; and a poem called देवीशतकम् | Among the works of Anandavardhana, only Dhvanyaaloka and Devishatakam are available now. In Devishatakam, 100 shlokas on Devi was written by him as ordained by Devi who came in his dreams. This work comprises of beautiful shabdaalamkaara with the word Saraswati. देव्या स्वप्नोद्गमादिष्ट-देवीशतक-संज्ञया देशितो अनुपमामादात् अथ नोणसुतो नुतिम्  There he refers to himself as नोणसुतः  – so we get to know that his father’s name is Nona.

Abhinava Gupta

Abhinava Gupta has written the commentary for this work by name Lochana. He also wrote the commentary called Abhinava Bharati for the Bharata’s Naatya Shaastra. Dhvanyaaloka is the light of Dhvani. Since the light will be useful only when there are eyes, he has named his commentary appropriately as Lochana or eyes. किं लोचनं विनालोको भाति चन्द्रिकयापि हि ।i.e., लोचनं विना आलोकः भाति किम्?

Even before Abhinava Gupta’s Lochana, there was an earlier commentary by an ancestor of Abhinava Gupta himself and this work was called Chandrikaa or splendor. Hence Abhinava Gupta includes चन्द्रिकयाअपि हि– even by using Chandrikaa |

Background of Dhvanyaaloka

The words of common people just convey one meaning. But the words of great poets continue to resonate in our hearts and give numerous meanings as one reflects on it. He does not say it explicitly. Yet these meanings appear in the minds of the readers. This is called Dhvani. The true pleasure is experienced when the reader realizes something that is not explicitly stated. For that, the readers need to be eligible – be knowledgeable to understand the hidden message. John Keats says “Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard are sweeter”. The readers should develop that sense of understanding the untold meaning.

Prior to Anandavardhana, the focus was only on the superfluous decorations of Kaavya like the Alamkaara. Then the focus changed to Guna. For the object without the soul, whatever is the decoration done, it will be like the decoration done for the dead body.  अलम् means पूर्णम्. That which is done to make a thing complete is the Alamkaara – अलं करोति इति अलंकारः | It makes sense only to beautify something that has a life. Vaamana was the first one to think about the soul of poetry. He wrote Kaavyaalamkaara Sutras. He stated “रितिरात्मा काव्यस्य”. There were further debates on the soul of poetry. Anandavardhana proposed Dhvani as the soul of poetry.

Contribution of Anandavardhana to Alamkaara Shastra

Until the time of Anandavardhana, all the theorists were paying attention to the superficial factors like figures of speech, alliteration, simile, metaphor, etc. It was Anandavardhana who changed the course of Sanskrit Poetics. His period is a milestone. The era before and post Anandavardhana are different. He propounded Dhvani. The true enjoyment of Kavya comes due to the Dhvani. There are Vastu Dhvani, Alamkaara Dhvani and Rasa Dhvani, amongst which Rasa Dhvani gives the supreme enjoyment. अलङ्कारत्वसाधनम् (explained below) is a major contribution of Anandavardhana wherein he says that the Alamkaaras should be used as a decoration to enhance the Dhvani. Also Anandavardhana was the first one to provide criticism of a literary work as a whole. Until then, the critics were paying attention to only particular stanzas, word or sentences. He discussed about Prabhanda Dhvani, the Dhvani or the main sentiment that is present in the whole work.

Dhvanyaaloka

[Side Note: The general structure of shastras would be Sutras or Kaarikaas, Vaartikaas, and Bhaashya.  Kaarikas are the doctrine stated in verses. Sutras are aphorisms where the main points are covered in a concise manner.Vaartikaas are Meta rules, in which another person develops the original sutras further with his own contribution. Vruttis are explanations which are a sort of paraphrase, to expand the ideas and to make the meaning clear. Bhashyamis a type of commentary which tries to interpret the text in the light of further knowledge. For the Vyaakarana Shaastra, Panini wrote the Sutras; Vararuchi wrote the Vaartikaas;and Patanjali wrote the Bhaashyaa. ]

Dhvanyaaloka was written in the 9th century. Anandavardhana is referred to as Dhvanikaarah as he proposed the Dhvani Theory. His point of view is that Dhvani, in particular, Rasa Dhvani, is the soul of the poem.

This book also has another name called सहृदयालोकः | समानं हृदयं यस्य सः सहृदयः | Only a person having the same interests will be able to appreciate and enjoy the poetry. Abhinava Gupta wrote the commentary called Lochana for this Dhvanyaaloka written by Anandavardhana. येषांकाव्यानुशीलनाभ्यासवशाद्विशदीभूतेमनोमुकुरेवर्णनीयतन्मयीभवनयोग्यतातेस्वहृदयसंवादभाजःसहृदयाः | Abhinava Gupta gives this definition for the term सहृदयाः. Different types of poetry are to be studied. Then the mind will start reflecting clearly like a mirror. In such a state, the purport of the Kaavya will be understood. The similarity in heart will be achieved then. Such a person is called a सहृदयः. This book shows light to such Sahrudayas and it is also called Sahrudayaaloka.

[Side Note on Rasa: When a person watches Sita Swayamvaram, he or she understands Raama’s rati bhava when Rama sees Sita through vakra drushti. Though, he forgets later the theater, Ramayana, Rama and Sita, etc., the young boy might continue to enjoy the feeling of Romance for a longer time.

In the same way, even tragedy in any tragic drama दुरन्तंनाटकम् when expressed nicely gives a good feeling. The tears brought out of the audience indicate the success of the work.

There should be poshana or enrichment of the Rasa. In another work, before Duryodhana leaves for the war, it is mentioned that his wife, Bhanumati cried. The rise of the emotion of the feeling of Vira is hampered. Rather than poshaka, it was a vighna. The feeling should always be nurtured and enhanced. The process of catharsis happens in the minds of the connoisseur. i.e., the purging out of the inner instincts happens. It gives a sense of satisfaction.

Vira, Shringara and Karuna can only be the dominant sentiments. One of these can only be the mukhya rasaa or Angi i.e., the possessor of organs of a literary work. Hasya can only be supplementary or gauna rasaa or apradhaana or Anga i.e., the organ. ]

Structure of Dhvanyaaloka

The structure of Dhvanyaalokaconsists of Kaarikas and Vrutti. There is debate on whether the Vruttiswere written by Anandavardhana. Dr. K. Krishnmoorthi and others in Karnataka are of the opinion that the kaarikaa and the vritti are written by Anandavardhana. There are others in North India and Kerala that opine that only the vritti was written by Anandavardhana. Dr. P.V. Kane has written a book on “The History of Sanskrit Poetics”. In this he mentions that the authors are different.  Their opinion is probably based on the commentator named Maheshwara, who mentioned that Bharata or someone else could have written the Kaarikaa. Moreover, in the Lochana, Abhinava Gupta writes this way “इदम् आह वृत्तिकारः” – “So says the author of the Vritti”. This has added to the controversy that the author of kaarikaa and the vrutti could be different people.

[Side Note: P.V. Kane got Bharata Ratna award during the period of Rajendra Prasad. He is the only Sanskrit Pandit to get this award. His Magnum Opus work is “The History of Dharma Shaastra”].

Content of Dhvanyaaloka

There are four Udyotas in Dhvanyaaloka. (The entire text is present in KSOU MA).

In the first Udyota, it is declared that Dhvani is the Aatma of Kaavya. It is stressed that Dhvani has to be prominent and it has to be suggested rather than being denoted or indicated. The three Dhvani Virooda Vaadas are stated and the counter arguments are also provided to prove that Dhvani indeed exists.

In the Second Udyota, the two major classifications of Dhvani namely Avivakshitavaachya and Vivakshitaanyaparavaachya and their subtypes are mentioned. The status of Alamkaara and Guna are also clarified.

In the Third Udyota, the suggestiveness of word and sentence is explained. The different types are listed from the perspective of the Vyanjaka –the suggestive word, while in the earlier chapter it was based on the Vyangya –the suggested meaning. The different factors causing the suggestiveness in case of asamlakshyakramavyangya are explained. The significance of auchitya or propriety is mentioned. It is stated that there should be one prominent Rasa. The Guneebhootavyangya and Chitra Kaavya are also described.

In the Fourth Udyota, taking the example of Ramayana and Mahabhaarata, the literary criticism of the entire work is mentioned.The concept of Samvaada or Correspondence and its type are elaborated, with a clear guidance on what should be followed and what should be avoided.

First Udyota

Mangala Shloka

स्वेच्छाकेसरिणःस्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः | त्रायन्तां वो मधुरिपोः प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदो नखाः || (Meaning: Let the claws of that Hari who manifested in the form of man-lion at His own will, which claws have outshone the moon in their crystal white hue, and which quells the afflictions of His devotees, protect you).

स्वेच्छाकेसरिणःनखाः = Nails of him, who took the form of Kesari due to his own will rather than due to any karma.

मधुरिपोःनखाः – Nails of Vishnu who is the enemy of Madhu.

स्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः = स्वच्छ+स्व+छाया+आयासित+इन्दवः= By their pure splendor, the nails cause the crescent moons to feel exhausted (defeated or troubled due to shame). स्वच्छ+स्व+छायया आयासितः इन्दुः यैः  ते  — They (Those nails) by which the moon was insulted due to the brilliance of their shadow – i.e., their shine.

[Side Note: Due to तुगागमसन्धिः and श्चुत्वः, चकार is included between the ह्रस्वस्वर अकार in स्व and छकार in छाया]

प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदःनखाः= Nails of him, who destroys the sufferings of those who surrender on to him. प्रपन्न= Those who surrender to god; आर्ति  = suffering;  छिदः = tears off

वः त्रायन्ताम् –Let them protect you all (this includes the author and the readers also).

Abhinava Gupta shows that Anandavardhana included the 3 types of Dhvani namely Vastu Dhvani, Alamkaara Dhvani and Rasa Dhvani in his mangala shloka itself.

Vastu Dhvani

Vastu Dhvani is a suggested idea/thing comes to our mind when we read about the idea/thing that is mentioned.

The luster of the nails is many-folds brighter than the shine of the moon. That it is brighter is not stated directly. But saying that the moon felt shy, the brightness of the nails has been suggested. This luster is being suggested. So it is Vastu Dhvani. It is suggested that he is extraordinary when compared to other lions as he took the form on his own desire while the other lion are on account of their Karma. The nails destroy the sufferings of the devotees. He does not need any other tool. His nails are enough for him. This is the idea being suggested. Also the idea that he is brimming with energy to protect the devotees is being suggested.

Alamkara Dhvani

Alamkara or figure of speech should be suggested or expressed without being told explicitly.  It should not be openly said or denoted. Examples of Alamkara are Upama, Ropaka, Athisayokti, etc.

By the shine of the nails, even the moon has been defeated. This is Vyatireka alamkara where the upameya (say the face) is considered to be superior to the upamaana (say the lotus). यत्र उपमानात् उपमेयम् अतिशयत्वं प्राप्नोति तत्र व्यतिरेकालंकारः भवति | “व्यतिरेको विषयस्ते उपमानो उपमेययोः” is the definition of Vyatireka in Kuvalayaananda. The nails are the upameyaas. The crescent moon is the upamaana. But here the poet has suggested that the nails / upameyaas are better than the moon/ upamaana.

Rasaadi Dhvani

Rasa or Bhava, etc. should be suggested by what is said by the poet.

The devotion of the poet towards Lord Narasimha is suggested when he says that he can protect you all. So the Bhakti bhaavaa is suggested. Rasaadi means Rasa, Bhaava, etc. According to this system, there are only 9 rasas namely – Shringaara, Haasya, Karuna, Raudra, Veera, Bhayaanaka, Bheebatsa, Adbhuta, and Shanta. Among these, in this shloka, Veera Rasa with the staayibhaava of utsaaha is suggested here. Vishnu and his nails are ever enthusiastic to protect the devotees.

EstablishingDhvani’s existence and its importance

This is the first Kaarikaa.

काव्यस्यात्मा ध्वनिरिति बुधैर्यः समाम्नातपूर्व-स्तस्याभावं जगदुरपरे भाक्तमाहुस्तमन्ये |
केचिद्वाचाम् स्थितमविषये तत्त्वमूचुस्तदीयम्तेन ब्रूमःसहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् || १ ||<*>

काव्यस्यआत्मा ध्वनिःइति बुधैः यः समाम्नातपूर्वःतस्यअभावं जगदुःअपरे भाक्तम्आहुःतम्अन्ये |
केचित्वाचाम् स्थितम्अविषये तत्त्वमूचुःतदीयम्तेन ब्रूमःसहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत् स्वरूपम् || १ ||

Meaning: Dhvani (ध्वनिः) was declared (समाम्नातम्) earlier (पूर्वः ) to be the soul of poetry (काव्यस्यात्मा) by learned persons (बुधैः). All the same, some would refute its existence (तस्याभावं); some would consider it as something that could be logically implied (अपरे भाक्तम्+आहुः+तम्); some others speak of its presence as being beyond the provision of expression (अन्ये केचित्+वाचाम् स्थितम्+अविषये). Hence, we hereby intend explaining (तेन ब्रूमः ) what its nature (तत्स्वरूपम्) is so as to cause delight to the hearts of sympathetic critics (सहृदय+मनः+प्रीतये).

काव्यस्यआत्मा ध्वनिःइति बुधैः यः समाम्नातपूर्वः- That the soul of poetry is Dhvani has been recognized and agreed by the generations of earlier experts.

तस्यअभावं जगदुःअपरे – there are a few people who do not accept the existence of the Dhvani. Their arguments are called as abhaavavaada.

भाक्तम्आहुःतम्अन्ये – There are others who consider Dhvani to be Vyangyaartha or Bhaaktyartha, that meaning which comes out due to the function of Bhakti or indication.

केचित्वाचाम् स्थितम्अविषये तत्त्वमूचुःतदीयम्–Like how Brahma-Gnaanam is Anirvachaneeyam, this Dhvani is also anirvachaneeyam. This vaada is called anirvachaneeyataa vaada. They say that it cannot be explained. An example is stated to emphasize their point – इक्षु-क्षीर-गुडादीनांमादुर्यस्य अन्तरं महत् तथापि नतदाख्यातुं सरस्वत्यापि शक्यते | There is a huge difference in the tastes of sugarcane, milk and jaggery. But even Saraswati will not be able to describe it in words.

Dhvani Virooda Vaada

There are 3 mainarguments against Dhvani, i.e., Dhvani virooda vaada. There are three arguments within the first vada called the Abhaava-vaada who reject the existence of Dhvani. The second is Bhaakta vaada who consider Dhvani to be same as Lakshanaa and the third is the anirvachaneeyataa vaada who say that it is something undescribable. Anandavardhana’s fitting response is mentioned later.

[Side Note: Kashmir was a centre of all intellectual debate. When a person proposes a theory, there will be so many critical works on the new theory. There will be a counter argument. Regarding Kashmir, there is a verse byKavi Bilhana, who was an 11th-century Kashmiri poet. He went around the country and finally settled down in Karnataka. In the place called Kalyaan, the Chaulka kings were ruling.  There was a King named Vikramaaditya or Vikramanka. Bilhana became the court-poet. In praise of the King who patronized him, he wrote a mahakaavya called “Vikramaankadeva Charita”.  In that poem he mentions about Kashmir in Vikr.1.21– “सहोदरा कुङ्कुमकेसराणां भवन्ति नूनंकविताविलासाः  |  न शारदादेशमपास्य दृष्टस्तेषां यदन्यत्र मया प्ररोहः।। ” He says that the Kumkuma-kesari and Kavyas are siblings. Both of them are born only in Kashmir and not anywhere else. Thus Kashmir was at the peak of its glory. ]

Response to Manoratha

When Anandavardana proposed his Dhvani theory, there was counter-thesis from Poet Manoratha, who wrote a shloka against Anandavardha.Quoting this counter-thesis in Dhvanyaaloka, Anandavardhana provides his response to it.

यस्मिन्नस्ति न वस्तु किंचन मनःप्रह्लादि सालंकृतिव्युत्पन्नै रचितं च नैव वचनैर्वक्रोक्तिशून्यं च यत्
काव्यं तद्ध्वनिना समन्वितमिति प्रीत्या प्रशंसञ्जडोनो विद्मोऽभिदधाति किं सुमतिना पृष्टः स्वरूपं ध्वनेः ||

Poetry in which there can be least delight to the mind (मनःप्रह्लादि) and no embellishment(सालंकृति), which does not present any welcoming words and artistic turn in expressions(यस्मिन्नस्ति न वस्तु किंचन), is so much praised with all vehemence by the stupid (प्रीत्या प्रशंसः जडःनो विद्मः+अभिदधाति), as being with suggestion (Dhvani)(काव्यं तत्+ध्वनिना समन्वितम्+इति). But one fails to imagine what answer the theorist would furnish if asked to present the nature of Dhvani (स्वरूपं ध्वनेः) itself!”

Manoratha’s argument was this “There is no vastu. There is no alamkara. There is no mastery demonstrated in the choice of words. Vakroti or crooked speech is also absent. But you say that there is still Dhvani. It is like closing the eyes and dancing”. He demanded that the nature of Dhvani be explicitly described. Anandavardhana says that he is writing this Dhavanyaaloka to clarify the misunderstanding about Dhvani.

[Side note: Kuntaka wrote Vakroti-jeevitam. ]

[Side note: प्रतिपत्तिः is understanding. अप्रतिपत्तिः is the no understanding. विप्रतिपत्तिः is the misunderstanding. सुप्रतिपत्तिः is the right understanding. ]

तेनैवंविधासुविमतिषु स्थितासु सहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपं ब्रूमः |(Meaning: Taking into consideration all these conflicting views, we furnish hereunder the nature of suggestion for the satisfaction and appreciation of sympathetic critics i.e., Connoisseurs). In such a situation, for bringing happiness to the minds of the sahrudayaas, I will explain the nature of Dhvani. Anandavardhana says that he is writing this work to explain the form of Dhvani.

