Linguistics – KSOU MA FAQs – Harini (Video)

Essay questions

  1. अर्थपरिणतिभेदान् सोदाहरणं निरूपय
  2. अर्थपरिवर्तनस्य कारणानि कानि सोदाहरणं विवृणुत
  3. वर्णानां स्थान प्रयत्न विवेकमधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं लिखत
  4. भाषोत्पत्ति वादान् अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं
  5. वर्णात्मक भाषाशास्त्रस्य स्थूल परिचयं
  6. ध्वनिविज्ञानं अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं
  7. भारोपीयम् भाषापरिवारं अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं
  8. ध्वनिनियमान् सोदाहरणं वर्णयत
  9. भाषाणां वंशाधारित वर्गीकरणम्

Short notes

अर्थपरिणतिभेदान् सोदाहरणं निरूपय

Arthaparinati: The ways in which the meaning changes

The language deals with words and meanings. There are different types of meanings like mukhyaartha, gaunaartha, vyangyaartha, yogikaartha, etc.

A word or sentence could have different meaning for different people. The best example is how Devas, Asuras and the humans were blessed by Brahma with “Da” wherein Devas took it as Dayaa, Asuras took it as Damana, humans took it as Daana.

The meaning changes – Arthaparinati

Arthasankocha” – The meaning becomes narrowed-down. Eg.Modaka refers to sweets. But these days, it refers to a specific dish. Annam refers to any edible item but in particular it is used to refer to rice only. Mruga used to refer to any animal. Now only deer.

Artha-apakarsha – degeneration. In aabaalaviruddaah – “a” refers to the limit. “aasuraparyantamvandaneeyaah” – until suras or the devas are to be worshipped.  But asuras now is being used to refer to only to a specific group.

जुगुप्सा ->to hide [gup dhatu] ->disgust

महाराज ->चक्रवर्ति ->cook

महापात्र ->विध्वाम्स ->dead people

Arthavistruti – Using the word in a different context wherein it conveys a different meaning. “Gavekshana” is “Gavaamikshana” – that is to look out for the cows which have not returned to their cowshed by evening. But now this term is being used in general to refer to the act of searching.

Only the oil that is got out of तिल had the name तैल. But now, it refers to oil in general.

Kaadambari, rather than referring to a specific work indicates novels. Naataka is a specific type of Drama, but is being used to refer to drama in general also

Taalapatra originally meant only the palm leaves. Now Patra refers to letters though it is on paper and not on palm leaves.

Artha-utkarsha – elevated meaning – the meaning changes from an inferior one to a more superior meaning.

गौरव->गुरुत्व heavy ->पूर्णत्व.

साहस ->व्यभिचार / हत्य ->courageous deeds

दृष्ट ->लज्जाहीन ->धैर्यशाली

मुग्ध ->मूर्ख ->सरळ

Arthaantara-praapti – That which results in a different meaning. paashanda, viraagi, bikshu, etc – earlier it referred to the revered ascetics. But in kaavyas, it is used to mean those who are not reliable. Earlier Grantha referred to the collection of palm leaves that are well arranged irrespective of whether it has been used or nothing is written on it. Now it refers to a book especially those which have high ideals of life like Ramayana.

Bhraata – now means Brother. It used to mean the person who does not belong to the group – odd man out.

अर्थपरिवर्तनस्य कारणानि Reasons for the changes in the words

Poetic liberty:Sometimes, the poets could change the word by dropping certain aksharaas to make it suit the chandas.This could result in apakarsha or utkarsha. Eg.Paaramgata – one who crosses the river to reach the other side. But it has a special meaning now to refer to a realized soul. The word madhura-vaani used to refer to only the sound of the birds. But not to anyone who speaks sweetly.

There are other environmental, social and geographical factors. An example for the change in geographical environment is the term ushtra.  Earlier the term meant buffalo and later it acquired the meaning of camel because Aryans migrated to different regions where there were camels and no buffaloes.

Change in social environment can be understood from the kannada example kattemeaning platform. Earlier it meant a raised platform built around a tree where people used to sit and talk. It also meant a bund built to stop the flow of water. Current day scenario it means a kitchen platform in urban homes.

श्वशुरः – used mostly to mean father-in-law. But there are cases where it means enemy.

Side note: जामाता दशमो ग्रहः |JSon-in-law is the 10th planet.

Vinayokti – As a mark of respect, the language is changed when we address elders. Another example – सावकाशेन भुञ्जीत – In Ayurveda, it is suggested that one should eat leaving some empty space in the stomach. But now saavakaasha means leisurely.

Side note: स्निग्धं उष्णं अल्पंच भोजनम् |

Saumyokti – To make it pleasing to the other – calling Differently-abled rather than disabled. Mangalavaara.Example – अमङ्गलस्य वारस्य यथा मङ्गलवारः | Another example – दिवङ्गत: Earlier the literal meaning was there – the rishi could just visit the paraloka and come back. In that case, the disciples could say that the guru has gone to visit the paraloka. But now, it is a decent way of saying that the person is dead. Saying the person passed away or the person is no more is a polished way of saying that the person died.

अधेनुं धेनुम् इति –Rather than saying that the cow has not started milking yet and it does not qualify to be worshipped, it is politely put that it will become dhenu.

Vyangyokti – Bruhaspati or panditaputrah – for example might indicate an idiot. It is conveyed in an indirect way.

Final reason is ignorance. By mistake, wrong words are used. Tikka used to refer only to the critical review of good and bad points. But now, it refers to commentary.


वर्णानां स्थान प्रयत्न विवेकमधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं लिखत

Production of speech sounds takes place by the disturbance of the air column which comes out of the lungs and passes through the gullet, oral cavity and exits through mouth and sometimes nose.

Organs of speech can be broadly divided into 2 as movable and immovable organs.

Immovable organs are upper lip, upper teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate and dome of the mouth [roof].

Movable organs are lower lip, lower teeth, tip of the tongue, blade of the tongue, middle of the tongue, back of the tongue and uvula.

Articulation or movement of these organs results in speech production. There are 3 components in the process of articulation.

  1. Place or point of articulation [immovable part – that which is touched]
  2. The articulator [movable part – that which touches]
  3. The manner of articulation.

Based on the manner of articulation the speech sounds are classified as vowels and consonants.

Vowels: the stream of air passes out without any obstruction or audible friction. Changes in the shape and the size of the resonance chamber causes different vowel sounds..aa – wide open, ee – lips are closer but wider. Etc

Consonants: here the point of articulation, articulator and manner of articulation play an important role.

Manner of articulation: 7 types are mentioned.

  1. Stops स्पर्श – movement of air is stopped and suddenly released.[ ट]
  2. Affricates अनुघर्ष – movement of air is stopped but the release is gradual.[त]
  3. Fricatives घर्ष – the articulator does not touch the point of articulation but goes near it and air passes with great friction. [र]
  4. Nasals अनुनासिक – similar to stop but air passes through the nasal cavity.
  5. Laterals पार्श्विक- midline is closed and air passes through the sides.
  6. Trills ताडित- similar to fricatives but the articulator itself vibrates with the movement of air.[drrrrum]
  7. Flap अनुताडित- fast single sweeping movement of the articulator. [Up]


Voiced घोषित and voiceless अघोष consonants : if the vocal cords vibrate then it is voiced. If the vocal cords are wide open and the air passes through it then it is voiceless as in whispering.

Aspirated consonants महाप्राण: extra puff of air is added to the release.

अकुहविसर्जनीयानां कण्ठ:, इचुयशानां तालु,ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा, लृतुलसानां दन्ताः, उपूपध्मानीयानां ओष्ठौ, ञमङणनानां नासिका च, एदैतोः कण्ठतालु, ओदौतोः कण्ठोष्ठम्, वकारस्य दान्तोष्ठम्


ध्वनि विज्ञानमधिकृत्य प्रबन्धम् essay on phonetics

  1. Organs of speech
  2. Physics of sound

Phonetics is studied under 3 heads.

  1. Articulatory phonetics उच्चारणात्मक ध्वनि विज्ञान: the production of speech sounds in the oral cavity of the speaker.
  2. Auditory phonetics श्रवणात्मक: the perception of the listener.
  3. Acoustic phonetics तरङ्गात्मक: physical properties of sound waves in form of pitch, formants, loudness etc.


भाषोत्पत्ति वादान् अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं

Language may be defined as an arbitrary system of vocal symbols by means of which human beings as members of a social group and participants in culture interact and communicate. Language consists of orally produced meaningful words and sentences.

Words are definitely not inborn, but the capacity to acquire a language and use it creatively seems to be inborn. Noam Chomsky calls this ability the LAD (Language Acquisition Device).  Today we will ask two questions: how did this language instinct in humans originate? And how did the first language come into being?

Concerning the origin of the first language, there are two main hypotheses, or beliefs.  Neither can be proven or disproved given present knowledge.

1) Belief in divine creation.  Many societies throughout history believed that language is the gift of the gods to humans.  The most familiar is found in Genesis 2:20, which tells us that Adam gave names to all living creatures.  [mentionabtshabda and ishvarasanketa] This belief predicates that humans were created from the start with an innate capacity to use language.

It can’t be proven that language is as old as humans, but it is definitely true that language and human society are inseparable.  Wherever humans exist language exists. There are no primitive languages, nor are any known to have existed in the past–even among the most remote tribes of stone age hunter-gatherers.

Nevertheless, it is impossible to prove that the first anatomically modern humans possessed creative language. It is also impossible to disprove the hypothesis that primitive languages might have existed at some point in the distant past of Homo sapiens development.

2) Natural evolution hypothesis. At some point in their evolutionary development humans acquired a more sophisticated brain which made language invention and learning possible.  In other words, at some point in time humans evolved a language acquisition device, whatever this may be in real physical terms.  The simple vocalizations and gestures inherited from our primate ancestors then quickly gave way to a creative system of language–perhaps within a single generation or two. This hypothesis cannot be proven either.

Invention hypotheses. Whether it is divine gift or by evolution, there are various theories to explain how language was invented. Each of it has been criticised and not accepted universally. Most linguists agree that the origin of language is still a mystery.

First, there are four imitation hypotheses that hold that language began through some sort of human mimicry of naturally occurring sounds or movements:

1) The “ding-dong” hypothesis.  Language began when humans started naming objects, actions and phenomena after a recognizable sound associated with it in real life.  This hypothesis holds that the first human words were a type of verbalicona sign whose form is an exact image of its meaningcrash became the word for thunder, boom for explosion.  Some words in language obviously did derive from imitation of natural sounds associated with some object: Chinook Indian word for heart–tun-tun, Basque word for knife: ai-ai (literally ouch-ouch).

The problem with this hypothesis is that onomatopoeia (imitation of sound, auditory iconicity) is a very limited part of the vocabulary of any language; imitative sounds differ from language to language.  Even if onomatopoeia provided the first dozen or so words, then where did names for the thousands of naturally noiseless concepts such as rock, sunsky or love come from?

2) The “pooh-pooh” hypothesis holds that the first words came from involuntary exclamations of dislike, hunger, pain, or pleasure, eventually leading to the expression of more developed ideas and emotions.  In this case the first word would have been an involuntary ha-ha-hawa-wa-wa These began to be used to name the actions which caused these sounds.

The problem with this hypothesis is that, once again, emotional exclamations are a very small part of any language.  They are also highly language specific. For instance, to express sudden pain or discomfort: Eng. ouch; Russ. oi.;  Cherokee eee.  Thus, exclamations are more like other words in that they reflect the phonology of each separate language.  Unlike sneezes, tears, hiccoughs or laughter, which are innate human responses to stimuli, the form of exclamations depends on language.  Also, exclamations, like most other words are symbols, showing at least a partially arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning.

3) The “bow-wow” hypothesis anukaranasiddhanta (the most famous and therefore the most ridiculed hypothesis) holds that vocabulary developed from imitations of animal noises, such as: Moo, bark, hiss, meow, quack-quack.  In other words, the first human words were a type of index, a sign whose form is naturally connected with its meaning.

But, once again, onomatopoeia is a limited part of the vocabulary of any language. The linguistic renditions of animal sounds differ considerably from language to language, although each species of animal everywhere makes essentially the same sound:

  1. a)Dog:bow-wow; Chinese:wu-wu; Jap.wan-wanRuss gaf-gaf, tyaff-tyaff;
  2. b)Cat-meow, Russ.myaoo, Chin–mao, Jap.nya-nya purr in French is ronron.
  3. c)Pig:oink-oink; Russ. hryu-hryu;  Chin.–oh-ee-oh-ee;  Jap. bu-bu.
  4. d)Russian rooster:kukareiku.  Japanese kokekoko
  5. e)Russian owl:ukh; Cherokeegoo-ku  Spanish, Japanese— no special word

Thus, the human interpretation of animal sounds is dependent upon the individual language, and it seems unlikely than entire vocabularies derived from them.

4) A somewhat different hypothesis is the “ta-ta” hypothesis.  Charles Darwin hypothesized (though he himself was sceptical about his own hypothesis) that speech may have developed as a sort of mouth pantomime: the organs of speech were used to imitate the gestures of the hand.  In other words, language developed from gestures that began to be imitated by the organs of speech–the first words were lip icons of hand gestures.

It is very possible that human language, which today is mostly verbal, had its origin in some system of gestures; other primates rely on gesture as an integral part of communication, so it is plausible that human communication began in the same way.  Human gestures, however, just like imitation of sound words, differ from culture to culture.  Cf. English crossing the finger for good luck vs. Russian “fig” gesture; nodding for yes vs. for no in Turkish and Bulgarian; knocking on wood vs. spitting over the left shoulder three times.

A second set of hypotheses on language origin holds that language began as a response to some acute necessity in the community.  Here are several necessity hypotheses of the invention of language:

1) Warning hypothesis.  Language may have evolved from warning signals such as those used by animals.  Perhaps language started with a warning to others, such as Look outRun, or Help to alert members of the tribe when some lumbering beast was approaching.  Other first words could have been hunting instructions or instructions connected with other work. In other words, the first words were indexes used during everyday activities and situations.

2) The “yo-he-ho” hypothesis.  Language developed on the basis of human cooperative efforts.

The earliest language was chanting to simulate collective effort, whether moving great stones to block off cave entrances from roving carnivores or repeating warlike phrases to inflame the fighting spirit.

It is fairly certain that the first poetry and song came from this aspect of beginning speech.  Songs of this type are still with us: Volga boatmen, military marching chants, seven dwarfs working song.

Plato also believed that language developed out of sheer practical necessity.  And Modern English has the saying: Necessity is the mother of invention.

3) A more colorful idea is the lying hypothesis.  E. H. Sturtevant argued that, since all real intentions or emotions get involuntarily expressed by gesture, look or sound, voluntary communication must have been invented for the purpose of lying or deceiving.  He proposed that the need to deceive and lie–to use language in contrast to reality for selfish ends– was the social prompting that got language started.

