Smriti Class 1 – Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy

Smriti  Class 1 – Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy – March 31, 2016

General Discussions before the class:

Shravana Kumar’s parents were not Brahmins. Yet due to the power of the tapas they were able to curse Dasharatha. The power is obtained through practice of Yoga and not through birth in a Brahmin family.

In Arthashastra, there is a shloka to pacify husband’s anger. There were tantric practices to control the minds of others. There are mantras to win over the husband from the influence of his other wives. The knowledge of the tantra is also important. If everything else fails, they will resort to Tantra.

Saama,Daana, Bhedha, and Danda are the four types. Saama is applying Dharma and try to get it done in the right way. Daana is to offer something to get it done. Bhedha is to warn about the consequences of not doing it. When these three fail, they resort to Danda. When the person is physically stronger, tantra is used to win him.

Jamadagni was disgraced by Parikshit. Parikshit had more worldly powers being the king. But he was punished by the curse. Diplomacy is important. Chankya teaches Chandragupta that by hook or crook one should win. You should withdraw if you feel that you are not fit. But once you undertake some task, see that it is completed somehow. Tantra is the last resort.

Vishya Kanya is used. Poison is given to a girl child from birth in smaller quantities that the system becomes immune to the poison. It increases the beauty of the child. She is used as a weapon. Such methods were approved and practiced by the kings. Chandra Gupta’s enemy Amatya Rakshasha sends a Visha Kanya to Chandra Gupta. Chanakya smartly protected Chandra Gupta by sending someone else in place of Chandra Gupta. It is a wonderful story where Chanakya finally makes Amatya himself the protector of Chandra Gupta Maurya.

The need for Smritis

Shrutis are the most authoritative works. Poorvotaraana bhaleeyasi.  Whatever is said earlier becomes stronger. When there is a conflict between Shruti and Smriti, Shruti is taken to be correct. Anything that has come after it cannot override its injunctions. That being the case, why is there then a need for Smriti?

For example, if Shruti says Chaaturvarnya is to be followed, the Smriti cannot go against it. But the Smriti can clarify whether a person can cross over from one varna to another, if he has the right capabilities. The Smritikaara will refer to the Vedas and substantiate his argument. Janmanaa jaayate Shudrah. Without any jnaana, everyone is a Sudhraa at birth. By taking the second birth, i.e., during upanayana karma, the boy becomes a Brahmana. The woman also becomes a Brahmin when she starts the studies to acquire knowledge.

During the Smriti period, there were different professions that came in being. Every job was required and it was honoured. As far as the definition of Brahmin-hood is concerned, it depends on the person’s capacity in regaining knowledge and giving out the knowledge. आचिनोति आचरत्यपि आचार्यः – aachinoti – is the collection of knowledge. An Aacharya has to acquire knowledge and carry out his actions based on the acquired knowledge.  He should have unity in thoughts, words and action. ऋषिः – A Rishi is a gnaani. He sees oneness in humanity – सर्वंखल्विदं ब्रह्म | मार्गदर्शी महर्षिः | He shows the direction to all the human beings. There is no selfish interest in him. He is concerned about everyone. Each person’s life is unique. The different paths are not to be condemned or glorified. The Rishi’s scope covers everyone and he provides the appropriate guidance for everyone.

Crossing or तरण from one varna to another varna was allowed. In Manusmriti, Manu says that he recollects the Vedic concepts and writes this Manusmriti. The deviations according to the requirement of times, without contradicting the Vedic injunctions are captured in the Smritis. Now the role of ladies is changing. Vivekananda too had suggested that a new Smriti text has to be written for the 20th century. So Smriti text can be written any number of times, depending on the need of the times. But it should not be against the dicta of the Shruti, which elaborate the fundamental dharma of the mankind.

Smriti covers the rules and regulations related to the four varnas. Krishna says “chaatur varnyam mayaa srushtam” – “I have created this classification into four groups”. The entire society was classified into four groups based on the division of labour, i.e., based on the Vritti – profession or the Samarthya  – capability. Within these four varnas, there is a principle of mutual dependency. We do not see the classification of the caste system as we see in the present modern times. People were free to cross from one group to another. The purpose of this classification is to allow a person to work on the field considering their skills that they are good at. Wherever there are people, there will naturally be these four types of work.  These four divisions are necessary for man-kind to run their day to day life. There is no question of superiority or inferiority indicated in the Vedic scriptures. This is a natural division because creation provides these four types of people. Shastra has provided opportunity by this division to enable people of different capabilities to have freedom and live their life in their own way, and still be able to contribute to the society. The Britishers misinterpreted these classifications to create split between the people by associating inferiority and superiority amongst the divisions.

This flexibility is the beauty of the Vedic literature. This is the reason that Vedas and the Sanaatana dharma have stood the test of time. It would have been a dead literature if it had been a rigid. There is scope of change according to the current needs of the people. General laws that govern humanity are covered in these Smriti literatures. It is based on the Vedas, by recollecting its contents. What are to be done at the different phases of life is covered in the Smritis when it elaborates the activities to be performed in the four Ashrams. If we want to have an integrated society and work in a united manner, the common principles that are respected by all people are required. “Don’t tell lies. Don’t cheat others. Lead life in a cooperative manner.  Educate the kids. Conduct their marriage at the appropriate age.”

Veda can be interpreted in several ways. We have to unearth the required information from the Vedas. Veda is the solid gold, where the Smriti texts are the gold coins minted at different times.

Differences in Smritis

Learn about the important smritis with the name of the authors. The difference in the smritis could be due to the differences that are present in the Shrutis themselves. There are Shaakas in the Shrutis – Aapasthamba shaakaa, etc. The influence of the guru will be present in the descendents or followers of that specific Rishi. There were thousands of guru kulas and hence numerous shaakaas or branches. Under the patronage of the kings, there were many guru kulas. The king would go on hunting expedition and ensure that the area that is occupied by the Rishis is protected from wild animals. Sanaatana Dharma or Vaidika Dharma is based on the Vedas. It is called as maanava dharma – rules to be followed by the humans. As there were different branches based on the gurukulas, there were also different smritis based on the authors. Though the base was the Vedas, the Smritis had the influence of its authors. These literatures were not written for a specific community. These were called as Maanava Dharma and were applicable to the entire humanity.

The Smritis are for the protection of the human race. The Smirits are a wonderful concept that has to be preserved and practiced in the society for the sake of humanity.

[Q&A: How are Darshans different from Smritis?  Darshanas deal with the ultimate goal of realizing the self. Smritis are for the day-to-day life. According to the Vedas, life is a celebration. Darshanas help to age gracefully mainly in the Vanaprasta ashrama. There are Rishis who might have written both types of works].

Manu Smriti

Manu is considered as the father of the Human Race.  The other smritis are also based on this only. The other Smritis would have taken certain specific aspects and would have dealt with them. If a person writing on the duties of the students, then it becomes a Smriti named after that person. Ramayana and Mahabharata represent our Vedic culture. There are specific mentions about the dharma shastra in the epics. Dharma Shaastras are Smritis.

[Jainism and Buddhism are offshoots are Hinduism. The Jains did not understand the purpose of the Yagna and the impact of the Yagna. They have highlighted some aspects of Hinduism. Mahaveera selected one aspect, Ahimsa. Buddha is considered as the ninth avatar. ]

Vyavahaara Maatrukaa Prakaranam

Vyavahaara  is the day to day activities like Artha, Vartha, Pashupaalana, Vritti, etc. How these are to be conducted in a dharmic way is the subject matter.  The various duties and responsibilities of the king and elders to protect the vyavahaara for the society are explained.  The handling of the court cases is the Vyavahaara.  These are mainly the monetary transactions. Yagnavalkya takes Manu as an authority and provides information on how certain actions are to be done. The appropriate punishment has to be given for the wrong actions. For this the King and his ministers should have the right knowledge of the Smritis to know which is right and which is wrong. The Smriti states the general rules and regulations that could be applied to specific situations. Yagnavalkya deals with various aspects like civil disputes related to property, evidence, pledge, gift, sale, witness (Saakshi, team – kuta saakshi), punishments, recovery of debts (runa), Deposits (Nikshepa), etc.

Arthashastra Session 1 – Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy

Class notes of the session on Arthashaastra taken by Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy on March 17, 2016

The Arthashastra is an ancient Hindu treatise by Chaanakya on trade & commerce, statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit. Note that अर्थशास्त्रम् is a napusakalinga padam.

[Side Note: Vaanijya saashtra refers to Trade and Commerce. The definition of Vedas is वेदयति प्रकाशयति सर्वम् इति वेदः | Vedas encompasses all the knowledge. Yet, there is so separate ancient literature in Sanskrit focusing only on Trade and Commerce. The knowledge related to trade and commerce is present in bits and pieces in the ancient literature. Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy was involved in creating a text book on Trade and Commerce based on the information available in various Sanskrit literatures. This session was based on that text book.]

Trade involves the transaction of Money. In the Rig Veda, it is mentioned – धनेन धनम् इच्छमानः – money can be made only using money. The need for the capital to earn money has been stated in Rig Veda. The definition of Dhanam or money has been provided in this way – व्यवहारात् उत्पन्नं लाभयुक्तं धनम् | The importance of wealth in this world has been stated as धनमूलं जगत् | The futility of life with money is states as निर्धनो मृतः इव | The need to continue to earn even if one seems to have a lot of wealth is stated as यत् प्रभूतेऽपि वित्ते अर्थोपायस्चिन्तनीयः | Even the demi-gods seek wealth – धनेन देवा धनमिच्छमानः |  The prayer is made to have more rather than less of wealth — तन्मे भूयो भवतु मा कनीयो – Atharva Veda|

Traders were spread everywhere. Various concepts of Trade and Commerce like Trade Unions, public sector, private sector, shares, barter system, etc. were present in ancient days. Honesty was the soul of India.

Vinayaadhikarana

Humility is important to gain any knowledge. Vinayaadhikarana is the first chapter of Arthashaastra.

Side Note: Kautilya advices Chandragupta to maintain secrecy about his intimacy and the sensuous pleasures that he enjoyed, like the crow that mates only in secrecy – काकवत् गुप्तम् |  The adhyaatma vidyaa is also very important for leading a life.

Definition of Arthashaastra

Artha is wealth or possessions. Kaama sutra was written by Vaatsyaayana.  Dharma, Artha, Kaama, Moksha are the four purushaarthaas. Artha and Kaama are Purushaarthas. So Vaatsyaayana in his Kaama Sutra also defines Artha.

[ Side Note: Stree-purusha sambhanda is a value system for enjoyment. It is also created by God. ]

विद्या भूमि हिरण्य पशु धन धान्य भाण्ड+उपस्कर, मित्र+आदिनाम् आर्जनम् , अर्जित्तस्य रक्षणं च विवर्धनम् च – अर्थ

Knowledge, land, gold, cattle, cash, grains, goods, belongings, friends, etc. are all referred to as Artha.  These are to be earned or acquired putting some effort. This is the definition provided in the Kaama Sutra.

Of the many things that are considered as Artha, Vidyaa is the first one. So the first adhikarana is concerning the topic of training called Vinayaadhikara. Knowledge has to be acquired.

[ Sidenote – Even friendship and other relationships are to be acquired. The acquired relationship has to be protected and enhanced. Even life-partners cannot be taken for granted. Continuous effort has to be made to ensure that the other person stays happy. There is nothing like unconditional love. There are always conditions in life with mutual give and take. ]

The acquired wealth – Arjitasya vivardhanam has to be developed further for its vriddhi.

Definition of Arthashaastra:

The spiritual touch is not present in the initial parts of Arthashastra. It is a technical work.  Kautilya, the author of Arthashastra defines his work in this way:

मनुष्याणां वृत्तिः अर्थः मनुश्यवतीभूमिरत्यर्थः तस्याः पृथिव्याः लाभपालनोपायः शास्त्रम् अर्थशास्त्रमिति |

मनुष्याणां वृत्तिः अर्थः  – The person’s profession is called Artha. Arthakari vidyaa – Only when it is a source of earning money, it is considered as a vidyaa. (This does not include aatma / adhyaatmika Vidyaa).

[Side note: Even in the present days, students’ choice of education is based on the earnings. ]

मनुश्यवती भूमिः इत्यर्थः –  Land is a place where people reside.  And so man should possess land. He should develop a right to sit in a place where others assemble. Once a person acquires land, he would take care of the land, get married, and set up his family.

[Side note: Material prosperity becomes the goal.  Loukika marga and adhyaatmika marga are both given importance. When a person directly gets into adhyaatmika path, he might feel that he has missed something. It is always better to experience loukika, realize its futality and then move onto adhyaatmika maarga. Only a few saints who have the poorva janma samskaara take up directly the adhyaatmika life. One should not be forced into adhyaatmika life directly.  Vedas give importance to both इह and पर. ]

तस्याः पृथिव्याः लाभ+पालन+उपायः शास्त्रम् अर्थशास्त्रमिति – Such a land has to be acquired and be taken care of. The science that imparts instruction regarding the means of acquiring and maintaining the earth is called Arthashastra.

Somadeva considers artha to be the cause for all achievements. Sarva prayojana siddhi so arthah |

In Chaanakya niti –  it is mentioned that food is Artha – dhyaanyaa samo arthah.

The Four-fold aims of man can be achieved by Profession. So Vritti is Artha. अर्थमूलौ धर्मकामौ;  अर्थ-प्रतिबद्धश्च लोको वर्तते ।। अर्थशास्त्रम् ०८.३.३२ ||

[ side note: When a girl is getting married, the relatives think in this way –

कन्या वरयते रुपं माता वित्तं पिता श्रुतम् |
बान्धवा: कुलमिच्छन्ति मिष्टान्नमितरेजना: ||

]

Kautilya teaches this to Chandra Gupta Maurya. Political science – raajya saashtra. Culture is caught – it is not taught. People follow the king.

Krishna makes Yudhishtra learn the political science from Bhishma when he was on his arrow bed.

