Dhvanyaaloka – Dr. Sivakumaraswamy – KSOU 2016

Dhvanyaaloka – Dr. Sivakumaraswamy – The KSOU 2016 contact class sessions conducted for MA Sanskrit students at Bangalore. 

Class #1 – First Udyotta

The intent of this work, Dhvanyaaloka is to assert that Dhvani is the soul of poetry. This Dhvani was a new concept from the perspective of the earlier Alamkaarikas. So it was not readily accepted.

Mangala Shloka

This mangala shloka is an example for all the 3 types of Dhvani namely Vastu Dhvani, Alamkaara Dhvani and Rasa Dhvani. स्वेच्छाकेसरिणः स्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः | त्रायन्तां वो मधुरिपोः प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदो नखाः || (Meaning: Let the claws of that Hari who manifested in the form of man-lion at His own will, which claws have outshone the moon in their crystal white hue, and which quells the afflictions of His devotees, protect you.).

This is the first shloka of Dhvanyaaloka. He is praising Hari. He becomes the Samuchchita-Ishta-Devataa. He took the form of Kesari due to his own will rather than due to any karma. स्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः – Due to his white rays, the nails cause the Chandra to be troubled due to shame. मधुरिपोः नखाः – Vishnu’s nails. प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदः – his, who destroys the sufferings of those who surrender on to him. वः त्रायन्ताम् – Let them protect you all (this includes the author and the readers also).

Rasa Dhvani – There is Veera Rasa with the staayibhaava of utsaaha suggested here. Vishnu and his nails are ever enthusiastic to protect the devotees.

Vastu Dhvani – The nails destroy the sufferings of the devotees. He does not need any other tool. His nails are enough for him. This is the idea being suggested. Also the idea that he is brimming with energy to protect the devotees is also being suggested.

Alamkaara Dhvani – Due to his white rays, the nails cause the Chandra to be troubled due to shame. The chandra’s splendour is inferior to the shine of the nails. The upamaana of Chandra is inferior to the Upameya of Nails and so the alamkara of Vyatirekha is suggested here.

Structure of Dhvanyaaloka

There are kaarikaas and the vrittis. Dr. K. Krishnmoorthi and others in Karnataka are of the opinion that the kaarikaa and the vritti are written by Anandavardhana. There are others in North India and Kerala that opine that the vritti was only written by Anandavardhana. Their opinion is based on the commentator named Maheshwara, who mentioned that Bharata or someone else could have written the Kaarikaa. Moreover, in the Lochana, Abhinava Gupta writes this way “इदम् आह वृत्तिकारः” – “So says the author of the Vritti”. This has added to the controversy that the author of kaarikaa and the vrutti could be different people.

Definition of Dhvani & Dhvani virooda vaada

This is the first Kaarikaa.

काव्यस्यात्मा ध्वनिरिति बुधैर्यः समाम्नातपूर्व-स्तस्याभावं जगदुरपरे भाक्तमाहुस्तमन्ये | केचिद्वाचाम् स्थितमविषये तत्त्वमूचुस्तदीयम्  तेन ब्रूमः सहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् || १ || (Meaning: Dhvani (ध्वनि:) was declared (समाम्नातम्) to be the soul of poetry (काव्यस्यात्मा) by learned persons (बुधै:) of yore  (पूर्वै: ). All the same some would refute its existence (तस्याभावं); some would consider it as something that could be logically implied (अपरे भाक्तम्+आहु:+तम्); some others speak of its presence as being beyond the provision of expression (अन्ये केचित्+वाचाम् स्थितम्+अविषये). Hence, we hereby intend explaining (तेन ब्रूमः ) what its nature (तत्स्वरूपम्) is so as to cause delight to the hearts of sympathetic critics (सहृदय+मनः+प्रीतये)).

काव्यस्यात्मा ध्वनिरिति बुधैर्यः समाम्नातपूर्वः – That the soul of poetry is Dhvani has been recognized and agreed by the generations of earlier experts.

तस्याभावं जगदुरपरे – there are a few people who do not accept the existence of the Dhvani. Their arguments are called as abhaavavaada.

भाक्तमाहुस्तमन्ये – There are others who consider Dhvani to be Vyangyaartha or Bhaaktaartha, that meaning which comes out due to the function of Bhakti or indication.

केचिद्वाचाम् स्थितमविषये तत्त्वमूचुस्तदीयम् – Like how Brahma is Anirvachaneeyam, this Dhvani is also anirvachaneeyam. This vaada is also called anirvachaneeyataa vaada. It cannot be explained.

There are 5 arguments against Dhvani, i.e., Dhvani virooda vaada. The first three arguments are within the Abhaava-vaada. The fourth is Bhaakta vaada and the fifth is the anirvachaneeyataa vaada.

Shabda and Artha together is considered as kaavya. Not just that. There are alamkaaras, Gunas, Vrittis, Reeti or Maarga, etc. The first abhaava-vaada is questioning what is new in Dhvani when there are already other beautifying factors. The second abhaavavaada is vikalpa which rejects the existence of Dhvani. They say outright that there is no Dhvani. नास्त्येव ध्वनिः | प्रसिद्धप्रस्थानव्यतिरेकिणः  काव्यप्रकारस्य काव्यत्वहानेः .. | Prasthaanas are the major concepts that have been put forth by earlier alamkaarikas. There cannot be something new which can beautify the poetry. The third abhaavavaada is that there are different ways of Vaakvikalpa – these are all creativity of the poet. न सम्भवत्येव ध्वनिर्नामापूर्वः कश्चित् | कामनीयकमनतिवर्तमानस्य तस्योक्तेष्वेव चारुत्वहेतुष्वन्तर्भावात् |If this Dhvani add manohara to the poetry, it can be also be considered as a new type of one of the existing concepts like Alamkaara or Guna. They ask the Dhvani supporters to not close their eyes and keep dancing about Dhvani. तस्मात् प्रवादमात्रं ध्वनिः | Dhvani is not truth. It is a Pravaada, that which is simply spreading among a set of people. There was a poet named Manoratha. He wrote a shloka against Anandavardha. There is nothing interesting – no vastu, no alamkaaras, not written by great poets, and no varkrokti. What is the true form of Dhvani? Anandavardha quotes that and says that he is writing this work to explain that only. In the fourth Bhaakta Vaada, the Bhaaktaas say that the vyangyaartha can be included in Bhaaktyaartha itself. When the denoted meaning is not applicable, any way we are taking a different meaning. Let Dhvani also be that Bhaaktyaartha. लक्षणकरणशालीनबुद्धयः – These people become tired in mind if they think a little more while attempting to create a lakshana meaning.

तेनैवंविधासु विमतिषु स्थितासु सहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपं ब्रूमः | (Meaning: Taking into consideration all these conflicting views, we furnish hereunder the nature of suggestion for the satisfaction and appreciation of sympathetic critics i.e., connoisseurs). In such a situation, for bringing happiness to the minds of the sahrudayaas, I  will explain the nature of Dhvani.