Introduction to Dhvani

योऽर्थः सहृदयश्लाघ्यः काव्यात्मेति व्यवस्थितः |वाच्यप्रतीयमानाख्यौ तस्य भेदावुभौ स्मृतौ||1.२ ||</*>

यः अर्थः सहृदय-श्लाघ्यः काव्य+आत्मा+इति व्यवस्थितः |वाच्य+प्रतीयमान+आख्यौ तस्य भेदौ उभौ स्मृतौ ||

That sense (यः+अर्थः) which wins the approbation (admiration) of sensitive critics (सहृदय+श्लाघ्यः) is declared to be the soul of poetry(काव्य+आत्मा+इतिव्यवस्थितः). The “denotative” and the “suggestive” (वाच्य+प्रतीयमाना+आख्यौ)are considered to be its two aspects (तस्य भेदौउभौ स्मृतौ).

Types of meanings

We have come across the three types of meanings namely वाच्यार्थः, लक्ष्यार्थः and प्रतीयमानार्थः | Vaachya is the default meaning. Everyone understands it. In the Alamkaaras like upamaa, these meanings are being used. बहुधा व्याकृतः सोऽन्यैः काव्यलक्ष्मविधायिभिः |- – – ततो नेह प्रतन्यते ||1.३||(Meaning: The denotative conventional meaning is generally known and it has already been covered in many ways through figures of speech such as simile by other writers. Since it has been elaborately discussed earlier, it is not being discussed here in detail.

प्रतीयमानं पुनरन्यदेव वस्त्वस्ति वाणीषु महाकवीनाम्|</***>
यत्तत्प्रसिद्धावयवातिरिक्तं विभाति लावण्यमिवांगनासु||1.४||</*>

(Meaning: But the suggestive aspect is distinct from this explicit – denotative – conventional meaning (प्रतीयमानं पुनःअन्यत् एव). It shows itself brilliantly in the words(वाणीषु) of celebrated poets (महाकवीनाम्)and reigns supreme over and above (अतिरिक्तंविभाति) the striking external elements (प्रसिद्ध+ अवयव, even as charm among ladies(लावण्यम् इव अङ्गनासु)).

In the works of the great poets, there is a third type of meaning, which is different from Vaachya and Lakshya. The prasiddha avayava of kaavya are shabda and artha. For the Kaavyas, the chaarutva is got by the shabda alamkaaras and sangatana chaaturya is got by the shabda gunas, the swaroopas are got by Arthaalamkaaras, and the sangatana dharmas are got by the arthagunas – these are all the popular organs of the Kaavya. That which is different for all these, and which attracts us the very moment we notice it, is found in the prateeyamaanaartha. This is similar to the beauty seen in women that is different all the beauty of the individual organs. Only a sahrudaya will be able to appreciate this third type of meaning.

[Side Note: Laavanya is the bhaava of lavana or salt. It is the lakshanaartha that has come in roodi to indicate charmness. Laavanya indicates the charm that overtakes the other features. ]

Example of Dhvani – Suggested nisheda

The vyangya vastu will be different from the Vaachya vastu. The vyangyaalamkaara will be different from the Vaachyaalamkaara. The rasaadi Dhvani will be different and better than the rasavadaadyalamkaara. The vaachyaartha might be a vidhi or an instruction to do something. But the vyangyaartha might be a nisheda or a prohibition that it should not be done.

स हि कदाचिद्वाच्ये विधिरूपे प्रतिषेधरूपः |</**>| 1.4 ++ |

सः हि कदाचित् वाच्ये विधिरूपे प्रतिषेधरूपः |

Sometimes the suggestive idea will be prohibitive, where as the denotative (conventional) meaning is positive in nature.

भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः स शुनकोऽद्य मारितस्तेन | गोदावरीनदीकूललतागहनवासिना दृप्तसिंहेन ||

(Meaning: Freely (विस्रब्धः) roam (भ्रम) about, O Ascetic! That dog (सः शुनकः) which you were afraid of, has been killed (मारितः)recently(अद्य) by (तेन)the ferocious lion (दृप्त+सिंहेन) that dwells (लतागहन+वासिना)on the bank of Godavari river (गोदावरी+नदी+कूल).

Suggested meaning: “Don’t worry that there is no privacy. The person who used to haunt us has been removed away by a more powerful person. So we can’t meet”.Here a woman tells a person who comes to meet her place that he could come freely now as the dog that used to bark at him has now been killed by a lion. Here though she says roam around freely, the hidden meaning is that you cannot walk around freely due to the presence of the lion. The interpretation is based on the context. It could mean that there is a bigger danger now compared to the smaller nuisance that was faced earlier. There are examples of other cases of suggestion like the case where the denoted meaning is to not do while the suggested meaning is to do. There could also be the cases where the suggested meaning is (अनुभय) neither vidhi nor nisheda.

Example of Dhvani – Suggested vidhi

A woman is living with her blind-in-laws while her husband has gone out of town for a long time. A traveler पथिकःhappens to stay in her house. She is attracted. She tells him to note where each person sleeps. She points to her bed and tells him not to come over there in the night. The suggested meaning is that she wants him to comeand meether.

श्वश्रूरत्र शेते (अथवा निमज्जति) अत्राहं दिवसकं प्रलोकय |मा पथिक रात्र्यन्धः शय्यायामावयोः शयिष्ठाः ||

श्वश्रूः अत्र शेते (अथवा निमज्जति) अत्र अहं दिवसकं प्रलोकय |मा पथिक रात्रि अन्धः शय्यायाम्+आवयोः शयिष्ठाः ||

“Mother-in-law lies here, fast asleep. I will be here. You shall know these before it gets dark. O traveler, don’t you tumble into our beds blinded by night”.

In this example, the conventional (explicit) meaning prohibits the action whereas the suggestive (implicit) meaning approves of the proposal.

Example of Dhvani –Neither vidhi nor nisheda

कस्य वा न भवति रोषो दृष्ट्वा प्रियायाः सव्रणमधरम् |</*>सभ्रमरपद्माघ्राणशीले वारितवामे सहस्वेदानीम्||<//*>| 1.4 ++ |

कस्य वा न भवति रोषः दृष्ट्वा प्रियायाः सव्रणम् अधरम् |सभ्रमर+पद्म+आघ्राण+शीले वारित+वामे सहस्व इदानीम् ||

Whose rage is not aroused when one sees the lower lip of his beloved being hurt? You, who are habituated to smell the lotus flower with the bee inside, being indifferent to my caution, face the situation (now).

Sometimes, the suggested meaning relates to something which is absolutely different from that with which the conventional meaning is associated. Here the lady’s friend is cautioning her about the consequences that she has to face from her husband if she continues to visit her lover.

Rasa is suggested

स्वशब्देन सा केवलमनूद्यते, न तु तत्कृता | </*>1.4 ++ |

स्वशब्देन सा केवलम् अनूद्यते, न तु तत्कृता |

The experience of sentiments, etc., can never be restricted by the proper name though it gets its name. In reality, we do not experience sentiments, etc., in all instances where proper names are employed.

i.e., The rasa is not experienced by the mere mention of the name of the rasa. The rasa is suggested by the description of the characters. We clearly experience the rasa in cases where the name is not explicitly stated. Therefore, stating of name of the rasa merely reinstates the rasa and it does not cause the readers to experience the rasa.

Rasadhvani is the soul of poetry

काव्यस्यात्मा स एवार्थस्तथा चादिकवेः पुरा|</*>क्रौञ्चद्वन्द्ववियोगोत्थः शोकः श्लोकत्वमागतः|| 1.५ ||</**>

काव्यस्यात्मा सः एव+अर्थः+तथा च+आदिकवेः पुरा |क्रौञ्च-द्वन्द्व-वियोग+उत्थः शोकः श्लोकत्वम्+आगतः ||

That meaning (Rasadhvani) alone is the soul of poetry. This is quite evident from the very incident of the first poet’s Valmiki’s grief which become evoked (in him) due to the wailing of the separate Kraunca bird (from its male mate drenched in pool of blood), which struck the inner core of the sage so as to present the flow of poetry.सः एव+अर्थः = प्रतीयमान अर्थः|

The sage Valmiki experiences Karuna Rasa as an outcome of the total attainment of the situation. The Karunca bird which became killed forms the Aalambana vibhaava and the same rolling in the pool of blood forms the Uddeepana Vibhaava. The wailing of the female Kraunca bird becomes the Anubhaava. In this way, the shoka of the sage raises itself to the level of Karuna Rasa in his experience and later it obtains the form of a Shloka. Abhinava Gupta describes the manner of realizing the sentiments in general. The sensation of emotion of grief is actual, personal, individual and painful. The sentiment of pathos is ideal, generic, univerasal and pleasurable. This change from the actual to the ideal is effected by the universal sympathy of the percipient (observer) with the emotional experiences of the individual. It became converted into pathetic sentiment and was enjoyed by him in the form of absolute bliss. It was this infinite joy realized by the abundant sympathy of the sage poet that flooded his heart and expressed itself in the form of a Shloka.

शोको हि करुणस्थायिभावः|</*>  | 1.5 ++ |
शोकः हि करुण+स्थायिभावः |

Sorrow (shoka) is the abiding emotion (sthaayibhaava) which stands as the sentiment of pathos (karuna). It will be of the nature of suggestion. Example – The grief of the first poet Valmiki became transformed into a Shloka.

Only like-minded people can appreciate

शब्दार्थशासनज्ञानमात्रेणैव न वेद्यते| वेद्यते स तु काव्यार्थतत्त्वज्ञैरेव केवलम्|| ७ ||</***>

शब्दार्थ+शासन+ज्ञान+मात्रेणएव न वेद्यते | वेद्यते सः तु काव्यार्थ+तत्त्वज्ञैःएव केवलम् || ७ ||

That meaning cannot be comprehended by the mere knowledge of the rules of grammar (word and sense) but can be realised only by those who have understood the real significance of poetry. (7)

This Dhvani or vyangyaarthaa will not be understandable by everyone. Onlyकाव्यार्थतत्त्वज्ञः or the connoisseurs or experts in poetry can understand the suggested meaning. Ordinary people cannot understand.

Eg. In Kumaarasambhava, when Parvathi’s tapas is described. That it is as per Yoga shastra can be understood only by those who are aware of it. This demonstrates that only knowledgeable people would be able to appreciate this inner meaning.

[Side Note: Example from Kalidaasa’s Kumaarasambhava
स्थिताक्षणं पक्ष्मसु ताडिताधरा: पयोधरोत्सेधनिपातचूर्णिता:।
वलीषु तस्या: स्खलिता: प्रपेदिरे चिरेण नाभिं प्रथमोदबिन्दव:।।

“The first drop of rain water प्रथमोदबिन्दव:falling on her at the advent of the rainy season. On the lashes of the eyes, that water droplet stood for only one moment – स्थिता: क्षणं पक्ष्मसु. It hit her on the lipsताडिताधरा:They fell on her breasts and split into tiny droplets – पयोधरोत्सेधनिपातचूर्णिता: | They jumped on the folds of her stomach and hesitated तस्या: वलीषु स्खलिता:प्रपेदिरे| After sometime चिरेण, they flowed down and entered her navel बिन्दव:नाभिं प्रथमोद | In the poetry of high standards, the suggested meaning should be present and it will be more attractive and beautiful. Kalidasa is suggesting the secret of Yoga. When doing penance, the eye should neither be completely open nor should it completely closed. नासाग्रन्यस्तनयन: संवृतास्यः सुनिश्चलः ध्यायीत मनसा देवं पुरोविष्टभ्य चागृत <TODO – Quote to be verified>  [ Similar Quote from the internet — समग्रीवशिराः सम्यक् संवृतास्यः सुनिश्चलः ॥प्राङ्मुखोदङ्मुखो वाऽपि नासाग्रन्यस्तलोचनः ।  ] That ‘the eyes should be pointed at the nose’ is described in the Yoga shastra. If she had closed her eyes, the rain drop would not have stayed there. If she had kept her eyes fully open, then they would stay there and not fall down. That the drop fell down after a second suggests that her eyes were half-open. The mouth should not be open during dhyaanaa, when done in the right yogic posture. So the drop fell on her lower lip. Her lips were so soft that it just did not flow. The fall of the drop hurt her lips. While standing in tapas, one should not be stooping or bending. The person should stand firm and erect. Since she stood straight without bending, it fell on her breasts. ]

Need for vaachyaartha

आलोकार्थी यथा दीपशिखायां यत्नवाञ्जनः |तदुपायतया तद्वदर्थे वाच्ये तदादृतः||1.९||</*>

आलोक+अर्थी यथा दीप+शिखायां यत्नवान्+जनः |तत्+उपायतया तद्वत्+अर्थे वाच्ये तत्+आदृतः || ९ ||

Meaning: In the same manner(यथा – तद्वत्) as a man(जनः) intent upon seeing an object in darkness (आलोक+अर्थी), puts forth his efforts(यत्नवान्) towards fetching a lamp (दीप+शिखायां)owing to its being a means to realise his goal (of seeing the object) (तत्+उपायतया) one who is very much interested (तत्+आदृतः) in the suggested meaning (अर्थे) would at the outset direct his effort towards (understanding) the conventional meaning (वाच्ये).

Like the person who carries a lantern if he needs the light, in the same way, to be able to understand the vyangyaartha, the vaachyaartha is required. Though he does not want the flame of the lamp, and he wants the light only, he still brings the deepa shikaa because without the flame, there is not going to be any light. The flame of lamp is just an upaayaa – a means to the required end. Vachyaartha is the upaaya or the means. Vengyaartha is the upeya or desired goal. Vengyaartha could come from Vaachyaartha or Lakshyaartha. Lakshanaa is a vyaapaara or function where a meaning is indicated. There can be only one Vaachyaartha. There could be many intended or suggested meanings. In Mammata’s Kavya Prakaasha, he gives the example of गतोस्तमर्कः |i.e., गतः+अस्तम्+अर्कःor अर्कः अस्तम् गतः| The vaachyaartha is that the sun has set. The Vaidhika Brahmana understands that it is time for Sandhya vandana. The thief thinks that he should start his work. The students want to start studying. Based on the nature of the listener, the message conveyed differs.

The Definition of Dhvani

यत्रार्थः शब्दो वा तमर्थमुपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ | व्यङ्क्तः काव्यविशेषः स ध्वनिरिति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३||</*>यत्र+अर्थः शब्दः+वा तम्+अर्थम्+उपसर्जनी+कृतस्वार्थौ |व्यङ्क्तः काव्य+विशेषः सः ध्वनिः+इति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३ ||

(Meaning: The conventional word शब्दः and the conventional meaning अर्थः   (स्व+अर्थौ =  स्व + शब्दः + अर्थः) are abandoned उपसर्जनी+कृत |  They become suggested word or meaning. अर्थः शब्दःवाव्यङ्क्तः | व्यङ्क्तः = प्रतीयमानः अर्थः भवति | That is a specialty of the poem called Dhvani. That kind of poetry in which the conventional meaning or the conventional word renders its meaning sub-ordinate and suggests the intended or implied meaning, is termed “Dhvani” or “suggestive poetry” by the learned people).

Some time the meaning subdues itself and gives a more beautiful meaning. In other cases, the word does this. It can be shabda shakti mula dhvani or artha shakti mula dhvani. The वा here does not mean that it is either artha or shabda. The intention here is that when Artha is prominent in conveying the Dhvani, the word will be subordinate to it and similarly when Shabda is prominent in conveying the Dhvani, the meaning will be subordinate to it. The termउपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ is in dvivachana indicating both are there. When the suggested meaning is overtaken by the denoted word and meaning, that Kaavya is considered to be a Dhvani by the scholars. Upasarjana means “being subservient”i.e., taking the guneebhaava or secondary position without having praadhaanyam. Artha subsides by itself अर्थः उपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थः, while shabda makes its meaning subside शब्दः तमर्थम् उपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थः| In that situation, it is called Dhvani Kaavya.

Many alamkaaras like अप्रस्तुतप्रशंसा, समासोक्तिः, विषेशोक्तिः, आक्षेप, पर्यायोक्तः, etc. have some suggested meaning in them.If the suggestion is not prominent, then it becomes Gunibhoota Vyangya and this gunibhoota vyangya is a type of Alamkaara only.   Paryaayokta is the indirect expression of something which cannot openly be avowed. “भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः” can be taken to be an example of this alamkara पर्यायोक्तः| But that has been given as an example of Dhvani. It is true that it qualifies to be an alamkara and a Dhvani. But due to the prominence of Dhvani and since the Alamkaara is just supplementary पर्यायोक्तस्याङ्गित्वेन, it is taken to be a Dhvani and also, all Dhvani cannot be equated to this Paryaayoktaalamkaara. Anandavardhana refers to this superiority of Dhvani (mahaavishaya) over an Alamkaara (alpavishaya) and concludes that in those cases the Alamkaara cannot be treated to be Dhvani itself.

व्यङ्ग्यप्राधान्येहि ध्वनिः |</*>  | 1.13+|

Aanandavardhana authoritatively declares that suggestion becomes possible only when the suggested element is absolutely prominent. This is not so in समासोक्ति (concise speech or condensed metaphor) and the like.

Dhvani Defn –Example of non-prominent suggestion

उपोढरागेण विलोलतारकं तथा गृहीतं शशिना निशामुखम् |</****>
यथा समस्तं तिमिरांशुकं तया पुरोऽपि रागाद्गलितं न लक्षितम् ||<//****>| 1.13+|

उपोढ-रागेण विलोल-तारकं तथा गृहीतं शशिना निशा-मुखम् |
यथा समस्तं तिमिर+अंशुकं तया पुरः अपि रागात् गलितं न लक्षितम् ||

The twilight with twinkling stars became brightened by the moon glowing red suddenly so that the whole mass of darkness vanishing in the east due to brightness was not noticed at all.

With reference to the lady, it means “The heroine’s face with its bright pupils was kissed by the hero overcome by passion with such intense love that the black garment which she had put on slipped away even in the very front was not at all noticed due to intense love.”

It is the explicit meaning which alone remains prominent and the suggested meaning serves only as subservient to it. In this stanza, the main purport is the description of the night and the moon over which the disposition of a heroine and of a hero are ascribed to them. This attribution is secondary only.

In this illustration, the words though are primarily addressed to the moon and the night, also refer to in an implicit way to the disposition of a lover and the beloved, which has been heaped on moon and the night. Therefore the suggested sense is subservient to the conventional meaning. Hence Dhvani can never be included in Samaasookti.