Each of the imitation hypotheses might explain how certain isolated words of language developed.  Very few words in human language are verbal icons.  Most are symbols, displaying an arbitrary relationship of sound and meaning. (Example: the word tree in several languages: Spanish árbol; French arbre; Slovak strom; Georgian he; Ket oks; Estonianpuu; German Baum; Russian derevo; Latvian koks; Hawaiian lä’au)

The extended use of natural indexes still leaves unexplained the development of grammar–the patterns in language which have definite structural functions but no specific meaning. The creative, generative aspect of human language that we call grammar is language’s most unique feature.  Where did grammar come from? No conclusive theories yet.


भारोपीयम भाषापरिवारं / भाषाणां वंशाधारित वर्गीकरणम्

When the languages across the globe were analysed it was found to consist of many similarities. Eg.Haalu in kannada is paalu in tamil. Similarly Hoovu-poovu etc. This led them to believe that certain languages can be grouped together and presumed to have a common source of origin. These groups were called language families. Linguists have classified all the languages into 7 principal language families: Indo-European, Afro-Asiatic, Sino-Tibetan, Altaic, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Finno-Ugric.

Indo-European is a family of languages that first spread throughout Europe and many parts of South Asia, and later to every corner of the globe as a result of colonization. The term Indo-European refers to the easternmost extension of the family from the Indian subcontinent to its westernmost reach in Europe. The family includes most of the languages of Europe, as well as many languages of Southwest, Central and South Asia. The Indo-European language family has the largest number of speakers of all language families as well as the widest dispersion around the world.

These languages are akin to each other in Linguistic structure and therefore their phonological, morphological, syntactical and semantic equations are possible. It is true that these languages have undergone a change and have developed in their own way, but still they have followed some definite laws in the course of their development and changes.

It would not have been possible to establish the existence of the Indo-European language family if scholars had not compared the systematically recurring resemblances among European languages and Sanskrit, the oldest language of the Indian subcontinent that left many written documents. The common origin of European languages and Sanskrit was first proposed by Sir William Jones(1746-1794). Systematic comparisons between these languages by Franz Bopp supported this theory and laid the foundation for postulating that all Indo-European languages descended from a common ancestor, Proto-Indo-European (PIE), thought to have been spoken before 3,000 B.C. It then split into different branches which, in turn, split into different languages in the subsequent millennia.


Indo-European languages are classified into 11 [10 acc to material] major groups, 2 of which are extinct, comprising 449 languages.


Baltic: It has preserved many archaic features thought to have been present in PIE.


Language Country
Latvian Latvia
Lithuanian Lithuania


Celtic:They were once spread over Europe in the pre-Christian era. The oldest records of these languages date back to the 4th century AD. It includes the following languages


Breton France
Irish Ireland
Scottish Scotland
Welsh Wales


Germanic is divided into West Germanic and North Germanic.

West Germanic includes:

Afrikans South Africa
Dutch Holland
English US UK Australia Canada
German Germany
Yiddish Germany Israel

North Germanic includes:

Danish Denmark
Icelandic Iceland
Norwegian Norway
Swedish Sweden


Romanic [Italic] includes

Catalan Spain
French France
Italian Italy
Portuguese Portugal, Brazil
Romanian Romania
Spanish Spain, Latin America


Slavic is divided into 3 groups:

West Slavic includes:

Czech Czech republic
Polish Poland
Slovak Slovakia
Sorbian Germany

East Slavic includes:

Belarusian Belarus
Russian Russia
Ukranian Ukraine


South Slavic includes

Bosnian Bosnia
Croatian Croatia
Macedonian Macedonia
Serbian Serbia
Slovenian Slovenia


[Indo-Iranian group is divided into Indo-Aryan and Iranian according to course material]

Indo-Aryan [Indic] includes

Balochi Pakistan
Bengali Bangladesh
Bhojpuri India
Gujrathi India
Hindi India
Marathi India
Maithili India
Kashmiri India
Nepali Nepal
Oriya India
Punjabi India
Romani Romania and elsewhere
Sanskrit India
Sindhi Pakistan
Sinhalese Srilanka
Urdu Pakistan


Iranian: Ancient variety of Iranian group is Avesta or Zend Avesta which is the holy language of Zoroastrianism. Another language, Old Persian was the official language of Persia during the kingdom of Doria [522-486 BC]

Dari Afghanistan
Farsi [Persian[ Iran
Kurdish Iraq and elsewhere
Pashto Afghanistan and elsewhere
Tajik Tajikistan


Albanian: Single language spoken in Albania.

Armenian: Single language spoken in Armenia.

Greek: It belongs to the Hellenic group of which Greek is the only surviving member. Spoken in Greece.

Tocharian [1000 AD] and Anatolian [7 cen BC] are both extinct.


ध्वनि नियमान् सोदाहरणं वर्णयत

Dhvani refers to even the pronunciation. Theories that were proposed to explain the differences in pronunciation and syllable changes are covered under Laws of Linguistics or dhvaniniyama.

Grimm’s Law is a about a historical sound change linking Proto-Indo-European with Germanic.Jacob Grimm was one of the great linguists of the 19th century. He found evidence for the unity of all the modern Germanic languages in the phenomenon known as the First Germanic Sound Shift (also known as Grimm’s law ), which set the Germanic branch apart from the other branches of the Indo-European family.

First level of change believed to have occurred in the prehistoric period. Second level of change occurred around the 7thcen possibly due to the influence of Yahudis and Christians.

There are 3 set of shifts that occur according to Grimm.

Voiced Aspirated Stops घोषित महाप्राण Voiced Stops घोषित अल्पप्राण Voiceless stops अघोष अल्पप्राण Voiceless Fricatives अघोष महाप्राण
भ् ब् प् फ्
ध् द् त् थ्
घ् ग् क् ख्


भ् -> ब्  eg: Bhrata ->Brotar

द् -> त्eg: Dve ->two

प् -> फ्eg: Pita ->Father.  Paada ->Fotu

In every case the location remains the same or close to it. The manner or voicing changes.

There are exceptions to Grimm’s Law. We see one in the table above. The middle “t” of Sanskrit “bhratar” correspnds to a “d” in Gothic “brodar”. But wait! “t” is supposed to go to “th”. Exception!

This particular exception is quite systematic and has to do with stress. It later got explained by Karl Verner with a different Law .

Grassmann’s law,[grasamannniyamaha] named after its discoverer Hermann Grassmann, is a dissimilatory phonological process in Ancient Greek and Sanskrit which states that if an aspirated [mahaprana] consonant is followed by another aspirated consonant in the next syllable, the first one loses the aspiration.uOne of the oldest and most established of the ‘laws’ of Indo-European (IE) is Grassmann’s Law (GL), first proposed in Grassmann 1863. This dissimilation process applies to Greek and Sanskrit alone among all IE languages: aspiration on two successive syllables is disallowed. If two aspirated consonants occur in contiguous syllables, sometimes within the same root, the first one loses its aspiration. Thus diaspirate roots turn up in surface form with aspiration only on the second consonant.

bhudh – ‘awaken’: past participle underlying form bhudh +ta ➝buddh a

dh ā- ‘put’: 1 sg. pres. underlying form dh a+dhā+mi➝da+dhā+mi

bh ū- ‘be’: 1 sg. perf. underlying form bha+bhuv+a➝babhuva


वर्णात्मक भाषाशास्त्रस्य स्थूलपरिचयं लिखतDescriptive Linguistics

Linguistics deals with the scientific study of a language. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group co-operates. It consists of orally produced meaningful words and sentences. Language is also said to be a system of 3 distinguishable systems namely – phonological system [sounds], morphological system [words] and syntactic system [sentences].

Linguistics developed in 2 stages. The earlier stage was the Descriptive school of linguistics also called Structural school.  The latter one was the Transformational Generative school of Linguistics.

Descriptive school was pioneered by Bloomfield and his followers. It was popular between 1935 and 1960. The basic theoretical assumptions of this school are as follows:

  • Every language has its own structure unrelated to the structure of any other language.
  • A native speaker who has learnt the language as the mother tongue, from the parents or family, represents the structure.
  • This structure can be studied, analyzed and described based on the specimen provided by the native speaker [informant].
  • Description of the structural grammar of the language is derived at the end of this analysis.
  • The structural grammar would be useful for learning and teaching the language.
  • A language is a learnt behavior, learnt by observation and imitation.

Phonetics ध्वनि विज्ञान: In order to gather the specimen correctly a linguist should be able to identify the sounds uttered by the informant and represent it in an unambiguous and consistent writing system [universal phonetic script]. The branch of linguistics which deals with identifying the speech sounds of any language and representing them in the form of writing is called Phonetics.

Phonemics ध्वनिम विज्ञान: the study of phonemes [ध्वनिम] is called phonemics.

Phonemes are the significant sounds of a language. Sounds whose presence or absence can alter the meaning of the words in a language are called phonemes.

Eg: uri, kuri, guri in kannada. The k and g are phonemes here.

The descriptive school later developed into the Transformational generative school.

Simple and complex sentences.सरल वाक्यानि मिश्र वाक्यानि

Simple sentences are those that have only 2 constituents, a subject and a predicate and the predicate has only one verb.

रामः धावति

मम अनुजः भरतः शीघ्रं धावति

प्रख्याताश्वा रमा अस्यां स्पर्धायां धावति

Complex sentences are those where 2 or more simple sentences are joined together. Here one of it is the main clause and the rest are subordinate clauses.

दशरथपुत्रः रामः रावणं संहरति –रामः दशरथपुत्रः अस्ति , रामः रावणं संहरति इति द्वौ विभागौ स्थः

दशरथपुत्रः रामः लङ्कापतिं रावणं संहरति –रामः रावणं संहरति, रामः दशरथपुत्रः, रावणः लङ्कापतिःइति

Compound sentences: here there are 2 or more independent main clauses with or without sub-clauses.

अहं कदलीफलं खादामि च सः आम्रफलं खादति

अस्वस्थः रामः संस्कारितयूषं पिबति च स्वस्थः कृष्णः परमान्नं खादति

रामः संस्कारितयूषं पिबति, रामःअस्वस्थः, कृष्णः परमान्नं खादति, कृष्णःस्वस्थः


Ekavarnalopa – Haplology (from Greek ἁπλός haplos “simple” and λόγος logos, “speech”) is defined as the elimination of a syllable when two consecutive identical or similar syllables occur. A sound change involving the loss of a syllable when it is next to a phonetically identical (or similar) syllable. The phenomenon was identified by American philologist Maurice Bloomfield in the 20th century.[1] Linguists sometimes jokingly refer to the phenomenon as “haplogy” (subjecting the word haplology to haplology)


  • Engla landEngland [1]
  • morphophonologymorphonology[2]
  • coercitive(obsolete spelling) > coercive[3]
  • mono nomialmonomial
  • saamved for saamaveda – north Indian Sanskrit pronounciation
  • व्याघ्रपाद -> व्याघ्रपात्


Satem – Centum: [shatamkentum]

Indo-European family was linguistically divided into 2 groups named Satem and Centum groups. [Division only for convenience sake]. Geographically they include the eastern [Asia] side and western [Europe] side respectively. The chief criterion for the classification is the treatment of the original Indo-European palatal sounds. It has been postulated that the original Indo-European had 3 series of gutturals.

  • Palatals – K^ Kh^  G^  Gh^
  • Velars – K Kh  G  Gh
  • Labio-velars – Kw KhwGwGhw

In Satemgroup the velars coincide with labio-velars and the palatals have developed into sibilants. It includes Sanskrit, Avestan, Old Persian, Albanian, Armenian, Baltic and Slovenic. The word Satem is derived from the Avestan word meaning hundred.

In Centum  group the velars coincide with the palatals. It includes Greek, Latin, Germanic, Celtic and Tokharian. The word Centum is derived for Latin word meaning hundred.


Aksharapallata: The letter va becoming ba in Bengali [chakravarthy = Chakraborty] and pa in tamil becoming ha in kannada [paalu=haalu, poovu=hoovu] ya becoming ja in certain dialects of hindi and Sanskrit of north India [ Yamuna=jamuna] similarly Vrindavan becoming Brindavan.  These differences are mainly attributed to regional differences and change in dialects.


स्वर भक्ति: in order to make pronunciation simpler and easier, introduction of a letter [usually a swara] in a samyuktakshara is done. This is called swara bhakti

इन्द्र – इन्दिर

पृथ्वी – पृथिवी

चन्द्र – चन्दिर

स्वर्ण – सुवर्ण

Sanskrit to prakrit

श्री – सिरि

स्नेह – सणेह

क्लिष्ट – किल्लिष्ट

प्रसाद – परसाद

Sometimes a vyanjana may come in between.

सूनर – सुन्दर

वानर – बन्दर [वन्दर]

(Video) Vedic Suktas – KSOU MA – Divya

Important Suktas from Rigveda

When a verse is given to explain in the exam, these are to be written –

  1. Identify the Sukta in which the particular mantra appears.
  2. Rishi
  3. Devata, deity
  4. Chandas or prosody
  5. Do ‘Padapaata’
  6. Apply vedicswaras or accents
  7. Write the description

Identifying the Sukta

सवितृ- Look for words – ‘सवितृ , ‘हिरण्य’

विष्णु- Known for his 3 steps.

इन्द्र- Ends with ‘सजनासइन्द्रः’ in most of the verses.

रुद्र- Look for words रुद्र, उग्र, भेषज, भिषक

उषस- Feminine gender.

अग्नि- Word Agni. But note, Agni is worshipped in the first mantra of SavitrSukta .

वरुण- Word Varuna. If not, read the verse and go by the meaning. (only 1 verse was asked in exam)

अक्ष- Look for words अक्ष ,कितव , मौजवत

भाववृत्त- First word is नासदासीन्नो. Go by the meaning

Rishi  –

Once you know the Sukta, it is easy to recollect the Rishi. Refer to the chart given at the end.


Usually the same Devata as of the Sukta. But for AkshaSukta, the deities are अक्षमौजवानदेवता.

Paramatman is the deity for Bhavavrutta or Nasadeeyasukta

Identifying Chandas

For our syllabus, only 2 major ones are given.

त्रिष्टुभ – 11 varna

जगती- 12 varna


Refer to Nivedita’s notes on Vedic accents.