Types of meanings

We have come across to types of meanings namely वाच्यार्थः,  लक्ष्यार्थः and प्रतीयमानार्थः | Vaachya is very famous. Every one understand it. In the Alamkaaras like upamaa, these meanings are being used. बहुधा व्याकृतः सोऽन्यैः काव्यलक्ष्मविधायिभिः | – – – ततो नेह प्रतन्यते || 1.३||(meaning: The denotative conventional meaning is generally known and it has already been covered in many ways through figures of speech such as simile by other writers. Therefore that is not to be discussed here in detail). Since it has been elaborately discussed earlier, it is not being described here.

प्रतीयमानं पुनरन्यदेव वस्त्वस्ति वाणीषु महाकवीनाम् | </***> यत्तत्प्रसिद्धावयवातिरिक्तं विभाति लावण्यमिवांगनासु || 1.४||  </*> (meaning: But the suggestive aspect is distinct from this (explicit – denotative – conventional) (प्रतीयमानं पुन: अन्यत् एव). It shows itself brilliantly in the words(वाणीषु) of celebrated poets (महाकवि)and reigns supreme over and above (अतिरिक्तंविभाति) the striking external elementsप्रसिद्ध+ अवयव, even as charm among ladies(लावण्यम् इव अङ्गनासु)).

In the works of the great poets, there is a third type of meaning, which is different from Vaachya and lakshya. The prasiddha avayava of kaavya are shabda and artha. For those, the chaarutva is got by the shabda alamkaaras and sangatana chaaturya is got by the shabda gunas, the swaroopas are got by Arthaalamkaaras, and the sangatana dharmas are got by the arthagunas – these are all the popular organs of the Kaavya. That which is different all these, and which attracts us the very moment we notice it, is found in the prateeyamaanaartha. This is similar to the beauty seen in women that is different all the beauty of the individual organs. (Note: Laavanya is the bhaava of lavana or salt. It is the lakshanaartha that has come in roodi to indicate charmness. Laavanya indicates the charm that overtakes the other features). Only a sahrudaya will be able to appreciate this third type of meaning.

Types of Dhvani

The vyangya vastu will be different from the Vaachya vastu. The vyangyaalamkaara will be different from the Vaachyaalamkaara. The rasavadaadi Dhvani will be different and better than the rasavadaadyalamkaara. The vaachyaartha might be a vidhi or an instruction to do something. But the vyangyaartha might be a nisheda instruction that it should not be done. भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः स शुनकोऽद्य मारितस्तेन | गोदावरीनदीकूललतागहनवासिना दृप्तसिंहेन || (meaning: Freely (विस्रब्धः) roam (भ्रम) about, O Ascetic! That dog (स: शुनक:) which you were afraid of, has been killed (मारित:)recently (अद्य) by (तेन)the ferocious lion (दृप्त+सिंहेन) that dwells (लतागहन+वासिना)on the bank of Godavari river (गोदावरी+नदी+कूल). Suggested meaning: Don’t worry that there is no privacy. The person who used to haunt us has been removed away by a more powerful person. So we can’t meet). Here a woman tells a person who comes to meet her place and disturbs her that he could come freely now as the dog that used to bark at him has now been killed by a lion. Here though she says roam around freely, the hidden meaning is that you cannot walk around freely due to the presence of the lion. The interpretation is based on the context. There are examples of other cases like the case where the denoted meaning is to not do while the suggested meaning is to do. There could also be the cases where the suggested meaning is (अनुभय) neither vidhi nor nisheda.

Need for vaachyaartha

आलोकार्थी यथा दीपशिखायां यत्नवाञ्जनः | तदुपायतया तद्वदर्थे वाच्ये तदादृतः || ९ || </*> (Meaning: In the same manner(यथा – तद्वत्) as a man(जनः) intent upon seeing an object in darkness (आलोक+अर्थी), puts forth his efforts(यत्नवान्) towards fetching a lamp (दीप+शिखायां)owing to its being a means to realise his goal (of seeing the object) (तत्+उपायतया) one who is very much interested (तत्+आदृतः) in the suggested meaning (अर्थे) would at the outset direct his effort towards (understanding) the conventional meaning (वाच्ये)). Like the person who carries a lantern if he needs the light, in the same way, to be able to understand the vyangyaartha, the vaachyaartha is required.

The definition of Dhvani

यत्रार्थः शब्दो वा तमर्थमुपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ | व्यङ्क्तः काव्यविशेषः स ध्वनिरिति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३|| </*> (Meaning: The conventional word शब्द: and the conventional meaning अर्थः   (स्व+अर्थौ =  स्व + शब्द: + अर्थः) are abandoned उपसर्जनी+कृत |  अर्थः शब्द:वाव्यङ्क्तः | They become suggested word or meaning. व्यङ्क्तः = प्रतीयमान: अर्थ: भवति | That is a specialty of the poem called Dhvani. That kind of poetry in which the conventional meaning or the conventional word renders its meaning sub-ordinate and suggests the intended or implied meaning, is termed “Dhvani” or “suggestive poetry” by the learned people).

The वा here does not mean that it is either artha or shabda. The intention here is that when Artha is prominent in conveying the Dhvani, the word will be subordinate to it and similarly when shabda is prominent in conveying the Dhvani, the meaning will be subordinate to it. The other terms उपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ, and  व्यङ्क्तः are in dvivachana indicating both are there. When the suggested meaning is overtaken by the denoted word and meaning, that Kaavya is considered to be a Dhvani by the scholars. Upasarjana means “being subservient” – taking the guneebhaava or secondary position without having praadaanyam. Artha subsides by itself अर्थः उपसर्जनीकृतस्वः, while shabda makes its meaning subside शब्दः तमर्थमुपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थः | In that situation, it is called Dhvani Kaavya.

Many alamkaaras like अप्रस्तुतप्रशंसा, समासोक्तिः, विषेशोक्तिः, आक्षेप, पर्यायोक्तः, etc. have some suggested meaning in them. If the suggestion is not prominent, then it becomes Gunibhoota Vyangya and this gunibhoota vyangya is a type of Alamkaara only.   पर्यायोक्तः is an Alamkaara for which the example of “भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः” can be taken. But that has been given as an example of Dhvani. It is true that it qualifies to be an alamkara and a Dhvani. But due to the prominence of Dhvani and since the Alamkaara is just supplementary पर्यायोक्तस्याङ्गित्वेन , it is taken to be a Dhvani and also, all Dhvani cannot be equated to this Paryaayoktaalamkaara. Anandavardhana refers to this superiority of Dhvani (mahaavishaya) over an Alamkaara (alpavishaya) by the maxim, Paryaayoka-nyaaya, to indicate those cases where the Alamkaara cannot be treated to be Dhvani itself.

Bhaakta Vaada Khandana

Anandavardhana points out that – there is difference in the forms between the Bhaaktyaartha i.e., lakshyaartha, and the Dhvanyaartha. If Vaachyaartha is the stream, the lakshyaartha is the bank. The purpose which is to indicate the qualities of sacredness and chillness is not explicitly indicated in the lakshyaartha. So this is Dhvani. If just to make sense of the sentence, instead of the denoted meaning or mukhyaartha, the indicated meaning or the lakshanaa is taken, then it is not Dhvani. Thus there is Bhakti without Dhvani and they both cannot be the same. भक्त्या बिभर्ति नैकत्वम् रूपभेदादयं ध्वनिः (१३.१) | (Meaning: Suggestion and secondary signification are not one and the same because of the innate difference between the two. Among the three functions of the word, the second function is called Lakshana Vyaapaara or Bhakti. Believers of Bhakti are Bhaktaas. Suggestion and Bhakti are different since their forms are different (roopa bheda)). There will be ativyaapti dosha (where Dhvani is not there, even when Bhakti is present). There will also be Avyaapti dosha (where Dhvani is there without the presence of Bhakti).