Samasokti is compound statement / concise speech. The words of the stanza have double meaning. Note the pun in raaga – meaning redness and love. Taraka means pupil as well as stars. Purah means in front of her and also in the east. Note the masculine gender word for moon and feminine gender word for night.

Dhvani Defn – Dhvani is not a limb

न चावयव एवपृथग्भूतोऽवयवीति प्रसिद्धः |</*>  | 1.13+|
न च+अवयव एवपृथक्+भूतः अवयवी+इति प्रसिद्धः |
“अवयवी अवयव नएव | अवयवीपृथक्+भूतःच |” इति प्रसिद्धःThe limbs cannot be thought of as body.

Dhvani cannot be brought under other heads. It is because of the declaration that it is only the full-fledged kinds of poetry that could be called Dhvani. The limbs of poetry are figures of speech, qualities (Gunas) and varieties of diction (वृत्त्यः).The limbs cannot be thought of as body. When we consider them together, it will be a part of the whole but never identical with the whole. Even granting that identity may be possible in some of the instances, suggestive poetry cannot be deemed as conditioned by its limbs stated above, since Dhvani is quite extensive.

Dhvani Defn – The name was given by Grammarians

‘सूरिभिः कथित’ इति विद्वदुपज्ञेयमुक्तिः,न तु यथाकथञ्चित्प्रवृत्तेति प्रतिपाद्यते |
प्रथमे हि विद्वांसो वैयाकरणाः</*>,
व्याकरणमूलत्वात्सर्वविद्यानाम् | ते च श्रूयमाणेषुवर्णेषु ध्वनिरिति व्यवहरन्ति | 1.13+|

The expression“सूरिभिःकथित” brings forth the idea that this name was first given by the learned only and that it has not emerged somehow. The Supreme among the learned are grammarians for, grammar is the very root of all studies. It is only they who designate the articulate letters by the term Dhvani. Since the aspect of suggestion is common to both, the word and its meaning, its essential verbal potency and also poetry have all been named Dhvani by other learned people who have a deeper insight into the fundamental essence of poetry and who closely follow the principles laid down by grammarians. This theory of Dhvani being very comprehensive can never be deemed to be on equal status with the specific figures of speech. So Suggestion does exist and it is different from Alamkara.

Dhavani Defn –Example – Dhvani

सुवर्णपुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषास्त्रयः |</*>शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च यश्च जानाति सेवितुम्||<//*></*>| 1.13+|

सुवर्ण+पुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषाः त्रयः |शूरः च कृतविद्यः चयः च जानाति सेवितुम् ||

There are plenty of golden flowers in this world. Only 3 types of people can gather it – namely warriors (valorous in battle), Scholar (one who has mastered any vidya) and people who know how to serve. (Three men will collect flowers of gold out of the earth – the courageous, the learned and he who knows how to serve.  Mahaabharata – 5.35.64)

This is an example of Deepaka alamkaara. Three people have the same common factor of being able to gather the golden flowers. The prominence is for the one who serves. The common factor applies to the other two types of people also. Deepa iva deepakam. Like the deepa lit in the door step, that lights up the space within the house, also lights outside.

Dhvani is classified into two, namely अविवक्षितवाच्य (unintended literal import) and विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य (intended but further extending literal import). In the first one, the literal sense is not intended. In the second one, the literal sense is intended, but is subordinated to a second meaning. This is an example of the first one, avivakshitavaachya. The flower of gold means success or worldly advancement.

Dhavani Defn – Example

शिखरिणिक्वनुनामकियच्चिरंकिमभिधानमसावकरोत्तपः।</*>
तरुणियेनतवाधरपाटलंदशतिबिम्बफलंशुकशावकः।।1.13+|

शिखरिणिक्वनुनाम? कियत् चिरम् ?किम् अभिधानम् असौ अकरोत् तपः।</*>
तरुणियेनतव अधरपाटलंदशतिबिम्बफलंशुकशावकः।।1.13+|

हे तरुणि | येन तपसा शुकशावकः तव अधरपाटलं बिम्बफलं दशति, किम् अभिधानम् असौ तपः अकरोत् ? क्व नु नाम शिखरिणि तपः अकरोत् ? कियत् चिरं तपः अकरोत् ?

A person tells the parrot that it is very fortunate and it must have done a lot of penance. “On which mountain and for how long a time did this young parrot perform penance and what might be the name of the penance? For, this young parrot has been chewing the bimba fruit which is as red (paatala) as your lips”. Here the suggested meaning is that he envies it as he was not able to reach his lover whereas the bird was able to enjoy its object of love, the fruit. At a high level, Dhvani is classified into two, namely अविवक्षितवाच्य (unintended literal import) and विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य (intended but further extending literal import). In this, the literal sense is intended, but is subordinated to a second meaning. So it is विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य.

In its implication, this is a eulogy addressed to a lady by an impassioned lover, who communicates to her his secret desire in an artful manner. What is suggested is a parallel between the action of the parrot and that of the lover. The speaker wishes he were in the position of the parrot, in relation to the maiden’s lips. This meaning, it is argued, flows directly from the expressed meaning of the sentence; there is no secondary meaning here because the literal meaning that “the lucky parrot is pecking at the plum that is red like your lip” is intact.

[Side Note: On closer examination, however, we notice that the description of the parrot is the non-contextual meaning – the lover cannot simply be saying “What a lucky guy the parrot must be to peck the plum!” Such a remark would be rather pointless in the lover’s context. This consideration, together with other telltale signs, such as the absurdity of a parrot performing a penance and the likening of the plum to the lady’s lips (which would also have been pointless without an amorous intent on the part of the speaker), leads to the suggestion of a parallel between the explicit subject (the parrot) and the implicit subject (the would-be lover), the latter being the contextual or relevant meaning. Thus, even in this case, there is obstruction to the surface meaning, on the basis of which we arrive at the implied contextual meaning – the parallel of the lover relishing the maiden’s lips.  (Source: Sanskrit Criticism By V. K. Chari) ]

Abhaava-vaada and its Khandana

There are three different schools of Dhvani-abhaava-vaadas which maintain that there is no Dhvani. The first group says that all the beautifying factors of poetry have already been stated by earlier writers. It may be Alamkaara, Guna, Reeti or Vritti. Prasthaanas are the major concepts that have been put forth by earlier alamkaarikas. There cannot be something new which can beautify the poetry called Dhvani.

The second group says that if Dhvani is something new other than what is already stated, then it must be a dosha or fault. If it is not Alamkaara, Guna, Reeti or Vritti, it cannot be something that beautifies the poetry and it has to be only a defect or blemish. नास्त्येव ध्वनिः | प्रसिद्धप्रस्थानव्यतिरेकिणःकाव्यप्रकारस्य काव्यत्वहानेः|

The third group says that the varieties of descriptions are endless. Therefore there is an increase ofthe number of alamkaaras in all the texts.

[Side Note: We find that in the history of poetics. First, Bharat stated only 4 alamkaaras – Upamaa, Roopakam, Deepakam, and Yamakam. Later writers like Bhaamah increased it to 36. And then in Kavya Prakaasha, there are 60. In Kuvalayaananda, there are more than 100. ]

The ways or the manners, in which a poet can describe any object is not limited. And therefore, you might have shown some other way of description. It is like some other type of a new Alamkaara. So it is not a new concept. It has to be just another type of Alamkaara. And many more new alamkaaras could come in future also. They do not demand any special importance. There are different ways of Vaakvikalpa – these are all creativity of the poet. न सम्भवत्येवध्वनिर्नामापूर्वः कश्चित् | कामनीयकमनतिवर्तमानस्य तस्योक्तेष्वेवचारुत्वहेतुष्वन्तर्भावात् |If this Dhvani adds Manohara or enjoyment to the poetry, it can be also be considered as a new type of one of the existing concepts like Alamkaara or Guna. They ask the Dhvani supporters to not close their eyes and keep dancing about Dhvani. तस्मात् प्रवादमात्रं ध्वनिः| Dhvani is not truth. It is a Pravaada, that which is simply spreading among a set of people.

For the first one, Anandavardhana argues that Dhvani is different from the earlier stated concepts. In Dhvani, the suggested meaning is one which is not explicitly stated, yet it is understood by the Sahrudayaas.

[Side Note: In Chitra Meemaamsaa, Appaiya Deekshita quotes an example

काञ्चित् काञ्चनगौराङ्गी वीक्ष्य साक्षादिव श्रियम् वरदः संशयापन्नो वक्षःस्थलमवैक्षत|
अन्वयः — साक्षात्श्रियम् इव काञ्चित्काञ्चनगौराङ्गीवीक्ष्यसंशयापन्नः वरदः वक्षःस्थलम् अवैक्षत|

In Kanchi, there is Varadaraaja Swamy Temple. Once, during the Vasanthostava, Varadaraajaa himself comesto play with the devotees. At that time, he notices a woman. She is काञ्चनगौराङ्गी i.e., she is some ladyhaving a golden yellowish body; साक्षात्श्रियम् इव – She resembled Goddess Lakshmi Herself. वरदः संशयम् आपन्नः – Lord Varada was confused and वक्षःस्थलम् अवैक्षत – he looked at his heart.  The poet has not stated why he looked at his heart. His heart is the seat of Lakshmi as she is vakshassthala vaasini. Some readers will assume that Varada wants to check if Lakshmi has left that place and has come here in person. A second person might think that Varada looked at his heart to compare Lakshmi with the lady. Another reader could interpret it in this way – Since Lakshmi has the arrogance that she is only the most beautiful woman, Varada wants to see her reaction when this lady with golden complexion is in front of him. ]

There could be many suggested meanings and it cannot be classified as any other earlier defined entity. The great poets have included this Dhvani in their poems. The readers enjoy this suggestion which is different from the other alamkaaras.

Anandavardhana points out that great poets like Valmiki and Vyasaa have also used this. He states that he is not saying something new. So this suggestion definitely exists.

वाल्मीकिव्यासमुख्याश्च ये प्रख्याताः कवीश्वराः |तदभिप्रायबाह्योऽयं नास्माभिर्दर्शितो नयः .. इति || ३.१९ end||

वाल्मीकि+व्यास+मुख्याःच ये प्रख्याताः कवि+ईश्वराः |तत्अभिप्राय+बाह्यःअयं नअस्माभिः दर्शितःनयः इति ||

The principles laid down are in-keeping with the features followed by celebrated poets such as Vaalmiki, Vyaasa and the like.

For the second school, which consider anything new to be dosha or a fault only, Anandavardhana says that since the readers enjoy the suggestive rasa, it cannot be considered to be a negative aspect. He says that he can only pity such people, who say that Dhvani is a defect, who fail to recognize the Ananda produced by Dhvani.

For the third school, who claim that Dhvani is nothing new but another alamkaara, Anandavardhana explains how Dhvani is different from the other alamkaaras. Dhvani is something that is understood on account of the alamkaara. Alamkaara itself could suggest various meanings. Lakshyaartha could suggest a different meaning. There are shabha shakti mula dhvani and artha shakti mula dhvani and endless varieties like that. Alamkara, Vachyaartha, Lakshyaartha, etc. could suggest a different meaning and the suggested meaning is the Dhvani. Therefore, Dhvani is not just another alamkaara. Dhvani is a separate entity conveying that suggested meaning. (Refer the notes earlier on how Dhvani differs from Alamkara). Thus Anandavardhan established that there is a third type of meaning called Dhvani or Vyangyaartha.

Bhaakta Vaada and its Khandana

In the Bhaakta Vaada, the Bhaaktaas say that the vyangyaartha can be included in Bhaktyaartha itself. When the denoted meaning is not applicable, any way we are taking a different meaning. Let Dhvani also be that Bhaktyaartha.

Anandavardhana points out that – there is difference in the forms between the Bhaktyaartha i.e., Lakshyaartha, and the Dhvanyartha. In Gangaayaam Ghosha, if Vaachyaartha is the stream, the Lakshyaartha is the bank. The purpose which is to indicate the qualities of sacredness and chillness is not explicitly indicated in the Lakshyaartha. So this is Dhvani. If just to make sense of the sentence, instead of the denoted meaning or the Mukhyaartha, the indicated meaning or the Lakshanaa is taken, then it is not Dhvani. Thus there is Bhakti without Dhvani and they both cannot be the same.

भक्त्या बिभर्ति नैकत्वम् रूपभेदादयं ध्वनिः  |……अतिव्याप्तेरथाव्याप्तेर्न चासौ लक्ष्यते तया || 1.14 || <*>

भक्त्या बिभर्ति न+एकत्वम् रूपभेदात्+अयं ध्वनिः  |….अतिव्याप्तेः+अथ+अव्याप्तेः+न च+असौ लक्ष्यते तया |

Suggestion and secondary signification are not one and the same because of the innate difference between the two. अयं ध्वनिःरूपभेदात् भक्त्या एकत्वंनबिभर्ति |If that is considered identical with suggestion, it commits the fallacies of “too wide” a definition and “too narrow” a definition.

Among the three functions of the word, the second function is called Lakshana Vyaapaara or Bhakti. Believers of Bhakti are Bhaktaas. They are also called as Laakshanikaas. Suggestion and Bhakti are different since their forms are different (roopa bheda).

[Side Note: The three doshaas in definitions are Athivyaapti, avyaapti and asambhavaa. What is a cow? को नाम गौः ? (गो shabda can be used in both male and female gender). If the definition is given as that which has 2 hornsand 4 legs (शृङ्गी चतुष्पात्), it becomes athivyaapi since there are many other animals that this definition will apply. If the definition is given as that which has 4 legs and white coloured skin, it becomes avyaapti since there are cows which are not in white color and the definition does not cover all the cows. If the definition is given as that which has 3 horns, it is asambhavaa as it is not possible. ]

If lakshanaa is stated to be same as Dhvani, there will be athivyaapti and avyaapti doshaas. There are many examples where the poet is describing a situation and a certain emotion (rasa) that is delineated or understood. In such cases, there is no lakshana and yet we get dhvani directly from the vaachyaartha.

मुख्यार्थबाधे तद्योगे रूढितोऽथ प्रयोजनात् ।अन्योऽर्थो लक्ष्यते यत्सा लक्षणारोपिता क्रिया ॥ काप्र-९ ॥ मम्मटः- काव्यप्रकाश

For lakshanaa, the primary meaning should be unacceptable. There has to be bhaadaa or obstruction of the primary meaning. सिंहो मानवकःThat boy is a lion. Here the term lion indicates ferociousness, aggressiveness, and other such qualities in the boy. Only when there is inconsistency in the meaning, the lakshanaa is taken.

In Meghadoota, the Yaksha is cursed to live away from his wife for one year.

यक्षश्‍चक्रे जनकतनयास्‍नानपुण्‍योदकेषु स्निग्‍धच्‍छायातरुषु वसतिं रामगिर्याश्रमेषु।।

यक्षः+चक्रे जनक-तनया-स्नान-पुण्य-उदकेषुस्निग्ध-छाया-तरुषु वसतिं रामगिरि-आश्रमेषु।।१।।

He took residence among the hermitages of Ramagiri,where the trees give cool shade,and the waters are purified by the baths of Janaka’s daughter.

He lived in ashramas in Ramagiri. Why is it mentioned in plural here? He builds one ashram. He is engrossed in thoughts about his wife. He forgets that residence and starts building another one elsewhere. The pathetic state of the Yaksha is being described in this way. In this example, there is no inconsistency in the literal meaning. But there is the Dhvani of Vipralambha Shringaara. So Lakshanaa cannot be equated to Dhvani as Dhvani could occur in the absence of Lakshanaa.

In many instances, Lakshanaa will not be Dhvani. Hence Avyaapti also occurs.

There are “dead metaphors” which have been used for a long time and hence they do not carry any ability to convey a special meaning. For example, a woman is praised for her charm and grace or “laavanya”. Laavanya is the bhava of Lavana – saltness. There is no longer any metaphor as people understand laavanya as charm. The term was initially used to mean that she has a special characteristic which makes her look so beautiful just as the salt adds a taste to the food without which it would not be good. In such situations, there is Lakshanaa but there is no Dhvani.

परिम्लानं पीनस्तनजघनसङ्गादुभयत-स्तनोर्मध्यस्यान्तः परिमिलनमप्राप्य हरितम् |
इदं व्यस्तन्यासं श्लथभुजलताक्षेपवलनैःकृशाङ्ग्याः सन्तापं वदतिबिसिनीपत्रशयनम् || eg for 14 ||

“This bed prepared with lotus leaves (बिसिनी+पत्र+शयनम्) speaks (वदति) of the affliction of the beautiful lady who slept on it. For, its two edges one faded because of her robust bosom and plumpy hips. That portion which was occupied by her slender waist has retained its greenness. The movements of her drooping creeper-like arm have rendered it disorderly.”

Ratnaavali had slept somewhere on a bed prepared with lotus leaves. Later, Vatsa Raaja is seeing that place. The word vadati means that it “indicates” rather than conveying its literal meaning of “saying”. But since such usage is so common, there is no Dhvani in that.

[Side Note: The use of “says” for “indicates” is just a cliché, i.e., a phrase used to the point of no meaning or importance, ironic because it is intended to make an impact like “I love you” or “I am so grateful to you” or the pleasantries like “I am extremely happy to see you”].

Since there can be Dhvani without Lakshana and also Lakshana without Dhvani, these two cannot be the same.

Anirvachaneeyataa Vaada and its Khandana

Anirvachaneeyataa vaadins say that Dhvani cannot be explained. Now that it has been properly defined, this argument has been totally refuted.

Kavya Prathibha काव्ये प्रतिभा

प्रतिभा = जन्मान्तर संस्कारः | Poets are born and not made. Some say that only the poets who have the Prathibha (talent or power of imagination or the creative intuition) can write poems. Some say that even the Prathibha (talent) can be learnt and gained.

[Side Note: There are some actors who become great even without going to the film institute. There are some film institute students who fail to become good actors].

[Side Note: नाकवित्वमधर्माय व्याधये दण्डनाय वा ।कुकवित्वं पुनः साक्षान्मृतिमाहुर्मनीषिणः ।। १.१२ ।। (kaavyaalamkaara)न+अकवित्वम्+अधर्माय व्याधये दण्डनाय वा ।कुकवित्वं पुनः साक्षात् मृतिम् आहुः मनीषिणः ।। “Not writing poetry is no crime; it won’t cause illness or lead to punishment; but writing bad poetry is a living death”, says Bhaamahin Kaavyaalamkaara.