Kautilya is also a rishi. His work is a Smriti. He had to write his work without contradicting any of the Vedic injunctions or the Shrutis. As the time had changed from the Vedic period, he had to write to suit the current society. For example, he mentions that monetary transactions have to be done in writing.

[ Side note – When questioned by Chandra Gupta Maurya on who is important between the mother and the wife, Kautilya responds saying Wife is like the body and Mother is like the soul. Wife is considered as a bhooga sthaana – a source of enjoyment. Whereas mother is to be worshipped – pooja sthaana.  As the couple become old, they are no longer the source of enjoyment. They find their own way for salvation individually. Taaraa, Sumitraa, Kausalya, Tulasi – were able to gain salvation irrespective of the progress of their husbands. Tulasi is being worshipped for the long life of one’s husband. To be a Sumangali  means one has got a dependable support system until their death for their security].

We are all Chanakya’s student Chandragupta Maurya when we read his work, like how we become Arjuna when we read the Gita. Chanakya has not left anything.

Dharma Shaastra, Shilba shaastra were all created prior to Artha shaastra. Poorvam poorvam balavattamah – The earlier work is considered to be authoritative, when there is a conflict with the new work. No one can refute the instructions of the Sruthis. In Smruthis, there are only practical advices to carry out the worldly activities in the society of that time. It clarifies how to act when faced with certain situations.

इदम् इत्थम् “This is so” – is the mood of shastra. It is a science. Like the scientific facts, it states the facts. It cannot be denied. There are rules in the shastras. There could be exceptions to the rules. Smriti includes the works until certain Shastras like Dharma Shastras.

The Smrti literature is a vast corpus of derivative work which includes the vedangas, the epics, all the texts leading towards the four purushaarthaas (like Yagnavalkya smriti, Arthashaastra, Gita, Vivekachudamani, etc.), Puranas, Kaavyas, etc.

[ Side Note: A hermit wants to protect the deer that has come into his ashram. The hunter asks the hermit if he had seen the deer. The hermit responds in this way “Hey Hunter, if you are asking the eyes if they saw the deer. The eyes can’t talk. If you are asking the mouth, it does not have the capacity to see and hence it has not seen the deer.” The hunter admires the knowledge of the hermit and becomes the hermit’s disciple. ]

वृतु वर्तने The root Vrit indicates living or being. Raja vritti is raja’s actions or profession. Kautilya starts with the prayers to Sukra and Bruhaspati – the gurus of Asuraas and devas respectively. What is bad has to be explained while explaining the good. So both bad and good have to be learnt together. Man is taught to live in the present world and also to aim for salvation.

Vishnu Gupta is also another name for Kautilya or Chaanakya. He says “तानि संहृत्य एकं इदं अर्थशास्त्रं कृतम्” | This indicates that the information was present in various sources and there was no prior work of consolidation of the information related to Artha that was done before this work. His work is a compilation that is based on the information that is available in various scriptures.

The first chapter is like an index listing the topics that is covered in this scripture.

Dharma and Artha are important. Artha should be based on Dharma. Sankhya, yoga and lokaayatam (Chaarvaka mata) together are called Aanvikshikii. In case of doubt (vyasana), this shastra will be helpful to decide on the path that needs to be taken.  Atharva veda is taken along with itihaasaas as an auxiliary scripture based on the 3 Vedas.

[Side note: The Principle of Krishna in making Yudhistra say “Ashvattamo hatah kujarah” – is based on his choice of giving preference to that action that will benefit the world. ]

Avyayam – Reference Material for assignment 2016

I found some reference material for the assignment on avyaya– http://www.sanskritkerala.gov.in/hi/hin-home/17-learn-sanskrit-en/53-avyayani-en.html

१५ – अव्ययप्रकरणम्

The other links that I had referred earlier for some information related to Avyaya are these:

http://sanskrit.samskrutam.com/en.grammar-tutorial-basic-elements.ashx

http://www.sanskrit-sanscrito.com.ar/en/learning-sanskrit-declension-indeclinables-main-page/438

http://all-about-sanskrit.blogspot.in/2012/09/twitter-session-22nd-september-2012.html

http://sanskrit.jnu.ac.in/elearning/samasa.html

http://sanskritcentral.com/aggregator/sources/188

—————————————

Unedited notes from the session by Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy on Avyayam — for the purpose of this year’s MA KSOU assignment

Avyaya Class on 3rd March 2016

Importance of Avyayas in Sanskrit Grammar

Defn….

In sanskrit languages there are eight parts of speech. But broadly, sup-tigantam padam.

Subanda – Naamapada, sarvanamapada, visheshana, kriyaavisheshana,

Tiganta –

Avyayam

Nipaatas and upsargas form different parts of Avyayas or indeclinables.

स्वरादि निपातम् अव्ययम् (पा) – by this sutra of Panini, all the Nipaatas are termed as Avyayas.  All avyayas are not nipaatas.

Panini defines the nipaatas by this sutra.  प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः (पा)

There is a list of Avyayas. Only those till … are the nipaatas. दिवा नक्तम् अन्तः प्रातः, etc. express meaning and so they are words.  They have some independent meaning.

च, किल, खलु are classified under Nipaatas.

The 22 prefixes or upasargas like प्र, पर, अनु, सम्, etc. also express meaning when they are associated with a word. When the upasargas are associated with a word based on the root like “हृ”, they can give a meaning. They can change the meaning or enhance the meaning or give the opposite meaning of the word or give some other meaning for the word.  Aahaara, vihaara, samhaara,

So Nipaatas are not independently used.

द्योतक – it indicates different meanings – it shows. It flashes. वाचक – expressed meaning – dictionary meaning – fixed meaning. The avyayas indicate a particular meaning in association with words depending on the context. So they are not vaachaka.  Vaachaka is the expression or the word and Vaachya is the expressed meaning or artha.

Nipaatas and Avyayas do not have their own meaning. They only indicate the meaning based on the context.

All the shashtras have been created for interpreting the Vedas. So all the shashtras explain the language aspect. Based on the spiritual interpretations, different meanings are given to different words in Vedanta. Like that the different shashtra like say mimaamsa or tarka,  and  sahitya could have different meanings.

There is a group which have accepted the Nipaatas as Dyotaka and some have taken the nipaatas to be only vaachaka.

Only when a nipaata is used together with a word, under a particular circumstances, the meaning that flashes in our mind is the dyotyaartha. Pariharati , praharati, aaharati, samharati, anubhavati, sambhavati, prabhavati. Like this, due to the upasargas,  every word can give different meanings. They do not maintain the same meaning as that of the original word derived from the root. In harati and bhavati, the words get their meaning from the root. But upasargas do not have ting pratyaya. There is no suffix for the upasargas, there cannot be any anvaya with them.  हृ and भू independently do not have any meaning. Without the use of upasargas, we cannot get the special extra meanings. So upasargas have some meaning.

उपसर्गेण दात्वर्तो बलाद् अन्यः प्रतीयते | By force, the upasarga gives a different meaning.

प्रहाराहारसंहारविहारपरिहारवत्

The avyayas are of two types – sidda and saadita. Sidda-s are the those which are ready to use – hi tu . Saadita-s are the ones that are formed to be used. Taddita pratyayas are kriya visheshana.

Sarvada is an indeclinable. Putravat, putrivat, mitravat – like a son.  Bahu – many. Shah बहुशः – in most cases – in general.

Avyayas give the freedom to use them without worrying about the linga, vachana. It is user-friendly. Easy to use.

Krut pratya – ktvanta, lyabanta, tumunaanta are all indeclinable.

There are certain sarva naama which are avyayas. Tasmat , chiraaya, agre , drustyaa – though they seem to indicate some vibhakti.

Avyayayi bhaava samaasa – upanagaram, yathaasakthi.

चादयोऽसत्त्वे । 1- 4- 57 Adravyaarthaaschaadayah nipaatasamjnaa syuh अद्रव्यार्थाश्चादयः निपातसंज्ञा स्युः

The numbers from five onwards are common for all lingams and they are only in plural number. Still they have the forms in all the vibhaktis and so they are not considered as avyayams.

Dvyayam, trayam, chatushtayam – samastapada – only neuter and singular. Check But does it have the 7 vibhaktis?

Side note – dinaardurdvam apaanineh – kshanaardurdvam ataarkikah  – even if you leave the studies for a minute, you are no longer a taarkika. If you leave the studies for a day, you are a person who do not know Panini (i.e., you would no longer have the grammar knowledge).

Vedas – Dr. VR, Lecture Series #2 – Vedic Grammar

Vaidika Vyaakarana Granta

The grammar for the Sanskrit language used in the worldly affairs is different from grammar of Vedic literature.  वेद भाषा / वैदिक भाषा and वेद साहित्य / वैदिक साहित्य – the Vedic language and the Vedic literature were obtained by the Rishis.  They are Aarsha  आर्ष – archaic or ancient or old – अत्यन्त प्राचीन. The grammar created based on this literature is called Vaidika Vyaakarana. The grammar follows the language. There is some difference in the grammar of the worldly language used for communicating which is referred to as Samskrita Grammar. During 500 BC, Panini analyzed these worldly or लौकिक and Vedic Samskruta languages and created a work called अष्टाध्यायी Ashtaadhyaayi. In this chapter, even though he had the given importance to the laukika samskrit, he also covered the grammar for Vaidika Bhaashaa. This is the specialty of Panini’s work.

Vedic Grammar

The Vedic verses were perceived or received by the sages when they were in a transcendental state or in the Samadhi stithi during their yogic meditation. Vedas are interpreted in an Alaukika manner by means of Yogic interpretation. They do not have worldly or laukika interpretation. They are always studied along with the Vedangas that are present to help in understanding the Vedas.

Vedanga

The six Vedangas are Shiksha, Chandas, Vyakarana, Nirukta, Kalpa, Jyotisha. The six vedangas वेदाङ्गाः are taken to be in 3 groups with 2 in each group where they complement each other as Shiksha and Chandas, Nirukta and Vyakarana, Kalpa and Jyotisha.

Shiksha and Chandas

Shiksha deals with information about pronunciation. Chandas deals with the meters, for example, it involves the identification of Guru and Laghu, counting the number of aksharas, etc. Chandas is like the body and Shiksha makes it useful. There are two kinds of meter. The first is the Arya meter which is based on the Maatras based on how much time is to be taken like 12 maatras, and the other meter is based on the gana-s which are groups of three akshara-s with Guru and Laghu.  To adjust for the chandas, sometimes the changes could be made between dreega and hrasva. There the knowledge of pada is important to get the right word which has been slightly altered to suit the chandas. Chandas is different from Svara. First one is the vrutta chandas or maatra chandas and the other one is the varna chandas.

Nirukta

Nirukta deals with Artha or the meaning. It would conclude the meaning of certain terms, taking into account the format of the word, the context in which the word is used, some other related terms which have certain meaning. Yaaska in Nirukta derives the meaning of the words by linking it to other information that is available. He is an etymologist who traces the meaning of each word to some root. This is called अर्थनिर्वचन | Nirukta has artha nirvachana which clarifies how the word has to be understood. Nirukta comprises only the Vedic terms.  The meanings are determined based on the accents in the Vedic Suktas.

Vyakarana

Vyakarana has pada nirvachana – clarifying which is the right term or साधुपदम्. The Vedic karmas of yagna are dependent on the words. A wrong word could result in bad results. The different declinations are covered in Grammar. For Vyaakarana, the main text that is available now is only Panini’s Ashtaadhyaayi in which in the chapter called स्वरवैदिकप्रकरण, he explains the grammar applicable to Vedas. Before Panini’s अष्टाध्यायी, nine works – kaashaa, krutsnaa, etc. seem to have existed which are not available now. There is another opinion that these are not names of works. They are the names of Rishis who had provided the descriptions about certain Vedic words. So these Rishis are considered as शाब्दिकाः and are not treated as Grammarians or वैयाकरणाः as grammar is much more than just the शब्द as Grammar has 5 parts – पञ्चाङ्गव्याकरण | So Panini’s Ashtaadhyaayi is the first grammatical work वैदिकव्याकरण.  It elaborates about various aspects like Sandhi, Samaasa, Swara, Lopa, Aagamaa, etc.

Kalpa and Jyotisha

Kalpa is about the Vedic Yajnas.  कल्पते अनेन इति – कल्पा | It organizes the Vedic Yajnas. Kalpate means organizes. Jyotisha clarifies the appropriate time to perform the rites.

Importance of Swaras

Shiksha deals with pronunciation of the aksharas. Pronunciation is extremely important because the meaning changes when the swara changes, that is, when the stress is placed on a different letter the meaning itself changes in the Vedic verses. “स्वरभेदात् अर्थभेदः”

A beautiful analogy from the Vedic texts is stated to highlight the danger of wrong pronunciation यथेन्द्रशत्रु: स्वरतोऽपराधात्. The intention of the sacrifice was to produce a son, who would be the enemy of Indra. But due to wrong accent, Indra himself becomes the enemy of the son. इन्द्रशत्रुर्वर्धस्व is the example given to show how a flaw in the Vedic accent could bring disaster to the performer of the yagna. A sage named Tvashta, who failed to gain the position of Indra, wanted his son वृत्र to win over Indra and take his post. In इन्द्रशत्रुर्वर्धस्व, if the Udaatta is in the beginning, i.e., aadyudaatta, it becomes Tatpurusha samaasa – इन्द्रस्य शत्रुः वर्धस्व – Let the person who is Indra’s enemy or slayer grow (for killing Indra) | In इन्द्रशत्रुर्वर्धस्व, if the Udaatta is at the end, i.e., antoodaatta, it becomes Bahuvrihi samaasa – इन्द्रः शत्रुः यस्य सः – Let the person to whom Indra will be the enemy or slayer grow (for getting killed by Indra) | Due to the way the word was pronounced, the rishi got a son who became an enemy to Indra. This son got killed by Indra as the Rishi had made a mistake in pronouncing the word, while conducting the Yagna.