Anirvachaneeyataa vaada Khandana

Anirvachaneeyataa vaadins say that Dhvani cannot be explained. Now that it has been properly defined, this argument has been totally refuted.

Class #2

The different types of Dhvani

  1. अविवक्षितवाच्य:
    • अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य:
    • अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य:
  2. विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य:
    • संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः
    • असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः

Here अविवक्षितवाच्य: is लक्षणामूलध्वानि and विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: is अभिधामूलध्वनि | (Refer Kaavya Prakaasha Notes for some more explanation). Along with सर्वथाविवक्षित, even अल्पविवक्षित is treated as अविवक्षित. So, when it is told to a very less extent, it becomes अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य: | When it is not told at all, it becomes अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य: | In the example,  “दण्डाः प्रविशन्ति”, the sticks cannot enter on their own. There is only अल्पविवक्षित. It joins with the पुरुषः and indicates the men holding the sticks. This is अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य: |

In गङ्गायां गोषः, we totally discard the meaning that it is the stream and we take it to be the banks. So this is अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य: | We do so to highlight the qualities like शैत्य and पावनत्वा |

स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतो वेल्लद्बलाका घना … वाताः शीकरिणः पयोदसुहृदामानन्दकेकाः कलाः | कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोरहृदयो रामोऽस्मि सर्वं सहे … वैदेही तु कथम् भविश्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव || (Meaning: स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतः, वेल्लद्बलाकाः, घनाः वाताः शीकरिणः, पयोदसुहृदाम् आनन्दकेकाः कलाः | कामं सन्तु दृढम् | कठोर+हृदय: राम: अस्मि | अहं सर्वं सहे | वैदेही तु कथं भविष्यति ? हहा हा | देवि, त्वं धीरा भव | The quarters are all painted as it was with the glistening dark clouds; the cranes are flying with excitement, forming a circle as it were. The gentle wind is full of moisture; these friends of clouds, i.e., the peacocks are giving out joyous notes in the wind. Let all these confront me (कामं सन्तु). I shall certainly put up with all these (सर्वं सहे), for, I am Rama (राम: अस्मि) whose heart is quite hard as adamantine (made of very hard material) (दृढं कठोर+हृदय:). But how will Sita bear with this (वैदेही तु कथम् भविश्यति)! Alas! Alas!(हहा हा) O my beloved queen!  Bear these with all fortitude or courage (देवि धीरा भव)).  Rama is separated from Sita. He describes the season which causes more pain for the separated lovers. He hopes that Sita is able to bear this pain. He says that he will be able to bear it. Here for the term Rama the meaning to be taken is much more than the son of Dasaratha. He is to be taken as one having the capacity to bear all the pains. It is an example of अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य: | The suggestion here is that he can bear all the pain (सर्वकष्टसहिश्नुत्वशक्तिमान्) |

This is from Anandavardhana’s विशमबाणलीला work. रविसङ्क्रान्तसौभाग्यस्तुषारावृतमण्डलः | निःश्वासान्ध इवादर्शश्चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते || (Meaning: All the charm (brightness) of the moon has gone to the sun. रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्य: It has disappeared now that the orb is enveloped by snowतुषार+आवृत+मण्डलः |  Like a mirror rendered blind by the heavingनिःश्वास+अन्ध: इव+आदर्श:, the moon does not glowचन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते |) The chandra’s shine is blocked as a mirror’s reflection is not clear when someone breathes out air on it. निःश्वासान्ध – The term’s literally meaning is being blinded by the breathed out air. We totally discard that meaning and we take the meaning that the chandra’s shine is not seen when the sun has risen.

We will now see about विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: | असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः is the रसध्वनिः | संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः could be the Alamkaara Dhvani, Vastu Dhvani or even the gunibhoota vyangya Dhvani. From the vibhaava, anubhaava, and Vyabhichaari bhaava, the staayibhaava is created and gets nourished by them and turns out to be the experience of Rasa. There is a karma or sequence there. Even if this sequence is present, it is not seen in असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः | यद्यपि क्रमः विद्यते, अतिसूक्ष्मत्वात् न लक्ष्यते | It is understood by the maxim of सहस्रदलसूचीभेदन्यायः | When the needle is made to go through 1000 petals, we would not notice how it crosses each petal. Here also though विभाव-अनिभाव-व्यभिचारिभावैः रसः, we do not notice them and we seem to directly experience the rasa.

असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः is Rasa Dhvani. It should be taken as Rasaadhi Dhvani as there are actually eight types namely Rasadhvani, Bhaavadhvani, Rasaabhaasa Dhvani, Bhaavaabhaasa Dhvani, Bhaavodaya, Bhaava Sandhi, bhaava shabalataa, and bhaava shaanti. रसभावतदाभासतत्प्रशान्त्यादिरक्रमः | ध्वनेरात्माङ्गिभावेन भासमानो व्यवस्थितः || 2.3 || (Meaning: Sentiment (रस), emotion (भाव), the semblance of sentiment (रस’sतद्+आभास), the semblance of motion (भाव’s तद्+आभास)  or mood and that rise and cessation – all these form un-discerned sequentiality. It is decided that when there is prominent presence (अङ्गि भावेन) of the variety that would be the very soul of suggestion (ध्वने: आत्मा)). In Lochana, the example has been given for each of the variety.

Rasaadi Dhvani vs Rasavadaadi Alamkaara

In Rasaadi Dhvani, there is prominence of one of these – Rasa, Bhaava, Rasaabhaasa, Bhaavaabhaasa, bhaavodaya, bhaava sandhi, bhaava shabalataa or bhaava shaanti. When Rasa, etc. are not prominent, it becomes Rasavadaadyalamkaara Dhvani. प्रधान्येऽन्यत्र वाक्यार्थे यत्राङ्गं तु रसादयः |  काव्ये तस्मिन्नलङ्कारो रसादिरिति मे मतिः || 2.५|| (Meaning: If on the other hand, the chief meaning of the sentence should direct towards something else and if Rasa etc. are to figure in only as subsidiary to it, that would be the case of Rasavadalankaara). Until Anandavardhana’s period, there was no work with this level of details. Dhandi had given example for 8 types of Alamkaara. All of these are to be considered as Rasa Dhvani only. He had considered them as Alamkaara. So Anandavardhana clarifies that where there is prominence of Rasa, it has to be considered as Dhvani and not Alamkaara – इति मे मतिः | This is my opinion. This was accepted by all.