न केवलं प्रतिभा अपि तु
शक्तिर्निपुणता लोकशास्त्रकाव्याद्यवेक्षणात् । काव्यज्ञशिक्षयाभ्यास इति हेतुस्तदुद्भवे ॥ काप्र-३ ॥

शक्तिः + निपुणता लोक+शास्त्र+काव्यादि+अवेक्षणात् । काव्यज्ञ+शिक्षयाभ्यासः इति हेतुः+तत्+उद्भवे ॥ काप्र-३ ॥

According to Mammata, the author of Kaavya Prakaasha, (which is a later work),three factors become one cause (hetu) of poetry. Shakti and Prathibha are synonyms. One has to gain expertise by studying the grammar in the shashtras. One has to study what is already mentioned in the Kaavyaas of other poets and avoid repeating it. The third point is to practice (अभ्यासः) and get trained (शिक्षया) under the direction of those (काव्यज्ञः) who know to write poems].

Second Udyota

Five Different meanings for Dhvani

There are different meanings given to the term Dhvani. According to Abhinavagupta, the word dhvani can stand for five different meanings namely suggestive words, suggestive ideas, suggested ideas, suggestion and the composition in which all or any one may be found.

1.  व्यञ्जकोऽर्थः The suggestive meaning (vyanjaka-artha) Suggestive meaning due to which the primary sense discards itself
2. व्जञ्जकःशब्दःध्वनिः The suggestive word (vyanjaka-shabda) Suggestive words whose primary sense is discarded
3. व्यङ्ग्योऽर्थः The suggested meaning (vyangya) Suggested sense for whose sake the expressed meaning is rendered not fruitful.
4. व्यञ्जनाव्यापारः The function of suggestion (vyanjanavyapara) Suggestive function through which the primary sense is discarded.
5. ध्वनिःकाव्यम् The poetry as a whole (samudayakavya) A composition where the primary senses are discarded

The different types of Dhvani

Vastu Dhvani, Alamkaara Dhvani and Rasa Dhvani are one way of classifying Dhvani, which was explained earlier. Another way of classification is as follows.

अस्ति ध्वनिः | स चासावविवक्षितवाच्यो विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्यश्चेतिद्विविधः सामान्येन |

(१) अविवक्षितवाच्यः
(१.१) अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्यः
(१.२) अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्यः

(२) विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्यः
(२.१) संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः
(२.२) असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः

Here अविवक्षितवाच्यःis लक्षणामूलध्वानि and विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्यःis अभिधामूलध्वनि | (Refer Kaavya Prakaasha Notes for more explanation). Along with सर्वथाविवक्षित, even अल्पविवक्षित is treated as अविवक्षित. So, when it is told to a very less extent, it becomes अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्यः| When it is not told at all, it becomes अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्यः|In the example, “दण्डाः प्रविशन्ति”, the sticks cannot enter on their own. There is only अल्पविवक्षित. It joins with the पुरुषः and indicates the men holding the sticks. This is अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्यः|

In गङ्गायां गोषः, we totally discard the meaning that it is the stream and we take it to be the banks. So this is अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्यः| This usage is to highlight the qualities like शैत्य and पावनत्वा |

अविवक्षितवाच्य and its two types

अर्थान्तरे सङ्क्रमितमत्यन्तं वा तिरस्कृतम् |</*>अविवक्षितवाच्यस्य ध्वनेर्वाच्यं द्विधा मतम् ||2.१||

अर्थ+अन्तरे सङ्क्रमितम् अत्यन्तं वा तिरस्कृतम् |अविवक्षित-वाच्यस्य ध्वनेः वाच्यं द्विधा मतम् ||2.१||

The expressed meaning in the former variety i.e., अविवक्षितवाच्य is sub-divided into two, namely, अर्थान्तरसंक्रमित (transformed into some other sense) and अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत (totally discarded).

Example of अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य
तदा जायन्ते गुणा यदा ते सहृदयैर्गृह्यन्ते |रविकिरणानुगृहीतानि भवन्ति कमलानि कमलानि ||

तदा जायन्ते गुणाः यदा ते सहृदयैःगृह्यन्ते |रविकिरण+अनुगृहीतानि भवन्ति कमलानि कमलानि ||

Merits do become merits where refined critics consider them so. Lotuses will be lotus as only when the rays of sun shelter them.

Anandavardhana gives his own verse as an example. A guna is a guna only when the friends recognize it. A lotus will be a lotus only when it is blessed by the sun’s rays. The second time usage of lotus could mean different things like the abode of Lakshmi, sakala soundarya aakara, etc. The second usage is the अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य.

Example of अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य -2
स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतो वेल्लद्बलाका घनावाताः शीकरिणः पयोदसुहृदामानन्दकेकाः कलाः |
कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोरहृदयो रामोऽस्मि सर्वं सहेवैदेही तु कथम् भविष्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव ||

कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोर-हृदयः रामः अस्मि सर्वं सहेवैदेही तु कथम् भविष्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव ||
(Meaning: स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतः, वेल्लद्बलाकाः, घनाः वाताः शीकरिणः, पयोदसुहृदाम् आनन्दकेकाः कलाः | कामं सन्तु | दृढं कठोर+हृदयः रामःअस्मि | अहं सर्वं सहे |वैदेही तु कथं भविष्यति ? हहा हा | देवि, त्वं धीरा भव |

The quarters are all painted as it was with the glistening dark clouds; the cranes are flying with excitement, forming a circle as it were. The gentle wind is full of moisture; these friends of clouds, i.e., the peacocks are giving out joyous notes in the wind. Let all these confront me (कामं सन्तु). I shall certainly put up with all these (सर्वं सहे), for, I am Rama (रामःअस्मि) whose heart is quite hard as adamantine (made of very hard material) (दृढं कठोर+हृदयः). But how will Sita bear with this (वैदेही तु कथम् भविश्यति)! Alas! Alas!(हहा हा) O my beloved queen!  Bear these with all fortitude or courage (देवि धीरा भव).

Rama is separated from Sita. He describes the season which causes more pain for the separated lovers. He hopes that Sita is able to bear this pain. He says that he will be able to bear it. Here for the term Rama, the meaning to be taken is much more than the son of Dasaratha. He is to be taken as one having the capacity to bear all the pains. It is an example of अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्यः | The suggestion here is that he can bear all the pain (सर्वकष्टसहिश्नुत्वशक्तिमान्) |

Example of अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत

रविसङ्क्रान्तसौभाग्यस्तुषारावृतमण्डलः | </**>निःश्वासान्ध इवादर्शश्चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते ||

रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्यः तुषार+आवृत+मण्डलः चन्द्रमा, निःश्वास+अन्धः आदर्शः इव न प्रकाशते |

(Meaning: All the charm (brightness) of the moon has gone to the sun. रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्यIt has disappeared now that the orb is enveloped by snowतुषार+आवृत+मण्डलः|  Like a mirror rendered blind by the heavingनिःश्वास+अन्धः इव+आदर्शः, the moon does not glowचन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते|)

At the advent of morning, the sun is raising and the brightness of moon is fading. The soubhaagyaa of chandra has now been transferred to Sun (रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्यः) आदर्शः = दर्पणः = mirror. When we breathe out air on the mirror, the mirror becomes unclear. The person is unable to see clearly. Like that, Chandra is not bright now. The literal meaning here is that the mirror has become blind अन्धः by the breathed out air. There is Dhvani in the shabda अन्धःas it means that it is unable to reflect the image clearly. This type of Dhvani is अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्या. The literal meaning is overridden.

The chandra’s shine is blocked as a mirror’s reflection is not clear when someone breathes out air on it. निःश्वासान्ध– The term’s literally meaning is to be blinded by the breathed out air. We totally discard that meaning and we take the meaning that the chandra’s shine is not seen when the sun has risen.

Here the word “blinded” is suggestive of the second variety. This is a famous stanza from the epic Valmiki Raamaayana. When we breathe out air on the mirror, the mirror becomes unclear for some time and then becomes bright again. Like that, Chandra is also not bright now, but he will get the light back later on. The literal meaning here is that the mirror has become blind by the breathed out air. There is Dhvani in the shabda “andha” as it means that it is unable to reflect the image clearly. This type of Dhvani is atyanta tiraskruta vaachyaa. The literal meaning is overridden. Through similarity in not being able to reflect or see clearly, the word takes the Lakshana meaning. The conventional meaning of the word “Andha” is completely discarded.

Example of अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत – 2

गगनं च मत्तमेघं धारालुलितार्जुनानि च वनानि |</**>निरहङ्कारमृगाङ्का हरन्ति नीला अपि निशाः ||<//**>||2.1 ++||

मत्तमेघं गगनं च, धारालुलित+अर्जुनानि वनानि च, निरहङ्कार+मृगाङ्काः निशाः नीला अपि (मनः) हरन्ति ||

The sky is enveloped with intoxicated or rolling clouds गगनं मत्तमेघंच | the Arjuna trees in the forest have water drops drippingवनानि धारालुलित+अर्जुनानि च | Nights are not bright with moon bereft of prideनिशाः निरहङ्कार+मृगाङ्काः | Though black in colour, they capture youनीला अपि (मनः)हरन्ति | मनःis अध्याहारः (the supplied missing text).Here the words “rolling”, “bereft of pride” are replete (brimming) with suggestion.

विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्यः and its two types

We will now see about विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्यः| Where there is no hindrance to the vaachyaartha and yet another meaning flashes, that is विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्यः = विवक्षितवाच्य dhvani. वक्तुम् इच्छा विवक्षा | Vivaksha is the desire to express. Vivakshita is the message that the poet wants to express.

Two types in विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्यः

मुख्यतया प्रकाशमानो व्यङ्ग्योऽर्थो ध्वनेरात्मा|<*>
स च वाच्यार्थापेक्षयाकश्चिदलक्ष्यक्रमतया प्रकाशते , कश्चिद्क्रमेणेति द्विधा मतः ||| 2.2 + |

मुख्यतया प्रकाशमानः व्यङ्ग्यः अर्थः ध्वनेः आत्मा |
सः च वाच्यार्थ अपेक्षयाकश्चित् अलक्ष्यक्रमतया प्रकाशते ,कश्चित् क्रमेण इति द्विधा मतः ||| 2.2 + |

The nature of suggestion is such that the suggested meaning can be conveyed with significance. A variety of it can be grasped along with the expressed since the sequence in comprehending both conventional and suggested meanings cannot be discerned. Another variety is that in which the sequentiality can be easily discerned.

Even when the suggested meaning is present, if it is not enjoining importance and pre-eminence, then it should not be called as Dhvani.

This is the vritti for “The nature of suggestion”.विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य (intended literal import) is also divided into two, namely संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य (where sequentiality can be discerned) and असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य (where sequentiality cannot be discerned).  One variety in which the suggested meaning is grasped along with the expressed since the sequence in comprehending both conventional and suggested meanings cannot be discerned (separated). Another variety is that in which the sequentiality can be easily discerned.

संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः

संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यःcould be the Alamkaara Dhvani, Vastu Dhvani or even the gunibhoota vyangya Dhvani. From the vibhaava, anubhaava, and vyabhichaari bhaava, the staayibhaava is created and it gets nourished by them and turns out to be the experience of Rasa. There is a kramaa or sequence there.Samlakshyakramavyangya is where the sequence is perceptible. It is of 2 types, namely Shabdashaktimulaand Arthashaktimula. Note that Mammata added Ubhayashaktimula making it three. The verse “शिखरिणिक्वनुनाम” mentioned earlier is an example of Samlakshyakramavyangya. Here we first understand the denoted meaning related to the parrot and then we realize the suggested meaning of the speaker.

असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः

Any shloka that has rasa or bhava is an example for असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य. The stotra will sing the praise of the deity and there would be a prayer for protection also. So, any stotra can also become an example of Bhava Dhvani as there will be Bhakti Bhaava in it. Even if this sequence is present, it is not seenin असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः| यद्यपि क्रमः विद्यते, अतिसूक्ष्मत्वात् न लक्ष्यते | It is understood by the maxim of सहस्रदलसूचीभेदन्यायः (or Shatapatra-patrashata-beda-nyaayaa)| When the needle is made to go through 1000 petals, we would not notice how it crosses each petal. Here also though विभाव-अनिभाव-व्यभिचारिभावैः रसः, we do not notice them and we seem to directly experience the rasa. The overall feeling is understood while going through the work, without having to analyze each aspect for identifying the specific bhaavaa there. On account of the quickness, the order is not noticed. Note that it is not said that the order or क्रम is not present. It is only unnoticed – असंलक्ष्य.

असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यःis Rasaadhi Dhvani as there are actually eight types namely Rasadhvani, Bhaavadhvani, Rasaabhaasa Dhvani, Bhaavaabhaasa Dhvani, Bhaavodaya, Bhaava Sandhi, Bhaava Shabalataa, and Bhaava Shaanti. रसभावतदाभासतत्प्रशान्त्यादिरक्रमः |ध्वनेरात्माङ्गिभावेन भासमानो व्यवस्थितः || 2.3||(Meaning: Sentiment (रस), emotion (भाव), the semblance of sentiment (तद्+आभास = रस’sआभास), the semblance of motion (तद्+आभास = भाव’sआभास)or mood and that rise and cessation – all these form un-discerned sequentiality. It is decided that when there is prominent presence (अङ्गि भावेन) of the variety that would be the very soul of suggestion (ध्वनेःआत्मा)). In Lochana, the example has been given for each of the variety.

रसादिरर्थो हि सहैव वाच्येनावभासते |स चाङ्गित्वेनावभासमानोध्वनेरात्मा |after 2.3<*>

रसादिः अर्थः हि सहएव वाच्येन+अवभासते | सः च अङ्गित्वेन अवभासमानः ध्वनेः आत्मा |

The elements such as Rasa (i.e., Rasa – sentiment, bhaava – emotion, Rasaabhaasa – semblance of sentiment, bhaavaabhaasa – semblance of emotion or mood, and that rise and cessation) would strike the mind along with the conventional or literal import. If they also shine prominently, there would be the soul of suggestion. 

It would seem like the vaachyaartha and the vyangyaartha are coming together. Kaarana has to be present before the Kaarya. Since Vaachyaartha is the Kaarana, it has to be present even before the Kaarya which is the Vyangyaartha. But the gap is so less that it feels as though they are there together. The Rasaadi Dhvanis are inseparable with the Vaachyaartha. They might seem to come together. Whereas there is a clear order in the vastu dhvani and alamkaara dhvani in which the vaachyaartha occurs first and then comes the vyangyaartha.

Rasavadalamkaara

रसः अस्मिन् अस्ति इति रसवत् | (धनं अस्य अस्ति इति धनवान् | वतुप् and मतुप् प्रत्ययsindicating possession) | The earlier alamkaarikaas mentioned that the alamkaaras that have rasa can be taken to be Rasavadalamkaaraa. Anandhavardhana does not agree with this. He said that where the rasa is prominent, it should be called as Rasadhvani. In Rasaadi Dhvani, there is prominence of one of these – Rasa, Bhaava, Rasaabhaasa, Bhaavaabhaasa, Bhaavodaya, Bhaava sandhi, Bhaava shabalataa or Bhaava shaanti. Rasa should be vyangya or suggested and it should be prominent. Sometimes, the rasa will be the anga or secondary to some other aspect. Usually the king is more important than the servant. But assume the king attends the marriage of the servant. The servant gains prominence there (भृत्य-विवाह-प्रवृत्त-राजवत्). Like that, in some remote cases, where some alamkaara gains more importance than the rasa, it will be called as Rasavadaadyalamkaara.

प्रधान्येऽन्यत्र वाक्यार्थे यत्राङ्गं तु रसादयः|<*>काव्ये तस्मिन्नलङ्कारो रसादिरिति मे मतिः ||२.५ ||

प्रधान्ये+अन्यत्र वाक्यार्थे यत्र+अङ्गं तु रसादयः |काव्ये तस्मिन्+अलङ्कारः रसादिः इति मे मतिः ||२.५ ||

If on the other hand, the chief meaning of the sentence should direct towards something else and if Rasa, etc. are to figure in only as subsidiary to it, that would be the case of Rasavadalankaara.

Where the vaakyaartha is important अन्यत्र वाक्यार्थेप्रधान्ये and rasa, bhava, etc. are only secondary यत्ररसादयःतु अङ्गम्, in those kaavyasतस्मिन्काव्ये, these secondary rasa, bhava, etc. will become Alamkaara रसादिःअलङ्कारः, is my opinionइति मे मतिः |

Until Anandavardhana’s period, there was no work with this level of details. Anandavardhana clarifies that where there is no prominence of Rasa, it is not to be considered as Dhvani and it is to be taken to be only Alamkaara.He says that this is his opinionइति मे मतिः| This was accepted by all.

Example of Rasavadalamkaara

क्षिप्तो हस्तावलग्नः प्रसभमभिहतोऽप्याददानोऽशुकान्तं
गृह्णन् केशेष्वपास्तश्चरणनिपतितो नेक्षितः सम्भ्रमेण |
आलिङ्गन् योऽवधूतस्त्रिपुरयुवतिभिः साश्रुनेत्रोत्पलाभिः
कामीवार्द्रापराधः स दहतु दुरितं शाम्भवो वः शराग्निः ||

क्षिप्तःहस्तौअलग्नः, प्रसभम् अभिहतःअपि आददानः अशुकान्तं
गृह्णन् केशेषुअपास्तःचरण-निपतितः नेक्षितः सम्भ्रमेण |
आलिङ्गन् यः अवधूतस्त्रिपुरयुवतिभिः साश्रुनेत्रोत्पलाभिः
कामी-वार्द्रापराधः सः दहतु दुरितं शाम्भवः वः शराग्निः ||

May that fiery arrow of Shiva burn down all our sins. That arrow who worked out in the form of a lover who has committed a new offence towards his beloved. Though avoided by the wives of Tripura with fear stricken lilly-like eyes, it would cling intently to their hands, though compellingly pushed out, it would still hold on to the tips of garment, though harshly pushed aside by the hair of its feather, it would fall at their feet and yet remain unrecognized due to their agitation, and despite it being pushed back, it would embrace them.