[ Side note: When we offer oblations in a sense of selfless sacrifice, the prakruti or nature gets certain energy. As the nature has been enriched by these offerings, it in turn gives benefits to the humanity. In course of time, Yagnas were performed with specific intentions and those wishes also got fulfilled. ]

[ Side note: कुपुत्रो जायते न क्वचिदपि कुमाता | ]

Mistakes could happen while reciting the mantras. Hence there is a rule that Vedas have to be recited after listening to the recitation of the guru. गुरुच्चारनामनु वेदोच्चारणं करणीयम् इति नियम: |

प्रातिशाख्यः 

The information about swaras that Panini has mentioned in the svara-vaidika-prakaranam chapter is very important for our understanding of the Swaras in Vedic mantras. Apart from this, Praadishakyas प्रातिशाख्य also have some information. Praadishakyas प्रातिशाख्य are the earliest of the Shikshas. Shikshas are the works dealing with phonetic aspects.  Shiksha is one of the six Vedaangaas.

स्वरवैदिकप्रकरण

In this work – Ashtaadhyaayi, Panini has a prakaranam or chapter on Vedic Accent called svara-vaidika-prakaranam स्वर-वैदिक-प्रकरणम्. Here he has explained about these swaras in the Vedas. उच्चैः उदात्तः॥ नीचैः अनुदात्तः॥ समाहारः स्वरितः॥  Since Panini has covered the grammar for Vedas too along with the grammar for व्यावहारिक भाषा or the spoken language, Panini’s अष्टाध्यायी is considered as वेदाङ्गव्याकरण Vedaanga vyaakarana.

Swaras

During the recitation of the Vedas, we use 3 accents namely Udatta उदात्त, Anudatta अनुदात्त and Svarita स्वरित. If there is any change in these, then the result will be bad.  These Swaras occur in the Samhita Patha of Vedas which is the core of the Vedic literature.  (For more details, see the next lecture in this series).

Prabhedaah

Note that there are eleven ways of reciting the Vedas were designed – संहिता पाठ Samhita, Pada, Krama, Jata, Maalaa, Sikha, Rekha, Dhwaja, Danda, Rathaa, Ghana. Samhita is where there is no split. The samhita was travelling by oral transmission only. Different methods of recitation with various permutation and combination were practiced. This is for the preservation and memorization. This was important to be memorized as it was transmitted only orally without any written medium.  In the pada paatha, the words are split. So if the student had heard it differently, they would get clarity on the word when they study the pada patha. Gaana patha is the most complex one. There will be a set pattern along with repetitions.  1 2 3 4;  2 3 4 5;  …. or with repetitions like 11 22 3, etc.

Udaatta, Anudaatta, Svarita – Introductory Session and followup session – Video Recordings

 

Here are the links to the class notes where Dr. Smt. Vanitha Ramaswamy explained the Vedic Swaras, starting with an introduction to the Vedas and Vedic Grammar. The last one has the solutions for all the previous years exam questions for KSOU MA Sanskrit.

Vedas – Dr. VR, Lecture Series #1 – Introduction to Vedas

Vedas – Dr. VR, Lecture Series #2 – Vedic Grammar

Vedas – Dr. VR, Lecture Series #3 – Udaatta, Anudaatta, Svarita

Vedas – Dr. VR, Lecture Series #3 – Swara exercises

Here is the video of the Introductory session where I have tried to explain about the swaras based on Smt. Vanitha madam’s class. –> You may click here –> Marking Accent in Padapatha based on Samhita

Here is the material used during the presentation  –> You may click here –> Accents in RigVeda – Udaatta, Anudaatta and Svarita – Marking in Pada paata – Video recording – material

Here is the video of the follow-up session –> Marking Accent marks in Padapaatha based on Samhitaa-paatha #2

Any questions? Reach out to Dr.Vanitha.Ramaswamy@gmail.com

Vedas – Dr. VR, Lecture Series #3 – Swara exercises

More exercises covering all the questions asked in the previous years’ exams for Accents in RigVeda – Udaatta, Anudaatta and Svarita

Watch the videos on this topic for general procedure.

Based on the method by Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy on Feb 10, 2016 to a group of KSOU MA students.

संहिता

प्र तद्विष्णु॑स्तवते वी॒र्ये॑ण मृ॒गो  भी॒मः कु॑च॒रो गि॑रि॒ष्ठाः  यस्यो॒रुषु॑ त्रि॒षु वि॒क्रम॑णेष्वधिक्षि॒यन्ति॒ भुव॑नानि॒ विश्वा॑ 

पदपाठः प्र । तत् । विष्णुः॑ । स्त॒व॒ते॒ । वी॒र्ये॑ण । मृ॒गः । न । भी॒मः । कु॒च॒रः । गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः । यस्य॑ । उ॒रुषु॑ । त्रि॒षु । वि॒ऽक्रम॑णेषु । अ॒धि॒ऽक्षि॒यन्ति॑ । भुव॑नानि । विश्वा॑ ॥

  • If the first vowel in the word is a Svaritha or Ekashruti (due to the effect of the earlier padam) change that first vowel and any Ekashruti following it to Anudaatta.
    • स्तवते> स्त॒व॒ते॒  (was Ekashruti)
    • कु॑च॒रो–> कु॒च॒रः
    • गि॑रि॒ष्ठाः –> गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः
    • …ष्वधिक्षि॒यन्ति॒–> अ॒धि॒ऽक्षि॒यन्ति॑  (was Ekashruti)
  • If the last vowel in the word is an Anudaatta (due to the effect of the following padam), change it to Svaritha if the previous vowel is identified to be Udaatta; and change it to Ekasruthi if the previous marking is a Svaritha
    • यस्यो॒… –> यस्य॑
    • …ष्वधिक्षि॒यन्ति॒–> अ॒धि॒ऽक्षि॒यन्ति॑
    • भुव॑नानि॒ –> भुव॑नानि (Ekasruthi)
  • After padacheda, if the next vowel is an Udaatta, then mark the first vowel in the second word as an Anudaatta; else if the next vowel is a Svaritha, then consider the first vowel in the second word to be the Udaatta; else if the vowel was an Udaatta in the mantra, take it to be an Udaatta in second word if the first word already has a Udaatta;
  • यस्यो॒रुषु॑= यस्य॑ । उ॒रुषु॑ (both anudaatta. marking based on Svaritha and Udaatta)
    • वि॒क्रम॑णेष्वधिक्षि॒यन्ति॒= वि॒ऽक्रम॑णेषु । अ॒धि॒ऽक्षि॒यन्ति॑ । (both Anudaatta)

 

संहिता

स्तु॒हि श्रु॒तं ग॑र्त॒सदं॒ युवा॑नं मृ॒गं  भी॒ममु॑पह॒त्नुमु॒ग्रम्  मृ॒ळा ज॑रि॒त्रे रु॑द्र॒ स्तवा॑नो॒ऽन्यं ते॑ अ॒स्मन्नि व॑पन्तु॒ सेना॑

पदपाठः

स्तु॒हि । श्रु॒तम् । ग॒र्त॒ऽसद॑म् । युवा॑नम् । मृ॒गम् । न । भी॒मम् । उ॒प॒ऽह॒त्नुम् । उ॒ग्रम् । मृ॒ळ । ज॒रि॒त्रे । रु॒द्र॒ । स्तवा॑नः । अ॒न्यम् । ते॒ । अ॒स्मत् । नि । व॒प॒न्तु॒ । सेनाः॑ ॥

 

  • In मृ॒ळा, अ is elongated due to some sutra since this word has 2 syllables.
  • If the first vowel in the word is a Svaritha or Ekashruti (due to the effect of the earlier padam) change that first vowel and any Ekashruti following it to Anudaatta.
    • ग॑र्त॒सदं॒–> ग॒र्त॒ऽसद॑म्
    • मु॑पह॒त्नुमु॒ग्रम् > उ॒प॒ऽह॒त्नुम्
    • ज॑रि॒त्रे > ज॒रि॒त्रे
    • रु॑द्र॒> रु॒द्र॒
    • ते॑ –> ते॒
    • व॑पन्तु॒–> व॒प॒न्तु॒   (pa is the ekashruti that is also changed to anudaatta)
  • If the last vowel in the word is an Anudaatta (due to the effect of the following padam), change it to Svaritha if the previous vowel is identified to be Udaatta; and change it to Ekasruthi if the previous marking is a Svaritha
    • स्तवा॑नो॒ > स्तवा॑नः
  • After padacheda, if the next vowel is an Udaatta, then mark the first vowel in the second word as an Anudaatta; else if the next vowel is a Svaritha, then consider the first vowel in the second word to be the Udaatta; else if the vowel was an Udaatta in the mantra, take it to be an Udaatta in second word if the first word already has a Udaatta;
    • स्तवा॑नो॒ऽन्यं–> स्तवा॑नः । अ॒न्यम्  (both anudaatta)

 

अ॒क्षैर्मा दी॑व्यः कृ॒षिमित्कृ॑षस्व वि॒त्ते र॑मस्व ब॒हु मन्य॑मानः । तत्र॒ गाव॑: कितव॒ तत्र॑ जा॒या तन्मे॒ वि च॑ष्टे सवि॒तायम॒र्यः ॥

अ॒क्षैः । मा । दी॒व्यः॒  । कृ॒षिम् । इत् । कृ॒ष॒स्व॒ । वि॒त्ते । र॒म॒स्व॒ । ब॒हु । मन्य॑मानः । तत्र॑ । गावः॑ । कि॒त॒व॒ । तत्र॑ । जा॒या । तत् । मे॒ । वि । च॒ष्टे॒ । स॒वि॒ता । अ॒यम् । अ॒र्यः ॥

  • If the first vowel in the word is a Svaritha or Ekashruti (due to the effect of the earlier padam) change that first vowel and any Ekashruti following it to Anudaatta.
    • दी॑व्यः –> दी॒व्यः॒
    • …त्कृ॑षस्व –> कृ॒ष॒स्व॒
    • र॑मस्व –> र॒म॒स्व॒
    • कितव॒ —> कि॒त॒व॒
    • च॑ष्टे –> च॒ष्टे॒ (note ekashruti also changed to anudaatta)
    • सवि॒ता… –> स॒वि॒ता (note ekashruti changed to anudaatta)
  • If the last vowel in the word is an Anudaatta (due to the effect of the following padam), change it to Svaritha if the previous vowel is identified to be Udaatta; and change it to Ekasruthi if the previous marking is a Svaritha
    • तत्र॒ –> तत्र॑
  • After padacheda, if the next vowel is an Udaatta, then mark the first vowel in the second word as an Anudaatta; else if the next vowel is a Svaritha, then consider the first vowel in the second word to be the Udaatta; else if the vowel was an Udaatta in the mantra, take it to be an Udaatta in second word if the first word already has a Udaatta;
    • सवि॒तायम॒र्यः –> स॒वि॒ता अ॒यम् (anudaatta due to the following udaatta)

प्र विष्ण॑वे शू॒षमे॑तु॒ मन्म॑ गिरि॒क्षित॑ उरुगा॒याय॒ वृष्णे॑   इ॒दं दी॒र्घं प्रय॑तं स॒धस्थ॒मेको॑ विम॒मे त्रि॒भिरित्प॒देभि॑

प्र । विष्ण॑वे । शू॒षम् । ए॒तु॒ । मन्म॑ । गि॒रि॒ऽक्षिते॑ । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒याय॑ । वृष्णे॑ । यः । इ॒दम् । दी॒र्घम् । प्रऽय॑तम् । स॒धऽस्थ॑म् । एकः॑ । वि॒ऽम॒मे । त्रि॒ऽभिः । इत् । प॒देभिः॑ ॥

  1. If the first vowel in the word is a Svaritha or Ekashruti (due to the effect of the earlier padam) change that first vowel and any Ekashruti following it to Anudaatta.
    1. शू॒षमे॑तु॒–> ए॒तु॒
    2. गिरि॒क्षित॑ –> गि॒रि॒ऽक्षिते॑ (First Ekashruti changed to Anudaatta)
    3. उरुगा॒याय॒–> उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒याय॑ (First Ekashruti changed to Anudaatta)
    4. विम॒मे–> वि॒ऽम॒मे (First Ekashruti changed to Anudaatta)
  2. If the last vowel in the word is an Anudaatta (due to the effect of the following padam), change it to Svaritha if the previous vowel is identified to be Udaatta; and change it to Ekasruthi if the previous marking is a Svaritha
    1. उरुगा॒याय॒–> उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒याय॑
    2. स॒धस्थ॒मेको॑ –> स॒धऽस्थ॑म्

तद॑स्य प्रि॒यम॒भि पाथो॑ अश्यां॒ नरो॒ यत्र॑ देव॒यवो॒ मद॑न्ति  उ॒रु॒क्र॒मस्य॒  हि बन्धु॑रि॒त्था विष्णो॑प॒दे प॑र॒मे मध्व॒ उत्स॑

तत् । अ॒स्य॒ । प्रि॒यम् । अ॒भि । पाथः॑ । अ॒श्या॒म् । नरः॑ । यत्र॑ । दे॒व॒यवः॑ । मद॑न्ति । उ॒रु॒ऽक्र॒मस्य॑ । सः । हि । बन्धुः॑ । इ॒त्था । विष्णोः॑ । प॒दे । प॒र॒मे । मध्वः॑ । उत्सः॑ ॥

  1. If the first vowel in the word is a Svaritha or Ekashruti (due to the effect of the earlier padam) change that first vowel and any Ekashruti following it to Anudaatta.
    1. तद॑स्य–> अ॒स्य॒ (First Svaritha and the following Ekashruti changed to Anudaatta)
    2. अश्यां॒ –> अ॒स्य॒(Ekashruti changed to Anudaatta)
    3. प॑र॒मे–> प॒र॒मे
  2. If the last vowel in the word is an Anudaatta (due to the effect of the following padam), change it to Svaritha if the previous vowel is identified to be Udaatta; and change it to Ekasruthi if the previous marking is a Svaritha
    1. नरो॒–> नरः॑
    2. देव॒यवो॒–> दे॒व॒यवः॑
    3. उ॒रु॒क्र॒मस्य॒–> उ॒रु॒ऽक्र॒मस्य॑
    4. मध्व॒–> मध्वः॑