Sr.# Sookta मण्डल,# Rishi God Chandas # मन्त्र


सवितृ 1, 35 हिरण्यस्तूपः  

1&9 -जगती ,

Rest त्रिष्टुभ


2 विष्णु


1, 154 दीर्घतमस




3 इन्द्र


2,12 गृत्समदः




4 रुद्र


2,33 गृत्समदः




5 उषस


4,51 वामदेव




6 अग्नि


5,11 सुतंभरआत्रेयः




7 वरुण


7,86 वसिष्ठः






अक्ष 10,34 कवषऐलवः






Rest त्रिष्टुभ




भाववृत्त / नासदीय


10,129 परमेष्टिन









Video – Kaavya Prakaasha – Sessions by Smt. Harini



Granthas are of two types namely lakhshiya grantha and lakshana grantha . The grantha that defines poetry is a lakshana grantha. Lakshana grantha is not a poem or a drama. There will be definitions and examples which are mostly cited from other works which are Lakhshiya Granthas. The examples could either be from the works of other famous poets or a sample poem could be written by the author himself.

Lakshya Grantha deals with the subject or vishaya and it is in the form of a poem or a drama based on a theme or plot.

Kavya prakasha is a Lakshana grantha [that which explains about rules of poetry etc] written by Mammata. Starting from Bharata there have been various thinkers and writers who have propounded many theories like Rasa, Bhava, guna, Dosha, Alamkara etc. while authors like Bhamaha, Dandin, Udbhata and Rudrata focused on Alamkara, Vamana emphasized the concept of Riti. However it was Anandavardhana who changed the entire course of discussion by introducing the concept of Dhvani. Dhananjaya the author of Dasharupaka, Dhanika the commentator of Dasharupaka and Mahimabhatta the author of Vyaktiviveka , firmly opposed the concept of Dhvani.

Author Lakshana Grantha Soul Highlight Time
Bharata Muni Naatya Shaastra Rasa काव्यस्य आत्मा रस: | इति वृत्तम् तु काव्यस्य शरीरम् | 500 BC
Bhaamaha Kaavyaalamkaara Alamkara काव्यस्य आत्मा अलंकार: | 700 AD
Dhandi Kaavyaadharsha 10 Gunas दश गुणा: एव काव्यस्य आत्मा |  
Vaamana Kaavyaalankaara Sutra Vrutti Reeti रीतिरात्मा काव्यस्य | 800 AD
Mammata Kavyaprakasha Dhvani काव्यस्य आत्मा ध्वनि: | 1200 AD
Jagannatha Rasa Gangadhaaraa      
Anandavardhana Dhvanyaaloka Dhvani काव्यस्य आत्मा ध्वनि: | 1000 AD
Kuntaka Vakrookti Jivitam (crooked speech) Vakrotti काव्यस्य आत्मा वक्रोत्ति: |  

The confusion and chaos that prevailed in the literary circles at that time prompted Mammata to defend the theory of Dhvani. Kavyaprakasha was written to establish a firm footing for the dhvani theory and refute the arguments of the opponents.

Date and place : Mammata is believed to have lived in Kashmir [shaaradadesha] during the latter half of 11th cen AD and first half of 12th cen AD. He had the title Rajanaka which is peculiar to poets from Kashmir and was also called Saraswathi avatara  by his admirers.

Kavyaprakasha is divided into 10 chapters called Ullaasas. The Ullasaas have kaarikas [142] and vritti which gives illustration. Popularity of the text can be known by the number of commentaries available. Independent authors like Ruyyaka and Viswanatha have written commentaries. Sudhasagara is a famous commentary written by Bhimasena Dikshitha.

1st ullaasa.

Mangala shloka:

नियतिकृतनियमरहितां ह्लादैकमयीमनन्यपरतन्त्राम्  ।
नवरसरुचिरां निर्मितिमादधती भारती कवेर्जयति  ॥ कारिका १ ॥

नियतिकृतनियमरहिता = a creation which has no limitations imposed by the laws of nature.   नियति – creation is a concept or tattva among the concepts in shaivism.  Brahman’s creation is of a form fixed by the power of the laws of nature.

ह्लादैकमयी = full of pleasure alone;  Brahman’s creation has aspects of pleasure (sattva), pain (rajas) and delusion (tamas).

अनन्यपरतन्त्रा = independent of other’s help;  Brahman’s creation is dependent on material causes like the atoms and auxiliary causes like action. Upaadaana kaarana – mud is required for making pot. Nimitta Kaarana  or sahakaari kaarana – the potter and the wheel.

नवरसरुचिरा = Charming with nine rasas; Brahman’s creation has only six relishes and it is not necessarily enjoyable. नवरसः च  रुचिरा च |

निर्मितिम् आदधती = (kavi’s vaani poet’s speech) gives this creation.

कवेः भारती  जयति | prostration is implied by jayati.

The nirmiti of Brahma is the upamaana. The nirmiti of Kavi is the upameya. उपमानात् उपमेयस्य आधिक्यम् अस्ति | This is Vyatireka Alamkaara Dhvani as the upameya is superior to upamaana.

Here the author is trying to draw a comparison between the creations of the supreme creator brahma and a poet. He boasts that the creation of a poet is superior to that of Brahma because it is not restricted by the laws of nature, not dependent on others, full of pleasure and is enriched with 9 rasas. Brahma’s creation is limited by the laws of nature , is dependent on other kaaranas [upadana and nimitta], has rajas [pain] and tamas[delusion] apart from sattva [pleasure] and has only 6 rasas.

Since the poet is described as having an upper hand, he says Goddess Bharati [who manifests in the speech of poet] is victorious.

Kavya prayojanam or purpose of a kavya:

काव्यं यशसेऽर्थकृते व्यवहारविदे शिवेतरक्षतये  ।
सद्यः परनिर्वृतये कान्तासंमिततयोपदेशयुजे  ॥ कारिका २ ॥

  • Yashas: poetry brings about fame. Kalidasa is alive even today after many centuries through his works.
  • Arthakrthe: Poetry brings in wealth as in the case of Dhavaka who got money from Sriharsha.
  • Vyavaharavidhe: Imparts knowledge about general behaviour.
  • Shivetarakshaye: Removes bad afflictions. As in the case of Mayura who composed Mayurashtaka in praise of Sun God and was cured of illness.
  • Sadyah (immediate) paranivrtaye: Aesthetic bliss is obtained through poetry. This is the foremost of all benefits as it is exclusive to poetry.
  • Kantasammita upadesha: gives advice to the reader, sweetly like a beloved. Prabhu sammita (order. Eg. Veda says do certain soma yaaga if you want svarga praapti – one can’t question that  – importance is for word),  mitra sammita ( suggestion.  Eg Friends’ advice. Can be adhered to or ignored – importance is for meaning) , and Kaantaa sammita (Sweet Persuasion. Eg Lover’s words are carried even without realizing that one is being persuaded to do something – importance is for the message). रामादिवद्वर्तितव्यं न रावणादिवदित् – One should live like Rama and not Ravana. Rama created a gold idol and did the ashvamedha yaaga.  He was the only person who was ekapatni vrata.

Kavya Hetu: Equipments required for poetry.

शक्तिर्निपुणता लोकशास्त्रकाव्याद्यवेक्षणात् ।
काव्यज्ञशिक्षयाभ्यास इति हेतुस्तदुद्भवे  ॥ कारिका ३ ॥

The saamagri required to compose poems can be grouped under 3 heads.

  1. Shakti – prathibha शक्तिः कवित्वबीजरूपः संस्कारविशेषः [inherent genius]
    1. It is a samskaara that comes over the ages. संस्कारविशेषः
    2. काव्यं तु जायतेजातु कस्यचित्प्रतिभावतः – Bhaamaha – kaavyaalamkaara – Only from a person with Prathibha only, the poem can arise.
    3. यां विना काव्यं नप्रसरेत् – Not possible to write poetry without this.
    4. प्रसृतं वा उपहसनीयं स्यात् – If it happens to be created without prathibha, it will be ridiculed.
  2. Nipunata – expertise gained by lokagnaana, shaashtragnaana, kaavya gnaana
    1. Lokagnaana is gained by observation of worldly things, Sthavara jangama etc
    2. Shaastra gnaana is obtained by studying shastras like chandas, vyakarana, chaturvarga, about elephants, horses and other lakshana granthas.
    3. Kaavya gnaana is obtained by reading works of great poets and also itihasa puranas.
  3. Abhyaasa – repeated constant practice under the guidance of experts.
    1. Practice writing as per the chandas
    2. There are shikshaa granthas that explain how it is to be written.
    3. काव्यं कर्तुं विचारयितुं च ये जानन्ति ते काव्यज्ञाः | Learn under knowledgeable people who can write and be a critic of poetry.

These three together is the single cause. हेतुः तु हेतवः |

This is supported by नैसर्गिकी च प्रतिभा श्रुतं च बहुनिर्मलम् । अमन्द पूर्वाभियोगोस्या: कारणं काव्य सम्पदा | Dandin says in Kaavyaadarsha that in case prathibha is not present, but the other two are present, in certain cases, one might get some blessings to create poetry – श्रतेन यत्नेन च वागुपासिताध्रुवं करोत्येव कमप्यनुग्रहम् |

Kavya swaroopam:

तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ सगुणावनलङ्कृती पुनः क्वापि ।

He states that the word-meaning devoid of faults, endowed with Guna and Alamkaara is kaavya. But he adds that there is no compulsion (अनुरोधः) that there should be Alamkaara when there is prominence of Rasa.  यत्र सर्वत्र शब्दार्थौ सालंकारौ स्यातां, यत्र रसस्य प्राधान्यमस्ति तत्र स्पष्ट-अलंकारस्य अनुरोधः मास्तु | In his words, he says यत्सर्वत्र सालङ्कारौ क्वचित्तु स्फुटालङ्कारविरहेऽपि न काव्यत्वहानिः | He cites this example.

यः कौमरहरः स एव हि वरस्ता एव चैत्रक्षपास्ते
चोन्मीलितमालतीसुरभयः प्रौढाः कदम्बानिलाः ।
सा चैवास्मि तथापि तत्र सुरतव्यापारलीलाविदौ
रेवारोधसि वेतसीतरुतले चेतः समुत्कण्ठते ॥१॥

An example to prove that rasa can be predominant without alamkara.

He who stole my virginity is my beloved now, the nights of spring, the strong breezes from the Kadamba trees carrying the fragrance of malati flowers are also the same. I too am same as before. But still on the banks of Reva, under the Vetasa tree my heart longs for amorous sports.

Classification of kavya.

Prior to Dhvanyaaloka, the classification was Dhrushya (Naataka) and Shravya (Gadya – kathaa and Aakyaayikaa, Padya – Kanda kavya, mahaa kavya, shataka, …  and Champu which is a combination of Gadya and Padya)

Based on the concept of dhvani the kavya was classified as Uthama, madhyama and adhama.

इदमुत्तममतिशयिनि व्यङ्ग्ये वाच्याद्ध्वनिर्बुधैः कथितः  ॥ कारिका ४ ॥

वाच्यात् व्यङ्ग्ये अतिशयिनि सति इदम् उत्तमं काव्यम् ध्वनिः इति बुधैः कथितः

Uthama kavya is also called dhvani kavya, that which is rich in Dhvani or suggestion. The charming suggested meaning should surpass the denoted meaning, as mentioned by Anandavardhana in Dhvanyaloka.

यत्रार्थः शब्दो वा तमर्थमुपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ | व्यङ्क्तः काव्यविशेषः स ध्वनिरिति सूरिभिः कथितः || (ध्वन्यालोकः) १.१३ ||

अतादृशि गुणीभूतव्यङ्ग्यं व्यङ्ग्ये तु मध्यमम्।

Madhyama kavya is also called Gunibhoota vyangya. Here the suggested meaning though present does not excel. It may be equal or less charming or subordinated to the denoted meaning.

Eg. ग्रामतरुणं तरुण्या नववञ्जुलमञ्जरीसनाथकरम् । पश्यन्त्या भवति मुहुर्नितरां मलिना मुखच्छाया ॥३॥ In this, the literal meaning is that the brightness of the young woman’s face becomes acutely faded when she sees the youthful villager who carries in his hand a bunch of fresh Vanjula flowers”. Here the suggested meaning is that she did not go to the meeting point even though she had promised to meet her lover there. Since the denoted meaning is more charming, in this example, the suggested meaning is subordinated to the denoted meaning.

शब्दचित्रं वाच्यचित्रमव्यङ्ग्यं त्ववरं स्मृतम्

Adhama kavya or chitrakavya. It has no relishable suggested meaning. It is more of a verbal circus where the poet is interested in conveying his skills. Kuntaka raises an objection on classifying a poem to be inferior. Chitrakavya can be of 2 types shabda chitra and artha chitra. Shabda chitra is just repeated use of same word or rhyming words to create an alliteration. Arthachitra is superior to shabdachitra and involves the use of arthalamkaras.

भिद्यादुद्यदुदारदर्दुरदरी दीर्गादरिद्रद्रुम- द्रोहोद्रेकमहोर्मिमेदुरमदा मन्दाकिनी मन्दताम् ।।4।।

Second ullasa

शब्दार्थयोः स्वरूपमाह— (सूदृ 5) Vaamana explains in the Kaavyaalankaara Sutra Vrutti |

स्याद्वाचको लाक्षणिकः शब्दोऽत्र व्यञ्जकस्त्रिधा

Word is of 3 kinds: Vachaka [denotative], Lakshanika [indicative] and Vyanjaka [suggestive]. The respective functions [vyaapara] of these 3 words are Abhidhaa, Lakshana and vyanjana. The meanings conveyed by these 3 types of words are Vachya [denoted] Lakshya [indicated] and vyangya[suggested] respectively.

3 main functions of a word or shabda vyaapaara

Vaachaka denotative Expressed or denoted meaning Abhida vyapara Koshaarthah, Vaachyaartha, शक्यार्थ power of the word conveyed by the dictionary meaning
Laakshanika indicative Indicated or suppressed meaning Lakshana vyapara Lakshyaarthah, Lakshanaarthah,
Some element is suppressed (The word bank is suppressed in Gangaayaam goshah – Hamlet on the banks of Ganga and not in Ganges)
Vyanjaka suggestive Suggested meaning Vyangya vyapara Dhvaniyarthah, Vyanjanaarthah, vyangyaarthah It shows or reflects or suggests some other meaning. The tone of “Go, go!” might mean “Don’t go”.


तात्पर्यार्थोऽपि केषुचित् I some [abhihitanvayavada of Bhatta school of mimamsa] say that Tatparyartha or the meaning of a sentence is the fourth category.

The Denoted meaning or the Vachyartha is the mukhyartha or the principal one. It is assigned to the word by Sanketa or Ishvarechcha. Since the word has a sanketa it is also called sanketita.

Abhihitanvayavada and anvitabhidanavada:

The opponents of dhvani theory also refute vyanjana vyapara. The Bhatta and the Prabhakara school of mimamsa do not accept vyanjana function of a word.

Every word has a sanketa or a denoted meaning. The relationship between the individual word meaning and the sentence meaning as a whole has been dealt by Kumarila Bhatta and Prabhakara.