Tripura Samhaara is when Shiva kills three demons, who travel in space, as though in a space shuttle. Vishnu is the arrow.  Meru mountain is the bow. At a specific point of time, all three of them come in one line. At that moment, Shiva killed the demons. The fire comes and falls at the hands of the ladies (क्षिप्तःहस्तौअलग्नः). Even when they push it (प्रसभम् अभिहतःअपि), it holds onto the edge of their sarees (आददानः अशुकान्तम्). Though the fire is harshly pushed aside by the hair(गृह्णन् केशेषु अपास्तः), it goes and falls at their feet (चरण-निपतितः). The poet says that the fire is like their lovers (कामी+वार्द्रापराधः). Even though there is karuna rasa in the act of protecting the people, here the prominent rasa is the vira or the prathaapa of Shiva. So this is rasavat alamkaara. In most of the slokas after all the praise, it concludes by seeking the blessings. In such cases, Karuna is not prominent.

हे हेरम्ब किमम्ब रोदिषि कुतः? कर्णौ लुठत्यग्निभूः
किं ते स्कन्द विचेष्टितं मम पुरा संख्या कृता चक्षुषाम्।
नैतत्तेप्युचितं गजास्य चरितं नासां मिमीतेऽम्ब मे
तावेवं सहसा विलोक्य हसितव्यग्रा शिवा पातु वः॥

पार्वती :: हे हेरम्ब |
गजानन: :: किम् अम्ब ?
पार्वती :: रोदिषि कुतः?
गजानन: :: अग्निभूः कर्णौ लुठति |
पार्वती :: (हे) स्कन्द | किं ते विचेष्टितम् ?
स्कन्द: :: पुरा मम चक्षुषाम् संख्या (तेन) कृता |
पार्वती :: (हे) गजास्य | एतत् ते चरितं अपि न उचितं |
स्कन्द: :: (हे) अम्ब | (स:) मे नासां मिमीते |
एवं शिवा तौ सहसा विलोक्य हसितव्यग्रा पातु वः॥

शिवा = पार्वती ; हेरम्ब: = गणेश:; अग्निभूः = born out of fire – Shanmukha; तौ एवं सहसा विलोक्य = स्कन्दगजाननौ कलहरूपेण क्रीडन्तौ दृष्ट्वा ; सहसा = hurriedly (here, casually); हसितव्यग्रा = हसने या व्यग्रा अभवत् सा = She who is engaged or occupied in smiling; व: = युष्मान् (you all); पातु = रक्षतु;

Hasya rasaa is prominent and Karuna is not prominent though it ends saying – let that Parvathi protect us. Hence this is Rasavadalamkaara.

अलङ्कारत्वसाधनम्

रसभावादितात्पर्यमाश्रित्य विनिवेशनम् |अलङ्कृतीनां सर्वासामलङ्कारत्वसाधनम् ||2.6

रस+भावादि+तात्पर्यम्+आश्रित्य विनिवेशनम् |अलङ्कृतीनां सर्वासाम्+अलङ्कारत्व+साधनम् ||

It is only the use of Alamkaaraas in view of the principal idea of Rasa, Bhaava etc. that really proves as sources of charm.

When the ornaments are kept for display in the shop, it is not serving the purpose of an ornament. Only when someone wears it, it becomes a decorative item. Just the presence of alamkara in a poem does not have any significance unless it becomes a decoration for the Dhvani in the poem.

एवं ध्वनेरुपमादीनां रसवदलङ्कारस्य च विभक्तविषयताभवति |</*> |2.6+|

एवं ध्वनेःउपमादीनां रसवदलङ्कारस्य च विभक्त-विषयताभवति |

In this way, there is a specific differentiating aspect between Dhvani, alamkaaras like upama, and the Rasavadamkaara.

Guna – Different from Alamkara

Right from Bharata’s time, Gunas were recognized. Dhandi related Gunas to the Marga or Reeti and listed the ten Gunas. Vaamana also explained in the same way classifying them as Shabda Guna and Artha Guna. While the alamkaarikaas prior to him had considered Guna to be the dharma of Marga or Reeti, Anandavardhana was the first one to say that Gunas are the dharmas of Rasa. He describes the difference between the Guna and Alamkaara. This difference was pointed out for the first time clearly by Vaamana but in a different way.

तमर्थमवलम्बन्ते येऽङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः<*>|अङ्गाश्रितास्त्वलङ्कारा मन्तव्याः कटकादिवत् || 2.7 ||

तम्+अर्थम्+अवलम्बन्ते ये+अङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः |अङ्ग+आश्रिताः+तु+अलङ्काराः मन्तव्याः कटकादिवत् ||

That which depends upon this main element (here rasa) are considered as “qualities”. The figures of speech are those that are connected with its parts (here the expressed meaning and the expression) in the same way as ornaments like bracelet, etc.

The difference between Alamkaara and Guna is stated here. A person might have decorated himself in a certain way. But his Gunas or qualities are different. The Alamkaaras are decorations of the body and the Gunas always depend on the soul (अङ्गि that which contains the organs). The अङ्गि of kavya is rasa. The gunas Prasaad, Ojas, and Madhurya are decorations of the soul, the rasa dhvani, which is the अङ्गि. शब्दार्थौ काव्यस्य शरीरम् | The alamkaaras are attached to the body which is the word, shabda and the meaning, vaachya. Yamaka is a shabda alamkara. Upamaa is an arthaalamkaara. येअङ्गिनं तम्अर्थम् (dhvani) अवलम्बन्ते, ते गुणाः | अङ्ग-आश्रिताः तु अलङ्काराः | कटकादिवत् = Like the bangle (कटक) and others. In this he says that the Rasa’s Dharma is the Gunas. The alamkaaras are only supplementary parts to the body made of Shabda-Artha. Like the ornaments for the human body, the alamkaaras are ornaments to the Kaavya’s body.

Dhandi mentions about 10 gunas. Anandavardhana accepts only three as Gunas. The first is maadurya guna which is the dharma of Shrungaaraadirasa (like Shrungaara, Kaarunya, Hasya, etc.). The next one Ojas is related to Raudraadi Rasa (i.e., Raudra, Veera, Adbuda, Bibatsa). The third one Prasaada is the common dharma for all Rasa. Prasaada means Prasanna. This brings the ananda due to the Rasa.

Maadurya Guna and Shrngaara Rasa

शृङ्गार एव मधुरः परः प्रह्लादनो रसः<*>|तन्मयं काव्यमाश्रित्य माधुर्यं प्रतितिष्ठति ||७2.8||

Meaning: Shringaara – the sentiment of love – is the sweetest and most enjoyable of all sentiments. The quality of Maadhurya or sweetness is declared to be present in the poetic composition beaming with this sentiment of Shringaara.

He says that the Shrungaara Rasa is the Rasa that can cause the most happiness. Madurya resides in this type of Kaavya having Rasas like Shrungaara. Madurya is a quality residing in the Shabda and Artha. And still it brings out the ananda of the Rasa. Even within the Shrungaara, the vipralamba shrungaara is much more enjoyable than the Samboga Shrungaara.

Maadurya Guna and Karuna Rasa

The most enjoyable Rasa is Karuna. The Harishchandra drama is full of pathos. The audience would cry so much while watching it and yet they will want to watch the drama again. Vishwanath says in Saahitya Dharpana that करुणादावपि रसे जायते यत् परं सुखम् | सचेतसामनुभवःप्रमाणं तत्र केवलम् | We experience Ananda even in Rasas like Karuna the proof is the ananda experienced by the sahrudayas. शृङ्गारे विप्रलम्भाख्ये करुणे च प्रकर्षवत् |माधुर्यमार्द्रतां याति यतस्तत्राधिकं मनः ||2.9||

Meaning:In the two kinds of sentiments, namely, love-in-separation and the pathetic sentiment, sweetness should be the foremost because the heart of the recipient is moved very much in those situations.

The most touching of all the Rasas, that melt the heart, are vipralambha-shrungaara and Karuna.

Ojas Guna

रौद्रादयो रसा दीप्त्या लक्ष्यन्ते काव्यवर्तिनः | तद्व्यक्तिहेतूशब्दार्थावाश्रित्यौजो व्यवस्थितम् || 2.10||

Meaning: Raudrarasa etc., are significant in their having great exciting potency in poetry. The quality of ओजस्or forcefulness is said to be in word and sense which produce the effect.

Sentiments like Raudra create a sort of excitement in poetic composition. Hence by lakshana, one might designate that sentiment itself by the term Deepti or excitement. It was said by the earlier alamkaarikas that दीर्घसमासत्वम् ओजत्वम् | Anandavardhana is of the opinion that Ojas may be found even in the simplest expressions. Two examples are given for Ojas from Venisamhaara. The first one has long compounds. चञ्चद्भुजभ्रमितचण्डगदाभिघात-सञ्चूर्णितोरुयुगलस्य सुयोधनस्य | स्त्यानावबद्धघनशोणितशोणपाणि-रुत्तंसयिष्यति कचांस्तव देवि भीमः || Bhima says that he will kill the kauravas and with that blood in his hands, he will tie Draupadi’s hair. Both Shabda and Artha have ojas guna. यो यः शस्त्रं बिभर्ति स्वभुजगुरुमदः पाण्डवीनां चमूनांयो यः पाञ्चालगोत्रे शिशुरधिकवया गर्भशय्यां गतो वा | यो यस्तत्कर्मसाक्षी चरति मयि रणे यश्च यश्च प्रतीपःक्रोधान्धस्तस्य तस्य स्वयमपि जगतामन्तकस्यान्तकोऽहम् || Ashwattaama says he will kill all the people on the Pandavas side without leaving the fetus in the womb. In this example, the deepti is created by the word and meaning in spite of the absence of long compounds.

Prasaada Guna

समर्पकत्वं काव्यस्य यत्तु सर्वरसान् प्रति | स प्रसादो गुणो ज्ञेयः सर्वसाधारणक्रियः ||2.१०||

Meaning: That which produces congeniality in a poetic composition towards all sentiments is known as Prasaada which goes well with all sentiments and poetic compositions.

प्रसादस्तु स्वच्छता शब्दार्थयोः | The quality of Prasaada or Perspicuity means clarity or lucidity in word and meanings. Samarpakatvam is to have the appropriate shabda and artha that is appropriate for the specific rasa. सर्वसाधारणक्रियः– it is applicable in common to all the rasas.स च सर्वरससाधारणोगुणः सर्वरचनासाधारणश्च व्यङ्ग्यार्थापेक्षयैवमुख्यतया व्यवस्थितो मन्तव्यः | (2.10 / 2.11)  All sentiments could be accommodated in this perspicuity and all poetic compositions could make use of this quality. Hence it is better we understand it as primarily relating to व्यङ्ग्यार्थ only.

Dosha

श्रुतिदुष्टादयो दोषा अनित्या ये च दर्शिताः | ध्वन्यात्मन्येव शृङ्गारे ते हेया इत्युदाहृताः || 2.११||

Meaning: Faults like indelicacy which are considered to be non-permanent by the ancient writers have been deemed to be so only with reference to the sentiment of love when it has suggestion.

Indelicacy is that which is not pleasant to hear. The faults like this are not considered as permanent faults. It can be ignorable in certain rasas and it can even enhance the raudra-adi rasa. But it should be totally avoided in Shrngaara.

काव्यदोषाः

दोष means मुख्यार्थ-हानिः – the factor that prevents the main meaning from being understood. A blemish that damages or destroys the desired meaning is kaavya dosha. पददोष,वाक्यदोष, अर्थदोष, रसदोष, etc., are the types of faults. पददोष’s example would be spelling mistakes. वाक्यदोष where there could be some grammatical mistakes like singular-plural mismatch between कर्तृ and क्रिया. Rasa is most important. रसदोष is the blemish that damages the rasa. It is acceptable even if a गुण or good quality is missing. But it is not acceptable to have a दोष. Not having a दोष itself is an अलंकार.

Definition of Kavya or Poetry given by Mammata in Kavya Prakashaa – तत् अदोषौ शब्दार्थौ सगुणौ अनलंकृती पुनः क्वापि (काव्यप्रकाश 1.4)   –  इति काव्यलक्षणं | The first condition is that there should not be any fault अदोषौ.

Usage of Alamkaara

ध्वन्यात्मभूते शृङ्गारे यमकादिनिबन्धनम् | शक्तावपि प्रमादित्वं विप्रलम्भे विशेषतः||२.१६ ||</*>

ध्वनि+आत्मभूते शृङ्गारे यमकादि-निबन्धनम् | शक्तौअपि प्रमादित्वं विप्रलम्भे विशेषतः |

ध्वनि+आत्मभूते शृङ्गारे शक्तौप्रमादित्वम्अपि यमकादिनिबन्धनम् | विप्रलम्भे विशेषतः |

Even granting that the poet is proficient in using the figures like assonance, it would be a lapse on his part in case he were to use them while delineating the sentiment of love which is the very soul of Dhvani, especially in vipralambha shrungaara. (यमकादिशक्तौप्रमादित्वम्= proficiency in the skill of including alamkaras like Yamaka). In this section, Anandavardhana clarifies the role of Alamkara in Dhvani poetry.

रसाक्षिप्ततया यस्य बन्धः शक्यक्रियो भवेत् | अपृथग्यत्ननिर्वत्यः सोऽलङ्कारो ध्वनौ मतः||2.१७ / 2.16||</*>

रसाक्षिप्ततया यस्य बन्धः शक्यक्रियः भवेत् |अपृथक्+यत्न+निर्वत्यः सः अलङ्कारः ध्वनौ मतः ||

The poet is permitted to use only such figures the employment of which is made possible only by the emotional exuberance (excitement) of the poet and in the use of which figure there is no special effort used.

अलङ्कारस्य स्थानविवेकः

Anandavardhana clarifies about the usage of Alamkaara within the composition that has Dhvani. If the Alamkaara effortlessly finds a place there, then retain it. But for the sake of including an Alamkaara, do not force it into the composition. Kalidasa uses the Alamkaara judiciously, only those which are appropriate to the rasa in that context.  विवक्षातत्परत्वेन नाङ्गित्वेन कदाचन |काले च ग्रहणत्यागौ नातिनिर्वहणैषिता ||2.१८||

Meaning: It must be realized that the figure of speech should serve as a means to the delineation of sentiment and it should not be an end in itself. He should have the right to abandon it when not needed in the same way as he uses them when needed rightfully.

(1) विवक्षातत्परत्वेन– Alamkaara should be to enhance the sentiment (2) नअङ्गित्वेन कदाचन– at any point of time, it should not gain prominence over the rasa (3) काले च ग्रहणत्यागौ– it should be used or given up at the appropriate time (4) न अतिनिर्वहणैषिता– One should not over do the Alamkaaras. (5) निर्व्यूढावपि चाङ्गत्वे यत्नेन प्रत्यवेक्षणम् – If it happens to come that way, the poet should put effort to make it only secondary or subordinate. Alamkaaras are to be used only when they nourish the Rasa. It should not be forcefully introduced just for the sake of having an Alamkaara there. It should not be the angi i.e., gain prominence over the Rasa. Leave the use of Alamkaara if it is not supporting the rasa.

निर्व्यूढावपि चाङ्गत्वे यत्नेन प्रत्यवेक्षणम् | रूपकादिरलङ्कारवर्गस्याङ्गत्वसाधनम् ||2.१९||

Meaning: He shall not exercise his over-enthusiasm however much he may feel himself an expert. He should be keen in rendering it only secondary or subordinate. It is only thus, the figures like Rupaka become instrument to suggest sentiments.

In Abhignaana Shaakuntalam, there is a Svabhaavokti Alamkaara, which describes the nature of the bee. It has helped in enjoying the rasa even more.चलापाङ्गां दृष्टिं स्पृशसि बहुशो वेपथुमतींरहस्याख्यायीव स्वनसि मृदु कर्णान्तिकचरः |करौ व्याधुन्वत्याः पिबसि रतिसर्वस्वमधरंवयं तत्त्वान्वेषान्मधुकर हतास्त्वं खलु कृती ||It is an example of विवक्षातत्परत्वम् |

संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः

There are two types in this – artha-shakti-moola-dhvani and shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani. Note that according to Mammata there are three types considering shabdaartha-ubhaya-shakti-moola-dhvani. शब्दार्थशक्तिमूलत्वात्सोऽपि द्वेधा व्यवस्थितः ||2.२०||

Meaning: The samlakshyakramavyangya or the discernible sequence is also of two kinds having its roots in the potency of the meaning and words.

shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani

आक्षिप्त एवालङ्कारः शब्दशक्त्या प्रकाशते |यस्मिन्ननुक्तः शब्देन शब्दशक्त्युद्भवो हि सः ||2.२१||

Meaning: That example in which a figure which is not expressed directly by any word is present and conveys solely, by the suggestive potency of the word itself, should be taken as suggestion based on the potency of the word.

When an Alamkaara is suggested, it is shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani. According to him, only Alamkaara Dhvani will be shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani and not Vastu Dhvani.  Mammata says that Vastu Dhvani is also possible here.

As in Shlesha, even in shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani, there is scope for two meanings. The difference is explained here. In shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani, one is prominent. In Shlesha, we take both the meanings. येन ध्वस्तमनोभवेन बलिजित्कायः पुरास्त्रीकृतोयश्चोद्वृत्तभुजङ्गहारवलयो गङ्गां च योऽधारयत् | यस्याहुः शशिमच्छिरो हर इति स्तुत्यं च नामामराःपायात्स स्वयमन्धकक्षयकरस्त्वां सर्वदोमाधवः || In this example, the meaning applicable for Hari and the one applicable for the Hara exist.  Here both the ideas are simultaneously present as an outcome of the potency of the word and hence it is only shlesha and not shabda shakti moola dhvani.

When one meaning is considered as an upamaa for the other meaning (King and elephant), then it is shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani.

[Side Note: भद्रात्मनो दुरधिरोहतनोर्विशालवंशोन्नतेःकृतशिलीमुखविग्रहस्य ।यस्यानुपप्लुतगतेः परवारणस्यदानाम्बुसेकसुभगः सततं करोभूत् ॥Kaavya Prakasha १२॥

An example is given here where the verse could mean both a king and an elephant belonging to the jaati of Bhadra. From the context, since it is about the King, the meaning meant for the King is to be taken first. The other meaning is taken to be Vyanjana.