यो जा॒त ए॒व प्र॑थ॒मो मन॑स्वान्दे॒वो दे॒वान्क्रतु॑ना प॒र्यभू॑षत्  यस्य॒ शुष्मा॒द्रोद॑सी॒ अभ्य॑सेतां नृ॒म्णस्य॑ म॒ह्ना  ज॑नास॒ इन्द्र॑

यः । जा॒तः । ए॒व । प्र॒थ॒मः । मन॑स्वान् । दे॒वः । दे॒वान् । क्रतु॑ना । प॒रि॒ऽअभू॑षत् । यस्य॑ । शुष्मा॑त् । रोद॑सी॒ इति॑ । अभ्य॑सेताम् । नृ॒म्णस्य॑ । म॒ह्ना । सः । ज॒ना॒सः॒ । इन्द्रः॑ ॥

 

  1. If the first vowel in the word is a Svaritha or Ekashruti (due to the effect of the earlier padam) change that first vowel and any Ekashruti following it to Anudaatta.
    1. प्र॑थ॒मो –> प्र॒थ॒मः
    2. ज॑नास॒> ज॒ना॒सः॒
  2. If the last vowel in the word is an Anudaatta (due to the effect of the following padam), change it to Svaritha if the previous vowel is identified to be Udaatta; and change it to Ekasruthi if the previous marking is a Svaritha
    1. यस्य॒> यस्य॑
    2. शुष्मा॒…. —> शुष्मा॑त्
  3. After padacheda, if the next vowel is an Udaatta, then mark the first vowel in the second word as an Anudaatta; else if the next vowel is a Svaritha, then consider the first vowel in the second word to be the Udaatta; else if the vowel was an Udaatta in the mantra, take it to be an Udaatta in second word if the first word already has a Udaatta;
    1. प॒र्यभू॑षत्–> प॒रि॒ऽअभू॑षत्  (  अ is Udaatta since next भू is Svaritha)

ति॒स्रो द्याव॑सवि॒तुर्द्वा उ॒पस्थाँ॒ एका॑ य॒मस्य॒ भुव॑ने विरा॒षाट्  आ॒णिं  रथ्य॑म॒मृताधि॑ तस्थुरि॒ह ब्र॑वीतु॒  उ॒ तच्चिके॑तत् 

ति॒स्रः । द्यावः॑ । स॒वि॒तुः । द्वौ । उ॒पऽस्था॑ । एका॑ । य॒मस्य॑ । भुव॑ने । वि॒रा॒षाट् । आ॒णिम् । न । रथ्य॑म् । अ॒मृता॑ । अधि॑ । त॒स्थुः॒ । इ॒ह । ब्र॒वी॒तु॒ । यः । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । तत् । चिके॑तत् ॥

 

  1. If the first vowel in the word is a Svaritha or Ekashruti (due to the effect of the earlier padam) change that first vowel and any Ekashruti following it to Anudaatta.
    1. सवि॒तुर्द्वा> स॒वि॒तुः  (was Ekashruti)
    2. विरा॒षाट्–> वि॒रा॒षाट् (was Ekashruti)
    3. तस्थुरि॒ह–> त॒स्थुः॒ (was Ekashruti)
    4. ब्र॑वीतु॒–> ब्र॒वी॒तु॒ (first vowel and Ekashruti following it)
  2. If the last vowel in the word is an Anudaatta (due to the effect of the following padam), change it to Svaritha if the previous vowel is identified to be Udaatta; and change it to Ekashruti if the previous marking is a Svaritha
    1. उ॒पस्थाँ॒–> उ॒पऽस्था॑
    2. य॒मस्य॒–> य॒मस्य॑
  3. After padacheda, if the next vowel is an Udaatta, then mark the first vowel in the second word as an Anudaatta; else if the next vowel is a Svaritha, then consider the first vowel in the second word to be the Udaatta; else if the vowel was an Udaatta in the mantra, take it to be an Udaatta in second word if the first word already has a Udaatta;
    1. रथ्य॑म॒मृताधि॑= … अ॒मृता॑ । अधि॑ (since first word has Udaatta)

संहिता मन्त्र

वि सु॑प॒र्णो अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाण्यख्यद्गभी॒रवे॑पा॒ असु॑रः सुनी॒थः । क्वे॒३॒॑दानीं॒ सूर्य॒: कश्चि॑केत कत॒मां द्यां र॒श्मिर॒स्या त॑तान ॥

पदपाठः
वि । सु॒ऽप॒र्णः । अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि । अ॒ख्य॒त् । ग॒भी॒रऽवे॑पाः । असु॑रः। सु॒ऽनी॒थः । क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॑म् । सूर्यः॑ । कः । चि॒के॒त॒ । क॒त॒माम् । द्याम् । र॒श्मिः । अ॒स्य॒ । आ । त॒ता॒न॒ ॥

    • (Note: Online sites including Vedakosh have a different version which seems to be incorrect to me).
      वि । सु॒ऽप॒र्णः । अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि । अ॒ख्य॒त् । ग॒भी॒रऽवे॑पाः । असु॒रः । सु॒ऽनी॒थः । क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॒म् । सूर्यः॑ । कः । चि॒के॒त॒ । क॒त॒माम् । द्याम् । र॒श्मिः । अ॒स्य॒ । आ । त॒ता॒न॒ ॥

      • Rule 1:
        • सु॑प॒र्णो à सु॒ऽप॒र्णः
        • ..ख्यद्गभी॒रवे॑पा॒ à ।ग॒भी॒रऽवे॑पाः ।
        • सुनी॒थःà सु॒ऽनी॒थः
        • कश्चि॑केत à कः । चि॒के॒त॒ ।
        • कत॒मां à क॒त॒माम्
        • त॑तान à त॒ता॒न॒
      • Rule 2:
        • ..ख्यद्गभी॒रवे॑पा॒ à ।ग॒भी॒रऽवे॑पाः ।   last ekashruti
        • क्वे॒३॒॑दानीं॒ à क्व॑ ।इ॒दानी॑म् ।
        • सूर्य॒: à सूर्यः॑
      • Rule 3:
        • अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाण्यख्य à अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि। अ॒ख्य॒त्   both Anudaatta
        • र॒श्मिर॒स्या à र॒श्मिः। अ॒स्य॒ । आ  second one has to get due to the Svaritha. First part does not get Udaatta (reason?)
        • क्वे॒३॒॑दानीं॒ à क्व॑  is jaatyasvarita as this is natural to this word.

      Notes:
      जात्यस्वरित – Svarita which appears right after an anudaatta or in the beginning of a Pada, when the combination of udaatta and anudaatta lies further back or hidden and when it is natural to the word. Eg. क्व

      क्षैप्रस्वरित – Join of Udaatta and Anudaatta due to यण्

      प्रश्लिष्टस्वरित – Join comes due to सवर्णदीर्घसन्धिः

      अभिनिहितस्वरित – Join comes due to पूर्वरूपसन्धिः

      A कम्प or a shake is created when जात्यस्वरित is followed by another जात्यस्वरित  or udaatta. If the vowel is short then १ is put. For long vowels, ३ along with anudaatta and svarita are put.

      Eg. सुनी॒थः । क्वे॒३॒॑दानीं॒ == सु॒ऽनी॒थः । क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॒म् ।

      व॑नानि॒ –> भुव॑नानि (Ekasruthi)

  • Rule 3:

संहिता

प्रा॒वे॒पा मा॑ बृह॒तो मा॑दयन्ति प्रवाते॒जा इरि॑णे॒ वर्वृ॑तानाः । सोम॑स्येव मौजव॒तस्य॑ भ॒क्षो वि॒भीद॑को॒ जागृ॑वि॒र्मह्य॑मच्छान् ॥

पदपाठः

प्रा॒वे॒पाः । मा॒ । बृ॒ह॒तः । मा॒द॒य॒न्ति॒ । प्र॒वा॒ते॒ऽजाः । इरि॑णे । वर्वृ॑तानाः । सोम॑स्यऽइव । मौ॒ज॒ऽव॒तस्य॑ । भ॒क्षः । वि॒ऽभीद॑कः । जागृ॑विः । मह्य॑म् । अ॒च्छा॒न् ॥

  • Rule 1:
    • मा॑ à मा॒
    • बृह॒तो à बृ॒ह॒तः
    • मा॑दयन्ति à मा॒द॒य॒न्ति॒
    • प्रवाते॒जा à प्र॒वा॒ते॒ऽजाः
    • मौजव॒तस्य॑ à मौ॒ज॒ऽव॒तस्य॑
    • …मच्छान् à अ॒च्छा॒न्
  • Rule 2:
    • इरि॑णे॒ à इरि॑णे
    • वि॒भीद॑को॒ à वि॒ऽभीद॑कः
    • जागृ॑वि॒र्म… à जागृ॑विः
  • Rule 3:
    • सोम॑स्येव à सोम॑स्यऽइव (both Anudaatta)

संहिता

यस्याश्वा॑सः प्र॒दिशि॒ यस्य॒ गावो॒ यस्य॒ ग्रामा॒ यस्य॒ विश्वे॒ रथा॑सः । यः सूर्यं॒ य उ॒षसं॑ ज॒जान॒ यो अ॒पां ने॒ता स ज॑नास॒ इन्द्र॑: ॥

पदपाठः

यस्य॑ । अश्वा॑सः । प्र॒ऽदिशि॑ । यस्य॑ । गावः॑ । यस्य॑ । ग्रामाः॑ । यस्य॑ । विश्वे॑ । रथा॑सः । यः । सूर्य॑म् । यः । उ॒षस॑म् । ज॒जान॑ । यः । अ॒पाम् । ने॒ता । सः । ज॒ना॒सः॒ । इन्द्रः॑ ॥

  • Rule 1:
    • ज॑नास॒à ज॒ना॒सः॒
  • Rule 2:
    • प्र॒दिशि॒ à प्र॒ऽदिशि॑
    • यस्य॒ à यस्य॑
    • गावो॒ à गावः॑
    • यस्य॒à यस्य॑
    • ग्रामा॒à ग्रामाः॑
    • यस्य॒à यस्य॑
    • विश्वे॒à विश्वे॑
    • सूर्यं॒à सूर्य॑म्
    • ज॒जान॒ à ज॒जान॑
  • Rule 3:
    • यस्याश्वा॑सः = यस्य॑। अश्वा॑सः  (first word has Udaatta)

संहिता

मा त्वा॑ रुद्र चुक्रुधामा॒ नमो॑भि॒र्मा दुःष्टु॑ती वृषभ॒ मा सहू॑ती । उन्नो॑ वी॒राँ अ॑र्पय भेष॒जेभि॑र्भि॒षक्त॑मं त्वा भि॒षजां॑ शृणोमि ॥

पदपाठः

मा । त्वा॒ । रु॒द्र॒ । चु॒क्रु॒धा॒म॒ । नमः॑ऽभिः । मा । दुःऽस्तु॑ती । वृ॒ष॒भ॒ । मा । सऽहू॑ती । उत् । नः॒ । वी॒रान् । अ॒र्प॒य॒ । भे॒ष॒जेभिः॑ । भि॒षक्ऽत॑मम् । त्वा॒ । भि॒षजा॑म् । शृ॒णो॒मि॒ ॥

  • Rule 1:
    • रुद्र à रु॒द्र॒
    • चुक्रुधामा॒ à चु॒क्रु॒धा॒म॒
    • त्वा॑ à त्वा॒
    • वृषभ॒à वृ॒ष॒भ॒
    • उन्नो॑à … नः॒
    • अ॑र्पय à अ॒र्प॒य॒
    • भेष॒जेभि॑र्भि॒.. à भे॒ष॒जेभिः॑
    • त्वा à त्वा॒ (was Ekashruti)
    • शृणोमि à शृ॒णो॒मि॒ (was Ekashruti)
  • Rule 2:
    • नमो॑भि॒र्मा à नमः॑ऽभिः  (Ekashruti)

संहिता

कु॒मा॒रश्चि॑त्पि॒तरं॒ वन्द॑मानं॒ प्रति॑ नानाम रुद्रोप॒यन्त॑म् । भूरे॑र्दा॒तारं॒ सत्प॑तिं गृणीषे स्तु॒तस्त्वं भे॑ष॒जा रा॑स्य॒स्मे ॥

पदपाठः

कु॒मा॒रः । चि॒त् । पि॒तर॒म् । वन्द॑मानम् । प्रति॑ । न॒ना॒म॒ । रु॒द्र॒ । उ॒प॒ऽयन्त॑म् । भूरेः॑ । दा॒तार॑म् । सत्ऽप॑तिम् । गृ॒णी॒षे॒ । स्तु॒तः । त्वम् । भे॒ष॒जा । रा॒सि॒ । अ॒स्मे इति॑ ॥

  • Rule 1:
    • …श्चि॑त्पि॒… à चि॒त्
    • नानाम à न॒ना॒म॒
    • गृणीषेà गृ॒णी॒षे॒
    • भे॑ष॒जा à भे॒ष॒जा
  • Rule 2:
    • वन्द॑मानं॒ à वन्द॑मानम्
    • भूरे॑र्दा॒तारं॒ à दा॒तार॑म्
  • Rule 3:
    • रुद्रोप॒यन्त॑म् à रु॒द्र॒। उ॒प॒ऽयन्त॑म्  (both Anudaatta)
    • रा॑स्य॒स्मे à रा॒सि॒। अ॒स्मे  (both Anudaatta)