Kumarila Bhatta came up with Abhihitanvayavada, which says that the meaning of the sentence is not merely the total meanings of the individual words. But the syntactic combination on the basis of Akanksha[expectancy], Yogyata[compatibility] and sannidhi[proximity in pronounciation].

Eg: devadutta tandulam pachati.

Here the individual denoted meanings are first understood as… Devadutta [karta], tandulam [rice, karma] pachati [cooking present tense ekavachana]. Since these unconnected word meanings, presented by the function abhida, don’t make complete sense, another function called tatparyavritti was introduced. Here with the aid of Akanksha, yogyata and sannidhi one is able to understand that “cooking of rice is going on [present tense] under the agentship singular agent named Devadutta”.

Thus the meaning of the sentence called tatparyartha is different from the individual meanings of the words known by abhida. The words denote their individual meanings and then those meanings are correlated to obtain the sentence meaning. Abhida gets exhausted after denoting the individual word meaning and so we resort to tatparyartha or tatparya vritti for sentence meaning.

According to Anvitabhidaanavada, the words of a sentence do not convey unconnected meanings but always syntactically connected meanings only. As soon as the sentence is uttered, the meanings of the words are grasped in a connected way.

वाच्य एव वाक्यार्थ इत्यन्विताभिधानवादिनः

So Vakyartha and Padartha are the same and there is no need for a separate function like tatparyartha.

विशिष्टा एव पदार्था वाक्यार्थः। न तु पदार्थानां वैशिष्ट्यम् [5th ullasa] the meaning of the sentence is the correlated meanings of words and not the correlation of the meanings of the words.

Mammata’s opinion:

In Abhihitanvayavada and Anvitabhidanavada, the function of abhida is given prominence. This cannot explain the function of suggestion. In arthashakthimula dhvani, the denoted meaning is only contextual. We see from many examples where the convention may be positive but however the suggested meaning is actually negative.

According to Abhihitanvayavada, the function abhida cannot even give the normal expressed meaning of the sentence, so how can it give suggested meaning which may be different or even opposite to the expressed sense?

According to Anvitabhidanavada, the denoted meanings of the words are related to each other in a general non-specific way. Eg. Each of these sentences have the word gaam [cow] with different verb. Gaam aanaya [bring the cow], Gaam naya [take away the cow] and Gaam badhaana [tie down the cow].

The relation of the meaning of the word gaam and the words aanaya, naya and badhaana are related only in a general non-specific way. When words occur in a sentence, the sanketa of each word is cognised only when the sanketa of meanings related to other meanings is grasped

Since the number of words and number of sentences are infinite, it becomes difficult to understand the sanketa of each and every word in infinite sentences.

Also the denoted meaning itself is something correlated only in a general non-specific way with the meanings of other words. So a particular meaning of a word related to another particular meaning of another word in a sentence cannot be known by denoted meaning at all, since it has no sanketa.

Therefore the suggested meaning which is further different from the sentence meaning cannot be denoted by abhida. [to be elaborated]

सर्वेषां प्रायशोऽर्थानां व्यञ्जकत्वमपीष्यते

Vyanjakatva or suggestiveness of all 3 functions of the word are accepted

  1. Suggestiveness of denoted meaning: eg. माए घरोवअरणं अज्ज हु णत्थि त्ति साहिअं तुमए। ता भण किं करणिज्जं एमेअ ण वासरो ठाइ II Mother, you proved that provisions are not available today. Tell me, what should be done? Day light will not stay like this for long. Here the denoted meaning suggests that the daughter wants to roam freely.
  2. Suggestiveness of indicated meaning: eg. साहेन्ती सहि सुहअं खणे खणे दूम्मिआसि मज्झकए। सब्भावणेहकरणिज्जसरिसअं दाव विरइअं तुमए II oh friend, you have been subjected to much exertion almost every minute in persuading that handsome youth. You have definitely done what is proper for your good nature and friendship.  Here the indicated meaning is that “you have become my enemy by entertaining my beloved amorously”. The suggested meaning is that the paramour of the speaker has committed an offense and she wants to express it.
  3. Suggestiveness of suggested meaning: eg. उअ णिच्चलणिप्पंदा भिसिणीपत्तम्मि रेहइ बलाआ। णिम्मलमरगअभाअणपरिठ्ठिआ संखसुत्ति व्व  II See the white crane is shining on the lotus leaf still and motionless like a conch shell resting on a clean plate of emerald. Here the security of the place is suggested by the motionless crane. This in turn suggests the absence of people in that place and it being suitable for rendezvous. OR there can be another suggestion where the young woman is telling her lover “ you are telling a lie, you did not come here”

Definitions of Vachaka, lakshana and vyanjana 

Vachaka:   साक्षात्संकेतितं योऽर्थमभिधत्ते वाचकः

Vachaka is that which directly denotes the conventional meaning. It is not possible to comprehend the meaning of a word if the convention [sanketa] related to the meaning is not known. So vachaka is a word with reference to a meaning in which the relationship between the word and the meaning has been uninterruptedly grasped.

सङ्केतितश्चतुर्भेदो जात्यादिर्जातिरेव वा

Sanketa or convention is of 4 types as Jati etc or just one Jati itself.

Since the words are infinite in number it is not possible to come up with a convention for each individual word. Hence a concept or Upadhi has been introduced. Convention is of 4 types.

  1. Jati – genus. It is also called Praanaprada. An eternal property which is universally one and exists in many individual things is called Jati. Eg. Gotva in all go, ghatatva in all ghata etc. all words denoting the property of a genus belong to this group.
  2. Guna – quality. Also called visheshadanahetu. Words denoting guna or quality fall into this group. It adds a special feature like shuklatva, krishnatva etc.
  3. Kriya – action. Words denoting actions like chalanam, pachanam etc .
  4. Vaktryadrichchasanniveshita- arbitrary names. These are fixed according to the whims and fancies of a speaker. It includes proper nouns, Rama, Ravana, Diththa etc.

The guna , kriya and yadrichasanniveshita categories all exist only in a dravya and not independently. So he says Jati etc 4 or Jati alone.

स मुख्योऽर्थस्तत्र मुख्यो व्यापारोऽस्याभिधोच्यते  II

That primary meaning which has sanketa [convention] is called Mukhyartha and the function of the word that conveys it is Abhida [denotation]

Lakshana and its types  [short notes]

 मुख्यार्थबाधे तद्योगे रूढितोऽथ प्रयोजनात।

अन्योऽर्थो लक्ष्यते यत्सा लक्षणारोपिता क्रिया ।। 9

The function by virtue of which a meaning other than the primary meaning is grasped either due to incompatibility of primary meaning [mukhyarthabhada] or a relation of the other meaning due to usage [roodhi] or purpose [prayojana] is called Lakshana.

Eg. “कर्मणि कुशलः” इत्यादौ दर्भग्रहणाद्ययोगात्  II गङ्गायां घोषः” इत्यादौ च गङ्गादीनां घोषाद्याधारत्वासंभवोत् II

In both cases there is mukhyartha bhada. Karmani kushala cannot simply denote a person holding Darbha grass but the indicated meaning is that the person is an expert at work. This is understood by roodhi.

In गङ्गायां घोषः there is incompatibility of the primary meaning as it is not possible for a river to be the locus of a hamlet. Here there is a specific purpose or prayojana of the said expression. It could indicate the pavanatva, sheetalatva etc of the banks of ganga river where the hamlet is situated.

Types of Lakshana: Lakshana is broadly classifies into 3 types.

  1. Shuddha Lakshana: The relation between the primary and indicated meanings are not similarity but some other thing, it is called Suddha Lakshana. This is again divided into 2 types.
  1. Upadaana Lakshana – Here the primary meaning implies the secondary meaning for accomplishing its own completion. Eg. कुन्ताः प्रविशन्ति , the lances enter. Since the lances cannot enter on their own, the phrase implies the persons holding the lances. This is called स्वसिद्धये पराक्षेपः I
  2. Lakshanalakshana – Here the primary meaning is given up for the sake of secondary meaning. Eg. गङ्गायां घोषः. A village where cowherds live cannot exist on the stream named Ganga. So the primary meaning is given up and the indicated meaning namely , the bank is accepted. This is called परार्थं स्वसमर्पणम् I
  3. Saaropa Lakshana : सारोपान्या तु यत्रोक्तौ विषयी विषयस्यथा II here the the Vishaya [that on which something is superimposed] and Vishayin [that which is superimposed] , both are mentioned. This is again of 2 types.
  1. Gauni saaropa: Aaropa is based on relationship of similarity in guna [quality] eg. गौर्वाहीकः  here Gauh is the vishayin, the qualities of it like Jaadya, Maandya etc are superimposed on the vishaya, Vaahika [a member of the vaahika tribe]. So it is indicated that the qualities of slothfulness, stupidity etc seen in an ox is present in the Vaahika.
  2. Shudda Saaropa: Aaropa is based on some other relationship. Eg. आयुर्घृतम् ghee is long life. Here relationship can be explained on the basis of cause and effect. Consumption of Ghrita gives strength and ensures longevity in the consumer, hence Ayush is superimposed on ghrita.
  1. Saadhyavasana Lakshana: विषय्यन्तःकृतेऽन्यस्मिन् सा स्यात्साध्यवसानिका I Here the Vishaya on which the vishayin is superimposed is not mentioned. This is again of 2 types.
  1. Gauni saadhyavasana: Similar to Gauni saaropa except that the vishaya is not mentioned. Eg. गौरयम् I The term Vaahika is understood and not mentioned explicitly.
  2. Shudda saadhyavasana: Similar to Shudda saaropa except that the term Ghritam is not explicitly mentioned. Eg. आयुरेवेदम् I

Mammata again classifies lakshana on the basis of presence of vyanjana.

व्यङ्ग्येन रहिता रूढौ सहिता तु प्रयोजने। 

  1. Roodhi Lakshana: This kind has no suggested meaning in it. Just indicated meaning alone. Hence it is also called अव्यङ्ग्या I eg. “कर्मणि कुशलः
  2. Prayojanavati Lakshana: This is further divided into of 2 types.
  1. गूढव्यङ्ग्या – it has hidden suggested meaning.
  2. अगूढव्यङ्ग्या – The suggested meaning is explicit.

Function of vyanjana

Vyanjana is that function of the word which unfolds the vyangya or the suggested meaning. The importance of vyanjana in poetry cannot be overstated. Rasa which is the quintessence of poetry can manifest only through vyanjana and it is the suggested sense which makes kavya beautiful and charming.

Vyanjana is understood as 1.based on lakshana and 2. based on abhidaa.

When we say gangayam goshah, the word ganga denotes the stream. This is the abhidaa or denoted meaning. Further since there is an incompatibility between ganga and gosha (hamlet), we adopt the indicated meaning [lakshana] which helps us understand ganga as ganga tata – the bank.  The prayojana or purpose for resorting to the indicated meaning is to highlight that the qualities of ganga [sacredness, coolness, etc.] are present in the hamlet also due to its closeness.

The question here is if lakshana is able to express the indicated meaning along with the prayojana then why have vyanjana separately? Mammata replies..

प्रयोजनेन सहितं लक्षणीयं युज्यते ।। 17 ।।

Lakshana or the indicated meaning does not include the prayojana.

हेत्वभावात्   लक्षणा ।। 15 ।। मुख्यार्थबाधादित्रयं हेतुः

It cannot be Lakshana due to the absence of the hetu [conditions] required for lakshana ie; incompatibility of primary meaning, relation of the other sense with the indicated meaning and purpose.

ज्ञानस्य विषयो ह्यन्यः फलमन्यदुदाहृतम्।

An example is given to explain this. When we see a pot, the object of perception is the black pot. Here the prayojana or result of perception is Prakatata [state of being known] or samvitti [consciousness]. This prakatata or samvitti , which is the prayojana is not included in the pot.

So, Ganga —à lakshanaàganga thata —àvyanjanaàcoolness sacredness etc

Thus Vyanjana is required to realise the prayojana or phala or the intended purpose.

For example in gangayam goshah, the special qualities which are cognised in the bank ie., sacredness and so on are grasped through a function which is different from abhidhaa, lakshanaa and tatparyaa. That function is called vyanjanaa, dhvananaa, dyotanaa etc. This is an example for vyanjana based on lakshana.

The next category is Vyanjanaa based on Abhidaa. There are 14 conditions in this category.

“संयोगो विप्रयोगश्व साहचर्यं विरोधिता। अर्थः प्रकरणं लिङ्गं शब्दस्यान्यस्य संनिधिः।। सामथ्र्यमौचिती देशः कालो व्यक्तिः स्वरादयः। शब्दार्थस्यानवच्छेदे विशेषस्मृतिहेतवः

  1. Samyoga: Contact. सशङ्खचक्रो हरिः
    The meaning is restricted to Vishnu because he is known to have a contact with shankha and chakra. Hari has different meanings like Vishnu, Monkey, Lion, Horse, etc.
  2. Viprayoga: Separation. अशङ्खचक्रो हरिरित्यच्युते
    Again we understand Hari as Vishnu because he is the only one capable of being separated from them.
  3. Saahacharya: Association. रामलक्ष्मणाविति दाशरथौ।
    Here meaning of the word Rama is restricted to son of Dasharatha due to his association with Lakshmana.
  4. Virodhita: Enmity. रामार्जुनगतिस्तयोरिति भार्गवकार्तवीर्ययोः।
    Here Rama is Parashurama and Arjuna is Kartaveeryarjuna. Their known enmity is referred here.
  5. Artha: Purpose. स्थाणुं भज भवच्छिदे, इति हर।
    Here Sthanu can mean pole or Shiva. Here it refers to Lord Shiva due to the purpose of bhavachedana that can be attributed to him.
  6. Prakarana: Context. सर्वं जानाति देव इति युष्मदर्थे।
    Here the meaning is based on the context. Devah can mean God or a king. Here it refers to the person addressed to in that context.
  7. Linga: Peculiar feature. कुपितो मकरध्वज इति कामे।
    Here makaradhwajah can mean Manmatha or the ocean. Here kopa or anger can be linked to Manmatha only.
  8. Shabdantarasannidhi: Proximity of another word. देवस्य पुरारातेरिति शंभौ।
    Here again deva can have different meanings. But due to the proximity with the word purarathe, we understand Deva as Lord Shiva.
  9. Saamarthyam: Ability. मधुना मत्तः कोकिल इति वसन्ते।
    The word madhu has various meanings liquor, nectar, honey etc. but the ability to produce intoxication in kokila exists only in vasanta ritu. So madhu here refers to the season vasanta.
  10. Auchiti: Propriety. पातु वो दयितामुखमिति सांमुख्ये
    Here mukham can mean face, presence, beginning etc. based on propriety here it means presence.
  11. Deshah: Place. भात्यत्र परमेश्वर इति राजधानीरूपात् देशाद्राजनि।
    Parameshwara can refer to God and king. The meaning here is king as the sentence is spoken in the capital city of a kingdom.
  12. Kalah: Time. चित्रबानुर्विभातीति दिने रवौ रात्रौ वढद्धठ्ठड़
    Chitrabhanu means sun and fire. If the sentence is spoken during day, it refers to sun and at night it refers to fire.
  13. Vyaktih: Gender. मित्रं भातीति सुहृदि, मित्रो भातीति रवौ।
    Mitram neuter gender means friend while mitrah masculine gender means sun.
  14. Svara: Accents used in Vedas, Udaatta Anudaatta and Svarita. इन्द्रशत्रुरित्यादौ वेते एव, न काव्ये, स्वेरो विशेषप्रतीतिकृत्
    Based on the accents, Indrashatru can mean 1. One for whom Indra will be the killer and 2. Indra’s killer. The first one is a Bahuvrihi compound and will have Purvapadaprakritiswara or Adyodaatta. While the second is Tatpurusha compound and is Antodaatta.