Contextual meaning: The king has a peaceful nature, his persona is difficult to be gauged, he has the high stature due to his vamsha, he has mastered several weapons, his knowledge never goes awry, he gets rid of his foes easily, his hands are charming and always wet with the water being poured while giving gifts [daana].

Non-contextual meaning: Describes an elephant. It is of the Bhadra variety, body is so high that it is difficult to mount, backbone is large and lofty, attracts many bees, its movement never falters, it is an elephant par excellence, the trunk is beautiful and always has the liquid rut flowing.

(More Info:   Jagannaata does not agree that with this. He says that the second meaning should also be taken as the vaachyaartha. He agrees only in certain specific cases. Even Anandavardhana does not say that. But Abhinava Gupta gives this in his vyaakyaanaa.  The Elephant can be taken to be the upamaana and hence the alamkara of Upama comes. So this becomes Upama Dhvani. The shabda shakti mula Dhvani can only be alamkara Dhvani and it can never be vastu roopa Dhvani says Anandavardhana). ]

Counter-example of Shabdashakti in Samlakshya

तस्या विनापि हारेण निसर्गादेव हारिणौ |</****>जनयामासतुः कस्य विस्मयं न पयोधरौ ||<//****> 2.22  ++ ||

हारेण विनापि निसर्गात् एव हारिणौ तस्याः पयोधरौ कस्य विस्मयं न जनयामासतुः |

Her bosoms having no garland though garlanded by active (attractive) as it were, whom should they not amaze.

That example in which a figure which is not expressed directly by any word is present and conveys solely, by the suggestive potency of the word itself, should be taken as suggestion based on the potency of the word (shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani). The shlesa on the word हार helps only in conveying a tinge of virodha or paradox on how she is garlanded without a garland. There is no suggestion based on the potency of the word. So this verse is not an example for shadba-shakti-moola-dhvani. But the sentiment of love conveyed here through Slesa or Virodha could be taken as asamlakshyakramaviyanga – suggestion with undiscerned sequentiality.

Types of Artha-shakti-moola-dhvani

Samlakshyakramadhvani is classified into shabdashakti-moola-dhvani and arthashakti-mooladhvani. Arthashaktimooladhvani is the case where the meaning suggests another meaning. It is of two kinds – (1) प्रौढोक्तिः found in ornamented expression. (2) स्वतः सम्भवी naturally existing.  Each of these two types are further classified into (a) वस्तुना वस्तुध्वानिः, (b) वस्तुना अलंकारध्वनिः, (c) अलंकारेण वस्तुध्वनिः, (d) अलंकारेण अलंकारध्वनिः |

Example of Arthashakti – Svatahsambhavi – Vastunaa vastudhvani

एवंवादिनि देवर्षौ पार्श्वे पितुरधोमुखी |</***>लीलाकमलपत्राणि गणयामास पार्वती|| after 2.22

एवं+वादिनि देवर्षौ पार्श्वे पितुम्अधोमुखी |लीला+कमल+पत्राणि गणयामास पार्वती|| after 2.22

This shloka is from Kumaara Sambhava. The Sapta Rishis have come. Narada comes and tells Himaalaya that Shiva is the suitable groom for Parvathi and that he has agreed to marry Parvathi. When Narada was talking in this way (एवं+वादिनि देवर्षौ), Parvathi was standing next to her father with head facing down (पार्श्वे पितुःअधोमुखी). She was holding a lotus for play (leela) लीला+कमल+पत्राणि.  She started seriously counting its petals (गणयामास पार्वती or another version गणयामासकेवलम्). The bhava of shyness is suggested.

That example in which one sense leads to another sense through its own potency of suggestion and not out of the denotative potency of words will be an example of suggestion which depends upon the potency of meaning very much akin to resonance – artha-shakti-moola-dhvani. In this case, counting of petal suggests bashfulness.

Example of Arthashakti – Svatahsambhavi – Vastunaa vastudhvani 2

शिखिपिच्छकर्णपूरा जाया व्याधस्य गर्विणी भ्रमति |</*>मुक्ताफलरचितप्रसाधनानां मध्ये सपत्नीनाम् ||2.२४||<//*>

शिखिपिच्छ-कर्ण-पूरा जाया व्याधस्य गर्विणी भ्रमति |मुक्ताफल-रचित-प्रसाधनानां मध्ये सपत्नीनाम् ||

शिखि-पिच्छ-कर्ण-पूरा With the plumes of peacock (i.e., an ornament made from the feathers in the peacock’s tail) adorning her ears, व्याधस्य जाया the wife of the hunter गर्विणी भ्रमति walks in pride मुक्ता-फल-रचित-प्रसाधनानां सपत्नीनां मध्ये in the midst of all her co-wives who are possessed of ornaments of pearls.

This is an example where the naturally existing sense is that which is akin to what is found in stark world. Her good fortune in the form of her winning her husband’s special love to her and the bad fortune of other wives are suggested without any imaginative twist to the meaning. So this is an example of svatah-sambhavi-arthashaktimoola-dhvani. This also comes under vastunaa vastudhvani.

Example of Vastunaa-alamkaaradhvani – Utpreksa-dhvani

चन्दनासक्तभुजगनिःश्वासानिलमूर्च्छितः |</*>मूर्च्छयत्येष पथिकान्मधौ मलयमारुतः ||<//*>  | 2.28 ++ |

चन्दन+आसक्त+भुजग+निःश्वासानिल+मूर्च्छितः |मूर्च्छयति एषः पथिकान्मधौ मलयमारुतः ||

Meaning: In this spring season the southerly wind raising the breath of snakes reclining on sandal trees causes stupor to travelers.

This verse describing the spring season is an example of Utpreksa (poetic fancy) Dhvani. The southerly wind causes stupor (lethargy) in travellers because it generates passionate longing in them. The southerly wind itself is poetically fancied (i.e., imagined by the poet) as stuporous because of its coming in contact with the heaves of snakes which have encircled the sandal trees. This fancy is not directly conveyed by the words like “as it”, etc. But it is conveyed through suggestion by the potency of sense in the sentence. It is just like resonance. Since the cause of the lethargy is an imaginative one, it is an example of हेतूत्प्रेक्षा | Here the suggester is a vastu and hence this is an example of vastunaa alamkaaradhvani.

Example of Yathaasamkhya-dhvani (alamkaarena-alamkaara Dhvani)

अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च सहकारः |</*>अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च हृदि मदनः ||<//*> | 2.28 ++ |

The mango tree sheds sprouts, converts into leaf, buds and flowers. Love (treasured) in the hearts sprouts, turns into leaf, buds and flowers.

This is an example of the यथासंख्यध्वनिःsuggested relative.Here the resonance-like charm maintaining the same order of occurrence referring to love and mango tree is far far greater than the charm associated with the expressed figure तुल्ययोगिता (combination of equals). The expressed alamkara, tulyayogitaa results in resonance and suggests यथासंख्य alamkara.
[Side note–TODO –To be verified if this understanding is right–This is an alamkara where both the object and the mirrored object follow an enumeration in a fixed order.  Further, in this case, since both are not made to follow a single enumeration and rather there is resonance in its place, it does not become that alamkara. But it remains as a suggested Alamkaara].

Utility of Alamkaaradhvani

शरीरीकरणं येषां वाच्यत्वे न व्यवस्थितम् |</*>तेऽलङ्काराः परां छायां यान्ति ध्वन्यङ्गतां गतः || २८||<//*>   | 2.29 |

येषां वाच्यत्वे शरीरीकरणं न व्यवस्थितम्, तेअलङ्काराःध्वन्यङ्गतां गतःपरां छायां यान्ति |

The following aphorism points out the utility of suggested figures. The very same figures of speech (तेअलङ्काराः) which cannot afford to become even the body of poetry (येषां वाच्यत्वे शरीरीकरणं न व्यवस्थितम्), will gain special beauty (परां छायां यान्ति) much more than what they were in their expressed aspect, when they become involved in suggestion (ध्वन्यङ्गतां गतः).

Third Udyota

Suggestiveness of Words – Avivakshitavaachya

In this 3rd udyota, the different types are listed from the perspective of the Vyanjaka –the suggestive word, while in the earlier chapter it was based on the Vyangya –the suggested meaning. Due to the presence of a certain word, there could be suggestion. Or due to the entire sentence itself, there could be suggestion. एवं व्यङ्ग्यमुखेनैव ध्वनेः प्रदर्शिते सप्रभेदे स्वरूपे पुनर्व्यञ्जक- मुखेनैतत्प्रकाश्यते (before 3.1).

Meaning: Having thus displayed the nature of varieties of suggestion in detail, through the stand point of the suggested material, the same shall be set forth through the suggestive elements.

अविवक्षितवाच्यस्य पदवाक्यप्रकाशता | तदन्यस्यानुरणनरूपव्यङ्ग्यस्य च ध्वनेः || 3.१||

Meaning: Both the varieties of suggestion with unintended literal meaning and resonance-like suggestion are suggested by individual words and also by whole sentences.

When the bell is rung, the resonance that is heard is called अनुरणन | In every variety of Dhvani (except for Ubhayashakti Mula Dhvani mentioned by Mammata which is based only on the vaakya), there are two sub-types for the suggestion by individual words and by whole sentence.

Example of वाक्यप्रकाशता in अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी | </*>यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः || <//*>  | 3.1 eg |

The following is the example of a suggestive sentence of the sub-class of “Primary sense totally discarded (अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य) under the class of “that with intended expressed sense” (अविवक्षितवाच्य).

What is night for all beings, the saint keeps himself awake during then; when the beings are awake that will be night for the saint.

The expressed sense that one should be awake during night, and remain sleeping during other time is absolutely irrelevant to what is intended. This only suggests predominantly that the wise saint has been with spiritual alertness and has shunned false notions about Reality. The primary meaning thus has been totally discarded and the suggested meaning comes to the forefront in the mind of a connoisseur. Hence it is an instance of a suggestive sentence (वाक्यप्रकाशता). Suggestive sentence and suggestive word are the two categories under the subdivision of अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्यध्वनि.

Example of वाक्यप्रकाशता in अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य

विषमयितः केषामपि केषामपि प्रयात्यमृतनिर्माणः |
केषामपि विषामृतमयः केषामप्यविषामृतः कालः ||| 3.1 eg |

Meaning: For some it would be nectar; for some others both poison and nectar and for some, it would be neither poison nor nectar.

In this verse, the words poison and nectar are used in such a way that it would merge in the sense of miserable and joy. These words reveal the suggestivess of अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य at the sentence level.

Asamlakshyakrama अलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः

Asamlakshyakramadhvani which is rasaadidhvani, is explained next. यस्त्वलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यो ध्वनिर्वर्णपदादिषु | वाक्ये सङ्घटनायां च स प्रबन्धेऽपि दीप्यते || 3.२||

Meaning: Suggestion with undiscerned sequence (asamlakshyakrama vyangya) will glow in letter, word and so on, sentence, a part of the composition and finally in the composition too.

There is varna-vyanjakataa, pada-vyanjakataa, Vaakya-vyanjakataa, Sangatanaa-vyanjakataa, and Prabhanda-vyanjakataa.

Influence of Letters

शषौ सरेफसंयोगो ढकारश्चापि भूयसा | विरोधिनः स्युः शृङ्गारे ते न वर्णा रसच्युतः || 3.३||

Meaning: The letters “श” and “ष”, letters conjunct with र and ढ–all these are not conducive to evoke rasa in the context of Shrungara.

In Shrungaara, the use of certain specific letters is considered to be inappropriate. त एव तु निवेश्यन्ते बीभत्सादौ रसे यदा | तदा तं दीपयन्त्येव ते न वर्णा रसच्युतः || 3.४||

Meaning: When the same letters are used in relation to the sentiment of disgust बीभत्स and others, they will certainly intensify them. Therefore letters also suggest sentiments.

Influence of Pada

Every word comprises of two parts prakruti and pratyaya. Each of these could cause suggestiveness. These possibilities are there in Rasaadhi Dhvani. उत्कम्पिनी भयपरिस्खलितांशुकान्ताते लोचने प्रतिदिशं विधुरे क्षिपन्ती |  क्रूरेण दारुणतया सहसैव दग्धाधूमान्धितेन दहनेन न वीक्षितासि (after 3.4) ||

Context: Vasavadatta being burnt down and Udayana says this to her. Meaning: You, whose garment was slipping due to being struck with fear and whose helpless eyes were being diverted in different directions, were all of a sudden consumed by the cruel fire due to his hard heartedness. You could not be seen by him since he was surely blinded by his own smoke.

Here “those” eyes (ते लोचने) in the illustration are suggestive of sentiment. Udayana recollects how those eyes of Vasavadatta used to create in him an impression of her anger, desire and helplessness.

Sanghatana संघटना

Sanghatana is the arrangement of words in poetry. Anandavardhana discusses whether Gunas and Sanghatanas are one and the same or are they different. There are 3 types of Sanghatana.

असमासा समासेन मध्यमेन च भूषिता |  तथा दीर्घसमासेति त्रिधा सङ्घटनोदिता||3.५|| </***>

Composition (texture – सङ्घटना) is of three kinds namely (1) without compounds असमासा (2) with medium compounds मध्यमेन समासेन भूषिता and (3) with long compoundsदीर्घसमासा.
The first type is Asamaasa – without any samaasa giving each pada separately like those of Kalidasa–(अस्ति उत्तरस्यां) अस्त्युतरस्यां दिशि देवतात्मा हिमालयो नाम नगाधिराजः। The second type is Madhyama – where there are smaller samaasaas or compound words. The third type is Deergasamaasa – eg. Kadambari first sentences –आसीत् अशेष-नरपति-शिर-स्समभ्यच्चित्त-शासनः where there are very long samaasas like the style of Bhaanaa.  Vedanta Desika in his Yadavaaabhyudaya writes with long samaasas. (TODO – shloka to be verified) लोलापतच्चरण-लीलाहतिश्चरित-हालाहलेनिजपनी नृत्यन्तमप्रतिग-कृत्यन्तमप्रतिम-मत्यन्तचारोकुशम् |

Bharata has stated 10 gunas – Slesha, prasada, samata, madhurya, sukumarata, arthavyaki, udaratva, ojas, kanti and samadhi – these ten are the gunas.

Anandavardhanaa says in the 3rd chapter of Dhvanyaaloka that Guna and Sanghatana are different.

Gunas or qualities like maadhuryam or sweetness and prasaada or perspicuity (eloquence / articulacy) are constantly found in plenty only when vipralambhashrungaara (love in separation) is delineated. Oojas (forcefulness) goes with Raudra (Furious) and adbhuta (wonder). But the same conformity does not apply to the Sanghatanaa. Thus we find sanghatanaa when we have long compounds even when erotic sentiment is delineated and even when we have no compounds in Raudra Rasa.

गुणानाश्रित्य तिष्ठन्ती माधुर्यादीन्व्यनक्ति सा | रसान् – – – ||3.6|| (Meaning: Composition is based on qualities like sweetness and suggests sentiments). Kavya has guna. The guna suggests rasa.
Since the sangathanaa is based on guna, is it same as guna or is it different? If it is different, does guna depend on sangathanaa or the other way? तत्रै-क्यपक्षे सङ्घटनाश्रयगुणपक्षे च गुणानात्मभूतानाधेयभूतान्वाश्रित्यतिष्ठन्ती सङ्घटना रसादीन् व्यनक्तीत्ययमर्थः | The first option is ऐक्यपक्ष taking both to be the same, गुणान्आत्मभूतान् the gunas is identical with Sangatana itself; and in the second case where both are different, the texture becomes the substratum or foundation for the qualities. सङ्घटनाश्रयगुणपक्षे गुणान्आधेयभूतान् आश्रित्यतिष्ठन्ती सङ्घटना | Thus in both of these cases, the texture  either being based on itself or being based on the nature of its attributes, suggests rasa. सङ्घटना रसादीन् व्यनक्ति | The other possibility of both being differentand the guna being the foundation for sangatana is also discussed and it is refuted. He finally concludes that Guna and Sanghatanaa are different without any dependencies on each other as Sanghatanaa does not suggest any rasa.

Guna, Sanghatana and Rasas

There is a general opinion that long compounds are not appropriate for Shrngaara. But there are cases where the long compounds have been used in Shrngaara. There are cases where there is Ojoguna in the absence of samaasa (which contradict the earlier definition of समासभूयत्वम् ओजः). So it has to be understood that irrespective of the sangatana, the rasa is suggested only through the gunas. There is no generalized rule mapping specific Sanghatana to specific rasas. As mentioned earlier (तमर्थमवलम्बन्ते येऽङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः), the Rasa’s dharma are the gunas.  Guna’s relation to Rasa is constant like Maadhurya may be used for suggesting Karuna and Vipralambhasrungaara. Ojas is used to suggest only Raudra, Adbhutaa and not Karuna. Prasaada would apply to all rasas.There is no such principle governing the scope of Sanghatanaa.

Prabhanda Vyanjakatva

There could be suggestiveness at the level of the entire composition itself. विभावभावानुभावसञ्चार्यौचित्यचारुणः |विधिः कथाशरीरस्य वृत्तस्योत्प्रेक्षितस्य वा ||३.१०||(वृत्तस्य वा उत्प्रेक्षितस्य वा कथा-शरीरस्य विधिः विभाव-भाव-अनुभाव-सञ्चारि-औचित्य-चारुणः |

Meaning: A poet should design only such a theme कथा-शरीरस्य विधिः, based either on traditional accounts वृत्तस्य वाor an invented one उत्प्रेक्षितस्य वा which could be charming चारुणः with its propriety औचित्य of the accessories of sentiment namely, the settings and its stimuli विभाव, abiding emotion अनुभाव, emotional responses and changing moods सञ्चारिभाव.

In the Prabhanda, there should be the usage of Vibhaava, Anubhaava, and Vyabhichaari Bhaava. It should come along with the theme or plot of the story. The plot could be based on the stories from epics and puraanas or based on some imagination. If the vibhaava, anubhaava and vyabhichaari bhaava are used along with the texture of the plot, the entire composition could suggest a rasa.