Guna

Right from Bharata’s time, Gunas were recognized. Dhandi related Gunas to the Marga or Reeti and listed the ten Gunas. Vamana also explained in the same way classifying them as Shabda Guna and Artha Guna. While the alamkaarikaas prior to him had considered Guna to be the dharma of Marga or Reeti, Anandavardhana was the first one to say that Gunas are the dharmas of Rasa. He describes the difference between the Guna and Alamkaara. This difference was pointed out for the first time clearly by Vamana but in a different way. तमर्थमवलम्बन्ते येऽङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः | </*> अङ्गाश्रितास्त्वल’ ङ्कारा मन्तव्याः कटकादिवत् || 2.६  7|| (Meaning: Those which depend upon this main element are considered as “qualities”. The figures of speech are those that are connected with its parts in the same way as ornaments like bracelet, etc.) In this he says that the Rasa’s Dharma are the Gunas. The alamkaaras are only supplementary parts to the body made of Shabda-Artha. Kataka is the bangle. Like the ornaments to  the body, the alamkaaras are ornaments to the Kaavya. Dhandi mentions about 10 gunas. Anandavardhana accepts only three as Gunas. The first is maadurya guna which is the Shrungaaraadirasa’s dharma (like the dharmas of Shrungaara, Kaarunya, Hasya, etc.). The next one Ojas is related to Raudraadi Rasa (i.e., Raudra, Veera, Adbuda, Bibatsa). The third one Prasaada is the common dharma for all Rasa. Prasaada means Prasanna. This brings the ananda due to the Rasa. शृङ्गार एव मधुरः परः प्रह्लादनो रसः |  तन्मयं काव्यमाश्रित्य माधुर्यं प्रतितिष्ठति || ७  2.8||  (Meaning: Shringaara – the sentiment of love – is the sweetest and most relishable of all sentiments. The quality of Maadhurya or sweetness is declared to be in the poetic composition beaming with this sentiment). He says that the Shrungaara Rasa is the Rasa that can cause the most happiness. Madurya resides in this type of Kaavya having Rasas like Shrungaara. Madurya is a quality residing in the Shabda and Artha. And still it brings out the ananda of the Rasa. Even within the Shrungaara, the vipralamba shrungaara is much more enjoyable than the Samboga Shrungaara.

Madurya Guna and Karuna Rasa

The most enjoyable Rasa is Karuna. The Harishchandra drama is full of pathos. The audience would cry so much while watching it and yet they will want to watch the drama again. Vishwanath says in Saahitya Dharpana that करुणादावपि रसे जायते यत् परं सुखम् सचेतसामनुभव: प्रमाणं तत्र केवलम् | We experience Ananda even in Rasas like Karuna the proof is the ananda experienced by the sahrudayas. शृङ्गारे विप्रलम्भाख्ये करुणे च प्रकर्षवत् | माधुर्यमार्द्रतां याति यतस्तत्राधिकं मनः || ८  2.9|| (Meaning: In the two kinds of sentiments, namely, love-in-separation and the pathetic sentiment, sweetness should be the foremost because the heart of the recipient is moved very much in those situations). The most touching of all the Rasas, that melt the heart, are vipralambha-shrungaara and Karuna.

Ojas Guna

रौद्रादयो रसा दीप्त्या लक्ष्यन्ते काव्यवर्तिनः | तद्व्यक्तिहेतू  शब्दार्थावाश्रित्यौजो व्यवस्थितम् || ९ 2.10|| (Meaning: Raudrarasa etc. are significant in their having great exciting potency in poetry. The quality of ओजस् or forcefulness is said to be in word and sense which produce the effect). Sentiments like Raudra create a sort of excitement in poetic composition. Hence by lakshana, one might designate that sentiment itself by the term Deepti or excitement. It was said by the earlier alamkaarikas that दीर्घसमासत्वम् ओजत्वम् | Anandavardhana is of the opinion that Ojas may be found even in the simplest expressions. Two examples are given for Ojas from Venisamhaara. The first one has long compounds. चञ्चद्भुजभ्रमितचण्डगदाभिघात-सञ्चूर्णितोरुयुगलस्य सुयोधनस्य | स्त्यानावबद्धघनशोणितशोणपाणि-रुत्तंसयिष्यति कचांस्तव देवि भीमः || Bhima says that he will kill the kauravas and with that blood in his hands, he will tie Draupadi’s hair. Both Shabda and Artha have ojas guna. यो यः शस्त्रं बिभर्ति स्वभुजगुरुमदः पाण्डवीनां चमूनां यो यः पाञ्चालगोत्रे शिशुरधिकवया गर्भशय्यां गतो वा | यो यस्तत्कर्मसाक्षी चरति मयि रणे यश्च यश्च प्रतीपः  क्रोधान्धस्तस्य तस्य स्वयमपि जगतामन्तकस्यान्तकोऽहम् || Ashwattaama says he will kill all the people on the Pandavas side without leaving the fetus in the womb. In this example, the deepti is created by the word and meaning in spite of the absence of long compounds.

Prasaada Guna

समर्पकत्वं काव्यस्य यत्तु सर्वरसान् प्रति | स प्रसादो गुणो ज्ञेयः सर्वसाधारणक्रियः || १०|| (Meaning: That which produces congeniality in a poetic composition towards all sentiments is known as Prasaada which goes well with all sentiments and poetic compositions). प्रसादस्तु स्वच्छता शब्दार्थयोः | The quality of Prasaada or Perspecuity means clarity or lucidity in word and meanings. Samarpakatvam is to have the appropriate shabda and artha that is appropriate for the specific rasa. सर्वसाधारणक्रियः – it is applicable in common to all the rasas. स च सर्वरससाधारणो गुणः सर्वरचनासाधारणश्च व्यङ्ग्यार्थापेक्षयैव मुख्यतया व्यवस्थितो मन्तव्यः | All sentiments could be accommodated in this perspicuity and all poetic compositions could make use of this quality. Hence it is better we understand it as primarily relating to व्यङ्ग्यार्थ only.

Dosha

श्रुतिदुष्टादयो दोषा अनित्या ये च दर्शिताः | ध्वन्यात्मन्येव शृङ्गारे ते हेया इत्युदाहृताः || ११|| (Meaning: Faults like indelicacy which are considered to be non-permanent by the ancient writers have been deemed to be so only with reference to the sentiment of love when it has suggestion). Indelicacy is that which is not pleasant to hear. The faults like this are not considered as permanent faults. It can be ignorable in certain rasas and it can even enhance the raudraadi rasa. But it should be totally avoided in Shrungaara.

अलङ्कारस्य स्थानविवेकः

Anandavardhana clarifies about the usage of Alamkaara within the composition that has Dhvani. If the Alamkaara effortlessly finds a place there, then retain it. But for the sake of including an Alamkaara, do not force it into the composition. Kalidasa uses the Alamkaara judiciously, only those which are appropriate to the rasa in that context.  विवक्षा तत्परत्वेन नाङ्गित्वेन कदाचन | काले च ग्रहणत्यागौ नातिनिर्वहणैषिता || १८|| (Meaning: It must be realized that the figure of speech should serve as a means to the delineation of sentiment and it should not be an end in itself. He should have the right to abandon it when not needed in the same way as he uses them when needed rightfully). Alamkaaras are to be used only when they nourish the Rasa. It should not be forcefully introduced just for the sake of having an Alamkaara there. It should not be the angi i.e., gain prominence over the Rasa. Leave the use of Alamkaara if it is not supporting the rasa. निर्व्यूढावपि चाङ्गत्वे यत्नेन प्रत्यवेक्षणम् | रूपकादिरलङ्कारवर्गस्याङ्गत्वसाधनम् || १९|| (Meaning: He shall not exercise his over-enthusiasm however much he may feel himself an expert. He should be keen in rendering it only secondary or subordinate. It is only thus, the figures like Rupaka become instrument to suggest sentiments). To recap the points (1) विवक्षा तत्परत्वेन – Alamkaara should be to enhance the sentiment (2) न अङ्गित्वेन कदाचन – at any point of time, it should not gain prominence over the rasa (3) काले च ग्रहणत्यागौ – it should be used or given up (4) न अतिनिर्वहणैषिता – One should not over do the Alamkaaras. (5) निर्व्यूढावपि चाङ्गत्वे यत्नेन प्रत्यवेक्षणम् – If it happens to come that way, the poet should put effort to make it only secondary or subordinate.