संहिता

ता आ च॑रन्ति सम॒ना पु॒रस्ता॑त्समा॒नत॑: सम॒ना प॑प्रथा॒नाः । ऋ॒तस्य॑ दे॒वीः सद॑सो बुधा॒ना गवां॒ न सर्गा॑ उ॒षसो॑ जरन्ते ॥

पदपाठः

ताः । आ । च॒र॒न्ति॒ । स॒म॒ना । पु॒रस्ता॑त् । स॒मा॒नतः॑ । स॒म॒ना । प॒प्र॒था॒नाः । ऋ॒तस्य॑ । दे॒वीः । सद॑सः । बु॒धा॒नाः । गवा॑म् । न । सर्गाः॑ । उ॒षसः॑ । ज॒र॒न्ते॒ ॥

  • Rule 1:
    • च॑रन्ति –> च॒र॒न्ति॒
    • सम॒ना–> स॒म॒ना  (was Ekashruti)
    • …समा॒नत॑ = स॒मा॒नतः॑  (was Ekashruti)
    • सम॒ना = स॒म॒ना(was Ekashruti)
    • प॑प्रथा॒नाः = प॒प्र॒था॒नाः
    • बुधा॒ना= बु॒धा॒नाः  (was Ekashruti)
    • जरन्ते= ज॒र॒न्ते॒  (was Ekashruti)
  • Rule 2:
    • गवां॒ = गवा॑म्

संहिता

धीरा॒ त्व॑स्य महि॒ना ज॒नूंषि॒ वि यस्त॒स्तम्भ॒ रोद॑सी चिदु॒र्वी । प्र नाक॑मृ॒ष्वं नु॑नुदे बृ॒हन्तं॑ द्वि॒ता नक्ष॑त्रं प॒प्रथ॑च्च॒ भूम॑ ॥

पदपाठः

धीरा॑ । तु । अ॒स्य॒ । म॒हि॒ना । ज॒नूंषि॑ । वि । यः । त॒स्तम्भ॑ । रोद॑सी॒ इति॑ । चि॒त् । उ॒र्वी इति॑ । प्र । नाक॑म् । ऋ॒ष्वम् । नु॒नु॒दे॒ । बृ॒हन्त॑म् । द्वि॒ता । नक्ष॑त्रम् । प॒प्रथ॑त् । च॒ । भूम॑ ॥

  • Rule 1:
    • महि॒ना= म॒हि॒ना
    • नु॑नुदे= नु॒नु॒दे॒
  • Rule 2:
    • धीरा॒ = धीरा॑
    • ज॒नूंषि॒ = ज॒नूंषि॑
    • त॒स्तम्भ॒ = त॒स्तम्भ॑
  • Rule 3:
    • त्व॑स्य = तु। अ॒स्य॒ । (both Anudaatta)
  • Rule 4:
    • रोद॑सी = रोद॑सी॒ इति॑
    • चिदु॒र्वी= चि॒त् । उ॒र्वी इति॑

संहिता

विष्णो॒र्नु कं॑ वी॒र्या॑णि॒ प्र वो॑चं॒ यः पार्थि॑वानि विम॒मे रजां॑सि । यो अस्क॑भाय॒दुत्त॑रं स॒धस्थं॑ विचक्रमा॒णस्त्रे॒धोरु॑गा॒यः ॥

पदपाठः

विष्णोः॑ । नु । क॒म् । वी॒र्या॑णि । प्र । वो॒च॒म् । यः । पार्थि॑वानि । वि॒ऽम॒मे । रजां॑सि । यः । अस्क॑भायत् । उत्ऽत॑रम् । स॒धऽस्थ॑म् । वि॒ऽच॒क्र॒मा॒णः । त्रे॒धा । ऊ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यः ॥

  • Rule 1:
    • कं॑ = क॒म्
    • वो॑चं॒ = वो॒च॒म्
    • विम॒मे = वि॒ऽम॒मे
    • विचक्रमा॒… = वि॒ऽच॒क्र॒मा॒णः
  • Rule 2:
    • विष्णो॒र्नु = विष्णोः॑। नु
    • वी॒र्या॑णि॒ = वी॒र्या॑णि
  • Rule 3:
    • …स्त्रे॒धोरु॑गा॒यः = त्रे॒धा। ऊ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यः ॥  (second word already has Udaatta)

संहिता

हिर॑ण्यपाणिः सवि॒ता विच॑र्षणिरु॒भे द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी अ॒न्तरी॑यते । अपामी॑वां॒ बाध॑ते॒ वेति॒ सूर्य॑म॒भि कृ॒ष्णेन॒ रज॑सा॒ द्यामृ॑णोति ॥

पदपाठः

हिर॑ण्यऽपाणिः । स॒वि॒ता । विऽच॑र्षणिः । उ॒भे इति॑ । द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी इति॑ । अ॒न्तः । ई॒य॒ते॒ । अप॑ । अमी॑वाम् । बाध॑ते । वेति॑ । सूर्य॑म् । अ॒भि । कृ॒ष्णेन॑ । रज॑सा । द्याम् । ऋ॒णो॒ति॒ ॥

  • Rule 1:
    • सवि॒ता = स॒वि॒ता
    • अ॒न्तरी॑यते = अ॒न्तः । ई॒य॒ते॒ ।
  • Rule 2:
    • अपामी॑वां॒ = अमी॑वाम्
    • बाध॑ते॒ = बाध॑ते
    • वेति॒ = वेति॑
    • कृ॒ष्णेन॒ = कृ॒ष्णेन॑
    • रज॑सा॒ = रज॑सा
  • Rule 3:
    • अपामी॑वां॒ = अप॑ । अमी॑वाम् (first word has Udaatta)
    • उ॒भे इति॑ – dual ending in ए
    • द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी इति॑ – dual made by combining two words

संहिता

जन॑स्य गो॒पा अ॑जनिष्ट॒ जागृ॑विर॒ग्निः सु॒दक्ष॑: सुवि॒ताय॒ नव्य॑से । घृ॒तप्र॑तीको बृह॒ता दि॑वि॒स्पृशा॑ द्यु॒मद्वि भा॑ति भर॒तेभ्य॒: शुचि॑: ॥

पदपाठः

जन॑स्य । गो॒पाः । अ॒ज॒नि॒ष्ट॒ । जागृ॑विः । अ॒ग्निः । सु॒ऽदक्षः॑ । सु॒वि॒ताय॑ । नव्य॑से । घृ॒तऽप्र॑तीकः । बृ॒ह॒ता । दि॒वि॒ऽस्पृशा॑ । द्यु॒ऽमत् । वि । भा॒ति॒ । भ॒र॒तेभ्यः॑ । शुचिः॑ ॥

  • Rule 1:
    • अ॑जनिष्ट॒ = अ॒ज॒नि॒ष्ट॒
    • दि॑वि॒स्पृशा॑ = दि॒वि॒ऽस्पृशा॑
    • भा॑ति = भा॒ति॒
  • Rule 2:
    • अ॑जनिष्ट॒ = अ॒ज॒नि॒ष्ट॒
    • भर॒तेभ्य॒: = भ॒र॒तेभ्यः॑

 

मन्त्र

जा॒या त॑प्यते कित॒वस्य॑ ही॒ना मा॒ता पु॒त्रस्य॒ चर॑त॒: क्व॑ स्वित् । ऋ॒णा॒वा बिभ्य॒द्धन॑मि॒च्छमा॑नो॒ऽन्येषा॒मस्त॒मुप॒ नक्त॑मेति ॥

पदपाठः

जा॒या । त॒प्य॒ते॒ । कित॒वस्य॑ । ही॒ना । मा॒ता । पु॒त्रस्य॑ । चर॑तः । क्व॑ । स्वि॒त् । ऋ॒ण॒ऽवा । बि॒भ्य॒त् । धन॑म् । इ॒च्छमा॑नः । अ॒न्येषा॑म् । अस्त॑म् । उप॑ । नक्त॑म् । ए॒ति॒ ॥

  • Avagraha symbol
  • Words in Samasta padam
    • गिरि॒स्थाःà गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः
  • Upasarga or prefix and the main word
    • वि॒क्रम॑णेषु  –>  वि॒ऽक्रम॑णेषु ।
  • भ्याम्, भिस्, भ्यस् when they have not undergone changes
    • त्रि॒ऽभिः।  भे॒ष॒जेभिः॑ । प॒देभिः॑ ।
  • सु प्रत्यय under certain conditions
    • अप्सु à अपऽसु
  • त्व, तरप्, तमप् प्रत्ययाः
    • देवत्वं à देवऽत्वम्
  • More… (UGC NET/J.R.F/SET Sanskrit)
  • प्रगृह्यम्
  • The purpose of this संज्ञा is to indicate that the absence of sandhi
  • Counter example – ओ is due to sandhi in the case of रामो
  • Different cases
    • Sambhodhana ओ (विष्णो इति)
    • The word ओ (ओ इति)
    • The words ending in the suffix ओ (अथो इति)
    • ई, ऊ and ए endings in dual number (इन्द्रावायू इति)
    • ई or ऊ endings of vocative case (गौरी इति)
    • Four specific words अस्मे, युष्मे, त्वे, अमी
  • इतिकरण
  • उ becomes ऊँ इति
  • प्रगृह्यम् identified by इति
    • Examples from some suktaas in KSOU material
    • ई, ऊ and ए endings in dual number
      • उ॒भेइति॑ । द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी इति॑ । उ॒र्वी इति॑ । रोद॑सी॒ इति॑ ।
    • Four specific words
      • अ॒स्मेइति॑
    • स्वरितः
    • Svarita is classified as शुद्धस्वरित (Pure or dependent) or जात्यस्वरित (Independent)
    • The Pure or dependent Svarita is naturally an anudaatta occuring after an udaatta.
      • It is unstable since it becomes anudaata if it is followed by an udaatta
    • The Svarita which arises in a different manner ( i.e . without the Udaatta being present before it) is known as Jaatya (Independent)
  • जात्यादिस्वरितः
    • जात्यस्वरित – Svarita which appears right after an anudaatta or in the beginning of a Pada, when the combination of udaatta and anudaatta lies further back or hidden and when it is natural to the word. Eg. क्व
    • क्षैप्रस्वरित – Join of Udaatta and Anudaatta due to यण्
    • प्रश्लिष्टस्वरित – Join comes due to सवर्णदीर्घसन्धिः
    • अभिनिहितस्वरित – Join comes due to पूर्वरूपसन्धिः
    • A कम्प or a shake is created when जात्यस्वरित is followed by another जात्यस्वरित or udaatta. If the vowel is short then १ is put. For long vowels, ३ along with anudaatta and svarita are put.
      • सुनी॒थः। क्वे॒३॒॑दानीं॒ == सु॒ऽनी॒थः । क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॒म् ।

Vedas – Dr. VR, Lecture Series #3 – Udaatta, Anudaatta, Svarita

Accents in RigVeda – Udaatta, Anudaatta and Svarita

Taught by Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy on Feb 10, 2016 to a group of KSOU MA students.

There is one main accent or Swara in Veda which is the Udaatta उदात्त. Udaatta is not marked by any symbol. There are two other accents that exist to mark the presence of Udaatta. They are Anudaatta अनुदात्त and Svarita स्वरित. Anudaatta means “na”+”udaatta” – that which is not Udaatta. The Anudaatta that comes after the Udaatta is called Svarita. The Anudaatta syllable or syllables coming after Svarita are Ekasruti एकश्रुति or prachaya प्रचयः monotone. They are not marked. Like a King’s procession, Udaatta is the main syllable which is preceded and followed by Anudaatta and Svarita respectively. While assigning the accent, only the vowels are considered. स्वयं राजते इति स्वरः | (राजते = प्रकाशते) Vowel is complete on its own i.e., स्वयंपूर्णः | Consonants depend on the vowels and they can’t exist on their own. So they are ignored.  These Swaras occur in the Samhita Patha of Vedas which is the core of the Vedic literature. (For more details refer earlier class’ notes).

Udaatta is the most important swara that was identified by the Rishis when they perceived the mantra. Like the monarch who is preceded and followed by his people, Udaatta is preceded and followed by swaras that are not Udaattas which enable us to identify the Udaatta.

Anudaatta is that which is not Udaataa न उदात्तः अनुदात्तः | So technically, all swaras which are not udaattas are anudaattas only. They get different names based on their position. If it is before the Udaatta, it is called Anudaatta or Nighaata or Anudaattataraa or Nighaata swara. The Swara that follows Udaatta is called Svaritha. After the Svaritha, the swaras are not marked and they are referred to as Ekashruti or Prachaya. It is referred as Monotone.

A –> U –> S –> E

The Anudaatta after the Udaatta will not be marked as Svaritha, if it needs to be marked as Anudaatta to indicate the following Udaatta.

…  A –> U –> A –> U  …..   [Note here that after U there is no S. Instead there is A due to the following U].

The Udaatta in the beginning is called Aadyutaata.

U –> S  ….

The Udaatta at the end is called Antoodaata.

… A –> U

  1. Every padam or word will have a maximum of only one Udaatta. अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम् |
  2. There can be a word without any Udaatta.
  3. Combined terms like mitravarunau could have two Udaatta – one for mitra and one for varuna – which combine to form the dual samastapada.

Process to convert from the संहितापाठः with meters to पदपाठः with meters:

  1. Split the individual padas applying sandhi rules.
  2. Identify the Udaatta.
    1. If a Svaritha is marked, take the previous vowel to be Udaatta. Eg. ह्वया॑मि — व.
    2. If Anudaatta is marked, take the following swara to be the Udaatta. Eg. अ॒ग्निम् – नि
  3. After identifying the Udaatta, make these changes :
    1. If the first vowel in the word is a Svaritha or Ekashruti (due to the effect of the earlier padam) change that first vowel and any Ekashruti following it to Anudaatta.