इतिवृत्तवशायातां त्यक्त्वाऽननुगुणां स्थितिम् |उत्प्रेक्ष्याऽप्यन्तराभीष्टरसोचितकथोन्नयः ||3.११||

Meaning: If in a theme based on traditional accounts, the poet comes across a situation which is in conflict with the intended sentiment, we must be prepared to abandon such incidents. He may even invent incidents of his own imagination in their place, with an objective of depicting the sentiment that he intends.

The situations that could cause hindrance to the main theme of the story should be avoided. The kavi should create new situations that are amicable to the theme. The best example is Abhignaana Shaakuntala of Kaalidaasa. In the original story, Dhushyanta is a cheat who does not want to admit that he had married Shakuntala. Kaalidaasa glorified Dhushyanta’s role by introducing the incident about the curse. In this way, the unnecessary incidents should be dropped and introduce new incidents that support his intention. That they finally meet in the Maareecha ashrama is not in the original story. The main message of the story is this – initially they had only worldly love. In their separation, it became a heavenly love. To indicate this, the kavi made them meet in the heavenly abode of Maareecha.

The sandhi and sandhyangaas come in every kaavya and Naataka. In Ratnaavali, the author has included all the sandhi and sandhyangaas irrespective of whether they are required or not. सन्धिसन्ध्यङ्गघटनं रसाभिव्यक्त्यपेक्षया |न तु केवलया शास्त्रस्थितिसम्पादनेच्छया ||3.१२||

Meaning: The construction of divisions and sub-divisions of the theme must help the depiction of sentiments and not blindly conform to the rules of poetics.

Only the required ones need to be taken and others have to be avoided. Sandhyanga is the joining of the portion of the Kathaa vastu and the Avashtaa vishesha. There are 64 of these Sandhyanga.

(Side note: https://archive.org/details/Dasarupakahas English translation of Dhananjaya’s Dasharoopaka which has an elaborate discussion on how stories are structured. It is called Pancha Sandhi structure. Each Sandhi is made up of a combination of an Arthaprakriti and a Kaaryaavastha.
Kaaryaavasthas: aarambha, yatna, praaptyaasha, niyataapti and phalaagama/phalayoga;
Arthaprakritis: beeja, bindu, pataaka, prakaree and kaarya;
Sandhis: mukha, pratimukha, garbha, avamarsha and upasamhriti/nirvahaNa)

For example, in the Sandhi called Mukha, there is a Sandhyanga called Upakshepa. The purpose of upakshepa is to sow the seed of the main plot. When the hermits stop Dhushyanta from hunting there, he immediately stops. Pleased with that behavior they bless him to have a son worthy of his clan. Here is where the seed is laid that he will have a son with Shakuntala.

The second Sandhi is Pratimukha sandhi. At this stage, the person has to get into action. In Venisamhaara, when Duryodhana leaves for the battle, he has used a sandhyanga called Vilaasa which indicates sarasa-sallaapa. This is inappropriate. For the entire drama, this brought auchityaabhanga. यथा वेणीसंहारे विलासाख्यस्य प्रतिमुखसन्ध्यङ्गस्य प्रकृतरसनिबन्धाननुगुणमपि द्वितीयेऽङ्के भरतमतानुसरणमात्रेच्छयाघटनम् |This should not have been used here. उद्दीपनप्रशमने यथावसरमन्तरा |रसस्यारब्धविश्रान्तेरनुसन्धानमङ्गिनः ||3.१३||

Meaning: A poet should be in a position to present the sentiments in its high as well as in its low ebb keeping an eye over the appropriateness. He must maintain the unity of the main sentiment from beginning to the end.

One has to be careful about where uddeepana and prashamana is placed, considering the entire plot in mind. अलङ्कृतीनां शक्तावप्यानुरूप्येण योजनम् |प्रबन्धस्य रसादीनां व्यञ्जकत्वे निबन्धनम् ||3.१४||

Meaning:  He must exercise judiciousness in the use of figures of speech though he may be endowed with the ability of using them profusely. These are the stipulations underlying the suggestiveness of a whole composition in respect of sentiments, etc.

A poet might have the capacity to create different types of Alamkaaras. Even then, he should include only the required ones, keeping in mind the entire story.

Auchityaऔचित्यम्

औचित्यम् = propriety – suitableness – it is the bhava of uchita. उचितम् = proper. It is the soul of all beauty. Without propriety, whatever you do, will be wrong. If it is not proper, it becomes a matter of ridicule. The auchitya is decided according to the main rasa. The characters have 3 types of prakruti – daivi prakruti, aasuree prakruti or maanavee prakruti. Based on their prakruti, everything else should match like the dress and the mannerism. There is another thing called Sandarba auchitya. What is appropriate in such situation has to be considered. Most importantly the rasa’s auchitya has to be ensured.

Rasa auchitya & Rasabhanga due to Anuchityaa

[Side note: A Kashmiri poet, Kshemendra (after Anandavardhana) wrote a work called Auchitya Vichaara Charchaa. He states that Guna, Alamkaaraa, Vrutti, Pravrutti or the suggested meaning vyangyaartha – all these should been within the limits of auchitya. Else it will become a laughing stock].

अनौचित्यादृते नान्यद्रसभङ्गस्य कारणम् | </*>प्रसिद्धौचित्यबन्धस्तु रसस्योपनिषत्परा || ३.१४++ ||

अनौचित्यात्+ऋते न+अन्यत्+रसभङ्गस्य कारणम् |प्रसिद्ध+औचित्य+बन्धः+तु रसस्य+उपनिषद्+परा ||

रसभङ्गस्य कारणम् अन्यत्न There could be no other cause for a breach in sentiment अनौचित्यात्+ऋते except impropriety. रसस्यपराउपनिषद् The greatest secret or Upanishad or rahasya about the delineation of sentiment is प्रसिद्ध+औचित्य+बन्धः to conform to the well-known and accepted considerations of propriety.

An interruption of aesthetic relish is called Rasa bhanga. The main reason for this is anauchitya. Bharata laid down the strict rule that in the stage play par excellence, only a well-known plot and a familiar noble hero should figure in. If this rule is adopted, a poet can ill-afford to go wrong in the matter of maintaining propriety in relation to the hero with impossible super human characteristics while writing a drama with its plot invented by him.

There is the suitability of the character and the suitability of even Vrutti, Pravrutti and Sannivesha (situation) are to be considered. For example, the king taking out his sword to fight enemy is acceptable but if he takes out his sword in a fight with his wife, it is not appropriate. Even in the Natya Shastra, when Indra flies in the sky, it is acceptable for the audience to accept the divine feats only by gods. But when an ordinary man says that he will fly to the heaven, it is inappropriate. Another example – in a drama, there is a pandit. His speech could indicate his knowledge. But the character of a servant cannot be shown to be talking in that same manner. For each rasa like adbhuda, karuna, vira or bhayaanaka, the poem has to be written appropriately. The dialog and the actions for Karuna and Vira will be different. Adbhuda might have a lengthy dialog expressing surprise. Thus the most important factor among the suitability is Rasa Auchitya.

Example of suggestion through Krudanta

अतिक्रान्तसुखाः कालाः प्रत्युपस्थितदारुणाः | <*>श्वः श्वः पापीयदिवसा पृथिवी गतयौवना || 3.१६++

अतिक्रान्तसुखाः | कालाः प्रत्युपस्थितदारुणाः | श्वः श्वः पापीय-दिवसा | पृथिवी गतयौवना |

Gone are the delights and times pose more and more depression. The earth has become destitute of youth and every next day (tomorrow) is a sinful day.

In the above verse suggestion with alakshyakrama  is communicated through primary suffix – krudantaah (अतिक्रान्त, प्रत्युपस्थित, गत), number – bahu vachaana (सुखाः, कालाः)  and the suggestion with the expressed totally discarded (अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य) is found in the expression “पृथिवी गतयौवना” |

One Prominent Rasa should be present

प्रसिद्धेऽपि प्रबन्धानां नानारसनिबन्धने |एको रसोऽङ्गीकर्तव्यस्तेषामुत्कर्षमिच्छता || २१||</******>  | 3.21 |

प्रसिद्धेनाना-रस-निबन्धने अपितेषाम् प्रबन्धानां उत्कर्षम् इच्छता (कविना) एकः रसः अङ्गीकर्तव्यः |

No doubt, there is a convention that in entire literary composition, there should be more than one sentiment. It is ordained here that one of those sentiments should be made the main by any poet who wants his work to be great.

Angi rasa – is the prominent rasa which should be present from the beginning till the end of the Kavya. Anga rasa is the secondary rasa which could appear in between at some time.

There are two vibhaavaas namely Aalambana Vibhaavaa and Uddeepana Vibhaavaa. The object towards which the rasa is targeted is Aalambana Vibhaavaa. Bhima says that he will drink Dhushaasanaa’s blood. So Bhima is the kaarana or Aalambana Vibhaavaa for Dhushsaasanaa’s fear. When Bhima comes, there are others who come with him making loud noises beating their drums. They become the secondary cause and enhance the fear. They are the Uddeepana Vibhaavaa. So the Vibaavaa, Anubhaavaa and Sanchaaribhaavaa included by the poet should enhance the main rasa. It should not be against the main rasa.
Angi Rasa

In every prabhanda, there has to be only one which has to be Angi Rasa and the other rasas have to be anga rasa. Shrungaara, Veera, shanta and karuna can be Angi. Bhaavabhuti said “एको रसः करुण एव” and then Karuna was considered as an Angi Rasa. Prabhoda-chandrodaya was an allegorical drama which had Shanta as its primary rasa. The prateekaas or concepts were the characters. Dhveshaa, Asooya and Advaita bhaavana were characters.

(Side note: Initially the definition of the story demanded a single person to be the hero. Only after Raghuvamsa, which had a lineage of kings whose stories were being described, Vishvanaatha changed the definition that there could be multiple heroes belonging to the same clan in a story).

Anandavardhana says that Shanta is the prominent rasa in the entire Mahabharata. It shows the impermanence of all the worldly possessions, valour, etc. Thrushnaakshaya is the most important aspect there. तृष्णाक्षय, is the cessation of desire and the tranquility of mind. It is the staayeebhava of Shaanta rasa. The entire Mahabharata is based on this Shaanta rasa. The rasa of the entire Ramayana is Karuna rasa though it is not explicitly mentioned anywhere in the epic. रामायणे हि करुणो रसः | <*> (details in 4th udyota)

There are some mutually in-compatible rasas. In the same situations, these both cannot come together. Rasa-viroodha-parihaara has to be done. For example, if Shrungaara and Karuna rasa are present, make one become supplementary to the main rasa. प्रबन्धे मुक्तके वापि रसादीन्बन्द्धुमिच्छता |यत्नः कार्यः सुमतिना परिहारे विरोधिनाम् ||3.१७||(Meaning: An earnest effort should be directed to remove the opposition by a celebrated poet who is intent upon infusing sentiments etc., whether his composition be a whole work or a single verse).

Example – Insertion of Opposed sentiment

सत्यं मनोरमा रामाः सत्यं रम्या विभूतयः | </*>किंतु मत्ताङ्गनापाङ्गभङ्गलोलं हि जीवितम् || <//*> | 3.30 ++ |

It is indeed true that women are endearing to the heart (रामाःमनोरमाः सत्यं). It is true that wealth is quite alluring (विभूतयः रम्याः सत्यं). But life (जीवितम्)itself is much transient as to compete with the tremulous glances [ i.e., the incomplete movement (भङ्ग+लोलं)of the corner of the eyes (अपाङ्ग)] of the love-intoxicated (मत्त) lady (अङ्गना). (यथा मत्ताङ्गनायाः अपाङगात् भङ्गं लोलं अशाश्वतं क्षणिकं च, तथैव जीवितम् )

If there be slightest touch of the opposite sentiments while dealing with the Sringaara Rasa and its accessories, there may not arise any defect when the rules governing the non-opposition of sentiments are meticulously followed. Hence indeed there can be no defect with the insertion of an opposed sentiment as one finds in the above verse.

Guneebhootavyangya

प्रकारोऽन्यो गुणीभूतव्यङ्ग्यः काव्यस्य दृश्यते | यत्र व्यङ्ग्यान्वये वाच्यचारुत्वं स्यात्प्रकर्षवत् ||३.३४||

Meaning: We come across another kind of poetry, having suggestion as subordinate, in which the poetic exuberance of the expressed is much more intense than in the suggested, though both the expressed and the suggested are together found.

Here he defines Guneebhootavyangya. It is a kind of poetry other than Dhvani. In this, more than the suggested meaning – vyangyaartha, there is prominence of the vaachyaartha itself. The maaduryam is due to vaachyaartha and vyangyaartha just supports it. Here the Vyangyaa has गुणीभाव i.e., it has become secondary to something else.

अनुरागवती सन्ध्या दिवसस्तत्पुरस्सरः | अहो दैवगतिः कीदृक्तथापि न समागमः || (after 1.12)

Meaning: Twilight is full of love and the day follows her face to face. Alas! What is ordained by decree of fate is that they never meet!

The day goes in the front. The vadu – Sandhya follows himself from behind. But the destiny is such that they could never meet. Here the vaachyaartha itself is much attractive than the vengyaartha which suggests the pain of the couple who could not unite. Eg. ग्रामतरुणं तरुण्या नववञ्जुलमञ्जरीसनाथकरम् ।पश्यन्त्या भवति मुहुर्नितरां मलिना मुखच्छाया ॥kaavya prakaasha ३॥(Context: The person brings the creeper from the meeting place and shows it to his lover to convey that she did not come to meet him there at the appointed time. Meaning: In this, the literal meaning is that the brightness of the young woman’s face becomes acutely faded when she sees the youthful villager who carries in his hand a bunch of fresh Vanjula flowers. Here the suggested meaning is that she did not go to the meeting point even though she had promised to meet her lover there. Since the denoted meaning is more charming, in this example, the suggested meaning is subordinated to the denoted meaning). This is an example of Guneebhoothavyangya.

प्रसन्नगम्भीरपदाः काव्यबन्धाः सुखावहाः | ये च तेषु प्रकारोऽयमेव योज्याः सुमेधसा ||३.३५||

Meaning:All literary compositions, which attract the readers, with their lucid elegant words, are to be reckoned as Guneebhuta by the sensitive critic.

The Prasanna padas are the words which are pleasing when we read it. Gambheera padas are the words that are impregnated with deep meaning.  The Kaavya that comprises of Prasanna and Gambheera padas bring happiness. In case of Vastu Dhvani and Alamkaara dhvani, there is some chamatkaara – some surprise – some enjoyable factor. In Rasa Dhvani also, the viewer or reader experiences Ananda. Similarly, in the guneebhoothavyangya also, ananda will be experienced. Thus, even if it is guneebhoothavyangya kaavya, if it has prasanna and gambheera padas, it can be considered almost equal to Dhvani Kaavya.

वाच्यालङ्कारवर्गोऽयं व्यङ्ग्यांशानुगमे सति | प्रायेणैव परां छायां बिभ्रल्लक्ष्ये निरीक्ष्यते ||3.३६||

Meaning: The entire group of Alankaaras obtains special charm when it is brought in association with suggested element. Even the Vaachyaalamkaaras, which are supported by vyangyaarthas, gain supreme splendor. There is an Alamkaara called samaasokti. It is nurtured by vyangya and thus enhances its splendor. In such cases, the guneebhoothavyangya kaavya is almost equal to Dhvani Kaavya.  These verses show the abhimaana that Anandavardhana had for Guneebhootavyangya Kaavyas.

There is some common aspect within all the alamkaaras which causes them to be attractive. That aspect is called Athishayaa. Athishayokti is a specific Alamkaara. Athishayaa is the basis for the extra-ordinary-ness in the alamkaaras. It is lokottara vaak – the speech that is beyond the normal speeches. Bhaama and others call it as Vakrokti. सैषा सर्वैव वक्रोक्तिरनयार्थो विभाव्यते |यत्नोऽस्यां कविना कार्यः कोऽलङ्कारोऽनया विना ||इति | (after 3.36)|

Context: Bhaamaha has defined exaggeration as follows. Meaning: This exaggeration is nothing but the artistic turn of expression and it is by this poetic idea is conveyed. A poet should work hard on it in particular and there cannot be any figure i.e. alamkara without it.

The essence of that which is called Athisayoktih is completely Vakrokti only. Such vakrokti is the basis for all alamkaaras. So the Kavi should make special effort to introduce this vakrokti in his works. विभाव्यते–Visheshana bhaavyate – i.e., it gets a specialty due to vakrokti. The reason for the attractiveness of all the alamkaaras is the athishaya amsha – the vakrokti.

Chitra Kaavya

प्रधानगुणभावाभ्यां व्यङ्ग्यस्यैवं व्यवस्थिते | काव्ये उभे ततोऽन्यद्यत्तच्चित्रमभिधीयते ||3.४१||

Meaning:  The two divisions of poetry have been thus recognized mainly on the standard of primary importance and secondary importance attached to the suggested idea. That class of poetry which is different from both these is called Citrakaavya.

When Vyangya is prominent it is Dhvani. When it is equal to or subservient to Vaachyaartha, it is called Guneebhoota Vyangya Kaavya. When vyangya is barely noticeable it is called Chitra Kaavya. Note that Vyangya is the soul of poetry and there cannot be poetry without Dhvani.

चित्रं शब्दार्थभेदेन द्विविधं च व्यवस्थितम् | तत्र किञ्चिच्छब्दचित्रं वाच्यचित्रमतः परम् ||४२||

Meaning: This Chitrakaavya is further divided into two depending on its grounding on word and meaning. They are Shabdachitram and arthachitram.

By differentiating between the shabda and artha, there are two types of chitra – namely shabda chitra which gains attractiveness due to shabdaalamkaara and the other artha chitra which gains attractiveness due to the arthaalamkaara. Example of shabda chitra given in Kaavya prakaasha is स्वच्छन्दोच्छलदच्छकच्छकुहरच्छातेतराम्बुच्छटामूर्छन्मोहमहर्षिहर्षविहितस्नानाह्निकाह्नाय वः ।भिद्यादुद्यदुदारदर्दुरदरीदीर्घादरिद्रद्रुमद्रोहोद्रेकमहोर्मिमेदुरमदा मन्दाकिनी मन्दताम् ॥४॥} <(गोविन्दठक्कुरऽस्काव्यप्रदीप)>. Example of Artha chitra is the verse given in Kaavya prakaasha where Amaraavati closes her eyes due to fear. विनिर्गतं मानदमात्ममन्दिराद्भवत्युपश्रुत्य यदृच्छयापि यम् ।ससंभ्रमेन्द्र्रद्रुतपातितार्गला निमीलिताक्षीव भियामरावती ॥५॥(मेण्ठकृतं हयग्रीववधम्). When Indra hears that Hayagriva has exited from his residence, the gates of Amaraavati are instantly closed and that city appears to be closing her eyes out of dread. There is utprekshaalamkaara in the words निमीलिताक्षीव.  The upamaa’s feature of eyes is superimposed on the city, though city does not have eyes. This is utprekshaalamkaara.