Role of vyanjaka in contextual and non-contextual meanings.

भद्रात्मनो दुरधिरोहतनोर्विशालवंशोन्नतेः कृतशिलीमुखसंग्रहस्य। यस्यानुपप्लुतगतेः परवारणस्य दानाम्बुसेकसुभगः सततं करोऽभूत्।।12।। (सूदृ 33)

There are 2 possible meanings of the above verse, contextual and non-contextual.

Contextual meaning: the king has a peaceful nature, his persona is difficult to be gauged, he has the high stature due to his vamsha, he has mastered several weapons, his knowledge never goes awry, he gets rid of his foes easily, his hands are charming and always wet with the water being poured while giving gifts [daana].

Non-contextual meaning: Describes an elephant. It is of the Bhadra variety, body is so high that it is difficult to mount, backbone is large and lofty, attracts many bees, its movement never falters, it is an elephant par excellence, the trunk is beautiful and always has the liquid rut flowing.

तद्युक्तो व्यञ्जकः शब्दः I  तद्युक्तो व्यञ्जनर्युक्तः (सूदृ 34)

The word which has that function is called Vyanjaka. तद्युक्तो means that which has the function of vyanjana.

So vyanjana is that function by which the non-contextual meaning is expressed.

यत्सोऽर्थान्तरयुक् तथा। अर्थोऽपि व्यञ्जकस्तत्र सहकारितया मतः ।। 20 ।।

Since the word expresses the non-contextual meaning with the interruption of the contextual meaning, the contextual meaning is considered as suggestive in a co-operative manner सहकारितयाव्यञ्जक:

<End of Part 1>

<Start of Part 2>

3rd ullaasa

Arthavyanjakata – suggestiveness

अर्थाः प्रोक्ताः पुरा तेषाम् अर्थाः, वाच्यलक्ष्यव्यङ्ग्याः। तेषां वाचकलाक्षणिकव्यञ्जकानाम्।। (सूदृ 36) अर्थव्यञ्जकतोच्यते।

The meanings of these have already been explained. “ The meanings” are vachya, lakshya and vyangya “of these” means vachaka, lakshanika and vyanjaka. Now we shall deal with suggestiveness of the meanings.

Mammata has given a list of factors which can bring about vyanjana of the meaning.

  1. Vaktr: speaker talking in first person about himself / herself.
  2. Bodhavya: speaker addresses another person.
  3. Kaku: tone of the speaker.
  4. Vakya: the entire sentence can be suggestive.
  5. Vachya: Based on the denoted meaning.
  6. Anyasannidhi: in the presence of another person.
  7. Prastava: Occasion. One may suggest that “it is improper now”.
  8. Desha: Place.
  9. Kala: time.
  10. Adi: by etc he has included chesta [gesture] etc.

Mammata says that the above can coexist in a given example.

Short notes

Dosha: It is a flaw or blemish that causes suppression or hindrance of the main meaning of a kavya. Doshas can occur in pada, vakya, artha and rasa. Mammata emphasises that the kavya has to be adoshau – blemish free. Dandin says, even a small dosha should not be neglected. It is like an ugly spot of vitiligo [shvitra] on the most beautiful body.

Guna: It may be understood as quality of excellence. They are the properties [dharmas] of rasa. Again Mammata says that the kavya has to be enriched with gunas – sagunau. Bharata has listed 10 gunas namely, Shlehsa, prasada, samata, madhurya, sukumarata, arthavyakti, udaratvam, ojas, kanti and Samadhi. Vamana says that gunas increase kavyashobha. Mammata who follows Anandavardhana has accepted only 3 gunas namely Madhurya, Ojas and prasada. He defines gunas as those qualities which heighten the Rasa [ut-harsha hetu] and stay with it permanently [achalasthita]

Madhurya ojaha prasaadaakhyaaha trayaste na punardasha

He says that the other 7 gunas are either included under the above 3 or are just absence of doshas. So they are definitely not 10 in number.

Alankara: These are the properties [dharmas] of shabda and artha. Although Mammata says that alankara is optional in kavyaswaroopa, he later adds that shabda and artha should generally have alankaras. They may not be explicit always. While defining alankara Mammata saya, those factors which at times beautify the existing rasa through its limbs [anga] shabda and artha are called alankaras. They are like necklace etc [haaradivad]. Eg. Anuprasa, upama etc.

Alam poornam karoti iti alankaraha.  Alankara brings about fullness to a kavya. They should be employed judiciously and should never over shadow rasa. In the absence of rasa, alankaras are mere fanciful expressions.

Alankarya is the prominent factor that is getting embellished. Factors like guna, alankara etc enhance rasa, so rasa is called alankarya. In certain cases, rasa may not enjoy prominence and may be subservient to some other factor. Then it is called Rasavadalankara and it belongs to gunibhoota vyangya category.

Viparitalakshana: One of the 3 factors required for adopting lakshana or secondary meaning is the relation to the other meaning. It may be nearness as in Gangayaam goshah or similarity as in mukham chandrah. Another relation is contrariness or irony. An extremely dull person may be called Brihaspathi. The indicated meaning is the opposite of the denoted meaning. This is called viparitalakshana.

Rasanishpatti or Rasasutra

कारणान्यथ कार्याणि सहकारीणि यानि च। रत्यादेः स्थायिनो लोके तानि चेन्नाठ्यकाव्ययोः ।। 27 ।।

विभावा अनुभावास्तत् कथ्यन्ते व्यभिचारिणः। व्यक्तः स तैर्विभावाद्यैः स्थायी भावो रसः स्मृतः ।। 28

There are causes, effects and auxiliary feelings of rati etc. when they occur in a kavya or natya they are respectively called Vibhavas, Anubhavas and Vyabhicharibhavas. The permanent mood [sthayibhava] which is manifested by these vibhavas etc is known as Rasa.

Sthayibhava: Bhavas [permanent mood] which permanently exist in the mind [or antahkarana] in the form of vasana [latent imprints] are called sthayibhavas. When excited, it evokes a heightened aesthetic experience called rasa. Sthayibhavas are 9 in number namely. Rati [love], haasa [mirth], shoka [sorrow or grief], krodha [anger], utsaaha [enthusiasm], bhayam [fear], jugupsa [disgust], vismaya [wonder] and nirveda [tranquillity]

रतिर्हासश्च शोकश्च क्रोधोत्साहौ भयं तथा । जुगुप्सा विस्मयश्चेति स्थायिभावाः प्रकीर्तिताः  ॥ कारिका ३० ॥

Vibhava: Exciting causes that make the sthayibhavas relishable are called vibhavas. They are of 2 kinds Aalambana vibhava and Uddeepana vibhava. The person or object which is the cause of the given sthayibhava is called aalambina a woman is the alambana vibhava for rati sthayibhava in a man. a tiger is the alambana vibhava of bhaya sthayibhava.

Uddeepana vibhavas are associated factors like moonlight, breeze, fragrance etc in shringara, darkness, shrill sounds etc in bhayanaka.

Anubhava: these are supporting factors that bring the sthayibhavas within the reach of experience. Glances, change of colour of the face etc are anubhavas.

Vyabhicharibhava: These are transitory feelings. They come and go like the waves in the ocean. They are also called sancharibhavas. They are 33 in number. Nirveda, glani, shanka, asuya, mada, shrama, alasyam, dainyam, chinta, moha, smriti, dhriti, vrida, chapalata, harsha, avega, jadata, garva, vishada, autsukyam, nidra, apasmara, suptam, prabodha, amarsha, avahitham, ugrata, mati, vyadhi, unmade, maranam, trasa and vitarka.

Rasa Sthayibhava vibhava anubhava vyabhichari
Sringara 2 types vipralambha and sambhoga Rati hero heroine with splendid dress, garlands, seasons, ornaments Skill of eye movements, eye glances, limb movements All except nirveda
Hasya Haasa Strange attire, fickleness, irrelevant talks, His crying Throbbing of lips, nose cheeks, perspiration Alasya, tandra, nidra, prabodha, asuya
Karuna Shoka Separation and loss of dear ones, burning of body Weeping, lamentation and crying Sthamba, vepathu vaivarnya, ashru
Raudra Krodha Anger, striking, abusing, false allegations, raising of weapons Reddened eyes, knitting of eyebrows, grinding the teeth. Sammoha, utsaha, avega, amarsha, chapalata, gadgada, vepathu
Vira Utsaha Heroes, great feats like crossing oceans Braveness, firmness, generosity, efficiency Dhriti, mati, garva, avega
Bhayanaka Bhaya Strange sounds, cruel animals Agitations of jackal, owls, Imprisonment of near and dear Shaking hands and feet, throbbing eyes, , change of face color Sthamba, sveda, gadgada, romancha, moha, dainya
Bhibhatsa Jugupsa Hearing or sight of ugly undesirable, unpleasant things Shrinking of limbs, contraction of face, looking slyly, vomiting Apasmara, udvega, avega, moha, marana
Adbhuta Vismaya Sight of divine beings, fulfilment of desire, vimana Dilation of eyes, seeing without winking, tears, perspiration Sthamba, gadgada, romancha, sambhrama, pralaya
Shanta Nirveda knowledge of philosophy, renunciation, yama niyama adhyatma dhyana, dharana. nirveda, smriti, dhriti, sthambha



Shanta rasa was not mentioned by Bharata. Mammata follows Anandavardhana who has accepted it. He also argues that shanta is the main rasa of Mahabharata. Nirveda which can be both sthayibhava and vyabhichari bhava. When it is born of tatvajnana it is permanent and is the sthayibhava of shanta rasa. Otherwise it is only a vyabhicharibhava. Some argue that shanta rasa can occur in kavya but cannot occur in nataka, as it is not possible to enact it on stage. But this argument is unacceptable as we see the successful presentation of the role of Buddha. Natakas like Prabodhachandrodaya and sankalpasuryodaya can be mentioned as examples.

Rasasutras deal with the theories that try to explain how Rasa is conveyed to the spectators. Some prominent theories are..

Lollata: He must have been from Kashmir, believed to have lived between 800AD and 840 AD.  He has written a commentary on Bharata’s Natyashastra. He was one of the earliest thinkers who attempted to explain Rasasutra of Bharata. His theory on Rasa sutra is called utpatti vada. According to him, Rasa is in the anukarya [characters] represented on the stage. But it is conceived as existing in the actor who represents the character.

Rasa in primary sense belongs to the hero, Rama etc. The spectator’s understanding of imputed love in the actor brings delight to the spectator. Lollata thinks that the actor cleverly represents Rama’s activities. Vibhavas produce rasa, anubhavas make it perceivable and vyabhicharins consummate it. This cognition of rasa by the spectator gives him unadulterated joy. A rope though not a serpent but mistaken to be one can produce fear. Similarly, shell mistaken as silver produces desire. Likewise, love of Rama for Sita is observed in the actor [who is not Rama and has no love for Sita]. Such things, although not genuine, produces aesthetic joy according to Lollata.

Argument:  How can an observer who has already seen silver mistake shell to be silver? A serpent could be seen as a rope and this can be life threatening. If rasanishpatti is actually in Rama the actor, how can the spectator enjoy it?

Srisankuka: His personal details are not known. He has criticised Lollata so we can know that he lived after Lollata. He believes that the spectator infers the rati of Rama and Sita on the basis of what is presented on the stage. Hence his theory is called anumiti vada.

Even though what is presented on stage is not true, he deliberately accepts them to be true. This is called “willing suspension of disbelief”. A well-trained actor imitates the hero Rama etc, and the spectator of the drama assumes that the actor is really Rama. From the vibhavas, anubhavas etc the spectator infers the sthayibhava of rati in him. This rati gets manifested as sringara rasa and the spectator relishes it.

Argument: The spectators relish rasa as a direct perception. Nobody thinks that he or she has inferred the love of Rama for Sita, but it is the transcendental joy of direct experience. What happens when one reads a poem or drama? There are no actors or imitation there. There is no basis of inference at all. But Rasanubhava is not denied there. So his theory of inference was rejected.

Bhattanayaka: He has written a commentary on Bharata’s Natyashastra. He was an opponent of dhvani theory and wrote Hridayadarpana to refute Anandavardhana’s theory. His main contribution is the introduction of the concept of Sadharaneekarana or the concept of universalization of vibhavas etc.

He has accepted 3 distinct functions of poetic word which are called abhida, bhaavana and bhoga. Abhida presents the content. Bhaavana universalises the content and Bhoga brings about the aesthetic relish. A spectator cannot have rati in respect of any heroine, say shakuntala, because he knows that she is wife of Dushyanta. Hence she cannot be the alambanavibhava. Then how can the spectator relish shringara rasa? To overcome this Bhattanayaka suggested Saadharanikarana by the function of Bhavakatva. By this, dharmas like Shakuntalatva etc are forgotten for a moment and she is visualised just as a nayika. This helps in enjoying shringara rasa.

Argument:  No theoretical objection but Abhinavagupta rejects it because he thinks it is a burden to accept 2 separate functions like Bhavana and Bhoga.

Abhinavagupta: he is one of the most remarkable personalities of medieval India. He was the son of Narasimhagupta and great-grandson of Atrigupta and lived in Kashmir in the 11th cen AD. He was a prolific writer and a great teacher. Tantraaloka is his magnum opus. He also wrote commentaries named Abhinavabharati [on Natyashastra of Bharata] and Lochana [on Dhvanyaloka]. He was an authority on Pratyyabhijnadarshana. His other works include Malinivijayavartika, Paraatrimshikaavivarana and Tantralokasaara. It is through his works that we get details about Lollata, Bhattanayaka and Srisankuka. Mammata has revered him as Srimadacharya Abhinavagupta.