 

Samhita Pada
…. U  S …… …. U | A ……
…. U S  (0 or more E)  E .… …. U S  (0 or more E)  | A .…

 

  1. If the last vowel in the word is an Anudaatta (due to the effect of the following padam), change it to Svaritha if the previous vowel is identified to be Udaatta; and change it to Ekasruthi if the previous marking is a Svaritha
Samhita Pada
….U A U  …. …. U S | U  ….
….U S (0 or more E) A U  …. …. U S (0 or more E) E | U  ….

 

  1. After padacheda, if a vowel 3 could be split into two vowels 1 and 2.
    1. Take both of them to be Anudaatta, if the combined vowel was Anudaatta.
    2. if the next vowel is an Udaatta, then mark the first vowel in the second word as an Anudaatta;
Samhita 1st Samhita 2nd Pada 1st Pada 2nd Example
 …. A …..  …. A | A ……
 …. A U (0 or more A) U …..  …. A U |  A (0 or more A) U…. सवि॒तायम॒र्यः = स॒वि॒ता । अ॒यम्
 ….. A U  S …..  …. A ? |  U S …. मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से =   इ॒ह | अव॑से
प॒र्यभू॑षत्  = प॒रि॒ऽअभू॑षत्
 (0 or more A) A U  …..  (0 or more A) A U |  ? …. मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से =   इ॒ह | अव॑से
 (0 or more A) A U  …..  (0 or more A) A A | ? …. प॒र्यभू॑षत्  = प॒रि॒ऽअभू॑षत्
 …. U U  ….  …. U S |  U …. रथ्य॑म॒मृताधि॑ = … अ॒मृता॑ । अधि॑
यस्याश्वा॑सः = यस्य॑ । अश्वा॑सः
 …. U A U  ….  …. U S E |  U …. रथे॒ना = रथे॑न । आ
 …. U S (0 or more E) A U  …. …. U S (0 or more E) E E |  U ….

 

  • else if the next vowel is a Svaritha, then consider the first vowel in the second word to be the Udaatta;
  1. else if the vowel was an Udaatta in the mantra, take it to be an Udaatta in second word if the first word already has a Udaatta;

Additional Points:

(Please watch the second video on swaras for details regarding these points)

  1. A procedure called इतिकरण applies when splitting the terms for pada paatha. This is done to indicate प्रगृह्य संज्ञा  or pragruhya symbol. This indication about pragruhya is used in other forms of recitation like Gana paatha. The rule is this — When there is a word that is in dual number which ends in  इ, उ, ए then they get this symbol and the term is added next to them. There is another instance that when उ  is mentioned, it has to get itikarana, it is elongated and also gets the anuswara thus becoming “ऊँ इति” |
  2. When the word includes a prefix, the prefix is separated from the rest of the word by a Avagraha symbol “ऽ“. In case of compound words also, the terms are split by placing the avagraha symbol in between the different terms.
  3. In certain cases, the number ३ along with Anudaatta and Svaritha symbol would be mentioned. This comes when the letter has to be split to undo the sandhi and when one of it happens to be the Svaritha for a previous Udaatta and the other letter happens to be an Anudaatta for the following Udaatta. This Svaritha is called an independent Svaritha if the Udaatta is in an earlier padam. [We can relate it to the pronoun used in the third sentence while the related noun is present in the first sentence. Because of the continuity in usage, the pronoun still refers to the original noun though there is a sentence in between]. Such independent Svarithas are classified into 4 categories with the first category being called jaatyasvarita and hence all the independent svarithas are referred to as जात्यादिस्वरित |

For KSOU MA exams, we need not get into the complexity of the above mentioned points. With an idea provided above, we need to go through the given mantras, observe how it has been done and try to reproduce it.
संहिता

ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं प्र॑थ॒मं स्व॒स्तये॒ ह्वया॑मि मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से । ह्वया॑मि॒ रात्रीं॒ जग॑तो नि॒वेश॑नीं॒ ह्वया॑मि दे॒वं स॑वि॒तार॑मू॒तये॑ ॥

पदपाठः

ह्वया॑मि । अ॒ग्निम् । प्र॒थ॒मम् । स्व॒स्तये॑ । ह्वया॑मि । मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ । इ॒ह । अव॑से । ह्वया॑मि । रात्री॑म् । जग॑तः । नि॒वेश॑नीम् । ह्वया॑मि । दे॒वम् । स॒वि॒तार॑म् । ऊ॒तये॑ ॥

Process to convert from the mantra with meters to padapaata with meters:

  1. Split the individual padas and identify the udaatta.
  2. ह्वया॑मि
    1. As a Svaritha is marked, take the previous vowel to be Udaatta. ह्वया॑मि –> ह + व् + अ –This is the Udaatta.
  3. अ॒ग्निम्
    1. As Anudaatta is marked, take the following swara to be the Udaatta. अ॒ग्निम्
  4. प्र॒थ॒मम्
    1. As Anudaatta is marked, take the following swara to be the Udaatta. प्रथ॒मम् –> म् + अ – This is the Udaatta.
  5. स्व॒स्तये॑
    1. As Anudaatta is marked, take the following swara to be the Udaatta.
  6. मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ
    1. Note that there are two udaattas – त्रा in Mitra and व in Varuna. After Svaritha, it is ekasruthi.
  7. इ॒ह
    1. ह due to Anudaatta.
  8. अव॑से
    1. अ due to Svaritha.
  9. रात्री॑म्
    1. रा due to Svaritha.
  10. स॒वि॒तार॑म्
    1. As Anudaatta is marked, take the following swara to be the Udaatta.

Make the required changes based on the following rules.

ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं प्र॑थ॒मं स्व॒स्तये॒ ह्वया॑मि मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से । ह्वया॑मि॒ रात्रीं॒ जग॑तो नि॒वेश॑नीं॒ ह्वया॑मि दे॒वं स॑वि॒तार॑मू॒तये॑ ॥

पदपाठः

ह्वया॑मि । अ॒ग्निम् । प्र॒थ॒मम् । स्व॒स्तये॑ । ह्वया॑मि । मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ । इ॒ह । अव॑से । ह्वया॑मि । रात्री॑म् । जग॑तः । नि॒वेश॑नीम् । ह्वया॑मि । दे॒वम् । स॒वि॒तार॑म् । ऊ॒तये॑ ॥

  • If the first vowel in the word is a Svaritha or Ekashruti (due to the effect of the earlier padam) change that first vowel and any Ekashruti following it to Anudaatta.
    1. प्र॑थ॒मं –> प्र॒थ॒मम्
    2. स॑वि॒तार॑मू॒तये॑ –> स॒वि॒तार॑म्
  • If the last vowel in the word is an Anudaatta (due to the effect of the following padam), change it to Svaritha if the previous vowel is identified to be Udaatta; and change it to Ekasruthi if the previous marking is a Svaritha
    1. स्व॒स्तये॒ –> स्व॒स्तये॑
    2. ह्वया॑मि॒ –> ह्वया॑मि (ekasruthi)
    3. रात्रीं॒ –> रात्री॑म् (ekasruthi)
    4. नि॒वेश॑नीं॒ –> नि॒वेश॑नीम् (ekasruthi)
  • After padacheda, if the next vowel is an Udaatta, then mark the first vowel in the second word as an Anudaatta; else if the next vowel is a Svaritha, then consider the first vowel in the second word to be the Udaatta; else if the vowel was an Udaatta in the mantra, take it to be an Udaatta in second word if the first word already has a Udaatta;
    1. ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं –> ह्वया॑मि । अ॒ग्निम् (both anudaatta. marking based on Svaritha and Udaatta)
    2. मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से –> मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ । इ॒ह (both anudaatta. marking based on Svaritha and Udaatta)
    3. मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से –> इ॒ह । अव॑से (First udaatta due to absence and second udaatta due to the following Svaritha)

 

  • ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं प्र॑थ॒मं स्व॒स्तये॒ ह्वया॑मि मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से । ह्वया॑मि॒ रात्रीं॒ जग॑तो नि॒वेश॑नीं॒ ह्वया॑मि दे॒वं स॑वि॒तार॑मू॒तये॑ ॥
  • पदपाठः
  • ह्वया॑मि । अ॒ग्निम् । प्र॒थ॒मम् । स्व॒स्तये॑ । ह्वया॑मि । मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ । इ॒ह । अव॑से । ह्वया॑मि । रात्री॑म् । जग॑तः । नि॒वेश॑नीम् । ह्वया॑मि । दे॒वम् । स॒वि॒तार॑म् । ऊ॒तये॑ ॥

http://www.vedakosh.com/rig-veda/mandal-1/sukta-035/mantra-rig-01-035-001

संहिता

आ कृ॒ष्णेन॒ रज॑सा॒ वर्त॑मानो निवे॒शय॑न्न॒मृतं॒ मर्त्यं॑ च । हि॒र॒ण्यये॑न सवि॒ता रथे॒ना दे॒वो या॑ति॒ भुव॑नानि॒ पश्य॑न् ॥

पदपाठः

आ । कृ॒ष्णेन॑ । रज॑सा । वर्त॑मानः । नि॒ऽवे॒शय॑न् । अ॒मृत॑म् । मर्त्य॑म् । च॒ । हि॒र॒ण्यये॑न । स॒वि॒ता | रथे॑न । आ । दे॒वः । या॒ति॒ । भुव॑नानि । पश्य॑न् ॥

  1. If the first vowel in the word is a Svaritha or Ekashruti (due to the effect of the earlier padam) change that first vowel and any Ekashruti following it to Anudaatta.
    • निवे॒शय॑न्न॒… –> नि॒ऽवे॒शय॑न् (was Ekashruti)
    • च –> च॒ (was Ekashruti)
    • सवि॒ता –> स॒वि॒ता ( was Ekashruti)
  2. If the last vowel in the word is an Anudaatta (due to the effect of the following padam), change it to Svaritha if the previous vowel is identified to be Udaatta; and change it to Ekasruthi if the previous marking is a Svaritha
    • कृ॒ष्णेन॒ –> कृ॒ष्णेन॑
    • रज॑सा॒ –> रज॑सा (Ekashruti)
    • …य॑न्न॒मृतं॒ –> अ॒मृत॑म्
    • रथे॒ना –> रथे॑न (Ekashruti)
  3. After padacheda, if the next vowel is an Udaatta, then mark the first vowel in the second word as an Anudaatta; else if the next vowel is a Svaritha, then consider the first vowel in the second word to be the Udaatta; else if the vowel was an Udaatta in the mantra, take it to be an Udaatta in second word if the first word already has a Udaatta;
  • रथे॒ना –> रथे॑न आ ( First word already has Udaatta, second is udaatta)

http://www.vedakosh.com/rig-veda/mandal-1/sukta-035/mantra-rig-01-035-002

Please let me know if more explanation is required for any specific point. I will try to make it more clear.

<See the video recording of the sessions on marking swaras in pada paatha. Link is available elsewhere in this blog.> You may reach out to Dr.Vanitha.Ramaswamy@gmail.com for clarifications.

 

Vedas – Dr. VR, Lecture Series #1 – Introduction to Vedas

Introduction to Vedas – Rig and Atharva Veda

Meaning of Veda

The word वेद Veda is derived from the sanskrit root Veda “विद् ज्ञाने” | √ Vid means “to know”. Veda indicates knowledge. The word Veda is defined in the Vedic Text of Brahmanas as “श्रेष्ठोहि वेद तपसा अधिजातः ब्रह्मज्ञानां हृदये संबभूव” | Veda is Knowledge par excellence – श्रेष्ठोहि वेद | It was not written by individuals. It was acquired through revelations when they were in a state of transcendental meditation during their austerities or Tapas – तपसा अधिजातः प्राप्तः | At the state of that Transcendental Meditation, this truth establishes itself in the hearts of those who know the Supreme Truth or Brahman, ब्रह्मज्ञानां हृदये संबभूव | ब्रह्म जानाति इति ब्रह्मज्ञः | ब्रह्म सत्यम् इति अर्थः |

The Rishis were able to see the truth through their inner eye (अन्तश्चक्षुः) which is different from the external physical eye.  As they saw the truth, the Rishis who have given us the Vedic Mantras are called द्रष्टारः or मन्त्रद्रष्टारः | तेन मनसा श्रुतः अतः ते श्रोतारः or मन्त्रश्रोतारः | The Vedas are called Shrutis  श्रुतिः  | So the Rishis to whom the mantra was revealed are called Shrotas.   The Veda Purusha – the person who is well versed in the Vedas is called श्रोत्रियः or श्रोत्रियब्राह्मणः | Those who are born in a Brahmin clan are just Brahmins by birth – जन्मना ब्रह्मणः | Only the person who is well versed in the Vedas वेदाध्ययनसंपन्नः is regarded as श्रोत्रियब्राह्मणः |

[ Side Note: Charity is done during rituals to these Shrotreeya Brahmana only as they are aware of the procedure to please the अधिदेवः for specific deity being worshipped. During his Sandhyavandana, on behalf of the person who made the offerings, this Brahmana would pray to Gayatri or the Supreme Universal Energy which represents all the Gods like Shiva or Vishnu. Only this Brahmana is capable of transferring the Karma of the person who made the offering to the appropriate deity and ensure that the benefit of the Kriya performed is enjoyed by the Yajamaan. The same principle works during the ceremony done for the deceased ancestors. ]

The Rishis realized the futility of the temporary worldly pleasures. They realized the supreme power and proclaimed “वेदाहमेतं पुरुषं महान्तम्” – “एतं महान्तं पुरुषम् अहं वेद |” meaning “I know the supreme Purusha”. Only the Supreme Brahman or the Paramaatma is addressed as Purusha or the man. Having experienced the supreme bliss, the sage calls out to others to “Arise and Awake” – “उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान् निबोधत|” They called everyone else to share the knowledge and to make them also enjoy the bliss that they were experiencing.