In abhignaana shaakuntalam, there is a svabhaavokti Alamkaara, which describes the nature of the bee. It has helped in enjoying the rasa even more. It is an example of विवक्षा तत्परत्वम् | चलापाङ्गां दृष्टिं स्पृशसि बहुशो वेपथुमतीं रहस्याख्यायीव स्वनसि मृदु कर्णान्तिकचरः | करौ व्याधुन्वत्याः पिबसि रतिसर्वस्वमधरं वयं तत्त्वान्वेषान्मधुकर हतास्त्वं खलु कृती ||

संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः

There are two types in this – artha-shakti-moola-dhvani and shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani. Note that according to Mammata there are three types considering shabdaartha-ubhaya-shakti-moola-dhvani. शब्दार्थशक्तिमूलत्वात्सोऽपि द्वेधा व्यवस्थितः || २०||(Meaning: The samlakshyakramavyangya or the discernible sequence is also of two kinds having its roots in the potency of the meaning and words).

shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani

आक्षिप्त एवालङ्कारः शब्दशक्त्या प्रकाशते | यस्मिन्ननुक्तः शब्देन शब्दशक्त्युद्भवो हि सः || २१|| (Meaning: That example in which a figure which is not expressed directly by any word is present and conveys solely, by the suggestive potency of the word itself, should be taken as suggestion based on the potency of the word). When an Alamkaara is suggested, it is shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani. According to him, only Alamkaara Dhvani will be shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani and not Vastu Dhvani. The word has the potential to give two meanings. The two meanings can be connected by means of some relationship like that of upamaana and upameya, thus suggesting an Alamkaara. Mammata says that Vastu Dhvani is also possible here.

As in Shlesha, even in shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani, there is scope for two meanings. The difference is explained here. In shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani, we take both the meanings. येन ध्वस्तमनोभवेन बलिजित्कायः पुरास्त्रीकृतो  यश्चोद्वृत्तभुजङ्गहारवलयो गङ्गां च योऽधारयत् | यस्याहुः शशिमच्छिरो हर इति स्तुत्यं च नामामराः पायात्स स्वयमन्धकक्षयकरस्त्वां सर्वदोमाधवः || In this example, the meaning applicable for Hari and the one applicable for the Hara exist.  Here both the ideas are simultaneously present as an outcome of the potency of the word and hence it is shlesha. When one meaning is considered as an upamaa for the other meaning (King and elephant), then it is shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani.

Class #3 – Second Udyotta Conti. + Third Udyotta

Arthashakti Moola Dhvani

This type called Arthashaktimooladhvani is a suggestion that depends on the potency of the meaning. The meaning which suggests another meaning is of three kinds: (a) स्वतस्सम्भवी, (b) कविप्रौढोक्तिसिद्धा, and (c) कविनिबद्धवक्तृप्रौढोक्तिसिद्धा | In Svatassambhavi, the description by the poet matches the real life without any imaginative aspect. In kavipraudoktisiddha, the suggestion is attained by the ability of the poet. In Kavi-nibhaddha-vaktru-praudokti-siddha, the suggestion is attained by the ability of the character created by the poet in the work. Each of these are further divided into 4 types. (1) वस्तुना वस्तुध्वनि – by the meaning indicating some Vastu, another meaning indicating another vastu is suggested. (2) वस्तुना अलंकारध्वनि (३) अलंकारेण अलंकारध्वनि (४) अलंकारेण वस्तुध्वनि | Along with these 12 in arthashakti moola dhvani, including the one for shabdha shakti moola Dhvani, there are 13 types in संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः that is under विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: |  असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः  is Raasaadhidhvani and there are innumerable varieties in it. This is the 14th. Thus there are 16 in all, when the 2 avivakshitavaachyadhvani is included.

सज्जयति सुरभिमासो न तावदर्पयति युवतिजनलक्ष्यमुखान् | अभिनवसहकारमुखान्नवपल्लवपत्रलाननङ्गस्य शरान् || (2. 24 +)  (Meaning: The spring season keeps its ready but not yet releases the shaft of cupid, with sharp heads of just then manifested mango buds and feathers of fresh leaves at young ladies who form its targets). Here though the surabhi maasa does not create the sharp heads for manmata in reality, it is something imagined by the poet. This is an example of kavipraudoktisiddha वस्तुना वस्तुध्वनि.

In another kaarika, Anandavardha says that the poet should be careful to make the suggested meaning be not exposed directly.

Third Udhyotta

In this 3rd udhyotta, the different types are listed from the perspective of the Vyanjaka – word while in the earlier chapter, it was based on the Vyangya – meaning. Due to the presence of a certain word, there could be suggestion. Or due to the entire sentence itself, there could be suggestion. अविवक्षितवाच्यस्य पदवाक्यप्रकाशता | तदन्यस्यानुरणनरूपव्यङ्ग्यस्य च ध्वनेः || १|| (Meaning: Both the varieties of suggestion with unintended literal meaning and resonance-like suggestion are suggested by individual words and also by whole sentences). When the bell is run, the resonance that is heard is called अनुरणन |  In every variety, there are two sub-types for the suggestion by individual words and by whole sentence.

अलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः

Asamlakshyakramadhvani which is rasaadidhvani, is explained next. एवं व्यङ्ग्यमुखेनैव ध्वनेः प्रदर्शिते सप्रभेदे स्वरूपे पुनर्व्यञ्जक- मुखेनैतत्प्रकाश्यते (before 1st karika). (Meaning: Having thus displayed the nature of varieties of suggestion in detail, through the stand point of the suggested material, the same shall be set forth through the suggestive elements). यस्त्वलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यो ध्वनिर्वर्णपदादिषु | वाक्ये सङ्घटनायां च स प्रबन्धेऽपि दीप्यते || २|| (Meaning: Suggestion with undiscerned sequence (asamlakshyakrama vyangya) will glow in letter, word etc., sentence, composition and finally in the composition too). There is varna-vyanjakataa, pada-vyanjakataa, Vaakya-vyanjakataa, Sangatanaa, and Prabhanda.

Influence of Letters

शषौ सरेफसंयोगो ढकारश्चापि भूयसा | विरोधिनः स्युः शृङ्गारे ते न वर्णा रसच्युतः || ३||  (Meaning: The letters “श” and “ष”, letters conjunct with र and ढ – all these are not conducive to evoke rasa in the context of Shrungara.  In Shrungaara, the use of certain specific letters is considered to be inappropriate. त एव तु निवेश्यन्ते बीभत्सादौ रसे यदा | तदा तं दीपयन्त्येव ते न वर्णा रसच्युतः || ४|| (Meaning: When the same letters are used in relation to the sentiment of disgust बीभत्स and others, they will certainly intensify them. Therefore letters also suggest sentiments).