He has put forth the theory of Vyanjana to explain the relation between vibhava etc and rati. He calls it the vyangyavyanjakabhava. He follows the footsteps of Bhattanayaka by saying that the locus of rasa is with the spectator.

According to him it is not possible to accept that the anukarya [character like Rama] is the locus because he does not exist now. Also many works have fictitious characters.

The anukarta [actor on stage] cannot be the locus because he would get carried away by the intensity of it and cannot continue to act as required. And so he rejects Srisankuka and Lollata.

Finally he changed focus on to the sahrdaya or the spectator. He says that the sthayibhavas exist in the antahkarana in the form of vasana or samskara. Poetry or drama evokes these latent sthayibhava and make it relishable.

Rasaabhaasa and Bhaavabhaasa

Difference between Rasa and Bhava:

रतिर्देवादिविषया व्यभिचारी तथाञ्जितः ।।35।। भावः प्रोक्तः

आदिशब्दान्मुनिगुरुनृपपुत्रादिविषया। कान्ताविषया तु व्यक्ता शृङ्गारः।

When rati is expressed in respect of God etc, then the suggested mood is called Bhava. This includes muni [sage], guru [teacher], nrupa [king], putra [son] etc. When the love is suggested or manifested for a beloved it is termed as Sringara rasa.

तदाभासा अनौचित्यप्रवर्तिताः। तदाभासा रसाभासा भावाभासाश्च

Abhaasa or improper manifestation of these leads to anauchitya [impropriety]. Of these means Rasabhasa and bhavabhasa.

Rasa or bhava is considered as an aberration [abhasa] if it occurs improperly. This is called impropriety or anauchitya. In sringara, rati is considered as improper if it occurs in the upanayaka. Love for another man’s wife especially wife of a sage, guru are also considered as anauchitya. [Ravana’s love for Sita]. One woman having rati for many men and one side love are also termed as abhasa.

In Hasya rasa, humour directed against a Guru is considered abhasa. Raudra or Vira against one’s own parents is abhasa. Bhayanaka depicted in a well-known hero like Rama is abhasa.

Rasabhasa and Bhavabhasa can be examples of Dhvani. Such a kavya can be categorised as Uttama but shall not be called Rasadhvani or bhavadhvani.

भावस्य शान्तिरुदयः संधिः शबलता तथा ।।36।।

Bhava also occurs in various stages and these stages are termed as Bhavodaya, bhavashanti etc.

Bhavodaya is the birth or rise of sentiment.

एकस्मिञ् शयने विपक्षरमणीनामग्रहे मुग्धया सद्यो मानपरिग्रहग्लपितया चाटूनि कुर्वन्नपि। आवेगादवधीरितः प्रियतमस्तूष्णीं स्थितस्तत्क्षणं माभूत्सुप्त इवेत्यमन्दवलितग्रीवं पुनर्वीक्षितः ।। 51 ।। अत्रौत्सुक्यस्य।

They were on the same bed, he mentioned the name of another wife. Her indignation was aroused, she disdained him in anger. In spite of his flattering speech, she stayed silent for a moment. Fearing that he might fall asleep she looked at him turning her neck.  Here there is the rise of Utsukata or anxiety.

Bhavashanti is the subsiding of the sentiment.

तस्याः सान्द्रविलेपनस्तनतटप्र श्लेषमुद्राङ्कितं किं वक्षश्वरणानतिव्यतिकरव्याजेन गोपाय्यते। इत्युक्ते व्क तदित्युदीर्य सहसा तत् संप्रमाष्र्टुं मया साश्लिष्टा रभसेन तत्सुखवशात्तन्व्या च तद्विस्मृतम् ।। 50 ।। अत्र कोपस्य।

She said “Are you trying to conceal the marks of her sandal-painted breasts which are stamped on your chest”. I asked “where is it?” and to get those marks erased, I embraced her suddenly and she the slim one, forgot everything under the ecstasy. In this example we see anger subsiding. So this is Bhavashanti.

Bhavasandhi is the junction of 2 sentiments.

उत्सिक्तस्य तपःपराक्रमनिधेरब्यागमादेकतः सत्संगप्रियता च वीररभसोत्फालश्व मां कर्षतः। वैदैहीपरिरम्भ एष च मुहुश्वैतन्यमामीलयन् आनन्दी हरिचन्दनेन्दुशिशिरस्निग्धो रुणद्ध्यन्यतः ।। 52 ।। अत्रावेगहर्षयोः।

On seeing this treasure of austerities and prowess, my love for association with good people and the sudden burst of heroism attract me. On the other hand, Sita’s embrace that enlivens my soul, cool and soft like the divine sandal paste stops me, immersing me in bliss.   Here there is a conjunction of avega and harsa.

Bhavashabalata is the admixture of a number of sentiments.

व्काकार्यं शशलक्ष्मणः व्क च कुलं भूयोऽपि दृश्येत सा दोषाणां प्रशमाय नःश्रुतमहो कोपेऽपि कान्तं मुखम्। किं वक्ष्यन्त्यपकल्मषाः कृतधियः स्वप्नेऽपि सा दुर्लभा चेतः स्वास्थयमुपैहि कः खलु युवा धन्योऽधरं धास्यति ।। 53 ।। अत्र वितर्कौत्सुक्यमतिस्मरणदैन्यधृतिचिन्तानां शबलता

“Where the flawless lunar dynasty and where this unbecoming act? May I see her again and again! I was educated so that faults would subside. But oh! Her face was so charming even in anger. What will the wise and pure say about this? I think she is not accessible even in dreams. O mind, steady yourself. But which blessed young fellow will kiss her lips!”  Here there is an admixture of vitarka, autsukya, mati, smarana, shanka, dainya, dhriti and chinta.

Rasa is the predominant factor in poetry. But sometimes bhavodaya, bhavashanti etc may gain predominance. This is compared to the importance of a servant in whose marriage the King is merely present. All these are types of asamlakshyakrama dhvani.

Anuranana: It means reverberation. When a sound is made near a cave it reverberates and produces echo. . This is like ringing a bell. The sound does not stop at one stroke, but continues for some time. Similarly in poetry, one meaning is understood first, it then produces another meaning and that leads to another and so on. Such examples are said to have anuranana dhvani. This usually occurs in samlakshyakramavyangya. It is of three types shabdashakti yukta, arthashakti yukta and ubhayashakti yukta.

Virodhabhasa. The figure of virodhabhasa occurs when there is an apparent contradiction, which is solved when the other meaning is grasped.

Vinaapi tanvi haareNa vakshojau tava haariNau

Here, that which has no Haara [necklace] is said to possess Haara and so there is an apparent contradiction. It is solved when we understand that the other meaning of the word HaariNau is attractive. Now the sentence means your breasts are attractive even without a necklace.


A Brahmana gets converted to Buddhism and becomes a Shramana. He is no longer a Brahmana. But people who have known him since a long time cannot forget that was a Brahmana previously and so they call him Brahmana-shramana. Similarly when figures of speech are suggested they belong to dhvani class and are not alankaras. In fact they are alankaryas or factors that get embellished. But still they are called alankaras. Here the analog of Brahmana-shramana is utilised.

4th Ullaasa                Types of Dhvani

  • Dhvani
    • अविवक्षितवाच्यध्वनिः – lakshanaa mula Dhvani
      • अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्यध्वनिः – किञ्चित् विवक्षिता
      • अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्यध्वनिः – अविवक्षित
    • विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्यध्वनिः – abhidhaa mula Dhvani

नञ् means full absence and also little presence. So अविवक्षित is not विवक्षिता and also किञ्चित् विवक्षिता.


अविवक्षितवाच्यो यस्तत्र वाच्यं भवेद्ध्वनौ। अर्थान्तरे संक्रमितमत्यन्तं वा तिरस्कृतम् ।। 24 ।।

Avivakshitavachya is one where there is an unintended literary import of the primary meaning. It is of 2 types Arthantarasamkramita and Atyantatiraskrta.

Arthantharasamkramita: Here the primary meaning is transformed into another suggested meaning. Eg.

त्वामस्मि वच्मि विदुषां समवायोऽत्र तिष्ठति। आत्मीयां मतिमास्थाय स्थितिमत्र विधेहि तत्।।23।।

I am telling you this, here sits an assembly of scholars. Hence remain here keeping your mind alert. We see that in the suggested meaning, “telling” gets transformed into “advicing”.

Atyantaratiraskrita: Here the primary meaning is totally rejected for the sake of the suggested meaning. Eg.

उपकृतं बहु तत्र किमुच्यते सुजनता प्रथिता भवता परम्।
विदधदीदृशमेव सदा सखे सुखितमास्स्व ततः शरदां शतम् II

You have helped me greatly what can I say? You have exhibited extremely good humaneness. O my friend! Live for a hundred years happily, doing acts of the very same kind. The entire verse is filled with irony to express one’s displeasure. Live for a hundred years happily is not intended. In fact the intended meaning is just the opposite.

एतदपकारिणं प्रति विपरीतलक्षणया कश्चिद्वक्ति ॥२४॥

Here the primary meaning is total rejected and the suggested meaning adopted is actually in contrast to the primary meaning due to irony. This is called viparitalakshana.


विवक्षितं चान्यपरं वच्यं यत्रापरस्तु सः। अन्यपरं व्यङ्ग्यनिष्ठम्।।

Vivakshitanyaparavachya is one where the primary meaning is intended to be conveyed but in such a way that it is subservient to the other [suggested] meaning.

कोऽप्यलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग चो लक्ष्यव्यङ्ग्यक्रमः परः।। 25 ।।

It is of 2 types namely, alakshyakramavyangya and lakshyakramavyanga.

Alakshyakramavyangya: Rasa gets manifested through vibhavas, anubhavas and vyabhichari bhavas. But this sequence is too subtle and happens very quickly and hence is not comprehended.

विभावानुभावव्यभिचारिण एव रसः। अपि तु रसस्तैः, इत्यस्तिक्रमः। स तु लाघवान्न लक्ष्यते।।

Apart from rasa, bhava, rasabhasa, bhavabhasa, bhavashanti, bhavodaya, bhavasandhi and bhavashabalatva are considered to be alakshyakramavyangya. [alakshyakramavyangya is sometimes called akrama]

Lakshyakramavyangya is where the sequence is perceptible. It is of 3 types, Shabdashaktimula, arthashaktimula and ubhayashaktimula.


Shabdashaktimuladhvani, Arthashaktimuladhvani and Ubhayashaktimuladhvani belong to the main type called abhidamuladhvani.

Shabdashaktimuladhvani is one where the power of the shabda [words] that have more than one primary meaning plays a role [haara]. The words may suggest a vastu [idea] or a figure of speech [alankara]. Hence it is of 2 types.

In arthashaktimuladhvani, the meaning of the word plays a role in conveying the suggested idea [vastu] or figure of speech [alankara].

अर्थशक्त्युद्भवोऽप्यर्थो व्यञ्जकः संभवी स्वतः ।।39।। प्रौढोक्तिमात्रात्सिद्धो वा कवेस्तेनोम्भितस्य वा। वस्तु वालंकृतिर्वेति षड्भेदोऽसौ व्यनक्ति यत् ।।40।। वस्त्वलंकारमथ वा तेनायं द्वादशात्मकः।

The meaning in arthashaktimuladhvani becomes vyanjaka [suggestive]. It is of 3 types svatah sambhavi, kavipraudoktimatrasiddha and kavinibaddhavaktru – praudoktisiddha. Each of these 3 types is categorised as 2 on the basis of vastu and alamkara thereby making the total count 6. The 6 is again divided on the basis of vastu and alankara and we finally have 12 types of arthashaktimuladhvani.

Svatah sambhavi Kavipraudoktisiddha Kavinibaddha vaktrupraudokti siddha
Vastunavastu Vastunavastu Vastunavastu
Vastuna alankara Vastuna alankara Vastuna alankara
Alankarena vastu Alankarena vastu Alankarena vastu
Alankarena alankara Alankarena alankara Alankarena alankara


Svatah sambhavi: That which exists in the world. Not the imagination of the poet. [Side note: Valmiki or Hanuman describing Lanka in Ramayana – description of something that exists in the world ]

Kavipraudokti siddha: Concepts arising from the imagination of the poet and conveyed by the poet himself. [ Side note: pure imagination – something that does not exist in the world ]

Kavinibaddhavaktru praudokti siddha: Here again it is the imagination of the poet. But it is conveyed through the speech of the character. [ Side note: Some character in the work describing something that does not exist in the world ]

Ubhayashaktimula dhvani शब्दार्थोभयभूरेकः It has only one type – vastuna alankara dhvani. It occurs only in a sentence वाक्ये द्वयुत्थः II  द्वयुत्थ इति शब्दार्थोभयशक्तिमूलःII

पदेऽप्यन्ये Others, ie; shabdashakti and arthashaktimula dhvani can occur in a word and sentence also. अपिशब्दाद्वाक्येऽपि। एकावयवस्थितेन भूषणेन कामिनीव पदद्योत्येन व्यङ्ग्येन वाक्यव्यङ्ग्यापि भारती भासते। Just as a beautiful woman shines more by a jewel worn on her limb, poetic speech or idea suggested by a sentence shines more by the suggested meaning of a word.

Number of types of dhvani

भेदा अष्टादशास्य तत् ।।41।। अस्येति ध्वनेः।।

There are 18 types of dhvani [arthantarasankramita, atyantatiraskrita, rasadidhvani, 2 types of shabdashaktimula, 12 types of arthashaktimula and 1 ubhayashaktimula]. Each of these 18 can either manifest in a pada [word] or vakya [sentence]. Sok –

we have 18×2=36. But Ubhayashaktimula can occur only in vakya and not pada. Hence 36 – 1=35 . So dhvani is of 35 types totally according to Mammata  शब्दार्थोभयशक्त्युद्भवस्तु पदप्रकाश्यो न भवतीति पञ्चतिं्रशद्भेदाः

ननु रसादीनां बहुभेदत्वेन कथमष्टादशेत्यत आह। रसादीनामनन्तत्वाद्भेद एको हि गण्यते।

How is it that the count is just 18 when there are many rasa etc? since the rasadis are innumerable, they have been taken as one.

Rasas are 9. Of these shringara is of 2 types, vipralamba and samboga. The permutation combination of all possible alambana and uddeepana vibhavas, anubhavas and vyabhicharins is innumerable. If this is the case with one rasa, we have 8 more rasas and then the bhavadis. Therefore they are taken as one type only considering that they have the common factor of belonging to asamlakshyakramavyangya.

Prabandha dhvani : प्रबन्धेऽप्यर्थशक्तिभूः ।।42

Suggestion based on the power of meaning [arthashaktimula] can occur also in Prabandha. An example given is the conversation between a vulture and a jackal. It is called गृद्रगोमायुसंवाद and has been taken from the Shantiparva of Mahabharata.