Shaakaas or Branches

There are different branches or शाखाः shaakaas like आपस्तम्भशाकाद्यायि | Many Rishis who realized the supreme truth, taught their disciples through oral medium the knowledge that they gained. Each Rishi’s gurukula became like a present-day university. For millions of years, the knowledge was passed on to the next generation through this oral medium (मौखिक-प्रयोगः). Thus the followers of specific Rishi and his disciples were said to belong to that shaakaa.

Over the years, the concentration was lost. Some people were drawn in material pursuits. Differences between the different shaakaa started to arise. Thus we ended up with numerous branches with some differences between the branches even within the same Veda.

The 3 main aspects considered for the mantras in the Veda are Rishi, Devatha and Chandas.  Rishi is that sage to whom this mantra was revealed. Note that he is not considered as the author of the mantra. The Devatha is the deity like Gayatri or Surya or Lakshmi who is worshipped by this mantra. The 33,000 Gods are to be understood as different Power-Points of the Supreme Power with specific portfolio being managed by them.  And the Chandas is the Vedic meter with specific arrangement of syllables to which the mantra is set. The Swara or the pronunciation is very important for the Vedic mantras.

The Four Vedas

Vyasa, who is considered as the incarnation of Vishnu Himself, took up the task of consolidation. Vyasa classified this vast mass of literature – विद्या स वेदान् इति व्यासः | The purpose of classification was for easy understanding, easy learning, and preservation. वि व्यास – re-arranged, re-classified. He classified into four parts namely Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda.

Nature of the contents of Atharva Veda and its impact

Atharva Veda included some scientific aspects which were useful for the material world including scientific information on subjects like Metallurgy.  It also deals with the care of the physical body, the human relationships and also the spirits that leave the body after death. The followers of this Veda found that they could get some benefits if certain rituals were performed to satisfy certain deities. As they ventured into such activities and obtained benefits, they started doing more and more of such rituals, penances and sacrifices. Once they started controlling the spirits and using it for personal gains, the followers of the other Vedas banned this Veda.

Avoidance of Atharva Veda

Thus the study of Atharva Veda was discouraged and the Shtrotreeya Brahmins were required to learn only the other 3 Vedas. The person who knows Atharva Veda was being feared by everyone as he could cause harm to them. [ Side Note: In Chanakya’s times, the enemies of Chandragupta tried to send spirits to harm Chandragupta and Chanakya also in turn does rituals to harm the enemy king, Amaatya Raja. ]

Trayee – त्रयी – Excluding Atharva Veda

There was a period, after the time of Veda Vyasa, when only the 3 vedas were considered leaving the 4th one. During this time, the Vedas were referred to as “Trayee” indicating they are three in number. Due to its misuse, the Atharva Veda was prohibited. The followers of Atharva Veda had to bring it back to the fold, they includes a few mantras from the other 3 Vedas also. Thus they changed the impression that Atharva Vedis are black-magicians doing Tantric practices. Then it was included back as a part of the Vedas.

[Side note: It is also said that the Vedas were classified based on the types of the mantra like Rig, Yajus and Saama. Since there are only three types of mantras, the Vedas are called as Trayee. Atharva Veda does not contain any new type of mantra. It includes only the 3 types of mantras seen in the other Vedas].

अनुबन्ध-चतुष्टयम् of Vedas

विषय, अधिकारी, संबन्धः, प्रयोजन अथवा उद्धेषः | प्रयोजं नोद्धिश्य मदोऽपि न प्रवर्तते | विषय – Knowledge of material world and the spiritual life. वेदयति प्रकाशयति सर्वम् इति वेदः | सर्वम् = लौकिक, आद्यात्मिक च | The purpose or objective is to obtain knowledge – ज्ञानप्राप्तिः | अधिकारी – Whoever is interested in knowing. What is the प्रामाण्य for Vedas? Self-validated knowledge स्वतप्रामाण्यं वेदाः |

Mantra – मन्त्र

The four parts of Vedas is मन्त्र, ब्रह्मणा, आरण्यक, उपनिषद् | मन्त्र = संहिता | अपौरुषेयम् | There is no author for the mantra – it is the revealed portion of the Veda. Samhita is the soul of the Vedas.  Each Veda has its associated Brahmanas, Aaranyakas and Upanishads.

Brahmana – ब्रह्मणा

While putting the Samhita to use, these scriptures called Brahmanaas were created. ब्रह्म = ज्ञान (ब्रह्मणि चरति इति ब्रह्मचारी)

[Side Note: In Oxford University, there is a huge collection of Aithereya Brahmanaas in the Vedic section in their library.]

The huge sacrifices were performed by the Monarchs, conducted by Brahmin priests. The Yagnas used to be performed for a period of 12 years or more. Camps will be setup near the banks of some river. The entire community used to shift there with their family members. All facilities were made there to cater to people of all ages. The disciples of Vyasa used to perform the Yaagaas during the day time. During the evening times, to entertain the people, they used to give speeches on various topics – it could be mythology, archaeology, science, physics, chemistry, history, geography, etc. All this knowledge on various subjects was put into writing and captured as collective works called Brahmana. As this knowledge was based on the Vedic knowledge, these were also considered as a part of the Veda. The purohits would have knowledge about various practical aspects. There were great scientists. The span of their knowledge was so wide that they would know from building the yagna kunda right till the bathroom facilities that were required for the community. For example, the cleanliness of the place had to be maintained and so the information related to chemistry was included based on the instructions given by the seers. The people would spend some time watching the stars and thus, the science of astronomy, astrology or Jyothisha came. Thus the Brahmanic texts kept on growing based on the knowledge shared by the students of Vyasa during the course of the Yaaga, which lasted for over 12 years. Hence there is a mixture of different branches of information. Necessity being the mother of invention, the knowledge in different subjects evolved during this period.

Aaranyaka

After a certain age, the elderly couple would mutually voluntarily agree to separate from the family, leaving their attachment to the family. They would go to the ashrams in the forests where they would guide the students there and they would be taken care of by the inmates of the ashram.  The elders would merge with the society and in turn it was the responsibility of the society to take care of them. Only in the later period, the concept of children taking care of their parents came up. Earlier, the entire community was considered as one family – वसुधैव कुटुम्बकम | The Aaranyaka is also referred to as Forest texts.  The Aranyakas are the ritual sacrifice part of the ancient Indian texts, the Vedas.

Upanishad

Upanishads are the Vedanta part. This is the stage in life where the seekers take to sanyaasa. These texts include the knowledge about the self.

Rig Veda

Rig Veda is a mirror of the vedic culture or samskriti of those days. It explains how the people conducted their life with specific responsibilities at different stages of life. It includes information about the relationship of the soul and the god, how the prayers are to be peformed, what is to be prayed for, the need for saatvik livelihood, etc. The vedas bring out the system of 4 ashrams – Brahmacharya, Grihasta, Vaanaprasta and Sanyaasa. The contents of Rig Veda is not merely spiritual knowledge. It is bubbling with enthusiasm. According to the Rig Veda, life is a celebration. One should not feel sorrow. Life has to be enjoyed. Management of time and energy in one’s life is beautifully given in the Rig Veda. Dharma = duties = karthavya is elaborated in that.

Arrangement of Rig Vedic Hymns

There are different types of classification of the Rig Vedic Hymn. In one classification referred as Mandala Krama, the contents of the Rig Veda is arranged in Mandalaas. In another classification of Sukta Krama, it is arranged in Suktas based on the different dieties to which the prayer is being offered like Agni, Varuna, Indira, etc.

Period of Rig Veda

There is no specific date for the Rig Veda. It is the eternal knowledge. It always existed. There is no origin or termination for the Saanaatana Dharma. We consider Rig Veda to be created 10 thousand years. Foreigners like Max Muller consider it to be 5 or 6 thousand years old. It is the knowledge of the universe.

Selected verses from Kathopanishad – #6

Selected verses from Kathopanishad — Verses collated from the question papers for KSOU MA Sanskrit (2007 to 2014). Part 6 with notes from the classes conducted by Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy (14-Oct-2015)

Reference:

  • The Kathaka Upanishad with Shri Shankara’s Commentary, edited with notes by Sri Sri Swami Satchidanandendra Saraswati, Adhyatma Prakasha Karyalaya
Online References for Sanskrit Verses and English Translation

Upanishad is read as part of the 13th day events, when someone passes away. Shraddha is performed at the residence and also at Gaya. Other places for performing PitruKaarya are at Kashi, Allahabad, Matru Gaya and Nasik in the north and Kokarana in the south. The obstacles in the worldly affairs are removed, when the Shraddha is done at these places for receiving the blessings of the ancestors. There are some rituals that are done for the well-being of the family and there are others that are done for the sake of the departed soul. When the Upanishads are read, the soul gets the Brahma gnana and gets the opportunity to enter a family with good samskaaraas. 

1.     तस्मात्पराङ् पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् । २०१०.०४

Therefore we see the external world and not the self.

पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयम्भू-स्तस्मात्पराङ्पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् ।
कश्चिद्धीरः प्रत्यगात्मानमैक्ष-दावृत्तचक्षुरमृतत्वमिच्छन् ॥ २.१.१ ॥

पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयम्भू: तस्मात् पराङ् पश्यति न अन्तरात्मन् ।
कश्चित् धीरः प्रत्यगात्मानम् ऐक्षत् आवृत्तचक्षु: अमृतत्वम् इच्छन् |

पराञ्चि – outgoing tendencies; खानि – senses (आकाश जन्याणि), व्यतृणत् – disturbed – mixed up things (हिंसितवान् हननं कृतवान्), स्वयम्भू: – the self-existent Brahma, तस्मात् – therefore, पराङ् – external world, पश्यति – see, न – not, अन्तरात्मन् – the self, कश्चित् – some, धीरः – wise man, प्रत्यगात्मानम् – atman within (प्रत्यक् च असौ आत्मा च) , ऐक्षत् – he wished (अपश्यत्), आवृत्तचक्षु: – one having eyes averted (with his senses turned away), अमृतत्वम् – immortality, इच्छन् – desiring.
2.1.1. The self existent self created the senses with outgoing tendencies. Therefore we see the external world and not the self. But the wise turn the senses away from the world and, seeking what is everlasting, realize the self within.

The Self-existent created the senses out-going; for this reason man sees the external, but not the inner Ātman (Self). Some wise man, however, desiring immortality, with eyes turned away (from the external) sees the Ātman within. Among the shlokas on काम एव आत्मज्ञानस्य प्रतिबन्ध:, this one is पराग्दृष्टि: स्वभावो लोकस्य, प्रत्यग्दृष्टिस्तु कस्यचिदेव |

आत्माज्ञानस्य स्वरूप: क: इति वक्तव्यम् | तत् पूर्वम् आत्मज्ञानस्य विघ्ना: के इति वदति | काम एव आत्मज्ञानस्य प्रतिबन्ध: |किमर्थं प्रबन्ध: ज्ञातव्यः ?

गूढ: आत्मा, सर्वेषुभूतेषु न प्रकाशते | केनापि न दृश्यते वा? अथवा कतिपयेषु दृष्टुं शक्यते वा? इति प्रश्न: अस्ति | स: वदति –अग्रया बुद्ध्यया दृष्टुं शक्यते | अग्रा बुद्धि: इत्युक्ते कुशाग्र मति: – the intellect that has the sharpness of the edge of the Kusha or Dharbha grass. Even these people have obstruction or obstacles – प्रतिबन्ध: | परंतुतस्य अपि काम एव आत्मज्ञानस्य प्रतिबन्ध: |विघ्नस्य ज्ञानम् अस्ति चेत् तस्य निवारणं कर्तुं शक्नुम: | विघ्ननिवारणात् फलं कर्यप्राप्ति:, फलप्राप्ति: | अस्माकं दृष्टिस्तु आत्मज्ञाने अस्ति | विघ्नविचार: किमर्थम्? यदि विघ्ना: निवार्यते तर्हि फलप्राप्ति: सुखकरम् |

In this chapter, Yama is trying to tell Nachiketas about all the obstacles on the road of Atma gnana. There is a question there – We are interested in knowing about the Aatman and attaining the atma gnana. Why are just delaying by talking about these obstacles. For this Yama says, “It is very important because when you know the obstacles your mind will be prepared to watch out for and remove the obstacles. Once the obstacles are avoided, your path will be smooth and you will be able to reach the goal. There is Shreyas or prosperity and well-being only for you by knowing the obstacles. विघ्नस्य अपनयनाय यत्न आरब्धुं शक्यते – न अन्यथा | As long as you are attached to the desires, you will not be able to start getting into that path of Atma Gnana. Only after removing these obstacles, you can progress in your path.

शब्दगुणकमाकाशम् | The sound is the quality of space. The sound is captured by the ears. Sound can’t be heard in Vacuum. पराञ्चि = पराक् गच्छन्ति (अञ्चन्ति). वातावरणे ओंकारः सदा अस्ति | But the ears are not capable of hearing it. The creator has removed the power of hearing that sound from this sense organ. पराङ् = अनात्मभूतान् शब्दादीन् = the sounds in these worldly environment. लौकिकशब्दा: ये सन्ति ते व्यवाहारे एव दृश्यते | अत: व्यवहारे एव ये ते शब्दा: शोत्रुं साद्यम् अस्ति | परन्तु ज्ञानी ओंकारम् एव शृणोति | At the time of creation, the creator disturbed and destroyed the sense so that it cannot hear the omkara and it can hear only the other sounds in the environment. लोकस्य स्वाभाव: एवं सति अपि, कश्चित्, नद्या: प्रतिस्रोत: प्रवर्तनामिव धीर: इन्द्रिय-प्रत्याहरणं कृत्वा प्रत्यगात्मानं अपश्यत् | Even if the nature of the world is like this, there will be some person who will control his senses and he will be able to realize the true self. Every sense wants to experience the pleasure. But a true seeker does not go after such pleasures – अमृतत्वम् अमरन+धर्मत्वं नित्य+स्वभावताम् इच्छन्, महता प्रयासेन स्वभावप्रवृत्तिनिरोधं करोति |

2.    अरण्योर्निहितो जातवेदा गर्भ इव सुभृतो गर्भिणीभिः ।२००७.०२

Like fire is hidden in the two tender sticks and like a fetus is well protected by pregnant women

अरण्योर्निहितो जातवेदा गर्भ इव सुभृतो गर्भिणीभिः ।

दिवे दिव ईड्यो जागृवद्भिर्हविष्मद्भिर्मनुष्येभिरग्निः ।एतद्वै तत् ॥ २.१.८ ॥

अरण्यो: निहित: जातवेदा: गर्भ इव सुभृत: गर्भिणीभिः ।

दिवे दिव ईड्यो जागृवद्भि: हविष्मद्भि: मनुष्येभि: अग्निः । एतत् वै तत् ॥ २.१.८ ॥

अरण्यो: – pair of fire-sticks, निहित: – reside (स्थित:), जातवेदा: – fire, गर्भ – fetus इव – like सुभृत: – well-guarded (सुष्ठु भरित:) गर्भिणीभिः – by the pregnant woman । दिवे दिव – day after day ईड्य: – worshipped, जागृवद्भि: – by wakeful seekers, हविष्मद्भि: – by one who does sacrifice, मनुष्येभि: – by such people, अग्निः – Agni । एतत् वै तत् – Certainly this is that !