Influence of Pada

Every word comprises of two parts prakruti and pratyaya. Each of these could cause suggestiveness. These possibilities are there in Rasaadhi Dhvani. उत्कम्पिनी भयपरिस्खलितांशुकान्ता  ते लोचने प्रतिदिशं विधुरे क्षिपन्ती |  क्रूरेण दारुणतया सहसैव दग्धा धूमान्धितेन दहनेन न वीक्षितासि (after 3.4) || (Context: Vasavadatta being burnt down and Udayana says this to her. Meaning: You, whose garment was slipping due to being struck with fear and whose helpless eyes were being diverted in different directions, were all on a sudden consumed by the cruel fire due to his hard heartedness. You could not be seen by him since he was surely blinded by his own smoke). Here “those” eyes in the illustration are suggestive of sentiment. Udayana recollects how those eyes of Vasavadatta used to create in him an impression of her anger, desire and helplessness.

Sangathanaa

असमासा समासेन मध्यमेन च भूषिता |  तथा दीर्घसमासेति त्रिधा सङ्घटनोदिता || 3.५|| </***> (meaning: The composition or texture is of three kinds namely (1) without compounds, (2) with medium compounds and (3) with long compounds). There are three styles of writing. First one is असमास sangatana. The other two are अल्पसमास (मध्यम) sangatana and दीर्घसमास sangatana.  गुणानाश्रित्य तिष्ठन्ती माधुर्यादीन्व्यनक्ति सा | रसान् – – – ||3.6|| (Meaning: Composition is based on qualities like sweetness and suggests sentiments). Since the sangathanaa is based on guna, is it same as guna or is it different? If it is different, does guna depend on sangathanaa or the other way? तत्रै-क्यपक्षे सङ्घटनाश्रयगुणपक्षे च गुणानात्मभूतानाधेयभूतान्वाश्रित्य  तिष्ठन्ती सङ्घटना रसादीन् व्यनक्तीत्ययमर्थः | The first option is ऐक्यपक्ष taking both to be the same, गुणान् आत्मभूतान् the gunas is identical with Sangatana itself; and in the second case where both are different, the texture becomes the substratum or foundation for the qualities. सङ्घटनाश्रयगुणपक्षे गुणान् आधेयभूतान् आश्रित्य  तिष्ठन्ती सङ्घटना | Thus in both of these cases, the texture  either being based on itself or being based on the nature of its attributes, suggests rasa. सङ्घटना रसादीन् व्यनक्ति | The other possibility of both being different or the guna being the foundation for sangatana is also discussed and they are refuted.

Guna, Sanghatana and Rasas

There is a general opinion that long compounds are not appropriate for Shrungaara. But there are cases where the long compounds have been used in Shrungaara. There are cases where there is Ojoguna in the absence of samaasa (which contradict the earlier definition of समासभूयत्वम् ओजः | So it has to be understood that irrespective of the sangatana, the rasa is suggested only through the gunas. There is no generalized rule mapping specific Sanghatana to specific rasas. As mentioned earlier (तमर्थमवलम्बन्ते येऽङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः), the Rasa’s dharma are the gunas.  Guna’s relation to Rasa is constant like Maadhurya and Prasaada may be used for suggesting Karuna and Vipralambhasrungaara. Ojas is used to suggest only Raudra, Adbhutaa and not Karuna. There is no principle governing the scope of Sanghatanaa.

Prabhanda Vyanyakatva

There could be suggestiveness at the level of the entire composition itself. विभावभावानुभावसञ्चार्यौचित्यचारुणः | विधिः कथाशरीरस्य वृत्तस्योत्प्रेक्षितस्य वा || ३.१०|| (वृत्तस्य वा  उत्प्रेक्षितस्य वा कथा-शरीरस्य विधिः विभाव-भाव-अनुभाव-सञ्चारि-औचित्य-चारुणः | Meaning: A poet should design only such a theme कथा-शरीरस्य विधिः, based either on traditional accounts वृत्तस्य वा  or an invented one उत्प्रेक्षितस्य वा which could be charming चारुणः with its propriety औचित्य of the accessories of sentiment namely, the settings and its stimuli विभाव, abiding emotion अनुभाव, emotional responses and changing moods सञ्चारिभाव). In the Prabhanda, there should be the usage of Vibhaava, Anubhaava, and Vyabhichaari Bhaava. It should come along with the theme or plot of the story. The plot could be based on the stories from epis and puraanas or based on some imagination. If the vibhaava, anubhaava and vyabhichaari bhaava are used along with the texture of the plot, the entire composition could suggest a rasa.

इतिवृत्तवशायातां त्यक्त्वाऽननुगुणां स्थितिम् | उत्प्रेक्ष्याऽप्यन्तराभीष्टरसोचितकथोन्नयः || 3.११|| (Meaning: If in a theme based on traditional accounts, the poet comes across a situation which is in conflict with the intended sentiment, we must be prepared to abandon such incidents. He may even invent incidents of his own imagination in their place, with an objective of depicting the sentiment that he intends). The situations that could cause hindrance to the main theme of the story should be avoided. The kavi should create new situations that are amicable to the theme. The best example is Abhignaana Shaakuntala of Kaalidaasa. In the original story, Dhushyanta is a cheat who does not want to admit that he had married Shakuntala. Kaalidaasa glorified Dhushyanta’s role by introducing the incident about the curse. In this way, the unnecessary incidents should be dropped and introduce new incidents that support his intention. That they finally meet in the Maareecha ashrama is not in the original story. The main message of the story is this – initially they had only worldly love. In their separation, it became a heavenly love. To indicate this the kavi made them meet in the heavenly abode of Maareecha.

The sandhi and sandhyangaas should come in every kaavya and Naataka. In Ratnaavali, the author has included all the sandhi and sandhyangaas irrespective of whether they are required or not. सन्धिसन्ध्यङ्गघटनं रसाभिव्यक्त्यपेक्षया | न तु केवलया शास्त्रस्थितिसम्पादनेच्छया || 3.१२|| (Meaning: The construction of divisions and sub-sdivisions of the theme must help the depiction of sentiments and not blindly conform to the rules of poetics). Only the required ones need to be taken and others have to be avoided. Sandhyanga is the joining of the portion of the Kathaa vastu and the Avashtaa vishesha. There are 64 of these Sandhyanga.

(Side note: https://archive.org/details/Dasarupaka has English translation of Dhananjaya’s Dasharoopaka which has an elaborate discussion on how stories are structured. It is called Pancha Sandhi structure. Each Sandhi is made up of a combination of an Arthaprakriti and a Kaaryaavastha.
Kaaryaavasthas: aarambha, yatna, praaptyaasha, niyataapti and phalaagama/phalayoga.

Arthaprakritis: beeja, bindu, pataaka, prakaree and kaarya

Sandhis: mukha, pratimukha, garbha, avamarsha and upasamhriti/nirvahaNa)

For example, in the Sandhi called Mukha, there is a Sandhyanga called Upakshepa. The purpose of upakshepa is to sow the seed of the main plot. When the hermits stop Dhushyanta from hunting there, he immediately stops. Pleased with that behavior they bless him to have a son worthy of his clan. Here is where the seed is laid that he will have a son with Shakuntala.