यथा गृद्रगोमायुसंवादादौ। अलं स्थित्वा श्मसानेऽस्मिन् गृध्रगोमायुसंकुले। कङ्कालबहले घोरे सर्वप्राणिभयंकरे ।। 93 ।। न चेह जीवितः कश्वित् कालधर्ममुपागतः। प्रियो वा यदि वा द्वेष्यः प्राणिनां गतिरीदृशी ।। 94 ।

Enough of your stay in the burial ground which is replete with vultures and jackals. The presence of many skeletons is horrible and can produce fear in all animals. None in this world has become alive after meeting death, whether he is a dear or a hated one. This is the way of all living beings”

इति दिवा प्रभवतो गृध्रस्य पुरुषविसर्जनपरमिदं वचनम्। This is told by the vulture who has power only during the day, in order to send people away from that place.

आदित्योऽयं स्थितो मूढाः स्नेहं कुरुत सांप्रतम्। बहुविघ्नो मुहूर्तोऽयं जीवेदपि कदाचन ।। 95 ।। अमुं कनकवर्णाभं बालमप्राप्तयौवनम्। गृध्रवाक्यात्कर्थ मूढास्त्यजध्वमविशङ्किताः ।। 96 ।।

“Oh fools, the sun is still there. Show your love now. This time has many obstacles. The dead boy may possibly live. Oh fools, how can you trust the words of the vulture and abandon this boy, who has not yet attained youth and whose complexion is golden?”

इति निशि विजृम्भमाणस्य गोमायोर्जनव्यावर्तननिष्ठं च वचनमिति प्रबन्ध एव प्रथते। this has been told by the jackal who is active at night.

Neither the vulture nor the jackal care for the boy or the feelings of other people. Each of them have the selfish motive of devouring the body. So the vulture wants them to abandon the body immediately [when there is sunlight] while the jackal wants people to wait till sun sets.

Sankara : It is a combination of 2 or more dhvanis in one stanza or sentence and these have a mutual relationship. Based on the relationship, Sankara is of 3 types.

  1. Anugrahyaanugrahaka sankaraha: Here one dhvani assists or blesses the other dhvani.
  2. Sandeha sankaraha: Here there is a doubt as to which type of dhvani needs to be accepted.
  3. Ekavyanjakaanupravesha sankaraha: Here 2 types of dhvanis occur in one and the same suggestive expression.

Samsristi : Here again there are 2 or more dhvani in one stanza or sentence. But unlike sankara, here there is no mutual relation or dependence.


Mammata classifies kavya as Uthama, Madhyama and Adhama. Uthama kavya is one filled with dhvani or rich in suggested meaning. Madhyama kavya is one in which dhvani becomes subordinated. It is also called Gunibhootavyangya. Adhama kavya is one which is lacking of dhvani and it is also called chitra kavya.

अगूढमपरस्याङ्गं वाच्यसिद्धयङ्गमस्फुटम्। संदिग्धतुल्यप्राधान्ये काव्काक्षिप्तँमसुन्दरम् ।।45।। व्यङ्ग्यमेवं गुणीभूतव्यङ्ग्यस्याष्टौ भिदाः स्मृताः।

Mammata has mentioned 8 types of Gunibhootavyangya.

  1. Agoodavyangya: Not properly concealed.

The suggested meaning or dhvani has importance only when it is subtly implied and not too obvious. In this case however the subtlety is lacking and the meaning is too obvious.

  1. Aparangavyangya: Suggested meaning is subservient to something else.

Here the rasa etc or the reverberated meaning becomes subsidiary to another rasa or the denoted meaning. For example, Sringara rasa becoming subservient to karuna rasa in Ramayana.

  1. Vachyasiddyanga vyangya: Suggested meaning is for the accomplishment of the denoted meaning.

Vyangya is applied for Vachya siddhi i.e., better clarity of the denoted meaning is obtained through vyangya.

  1. Asphutavyangya: Unclear or obtuse.

The suggested meaning is not clearly conveyed.

अदृष्टे दर्सनोत्कण्ठा दृष्टे विच्छेदभीरुता। नादृष्टेन न दृष्टेन भवता लभ्यते सुखम् ।। 128 ।।

When you are out of sight, there is a longing to see you. When you are seen there is the fear of separation. There is no happiness from you even when you are seen or not seen. Here the suggested meaning is “Do something by which you are seen and there is no fear of separation too.” This idea is not very clearly conveyed.

  1. Sandigdhapradhanya:

There is a doubt as to which one of the 2 is prominent – the denoted meaning or the suggested meaning.

  1. Tulyapradhanya: Equal prominence.

Here there is equal scope for the denoted as well as the suggested meanings.

  1. Kaakvakshiptam:

Here the suggested meaning is implied by the tone of the speaker [kaku]. The vachyartha negates the actions but the vyangyartha affirms it.

  1. Asundara: Not beautiful.

Here the suggested meaning is not as charming as the denoted meaning. The vachyartha nourishes and enhances the rasa better and so it is more beautiful than the suggested meaning.

Refutation of opponents of Vyanjana

Mammata establishes the role of vyanjana firmly by defeating the opponents of Vyanjana vada. 2 main theories that were proposed to oppose vyanjana are

  1. नैमित्तिकानुसारेण निमित्तानि कल्प्यन्ते
  2. सोऽयमिषोरिव दीर्घदीर्घतरो व्यापारः ll  यत्परः शब्दः स शब्दार्थः ll

नैमित्तिकानुसारेण निमित्तानि कल्प्यन्तेcauses are guessed from the effects.

Nimitta means cause and Naimittika is that which results from a Nimitta, ie; effect. Nimitta is of 2 types – Kaaraka and Jnaapaka.

Kaaraka is the actual cause like mud or wheel in respect of the effect ghata and Jnaapaka could be just an indicator or illuminator like the lamp. If there is an object X, a lamp only illuminates and helps us cognise it [see it]. It does not help us to know what the object is unless we know the convention associated with it.

Something becomes known [by a word] only if a convention is established. This convention happens only when there is a correlation. So as long as the correlation of the cause and effect has not been ascertained, how can one know the effect from the cause or cause from the effect. Therefore it is not proper to accept that causes are guessed from the effects.

“सोऽयमिषोरिव दीर्घदीर्घतरो व्यापारः” इति “यत्परः शब्दः शब्दार्थः” इति च विधिरेवात्र वाच्य इति

Some say “that the function of a word is like the action of an arrow and so is very very long. So the meaning of the word is the sense finally desired to be conveyed.” And so Vidhi [affirmative] of the denoted meaning is what is being conveyed.

It is like saying that tatparyartha which arises on the basis of abhida or denoted meaning is the sense that is desired to be finally conveyed. [side note when a lady sarcastically says to her lover “go, no one is stopping you” the final sense conveyed is that the lover is allowed to go. But in reality it is just the other way. Here the tone of the speaker suggests sarcasm. This cannot be known by the function of abhida or tatparyartha]

भूतभव्यसमुच्चारणे भूतं भव्यायोपदिश्यते

When that which is accomplished [bhuta] and that which is to be accomplished [bhavya] are both mentioned, the former is only for enjoining the later.

[When something new is added to an already known fact, the enjoining is only for understanding the new factor. So the sentence need not be understood from scratch.]

ऋत्विक्प्रचरणे प्रमाणान्तरात् सिद्धे “”लोहितोष्णीषा ऋत्विजः प्रचरन्ति”” इत्यत्र लोहितोष्णीषत्वमात्रं विधेयम्। for instance consider the Vedic statement “the red-turbaned priests move”. Here the movement of priests is already known [bhuta] and so what is enjoined here is that the priests should wear red turbans while moving [bhavya].

This is called Adagdadahana nyaya”.  Fire burns everything. But everything includes only unburned things and not ash. Therefore only that which is already not known is enjoined.

Arguments in favour of Vyanjana :

  • If comprehension of meaning of a sentence happens only on the basis of abhida, then how can one explain different emotions like happiness [when one hears that a son is born] and sorrow [when one hears that his unmarried daughter is pregnant]?
  • Both the schools of Mimamsa accept Lakshana. Mammata’s argument is why accept Laksha when even that can be explained as a longer function of abhida?
  • Doshas are classified as nitya [permanent] and anitya [temporary]. Asaadhutva or grammatical error is a permanent dosha while Kashtatva [harshness] is a dosha in sringara and shanta rasas, but is allowed in Vira rasa. So it is classified as a temporary dosha based on the context.  Mammata says if everythings is based on abhida then why have the category of anitya dosha?
  • The phrase गतोऽस्तमर्कः has only one denoted meaning “the sun has set”. The suggested meaning may be any of the following. 1) This is the opportunity to attack the enemy. 2) Begin the voyage to meet your lover. 3) Your beloved has almost come. 4) Let us retire from our work. 5) Let us begin our evening rituals. 6) Don’t go far. 7) Allow the cows to enter the house. 8) No longer will the heat be here now. 9) Let the merchandise be packed. 10) My beloved has not come till now.
  • There is also a difference of time between the 2 because denoted meaning always flashes first and the suggested appears afterwards.
  • The Ashraya [locus] of the 2 functions is also different. Denotation always depends on the word while suggestion may depend on word, part of the word, its meaning, varnas or the structure [rachana].
  • Denoted meaning is known from grammar while the suggested meaning requires grammar and clarity of imagination assisted by the context etc.
  • The effect also varies. Denoted meaning produces ordinary knowledge in every hearer while suggested meaning produces aesthetic delight in sahrdayas.
  • Vachakas [denotative words] require a meaning fixed by convention, while Vyanjakas [suggestive words] do not require it.

तत्क्वचिदपि नीलपीतादौ भेदो न स्यात् । Despite the above arguments if still one believes that Vachaktva and Vyanjakatva are the same then there would be no difference between blue and yellow. With the above arguments Mammata has established that Vachakatva is not Vyanjakatva  न वाचकत्वमेव व्यञ्जकत्वम्।

Refutation of Bhaaktavadins:  Mammata then proceeds to refute scholars who say that Vyanjana is nothing but Bhakti or Lakshana. Lakshana is of many types and is always regularly related to the primary meaning.

  • Unlike lakshana, Vyanjana 1) may have a regular relation with primary meaning 2) may not have a regular relation with the primary meaning or 3) may have an indirect relation.
  • Lakshana is said to be a tail of abhida as it always depends on abhida, while Vyanjana may or may not follow abhida and lakshana. In some cases suggestion depends on the varnas which have no abhida at all. Also vyanjana can occur from gestures like side glances where words are not at all involved.

Chitrakavya: While classifying kavya, Mammata says that chitrakavya is of the Adhama category, as it is devoid of dhvani. It is of 2 types shabdachitra and arthachitra.

शब्दचित्रेऽर्थस्याचित्रत्वम् अर्थचित्रे वा शब्दस्य। It is to be remembered that in shabdachitra, shabda is predominant and artha is subsidiary. Similarly in arthachitra, artha is pradhana and shabda is subordinate.

रूपकादिरलंकारस्तस्यान्यैर्बहुधोदितः। कान्तमपि निर्भूषं विभाति वनिताननम्।

The face of a beautiful lady does not shine, if it is totally devoid of ornamentation.

The need for rupaka, upama etc alankaras have been mentioned here.

Some feel that figures of speech like Rupaka are exterior. Elegant nouns and verbs [saushabdya] is the real ornament. Bhamaha too opposes this view. He affirms that upama, rupaka etc are arthalankaras, while anuprasa, yamaka etc are shabdalankaras.

Chitrakavya can have the description of a vibhava or anubhava or vyabhicharibhava of some rasa. But this does not result in the relishment of the rasa. For example, moonrise is a well-known vibhava of sringara rasa. If the description of moon rise occurs in a kavya where the meeting of lovers is describes, then it enhances the relishment of sringara rasa and becomes dhvani. If it stops at the description of moonrise as a natural occurrence then it is not dhvani.

Chitra Mimamsa by Appayya Dheekshitar

This is an elaborate descriptive work with full examples of the Lakshana of the more important Arthalankaras. Following this pattern, Sri Jagannadha Pandita wrote his famous Rasagangadhara. The Chitra Mimamsa has been written in the traditional sastraic manner. Chitramimamsa-khandana was a work by Jagannatha Pandita that includes his uncompromising and abusive criticisms of Appaya.

Video – Ramayana Sundarakanda Selected verses

Ramayana Shlokas with Anvaya for KSOU MA

For KSOU MA second year students, some selected verses, from Sundarakandam of Valmiki Ramayanam until Canto 22, are listed here along with anvaya. The main source is Changes and correction have been done where required.  A reference to the year and question number is also mentioned in this format [2010.01]. Refer other posts in this blog with more details and additional shlokas.