2.1.8. The all-seeing consciousness that, like fire, is hidden in wood and concealed like a fetus in the womb is worshipped by self inquirers and ritualists. This is what you wish to know.

Ritualists are also self worshippers although their worship is indirect i.e. through rituals. Even though they worship deities, they actually worship the self in so far as the self works through the deity to bolster their faith.

The all-seeing fire which exists hidden in the two sticks, as the fetus is well- guarded in the womb by the mother, (that fire) is to be worshipped day after day by wakeful seekers (after wisdom), as well as by sacrificers. This verily is That.

Context: Brahman (The supreme self) and aatman (the inner self) are identical.

Among the shlokas on प्रत्यगात्मब्रह्मण: सर्वात्मत्वम्, this one is हिरन्यगर्भस्य सर्वभूतात्मत्वम् |

There is some heat in the atmosphere. All the five elements are present. Agni is virat. Even that is Brahma only. In the Yogis, Agni is present in their heart. The mother eats food which is converted to energy that passes on to the fetus by means of the agni inside the body. Agni is there inside everyone. That is only Brahman and Aatman. अग्निः ऋत्विग्भि: योगिभिश्च सम्यक् भृत: | The Rutvig are the great rishis who conduct the yaga, namely Hotr, Adhvaryu, Udgatr, and Brahman. अध्वरे हृदये च – in the homa and in the hearts.

[Side note: The hotṛ is the reciter of invocations (representing Rig Veda). The adhvaryu is in charge of the physical details of the sacrifice (representing yajurveda). The udgātṛ is a chanter of hymns set to melodies (sāman) drawn from the sāmaveda. The brahman is the reciter of hymns from the atharvaveda who was largely silent and observes the procedures and uses Atharvaveda mantras to ‘heal’ it when mistakes have been made.

Side note: Isa Vasya Upanishad : Agni! Take me in the right path! अग्ने नय सुपथा |] 

Selected verses from Kathopanishad – #5

Selected verses from Kathopanishad — Verses collated from the question papers for KSOU MA Sanskrit (2007 to 2014). Part 5 with notes from the classes conducted by Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy (7-Oct-2015)

Reference:

  • The Kathaka Upanishad with Shri Shankara’s Commentary, edited with notes by Sri Sri Swami Satchidanandendra Saraswati, Adhyatma Prakasha Karyalaya
Online References for Sanskrit Verses and English Translation

1.  सर्वे वेदा यत्पदमामनन्ति

सर्वे वेदा यत्पदमामनन्ति — तपाँसि सर्वाणि च यद्वदन्ति । यदिच्छन्तो ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति — तत्ते पदँ संग्रहेण ब्रवीम्योमित्येतत् ॥ १.२.१५ ॥

सर्वे वेदा all the veda-s यत्पदं आमनन्ति in one voice proclaim that goal तपांसि सर्वाणि all austerities च यद्वदन्ति speak of यत् इच्छन्तो desiring that which ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति aspirants practice brahmacharya तत् that ते to you पदं goal संग्रहेण briefly ब्रवीमि shall I state ओं इत्येतत् it is Om.

Yama said: The goal which all the vedas declare, which all austerities aim at and which men desire when they lead the life of continence, I will tell you briefly: it is Om.

सर्वे वेदा: यत् पदम् आमनन्ति, तपाँसि सर्वाणि च यत् वदन्ति, यत्+इच्छन्त: ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति, तत् ते पदँ संग्रहेण ब्रवीमि ॐ इति एतत् |

एतेन श्लोकेन ब्रह्मोपदेश: प्रारब्यते | If there can be a word that can be given as a synonym to Brahman, that is OM.

2.     एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं परम्

एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं ब्रह्म एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं परम् । एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं ज्ञात्वा यो यदिच्छति तस्य तत् ॥ १.२.१६ ॥

This Word is indeed Brahman. This Word is indeed the Supreme. He who knows this Word obtains whatever he desires.

एतद् हि एव This alone indeed अक्षरं is the (inferior) ब्रह्म brahman एतद् हि एव This alone indeed अक्षरं परम् is the Supreme brahman. एतद् हि एव This alone indeed अक्षरं the letter, symbol, ज्ञात्वा having meditated upon यः he यत् इच्छति desiring which तस्य तत् his is that ॥ १६ ॥

Among the shlokas on ओंकारद्वारेण ब्रह्मोपदेश:, this one is ओंकारस्य परब्रह्मालम्बनत्वम् |

नचिकेतसं प्रति यम: ॐ-कारस्य महत्वं वर्णयति | It is not sufficient just to know that Om and Brahman are the same. The seeker has to meditate controlling the senses. यो यदिच्छति परम् अपरं वा, तस्य तद् भवति | परं ज्ञातव्यम्, अपरं चेत् प्राप्तव्यम् | Param is to be understood. Aparam is to be obtained.

Do your tasks with Atma shakti. They will turn out well. Even if it does not result in the expected manner, accept it as something that has happened for a higher good.

Krishna says that he is the desires that are not against dharma — ‘धर्मोविरुद्धो भूतेषु कामोस्मि भरकर्षर्भ’ (श्रीमद्भवद्गीता-7/11). Here Yama says that whatever be their desire, they will get it. The mother wishes to get a son with good character. Due to her good actions, it gets such a son. “सुशीलो पुत्र: मातु पुण्येन |” When Kunti blesses the pregnant Draupadi, she says “मा च सूरम् | मा च पण्डितम् | भाग्यवन्तं प्रसूयेत|” She blesses that Draupadi gets a son with good character as that will lead to all saubhagya – शीलवन्तं पुत्रं प्राप्नुयात् |

3.    न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ॥ १८ ॥ २०१०.०३, २०१४.०३ It is not killed when the body is killed.

न जायते म्रियते वा विपश्चिन्नायं कुतश्चिन्न बभूव कश्चित् । अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणोन हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ॥ १८ ॥

न जायते म्रियते वा विपश्चित् न अयं कुतश्चित् न बभूव कश्चित् । अज: नित्यः शाश्वत: अयं पुराण: न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ||

न जायते neither born म्रियते वा nor dies विपश्चित् this sentient Atman न अयं nor did It कुतश्चित् न बभूव originate from any cause कश्चित् nor did anything originate from It. अजः It is birthless नित्यः eternal शाश्वतः undecaying अयं पुराणः It is ancient न हन्यते It is not killed/injured हन्यमाने शरीरे when the body is killed. The knowing Self is not born; It does not die. It has not sprung from anything; nothing has sprung from It. Birthless, eternal, everlasting and ancient. It is not killed when the body is killed.

Among the shlokas on आत्मन: साक्षात् स्वरूप-निर्धारणम्, this one is आत्मा सर्वविक्रियारहित: | |

अस्मिन् श्लोके आत्मन: साक्षात् स्वरूप-निर्धारणं करोति | The atma cannot be felt by the senses. विपश्चित् = मेधावी | Don’t consider aatman to be an intelligent person. And don’t consider aatman to have come from a specific place like heaven. Nothing has originated from it. आत्मन: = ब्रह्मण: | निर्धारणम् = इदं इत्तं इति definition. अजः नित्यः शाश्वतः पुराणः |

[Side note: Panchatantra 1 Mitrabheda Tantra by Vishnusharman ययोरेव समं वित्तं ययोरेव समं कुलम्। तयोर्मैत्री विवाहश्च न तु पुष्टविपुष्टयोः॥३०४॥ Those who are equal in wealth, and those who are equal in lineage. Between them does friendship and marriage occur, not between opposites.

अपात्रे कृतम् अकृतम् | Be it giving away the daughter in marriage or sharing some spiritual experiences with the spouse, only if the recipient is fit to receive, it has to be given.

मनस्चक्षुषोर्निबन्ध: – (मनस: and चक्षुषो:) bonding of the mind and the eyes are the matching that is required for marriage – says the Vedas.]

4.     तस्यैष आत्मा विवृणुते तनूँ स्वाम् ॥ २३ ॥ २००७.०१, २००९.०३

To him the Self reveals Its true nature.

नायमात्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्योन मेधया न बहुना श्रुतेन । यमेवैष वृणुते तेन लभ्यःतस्यैष आत्मा विवृणुते तनूँ स्वाम् ॥ १.२.२३ ॥

न अयम् आत्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्य: न मेधया न बहुना श्रुतेन । यम् एव एष: वृणुते तेन लभ्यः तस्य एष आत्मा विवृणुते तनूँ स्वाम् |

न अयम् आत्मा This Atman is not प्रवचनेन लभ्यः attained through study न मेधया nor by intelligence न बहुना श्रुतेन or by much hearing of sacred literature. यम् he whom एव alone एष the Self वृणुते chooses तेन लभ्यः It is attained by such a person तस्य Its एष this आत्मा Atman विवृणुते reveals तनूं स्वाम् Its true nature.

This Self cannot be attained by study of the Scriptures, nor by intellectual perception, nor by frequent hearing (of It); He whom the Self chooses, by him alone is It attained. To him the Self reveals Its true nature.

Context: The Acharya Yama is continuing his delineation of the Self upon being asked for it by the wonderful aspirant Nachiketas.

Among the shlokas on आत्मज्ञानस्य शोकराहित्यं फलम्, this one is आत्मविज्ञानोपाय: |

वृणुते = “वृ वरणे” – whom the Brahma chooses ! ज्ञेय: = ज्ञातुं शक्य: | दुर्विज्ञेय: = ज्ञातुं न साध्यम् | तथापि उपायेन सुविज्ञेय: एव इति आह | प्रोत्साहं ददाति | (Gives encouragement). मेधया = ग्रन्थार्थधारणशक्त्या |

Krishna tells about 3 types of people who will come to hear the guru’s teachings. कुतूहली – Those who are curious. जिज्ञासुः – Those who are interested in knowing. मुमुक्षु: – One who comes with an open mind with an aim to gain the knowledge, will grasp and attain moksha. यं एव स्वमात्मानम् एष साधक: प्रार्थयते, तेन एव आत्मना वरित्रा (protect like an umbrella) स्वयं आत्मा लभ्य: | आत्मना एव आत्मा लभ्यते | स्व-याथात्म्यम् | तनूं = पारमार्थिक तनूम् |

5.    उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान्निबोधत ।२०१४.१२

Arise, awake!  Seek the great teachers and realize the self!  

उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान्निबोधत । क्षुरस्य धारा निशिता दुरत्यया दुर्गं पथस्तत्कवयो वदन्ति ॥ १.३.१४ ॥ उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान् निबोधत । क्षुरस्य धारा निशिता दुरत्यया | दुर्गं पथ: तत् कवय: वदन्ति |

उत्तिष्ठत – arise, जाग्रत – awake, प्राप्य – having received, वरान् – great teachers, निबोधत – get enlightened । क्षुरस्य – razor’s धारा – edge (अग्रम्), निशिता – sharp दुरत्यया – difficult to tread upon | दुर्गं – fortified (दु:संपाद्यम्). पथ: – road (मार्ग:), कवय: – those Brahma jnaanis – तत् – that वदन्ति – tell |

  1. Arise, awake!  Seek the great teachers and realize the self!  The wise say the path, difficult to navigate, is sharp and narrow like a razor’s edge.

The spiritual path is difficult because life is not what it seems and because as discrimination develops one discovers more and more subtle delusions. One needs to be eternally vigilant because it is easy to ‘fall off’ the path, identify with beliefs and opinions that prevent appreciation of one’s wholeness.

It may be possible to sort it out on your own but it is intelligent to realize your limitations and seek help. Associating with a teacher means that the non-dual perspective is constantly present. Additionally, your desire for liberation will grow quickly because a teacher will continually remind you of the limitations inherent in the pursuit of objects. Finally, you can present your doubts and have them cleared quickly and easily. It sometimes takes years to work though a problem that can be solved in a few minutes by a competent teacher.  

Among the shlokas on सूक्ष्मस्यात्मनो दर्शनार्थं योग:, this one is आत्म-दर्शन-यत्न-कर्तव्यता-उपदेश:

कर्तव्यं – a command that has to be abided. In the मिथ्याज्ञान, there are नाम, रूप, कर्म. ते विजृम्भितम् | हे जन्तव: आत्मज्ञान अभिमुखा भवत | निभोधत = अवगच्छत | वरान् = प्रकृष्तान् आचार्यान् तत्वविद: | अस्मिन् श्लोके शाङ्करभाष्ये “अहमस्मि” इति अद्वैतसिददान्तस्य प्रवेश: भवति | Shankara introduces the concept of Advaita as “Aham asmi” in this shloka. ज्ञेयस्य अति-सूक्ष्मत्वात् तत् विषयस्य ग्नानमार्गस्य दु:संपाद्यत्वं वदन्ति |