The second Sandhi is Pratimukha sandhi. At this stage, the person has to get into action. In Venisamhaara, when Duryodhana leaves for the battle, he has used a sandhyanga called Vilaasa which indicates sarasa-sallaapa. This is inappropriate. For the entire drama, this brought auchityaa bhanga. यथा वेणीसंहारे विलासाख्यस्य प्रतिमुखसन्ध्यङ्गस्य प्रकृतरसनिबन्धाननुगुणमपि द्वितीयेऽङ्के भरतमतानुसरणमात्रेच्छया घटनम् | This should not have been used here. उद्दीपनप्रशमने यथावसरमन्तरा | रसस्यारब्धविश्रान्तेरनुसन्धानमङ्गिनः || 3.१३|| (meaning: A poet should be in a position to present the sentiments in its high as well as in its low ebb keeping an eye over the appropriateness. He must maintain the unity of the main sentiment from beginning to the end). One has to be careful about where uddeepana and prashamana is placed, considering the entire plot in mind. अलङ्कृतीनां शक्तावप्यानुरूप्येण योजनम् | प्रबन्धस्य रसादीनां व्यञ्जकत्वे निबन्धनम् || 3.१४|| (Meaning:  He must exercise judiciousness in the use of figures of speech though he may be endowed with the ability of using them profusely. These are the stipulations underlying the suggestiveness of a whole composition in respect of sentiments, etc.).  A poet might have the capacity to create different types of Alamkaaras. Even then, he should include only the required ones, keeping in mind the entire story.

Angi Rasa

In every prabhanda, there has to be only one which has to be Angi Rasa and the other rasas have to be anga rasa. Shrungaara, Veera, shanta and karuna can be Angi. Bhaavabhuti said “एको रसः करुण एव” and then Karuna was considered as a Angi Rasa. Prabhoda-chandrodaya was an allegorical drama which had Shanta as its primary rasa. The prateekaas or concepts were the characters. Dhveshaa, Asooya and Adhvaita bhaavana were characters.

(Side note: Initially the definition of the story demanded a single person to be the hero. Only after Raghuvamsa, which had a lineage of kings whose stories were being described, Vishvanaatha included changed the definition that there could be multiple heroes belonging to the same clan in a story).

Anandavardhana says that Shanta is the prominent rasa in the entire Mahabharata. It shows the impermanence of all the worldly possessions, valour, etc. Thrushnaakshaya is the most important aspect there. तृष्णाक्षय, is the cessation of desire and the tranquility of mind. It is the staayeebhava of Shaanta rasa. The entire Mahabharata is based on this Shaanta rasa. The rasa of the entire Ramayana is Karuna rasa though it is not explicitly mentioned anywhere in the epic. रामायणे हि करुणो रसः |

There are some mutually in-compatible rasas. In the same situations, these both cannot come together. Rasa-viroodha-parihaara has to be done. For example, if Shrungaara and Karuna rasa  are there, make one become supplementary to the main rasa. प्रबन्धे मुक्तके वापि रसादीन्बन्द्धुमिच्छता | यत्नः कार्यः सुमतिना परिहारे विरोधिनाम् || १७|| (Meaning: An earnest effort should be directed to remove the opposition by a celebrated poet who is intent upon infusing sentiments etc. whether his composition be a whole work or a single verse).

Class #4 –Third Udyotta Conti. + Fourth Udyotta

प्रकारोऽन्यो गुणीभूतव्यङ्ग्यः काव्यस्य दृश्यते | यत्र व्यङ्ग्यान्वये वाच्यचारुत्वं स्यात्प्रकर्षवत् || ३.३४|| (Meaning: We come across another kind of poetry, having suggestion as subordinate, in which the poetic exuberance of the expressed is much more intense than in the suggested, though both the expressed and the suggested are together found). Here he defines Guneebhootavyangya. It is a kind of poetry other than Dhvani. In this, more than the suggested meaning – vyangyaartha, there is prominence of the vaachyaartha itself. The maaduryam is due to vaachyaartha and vyangyaartha just supports it. Here the Vyangyaa has गुणीभाव i.e., it has become secondary to something else.

अनुरागवती सन्ध्या दिवसस्तत्पुरस्सरः | अहो दैवगतिः कीदृक्तथापि न समागमः || (after 1.12) (Meaning: Twilight is full of love and the day follows her face to face. Alas! What is ordained by decree of fate is that thye never meet!) The day goes in the front. The vadu – Sandhya follows himself from behind. But the destiny is such that they could never meet. Here the vaachyaartha itself is much attractive than the vengyaartha which suggests the pain of the couple who could not unite. Eg. ग्रामतरुणं तरुण्या नववञ्जुलमञ्जरीसनाथकरम् । पश्यन्त्या भवति मुहुर्नितरां मलिना मुखच्छाया ॥ kaavya prakaasha ३॥ (Meaning: In this, the literal meaning is that the brightness of the young woman’s face becomes acutely faded when she sees the youthful villager who carries in his hand a bunch of fresh Vanjula flowers. Here the suggested meaning is that she did not go to the meeting point even though she had promised to meet her lover there. Since the denoted meaning is more charming, in this example, the suggested meaning is subordinated to the denoted meaning). The person brings the creeper from the meeting place and shows it to his lover to convey that she did not come to meet him there at the appointed time. This is also an example of Guneebhoothavyangya.

प्रसन्नगम्भीरपदाः काव्यबन्धाः सुखावहाः | ये च तेषु प्रकारोऽयमेव योज्याः सुमेधसा || ३.३५|| (Meaning: All literary compositions, which attract the readers, with their lucid elegant words, are to be rekoned as Guneebhuta by the sensitive critic).The Prasanna padas are the pleasing words which pleasing when we read it. Gambheera padas are the words that are impregnated with deep meaning.  The Kaavya that comprises of Prasanna and Gambheera padas bring happiness. In case of Vastu Dhvani and Alamkaara dhvani, there is some chamatkaara – some surprise – some enjoyable factor. In Rasa Dhvani also, the viewer or reader experiences Ananda. Similarly, in the guneebhoothavyangya also, ananda will be experienced. Thus, even if it is guneebhoothavyangya kaavya, if it has prasanna and gambheera padas, it can be considered almost equal to Dhvani Kaavya.

वाच्यालङ्कारवर्गोऽयं व्यङ्ग्यांशानुगमे सति | प्रायेणैव परां छायां बिभ्रल्लक्ष्ये निरीक्ष्यते || 3.३६|| (Meaning: The entire roup of Alankaaras obtain special charm when it is brought in association with suggested element). Even the Vaachyaalamkaaras which are supported by vyangyaarthas, gain supreme splendor. There is an Alamkaara called samaasokti. It is nurtured by vyangya and thus enhances its splendor. In such cases, the guneebhoothavyangya kaavya is almost equal to Dhvani Kaavya.  These verses show the abhimaana that Anandavardhana had for Guneebhootavyangya Kaavyas.