५-१-१ ततो रावणनीतायाः सीतायाः शत्रुकर्शनः

ततो रावणनीतायाः सीतायाः शत्रुकर्शनः | इयेष पदमन्वेष्टुं चारणाचरिते पथि ||५-१-१

तत: शत्रुकर्शनः रावण-नीतायाः सीतायाः पदम् अन्वेष्टुं चारणाचरिते पथि इयेष |

[Samkshepa  1]

५-१-१८ स महासत्त्वसंनादः

स महासत्त्वसंनादः शैलपीडानिमित्तजः | पृथिवीं पूरयामास दिशश्चोपवनानि च ||५-१-१८

स: शैल+पीडा+निमित्तजः महा+सत्त्व+संनादः  पृथिवीं दिशः च उपवनानि च पूरयामास |


५-१-३३ आनुपूर्व्येण वृत्तं च

आनुपूर्व्येण वृत्तं च लाङ्गूलं लोमभिश्चितम् | उत्पतिष्यन् विचिक्षेप पक्षिराज इवोरगम् ||५-१-३३

उत्पतिष्यन् (सः), आनुपूर्व्येण वृत्तं, लोमभि: चितं च, लाङ्गूलं, पक्षिराज: उरगम् इव, विचिक्षेप |


५-१-३९ यथा राघवनिर्मुक्तश्शरः

यथा राघवनिर्मुक्तश्शरः श्वसनविक्रमः | गच्छेत्तद्वद्गमिष्यामि लङ्कां रावणपालिताम् || ५-१-३९

यथा राघव+निर्मुक्तः श्वसन+विक्रमः शरः गच्छेत् तद्वत् रावण+पालितां लङ्कां गमिष्यामि ||

[samkshepa 2]

५-१-४७ ऊरुवेगोद्धता

ऊरुवेगोद्धता वृक्षा मुहूर्तं कपिमन्वयुः |प्रस्थितं दीर्घमध्वानं स्वबन्धुमिव बान्धवाः || ५-१-४७

ऊरु+वेग+उद्धता: वृक्षा: कपिं मुहूर्तम् अन्वयुः | दीर्घमध्वानं प्रस्थितं स्वबन्धुं बान्धवाः इव |

2008.01, [Dushyant]

५-१-५७ पिबन्निव बभौ

पिबन्निव बभौ चापि सोर्मिमालं महार्णवम् || ५-१-५७ पिपासुरिव चाकाशं ददृशे स महाकपिः |

स: महाकपिः, स+ऊर्मि+मालं महा+आर्णवम्, पिबन् इव, बभौ च | आकाशं पिपासु: इव अपि च ददृशे |


५-१-६१ लाङ्गूलं च

लाङ्गूलश्च समाविद्धं प्लवमानस्य शोभते ||५-१-६१अम्बरे वायुपुत्रस्य शक्रध्वज इवोच्छ्रितः |

अम्बरे प्लवमानस्य, वायुपुत्रस्य, समाविद्धं, लाङ्गूलं, उच्छ्रितः शक्र+ध्वजः इव, शोभते च |


५-१-१०६ जातरूपमयैः

जातरूपमयैः शृङ्गैर्भ्राजमानैः स्वयंप्रभैः || ५-१-१०६ आदित्यशतसङ्काशः सोऽभवद्गिरिसत्तमः|

स: गिरिसत्तमः, जातरूपमयैः, स्वयं+प्रभैः भ्राजमानैः, शृङ्गैः,  आदित्य+शत+सङ्काशः अभवत् |


५-१-१६९ प्रविष्टोऽस्मि हि ते

प्रविष्टोऽस्मि हि ते वक्त्रं दाक्षायणि नमोऽस्तु ते |गमिष्ये यत्र वैदेही सत्यश्चासीद्वरस्तव || ५-१-१६९

दाक्षायणि | ते वक्त्रं प्रविष्टः अस्मि हि | ते नमः अस्तु | यत्र वैदेही (तत्र अहं) गमिष्ये | तव वर: सत्यं आसीत् च |

2007.01 [ Nochur ]

५-१-१९८ यस्य त्वेतानि चत्वारि

यस्य त्वेतानि चत्वारि वानरेन्द्र यथा तव || ५-१-१९८ स्मृतिर्धृतिर्मतिर्दाक्ष्यं (\धृतिर्दृष्टिर्मतिर्दाक्ष्यं) स कर्मसु न सीदति |

वानरेन्द्र | यस्य धृति: दृष्टि: मति: दाक्ष्यं इति एतानि चत्वारि (सन्ति) यथा तव (सन्ति), स: कर्मसु न सीदति |


५-२-५ स तु वीर्यवतां श्रेष्ठः

स तु वीर्यवतां श्रेष्ठः प्लवतामपि चोत्तमः | जगाम वेगवाल्लँङ्कां लङ्घयित्वा महोदधिम् || ५-२-५

वीर्यवतां श्रेष्ठः, प्लवतां अपि उत्तमः च, वेगवान् स: तु, महा+उदधिं लङ्घयित्वा, लङ्कां जगाम |


५-२-२७ न हि युद्धेन वै लङ्का शक्या जेतुं सुरैरपि

आगत्यापीह हरयो भविष्यन्ति निरर्थकाः | न हि युद्धेन वै लङ्का शक्या जेतुं सुरैरपि || ५-२-२७

इह आगत्यापी, हरयः, निरर्थकाः भविष्यन्ति | सुरैः अपि युद्धेन वै लङ्का जेतुं न शक्या हि |

2014.14 [Dushyant]

५-३-३३ द्रक्ष्यामि नगरीं लङ्काम्

द्रक्ष्यामि नगरीं लङ्कां साट्टप्राकारतोरणाम् | इत्यर्थमिह सम्प्राप्तः परं कौतूहलं हि मे || ५-३-३३
साट्ट+प्राकार+तोरणां नगरीं लङ्कां द्रक्ष्यामि  इत्यर्थम् इह सम्प्राप्तः | मे परं कौतूहलं हि |

2010.03 [Nochur]

५-३-४५ अहं तु नगरी लङ्का

अहं तु नगरी लङ्का स्वयमेव प्लवङ्गम || ५-३-४५ निर्जिताहं त्वया वीर विक्रमेण महाबल |

प्लवङ्गम | अहं तु स्वयं एव लङ्का नगरी | वीर | महाबल | अहं विक्रमेण त्वया निर्जिता |


५-४-२ प्रविश्य नगरीं लङ्काम्

प्रविश्य नगरीं लङ्कां कपिराजहितम्करः || ५-४-२ चक्रेऽथ पादं सव्यं च शत्रूणां स तु मूर्धनि |

सः कपि+राज+हितम्करः, लङ्कां नगरीं प्रविश्य, अथ, सव्यं पादं तु, शत्रूणां मूर्धनि, चक्रे |

2009.01 [Dushyant] [Nochur] [samkshepa 3]

५-५-१० मत्तप्रमत्तानि समाकुलानि

मत्तप्रमत्तानि समाकुलानि रथाश्वभद्रासनसङ्कुलानि | वीरश्रिया चापि समाकुलानि  ददर्श धीमान् स कपिः कुलानि || ५-५-१०

सः वीरः धीमान् कपिः, मत्तप्रमत्तानि समाकुलानि रथ+अश्व+भद्र+आसन+सङ्कुलानि, श्रिया च अपि समाकुलानि, कुलानि, ददर्श |


५-६-१६ गृहाद् गृहं राक्षसानाम्

गृहाद्गृहम् राक्षसानामुद्यानानि च वानरः | वीक्षमाणो ह्यसंत्रस्तः प्रासादांश्च चचार सः || ५-६-१६

सः असंत्रस्तः वानरः, राक्षसानाम् गृहात् गृहम्, उद्यानानि च, प्रासादान् च, वीक्षमाण: हि, चचार |


५-१०-५४ आश्पोटयामास

आश्पोटयामास चुचुम्ब पुच्छम् | ननन्द चिक्रीड जगौ जगाम |
स्तम्भान् अरोहन् निपपात भूमौ | निदर्शयन् स्वां प्रकृतिं कपीनाम् || ५-१०-५४

आश्पोटयामास | पुच्छम् चुचुम्ब | ननन्द | चिक्रीड | जगौ जगाम | कपीनाम् स्वां प्रकृतिं निदर्शयन्, स्तम्भान् अरोहन्, भूमौ निपपात |

2011.04 [Nochur]

५-११-२, ५-११-३ न रामेण वियुक्ता सा

न रामेण वियुक्ता सा स्वप्तुमर्हति भामिनी || ५-११-२ न भोक्तुं नाप्यलङ्कर्तुं न पानमुपसेवितुम्  |
नान्यं नरमुपस्थातुं सुराणामपि चेश्वरम् | न हि रामसमः कश्चिद्विद्यते त्रिदशेष्वपि || ५-११-३
अन्येयमिति निश्चित्य पानभूमौ चचार सः |

रामेण वियुक्ता, भामिनी, सा, स्वप्तुम् न अर्हति, न भोक्तुं,  न अपि अलङ्कर्तुं, न पानम् उपसेवितुम्  | सुराणाम्  ईश्वरम् अपि च, अन्यं नरम्  उपस्थातुं  न (अर्हति) | त्रिदशेषु अपि रामसमः कश्चित् न हि विद्यते | इयम् अन्या इति निश्चित्य, पानभूमौ, सः चचार |


५-११-४३ मनो हि हेतुः

मनो हि हेतुः सर्वेषामिन्द्रियाणां प्रवर्तने || ५-११-४३  शुभाशुभास्ववस्थासु तच्च मे सुव्यवस्थितम् |

शुभ+अशुभासु अवस्थासु सर्वेषाम् इन्द्रियाणाम् प्रवर्तने मनः हि हेतुः | तत् च मे (मनः) सुव्यवस्थितम् |

2007.03 [Nochur]

५-१२-६ वृथा जातो मम श्रमः

दृष्टम् अन्तःपुरम् सर्वम् दृष्ट्वा रावण योषितः | न सीता दृश्यते साध्वी वृथा जातो मम श्रमः || ५-१२-६

अन्तःपुरम् सर्वं दृष्टम् | रावण-योषितः दृष्ट्वा साध्वी सीता न दृश्यते | मम श्रमः वृथा जातः |

[Samkshepa 4]

५-१२-१६ स विचचार महा कपिः

प्रविशन् निष्पतमः च अपि प्रपतन्न् उत्पतन्न् अपि |सर्वमप्यवकाशं स विचचार महाकपिः || ५-१२-१६

प्रविशन्,  निष्पतमः च अपि, प्रपतन्न्, उत्पतन्न् अपि, सः महाकपिः सर्वम् अपि अवकाशम् विचचार || [samkshepa 5]

५-१३-१२ अदुष्टा दुष्ट भावाभिः

अथवा राक्षसेन्द्रस्य पत्नीभिरसितेक्षणा || ५-१३-१२ अदुष्टा दुष्टभावाभिर्भक्षिता सा भविष्यति |

अथवा, असित+ईक्षणा, अदुष्टा, सा, दुष्ट+भावाभि:, राक्षस+इन्द्रस्य पत्नीभि:, भक्षिता भविष्यति |

2009.02 Part 1

५-१३-१३ सम्पूर्णचन्द्रप्रतिमम्

सम्पूर्णचन्द्रप्रतिमं पद्मपत्रनिभेक्षणम् || ५-१३-१३ रामस्य ध्यायती वक्त्रं पञ्चत्वं कृपणा गता |

सम्पूर्ण+चन्द्र+प्रतिमं पद्म+पत्र+निभ+ईक्षणं, रामस्य वक्त्रं ध्यायती, कृपणा, पञ्चत्वं गता |

2009.02. Part 2

५-१३-१८ निवेद्यमाने दोषः

निवेद्यमाने दोषः स्याद्दोषः स्यादनिवेदने || ५-१३-१८ कथं नु खलु कर्तव्यं विषमं प्रतिभाति मे |

निवेद्यमाने दोषः स्यात् | अनिवेदने दोषः स्यात् | कथं नु खलु कर्तव्यम् ? मे विषमं प्रतिभाति |


५-१३-५५ न हि इयम् विचिता मया

अशोक वनिकाचेयं दृश्यते या महाद्रुमा (\अशोकवनिका च अपि महती इयम् महा द्रुमा) || ५-१३-५५ इमाम् अभिगमिष्यामि न हीयम् विचिता मया |

महती महाद्रुमा च अपि इयम् अशोकवनिका | इमाम् अभिगमिष्यामि | इयम् मया न हि विचिता |

[Samkshepa 6]

५-१४-११ पुष्पावकीर्णः शुशुभे

पुष्पावकीर्णः शुशुभे हनुमान् मारुतात्मजः | अशोकवनिकामध्ये यथा पुष्पमयो गिरिः || ५-१४-११

यथा पुष्पमयः गिरिः,  पुष्प+अवकीर्णः,  मारुत+आत्मजः, हनुमान्, अशोक+वनिका+मध्ये, शुशुभे |


५-१५-१८ ततो मलिनसम्वीताम्

ततो मलिनसम्वीतां राक्षसीभिः समावृताम् || ५-१५-१८ उपवासकृशां दीनां निःस्वसन्तीं पुनः पुनः |

ततः मलिन+सम्वीतां, राक्षसीभिः समावृताम्, उपवास+कृशाम्, दीनाम्, पुनः पुनः निःस्वसन्तीं  (ददर्श) |

[Nochur] [Samkshepa 7]

५-१५-१९ ददर्श शुक्लपक्षादौ

ददर्श शुक्लपक्षादौ चन्द्ररेखामिवामलाम् || ५-१५-१९

शुक्ल+पक्ष+आदौ, अमलां चन्द्र+रेखाम्, इव, ददर्श |

[Nochur] [Samkshepa 8 ]

५-१५-२६ तां समीक्ष्य विशालाक्षीमधिकम्

तां समीक्ष्य विशालाक्षीमधिकं मलिनां कृशाम् || ५-१५-२६ तर्कयामास सीतेति कारणैरुपपादिभिः |

विशाल+अक्षीम्, अधिकं मलिनां, कृशां, ताम्, समीक्ष्य, उपपादिभिः कारणैः, सीता इति तर्कयामास |

[ Samkshepa 9]

५-१५-५२ अस्या देव्या मनः तस्मिन्

अस्या देव्या मनः तस्मिन् मनः तस्य च अस्याम् प्रतिष्ठितम् | तेन इयम् स च धर्म आत्मा मुहूर्तम् अपि जीवति || ५-१५-५२

अस्या देव्या मनः तस्मिन् मनः तस्य च अस्याम् प्रतिष्ठितम् | तेन इयम् स च धर्म आत्मा मुहूर्तम् अपि जीवति |

[Nochur] [Samkshepa 10]

५-१५-५४  जगाम मनसा रामम्

एवम् सीताम् तदा दृष्ट्वा हृष्टः पवन सम्भवः | जगाम मनसा रामम् प्रशशंस च तम् प्रभुम् || ५-१५-५४

तदा एवम् सीताम् दृष्ट्वा हृष्टः पवनसम्भवः तम् प्रभुम् रामम् मनसा जगाम, प्रशशंस च |

[Samkshepa 11]

५-१६-१८ धर्मज्ञस्य कृतज्ञस्य

धर्मज्ञस्य कृतज्ञस्य रामस्य विदितात्मनः | इयं सा दयिता भार्या राक्षसीवशमागता || ५-१६-१८

इयम्, सा, धर्मज्ञस्य कृतज्ञस्य विदित+आत्मनः रामस्य दयिता भार्या,  राक्षसी वशम् आगता |


५-१६-२६ भर्ता नाम परम्

भर्ता नाम परं नार्या भूषणं भूषणादपि | एषा हि रहिता तेन शोभनार्हा (\भूषणार्हा)  न शोभते || ५-१६-२६

भूषणात् अपि नार्याः परं भूषणं भर्ता नाम | तेन रहिता, शोभन+अर्हा हि, एषा, न शोभते |

2009.04, 2010.04, 2012.03

५-१९-१४ पद्मिनीमिव

पद्मिनीमिव विध्वस्तां हतशूरां चमूमिव |प्रभामिव तमोध्वस्तामुपक्षीणामिवापगाम् || ५-१९-१४

विध्वस्तां पद्मिनीम् इव, हतशूरां चमूम् इव,  तमोध्वस्तां प्रभां इव, उपक्षीणाम् अपगाम् इव (सीता आसीत्) |


५-२२-२१ नापहर्तुमहं शक्या

नापहर्तुमहं शक्या तस्य (/त्वया) रामस्य धीमतः |विधिस्तव वधार्थाय विहितो नात्र संशयः || ५-२२-२१

धीमतः रामस्य  अहं, त्वया अपहर्तुम् शक्या न  | तव वधार्थाय विधिः विहितः | अत्र संशयः न |