Fourth Udyota

Noveltythrough Suggestion

ध्वनेर्यः सगुणीभूतव्यङ्ग्यस्याध्वा प्रदर्शितः | अनेनानन्त्यमायाति कवीनां प्रतिभागुणः ||4.१||

Meaning: The way in which principal suggestion and subordinated suggestion have been expounded hitherto, will enhance the richness of creative imagination in poets and there will be no end at all to that.

We have described the Dhvani’s marga and the Guneebhootavyangya’s marga. Having learnt all these, the Kavi’s imagination knows no bounds. He brings Ananda.

अतो ह्यन्यतमेनापि प्रकारेण विभूषिता |वाणी नवत्वमायाति पूर्वार्थान्वयवत्यपि ||४.२||
अतः हि अन्यतमेन+अपि प्रकारेण विभूषिता |वाणी नवत्वम्+आयाति पूर्व+ अर्थ + अन्वयवती + अपि ||४.२||

By a mere contact of even a single variety of suggestion out of the many that have been enlisted earlier, the poets’ expression will gain novelty though it might present astale / hackneyed idea.

पूर्वार्थ+अन्वयवति अपि – Even if it is follows the earlier poet’s thoughts.  It is acceptable if the poet creates it with dhvani. The subject might be the same. But if I enhance it with my own individuality including dhvani (अन्यतमेन प्रकारेण विभूषिता वाणी), then there is no fault. It becomes a new one नवत्वम्+आयाति.

For example, someone praised the simha that because of its tejas, it is invincible. “स्वतेजःक्रीतमहिमा केनान्येनातिशय्यते |  महद्भिरपि मातङ्गैः सिंहः किमभिभूयते ॥”(4.2 ++) (Meaning: Can one who has won fame by the fund of his own powers be surpassed? Can the lion be overpowered by the mightiest elephant?” Later another poet writes “यः प्रथमः प्रथमः स तु तथाहि हतहस्तिबहलपललाशी । श्वापदगणेषु सिंहः सिंहः केनाधरीक्रियते ॥” (4.2 ++) (Meaning: The person who is Numero Uno will be number one, i.e., the most important person will be the most important person. In the same way, being the best among the wild beasts, the lion will be a lion, which partakes upto its brim the flesh of the killed elephant). Because of this dhvani अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य, it is a new idea and it is not considered as a copying.

By these numerous types, if Saraswati is pleased even by any one of these, she would gain novelty. नवनवोन्मेषशालिनी प्रतिभा – That which produces newer and newer meaning is Prathibha. In whichever type, it is included, it bring a novelty to the work.

Literary Criticism of the Entire Work

In the fourth chapter of Dhvanyaaloka, Anandavardhana does practical criticism. The general complain about Indian alamkaarikas is that they take samples from different works and point out the figures of speech. But they do not take up one whole literary work and do a literary criticism doing an exhaustive review of its specialty. But that is not true. We find an exhaustive review of Ramayana and Mahabharata in the 4th of chapter of Dhvanyaaloka.

Literary Criticism of Ramayana

रामायणे हि करुणो रसः | </*> | ४.५ + |

The prominent rasa of Ramayana is being discussed. In Ramayana, there is Shringaara, Vipralambha Shringaara, Karuna, Vira, kroda, etc. Valmiki himself states that शोकः श्लोकत्वमागतः | So shoka or sorrow is the staayibhaava of this entire epic. The last scene ends with Sita entering the earth. As Karuna has been present from start to end, it is the prominent (angi) rasa of Ramayana.

[Side note: Example of Krodha

न स संकुचितः पंथा येन वाली हतो गतः |
समये तिष्ठ सुग्रीव मा वालि पथम् अन्वगाः || ४-३०-८१

Oh, great-mighty Lakshmana, you may proceed to Kishkindhaa and let Sugreeva know through you, as to how my fury takes shape, and oh, brave one, he may betold this word also, ‘Oh, Sugreeva, abide by your commitment. The path by which slain Vaali has gone is not tapered off, as such do not tread Vaali’s path.]

Literary Criticism of Mahabhaarata

Next, Mahaabhaarata is taken up. In most of the Parvaas it is mainly fight and hence Vira is a rasa. There are also Shringaara and Shoka or Karuna. But Anandavardhana says that the prominent rasa of Mahabharata is Shanta rasa. Anukramanika is the table of contents. In the anukramanika of Mahabharata, there is no reference to the term Shanta. Then, how can it be taken as the main rasa? Anandavardhana says that the most obvious thing should not be stated explicitly. It should be understood through Dhvani. In the Anukramanika, there is one verse. ‘ भगवान्वासुदेवश्च कीर्त्यतेऽत्र सनातनः’ –‘ भगवान्+वासुदेवः+च कीर्त्यते+अत्र सनातनः’ The meaning of Vaasadeva is not the son of Vasudeva. Sanaatanaa is eternal. Vasudeva’s son was not eternal. वसति इति वासुः | वासुः च असौ देवः च वासुदेवः | The praise of that eternal god is being sung in the entire Mahaabhaarata. That god is the personification of Shanta. Even if the other characters like Arjuna and Bhima are described in the Bhaarata, only this Vaasudeva is the main character. Bharata is a Kavya and it is also a Shashtra. As a Kavya, Krishna is the ultimate. As a Shashtra, Shantha is the ultimate. All the rasas culminate in Shantha.

स्वं स्वं निमित्तमासाद्य शान्ताद्भावः प्रवर्तते ।। ६.८२*४ ।।पुनर्निमित्तापाये च शान्त एवोपलीयते ।
स्वं स्वं निमित्तम्+आसाद्य शान्तात्+भावः प्रवर्तते । पुनः निमित्त+अपाये च शान्त एव+उपलीयते । |

Taking their own nimittaas from Shanta, all bhavas occur. Resorting to its respective cause [each] bhaava arises from Shanta. After their cause, the bhaavas cling to Shanta only. So Shantha rasa is the prominent rasa of Bhaarata.

Samvaada – Correspondence – संवादः

Anandavardhana talks about Samvaada in the fourth chapter. Assume Shakespeare writes something. If the same thing is also said by our poets, say Kalidasa or Bhaaravi, we say that there is Samvaada or Correspondence or Similarity of thought. For example, what was found (like value of pi) by our great mathematician like Aryabhaatta and Bhaskaracharya was also found independently by European mathematicians. “Great minds think alike”. But, Krithi chauryaa – plagiarism – is stealing someone’s work.

Samvaada is Acceptable

संवादास्तु भवन्त्येव बाहुल्येन सुमेधसाम्|  4.11 | </*>

Anvayah – सुमेधसाम् बाहुल्येन संवादाःतु भवन्ति एव |
स्थितं ह्येतत् संवादिन्य एव मेधाविनां बुद्धयः | किन्तु – – -नैकरूपतया सर्वे ते मन्तव्या विपश्चिता ||4.११||

Samvaada is Correspondence or Similarity of thought. There would be certainly plentiful coincidences of ideas presented by the minds. Here Anandavardhana says that all of them need not be considered identical by any stretch of imagination by the recipients.

There will be samvaada among great poets and it cannot be avoided. There is similarity between Ashvaagosha and Kaalidasa. Great minds could think alike. It is not a fault. It is quite possible that another poet shares the same opinion or idea of a poet. Within the works of great poets, there will be similarity. The presentation and approach would change between the poets. In the case where both come up with the same thought, one cannot reject the other, though there is similarity. But in other cases, it becomes Kruti Chaurya. Here he clarifies when it becomes Plagiarism.

[Side note: सु+मेधाः = The ability to retain the knowledge is Medhaa i.e., the धारण after ग्रहण. It is the retentive memory. प्रातिपदिकम् – मेधस्; Panini sutra – नित्यमसिच् प्रजामेधयोः॥ ५।४।१२२.  There will always be असिच् प्रत्यय for the words प्रजा and मेधा. Eg In prathama vibhakti eka vachanam प्रजाःcomes in Venkatesha Suprabhatam – कौसल्याः सुप्रजाः राम – there the प्रातिपदिकम् is सुप्रजस् ]

Types of Samvaada

संवादो ह्यन्यसादृश्यं तत्पुनः प्रतिबिम्बवत् | आलेख्याकारवत्तुल्यदेहिवच्च शरीरिणाम् ||4. १२ ||

संवादःहि अन्यसादृश्यं तत् पुनः प्रतिबिम्बवत् |आलेख्य+आकारवत् तुल्य+देहिवत् च शरीरिणाम् ||4. १२ ||

Coincidence is nothing but correspondence with the other. It may be in the form of an image reflected in a mirrorशरीरिणां प्रतिबिम्बवत्, like that of a pictureआलेख्याकारवत्, and like that of two individuals resembling one anotherतुल्यदेहिवत्.

In the first case, it is copying like bhimba pratibhimba or reflection (प्रतिबिम्बवत्).It is a copy. Second is like an artist who tries to draw on his own looking at the original आलेख्याकारवत् | आलेख्या is painting. Third one is resemblance – तुल्यदेहिवत्. Similar– तुल्य.

Here further says about these three.

तत्र पूर्वमनन्यात्म तुच्छात्म तदनन्तरम् | तृतीयं तु प्रसिद्धात्म नान्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः ||४.१३ ||

तत्र पूर्वम्+अनन्यात्म तुच्छ+आत्म तत्+अनन्तरम् |तृतीयं तु प्रसिद्ध+आत्म न+अन्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्+कविः ||४.१३ ||

Of these, the first one has no individual existence of its own, the possibility of the second is not better than a non-entity. The third one of course has a concrete existence. A poet need not have to bypass similarity in themes.

In the first one (तत्र पूर्वम्), there is no atma (अनन्यात्म). In the second one (तत्+अनन्तरम्), through there is likeness it has empty soul (तुच्छ+आत्म).Looking at the picture, the person will be identified. Yet the soul is not present there. In the third (तृतीयं तु), the other one also has a soul of its own (प्रसिद्ध+आत्म). The kavi should not leave this (कविः अन्यसाम्यंन त्यजेत्).

Rajashekara in Kaavya Meemaamsaa mentions about Saadrushyaa showing some 16 types with examples. There are poets who translate the Sanskrit poet’s verses and include it in their works in the other regional languages.

In resemblance, it is अनन्यात्मा –it is not a different person. The painting one is inferior. The resemblance between two people like twins is acceptable since they have their own existence and specialty though they have some similar features. नअन्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः–This should not be given up by the poet. Though it is not a fault to have some idea that resembles the work of an earlier poet, it is better to avoid building on another person’s idea. There are numerous options available and the poet should try to find something new than choosing something that has already been done.

परस्वादानेच्छाविरतमनसो वस्तु सुकवेः|सरस्वत्येवैषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती  || ४.१७||
पर-स्वादान-इच्छा-विरत-मनसः वस्तु सुकवेः |सरस्वती एव एषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती  || ४.१७||

The Goddess of speech, Saraswati herself will help the deserving and talented poets in procuring the ideas provided they shun plagiarism.

If someone is keen on producing his own work, without copying, Saraswati herselfwill provide with new ideas as much as needed.

Other Information

Quotations from Exam Questions

Quote with Book no./ page no.

  • श्वशूरत्र निमज्जति अत्राहम् दिवसकम् प्रलोक्यम्। १/२५
  • कस्य वा न भवति । १/२६
  • उपोढरागेण विलोलतारकम् । १/५२
  • शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम । १/५५
  • सुवर्णपुष्पाम् प्ऋथिवीम्। १/५५
  • गगनम् मत्तमेघम् । २/५
  • रवि सम्क्रान्त सौभाग्य। २/५
  • अपऋथग्यत्न निर्वव्र्यः सोsलड़्कारो ध्वनौ मतः17 २/40
  • तस्याः विनापि हारेण। २/५९
  • एवम् वादिनि देवर्षो पार्श्वे। २/७०
  • शिखिपिच्छकर्णपूरा जाया। २/७२
  • चन्दनासक्त भुजग। २/७६
  • अड़्कुरितः पल्लवितः। २/७७
  • या निशा सर्वभूतानाम्। ३/११
  • अति क्रान्त सुखाः कालाः। ४/७
  • सत्यम् मनोरमाः रामाः। ४/५४
  • शब्दार्थौ सहितौ काव्यम्

List of All Examples (exam questions only)

Dhvani – what it can be

(1) suggestive idea will be prohibitive

भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः स शुनकोऽद्य मारितस्तेन |गोदावरी-नदी-कूल-लता-गहन-वासिना दृप्त-सिंहेन ||

(2)suggestive meaning approves.

श्वश्रूरत्र शेते (अथवा निमज्जति) अत्राहं दिवसकं प्रलोकय |</****>मा पथिक रात्र्यन्धः शय्यायामावयोः शयिष्ठाः ||

(3)suggested meaning relates to something which is absolutely different

कस्य वा न भवति रोषो दृष्ट्वा प्रियायाः सव्रणमधरम् |</*>सभ्रमरपद्माघ्राणशीले वारितवामे सहस्वेदानीम् ||<//*>| 1.4 ++ |

Dhvani – What it is not

(4) Samaasookti – the suggested sense is subservient to the conventional meaning

उपोढरागेण विलोलतारकं तथा गृहीतं शशिना निशामुखम् |</****>
यथा समस्तं तिमिरांशुकं तया पुरोऽपि रागाद्गलितं न लक्षितम् ||<//****>| 1.13+|

Bhakti is not Dhvani

(*)वसतिं रामगिरि-आश्रमेषु– yaksha – not Bhakti only Dhvani

(*)बिसिनी+पत्र+शयनम्वदति – only lakshanaa. No Dhvani

Types of Dhvani

(5) अविवक्षितवाच्य

सुवर्णपुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषास्त्रयः |</*>शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च यश्च जानाति सेवितुम् ||<//*></*>| 1.13+|

(6) विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य

शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम कियच्चिरं किमभिधानमसावकरोत्तपः । </*>तरुणि येन तवाधरपाटलं दशति बिम्बफलं शुकशावकः ।। 1.13+|

(7) अर्थान्तरसंक्रमित within अविवक्षितवाच्य

कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोर-हृदयः रामः अस्मि सर्वं सहेवैदेही तु कथम् भविष्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव ||

(*) रविकिरण-अनुगृहीतानि भवन्ति कमलानि कमलानि |

(8a) अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत within अविवक्षितवाच्य

रविसङ्क्रान्तसौभाग्यस्तुषारावृतमण्डलः | </**>निःश्वासान्ध इवादर्शश्चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते ||

(8b) अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत within अविवक्षितवाच्य

गगनं च मत्तमेघं धारालुलितार्जुनानि च वनानि |</**>निरहङ्कारमृगाङ्का हरन्ति नीला अपि निशाः ||<//**>||2.1 ++||

(*)रसवदलंकारः — हे हेरंब किमम्ब … Hasya over Karuna.

(*)Shabdashakti in Samlakshya (eg from Kaavya Prakaasha)

भद्रात्मनो दुरधिरोहतनोर्विशालवंशोन्नतेःकृतशिलीमुखविग्रहस्य ।यस्यानुपप्लुतगतेः परवारणस्यदानाम्बुसेकसुभगः सततं करोभूत् ॥१२॥

The verse could mean both a king (contextual) and an elephant belonging to the jaati of Bhadra.

(*) note: NOT example of Sabdashakti in Samlakshya because shlesha with both meaning being contextual

सर्वदोमाधवः = सर्वदः माधवः / सर्वदा उमाधवः

(9) note:NOT example of Shabdashakti in Samlakshya because not vyangya

तस्या विनापि हारेण निसर्गादेव हारिणौ |</****>जनयामासतुः कस्य विस्मयं न पयोधरौ ||<//****>||2.22  ++  ||

(10a) Arthashakti – Svatahsambhavi – Vastunaa vastudhvani

एवंवादिनि देवर्षौ पार्श्वे पितुरधोमुखी |</***>लीलाकमलपत्राणि गणयामास पार्वती ||<//***>  | 2.23 ++ |

(10b) Arthashakti – Svatahsambhavi – Vastunaa vastudhvani

शिखिपिच्छकर्णपूरा जाया व्याधस्य गर्विणी भ्रमति |</*>मुक्ताफलरचितप्रसाधनानां मध्ये सपत्नीनाम् || 2.२४||<//*>

(*) Arthashakti – Kavipraudokti – सज्जयति सुरभिमासः –The month arranges for manmata.

(*) Arthashakti – Kavi-nibhaddha-vaktru-praudokti शिखरिणिक्वनुनाम mentioned earlier.

(11) Vastunaa-alamkaaradhvani – Utpreksa-dhvani

चन्दनासक्तभुजगनिःश्वासानिलमूर्च्छितः |</*>मूर्च्छयत्येष पथिकान्मधौ मलयमारुतः ||<//*>  | 2.28 ++ |

(12) Yathaasamkhya-dhvani (alamkaarena-alamkaara Dhvani)

अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च सहकारः |</*>अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च हृदि मदनः ||<//*> | 2.28 ++ |

(13) वाक्यप्रकाशता in अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी | </*>यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः || <//*>  | 3.1 eg |

(14) suggestion through Krudanta

अतिक्रान्तसुखाः कालाः प्रत्युपस्थितदारुणाः | श्वः श्वः पापीयदिवसा पृथिवी गतयौवना || 3.१६++

(15) Insertion of Opposed sentiment

सत्यं मनोरमा रामाः सत्यं रम्या विभूतयः | </*>किं तु मत्ताङ्गनापाङ्गभङ्गलोलं हि जीवितम् || <//*> | 3.30 ++ |

Reference material:

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