There is some common aspect within all the alamkaaras which causes them to be attractive. That aspect is called Athishayaa. Athishayokti is a specific Alamkaara. Athishayaa is the basis for the extra-ordinary-ness in the alamkaaras. It is lokottara vaak – the speech that is beyond the normal speeches. Bhaama and others call it as Vakrokti. सैषा सर्वैव वक्रोक्तिरनयार्थो विभाव्यते | यत्नोऽस्यां कविना कार्यः कोऽलङ्कारोऽनया विना || इति | (after 3.36)| (Context: Bhaamaha has defined exaggeration as follows. Meaning: This exaggeration is nothing but the artistic turn of expression and it is by this poetic idea is conveyed. A poet should work hard on it in particular and there cannot be any girue without it). The essence of that which is called Athisayoktih is completely Vakrokti only. Such vakrokti is the basis for all alamkaaras. So the Kavi should make special effort to introduce this vakrokti in his works. विभाव्यते – Visheshana bhaavyate – i.e., it gets a specialty due to vakrokti. The reason for the attractiveness of all the alamkaaras is the athishaya amsha – the vakrokti.

Chitra Kaavya

 प्रधानगुणभावाभ्यां व्यङ्ग्यस्यैवं व्यवस्थिते | काव्ये उभे ततोऽन्यद्यत्तच्चित्रमभिधीयते || 3.४१ || (Meaning:  The two divisions of poetry have been thus recognized mainly on the standard of primary importance and secondary importance attached to the suggested idea. That class of poetry which is different from both these is called Citrakaavya). When Vyangya is prominent it is Dhvani. When it is equal to or subservient to Vaachyaartha, it is called Guneebhoota Vyangya Kaavya. When vyangya is barely noticeable it is called Chitra Kaavya. Note that Vyangya is the soul of poetry and there cannot be poetry without Dhvani. चित्रं शब्दार्थभेदेन द्विविधं च व्यवस्थितम् | तत्र किञ्चिच्छब्दचित्रं वाच्यचित्रमतः परम् || ४२ || (Meaning: This Chitrakaavya is further divided into two depending on its grounding on word and meaning. They are Shabdachitram and arthachitram). By differentiating between the shabda and artha, there are two types of chitra – namely shabda chitra which gains attractiveness due to shabdaalamkaara and the other artha chitra which gains attractiveness due to the arthaalamkaara. Example of shabda chitra given in Kaavya prakaasha is स्वच्छन्दोच्छलदच्छकच्छकुहरच्छातेतराम्बुच्छटा मूर्छन्मोहमहर्षिहर्षविहितस्नानाह्निकाह्नाय वः । भिद्यादुद्यदुदारदर्दुरदरीदीर्घादरिद्रद्रुम द्रोहोद्रेकमहोर्मिमेदुरमदा मन्दाकिनी मन्दताम् ॥४॥} <(गोविन्दठक्कुरऽस्काव्यप्रदीप)>. Example of Artha chitra is the verse given in Kaavya prakaasha where Amaraavati closes her eyes due to fear. विनिर्गतं मानदमात्ममन्दिराद्भवत्युपश्रुत्य यदृच्छयापि यम् । ससंभ्रमेन्द्र्रद्रुतपातितार्गला निमीलिताक्षीव भियामरावती ॥५॥ (मेण्ठकृतं हयग्रीववधम्). When Indra hears that Hayagriva has exited from his residence, the gates of Amaraavati are instantly closed and that city appears to be closing her eyes out of dread. There is utprekshaalamkaara in the words निमीलिताक्षीव.  The upamaa’s feature of eyes is superimposed on the city, though city does not have eyes. This is utprekshaalamkaara.

Fourth Udyotta

ध्वनेर्यः सगुणीभूतव्यङ्ग्यस्याध्वा प्रदर्शितः | अनेनानन्त्यमायाति कवीनां प्रतिभागुणः || 4.१||  (Meaning: The way in which principal suggestion and subordinated suggestion have been expounded hitherto, will enhance the richness of creative imagination in poets and there will be no end at all to that). We have described the Dhvani’s marga and the Guneebhootavyangya’s marga. Having learnt all these, the Kavi’s imagination knows no bounds. He brings Ananda.

अतो ह्यन्यतमेनापि प्रकारेण विभूषिता | वाणी नवत्वमायाति पूर्वार्थान्वयवत्यपि || 4.२|| (Meaning:  By a mere contact of even a single variety of suggestion out of the many that have been enlisted earlier, the poets’ expression will gain novelty though it might present a stale idea). By these numerous types, if Saraswati is pleased even by any one of these, she would gain novelty. नवनवोन्मेषशालिनी प्रतिभा – That which produces newer and newer meaning is Prathibha. In whichever type, it is included, it bring a novelty to the work.

Samvaada

Samvaada is similarity. Here he clarifies when it becomes Plagiarism.  संवादास्तु भवन्त्येव बाहुल्येन सुमेधसाम् | </*> स्थितं ह्येतत् संवादिन्य एव मेधाविनां बुद्धयः | किन्तु – – – नैकरूपतया सर्वे ते मन्तव्या विपश्चिता || ११|| (Meaning: There would certainly be plentiful conincidences of ideas present by the minds).  It is quite possible that another poet shares the same opinion or idea of a poet. Within the works of great poets, there will be similarity. There is similarity between Ashvaagosha and Kaalidasa. Great minds could think alike. It is not a fault. The idea could be the same. The presentation and approach would change between the poets.

Types of Samvaada

तत्पुनः शरीरिणां प्रतिबिम्बवदालेख्याकारवत्तुल्यदेहिवच्च त्रिधा व्यवस्थितम् | (after 4.11) | (Meaning: Coincidence in poetic themes is recognized as of three types – (1) like that of reflected image of persons in a mirror (2) like that of a picture of a boy, drawn in painting, (3) like that of two individuals resembling one another). It can be like the reflection of a person शरीरिणां प्रतिबिम्बवत्, it can be like the painting आलेख्याकारवत्, or it can be like another person who has the resemblance – तुल्यदेहिवत् | Here further says about these three. तत्र पूर्वमनन्यात्म तुच्छात्म तदनन्तरम् | तृतीयं तु प्रसिद्धात्म नान्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः || 4.१३||  (Meaning: Of these, the first one has no individual existence of its own, the possibility of the second is not better than a non-entity. The third one of course has a concrete existence. A poet need not have to bypass similarity in themes).  In resemblance, it is अनन्यात्मा – it is not a different person. The painting one is inferior. The resemblance between two people like twins is acceptable since they have their own existence and specialty though they have some similar features. न अन्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः – This should not be given up by the poet. Though it is not a fault to have some idea that resembles the work of an earlier poet, it is better to avoid building on another person’s idea. There are numerous options available and the poet should try to find something new than choosing something that has already been done. परस्वादानेच्छाविरतमनसो वस्तु सुकवेः सरस्वत्येवैषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती || 4.१७||  (Meaning: The goddess of speech i.e., Sarasvati herself will help the deserving and talented poets in procuring the ideas provided they shun plagiarism). For a person who is not interested in copying another person’s idea, Goddess Saraswati herself will provide with new ideas as much as needed.

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Alamkaara General – Answers for some Important Questions

Answers for some Important Questions on General Alamkaara (Paper 9 / 10) by Smt. Harini

(more short notes to be included in this post).

Vamana and his Riti Siddhanta

Vamana who lived during the 8thcentury AD, in Kashmir was a contemporary of Udbhata. Vamana was the pioneer of Riti Siddhanta. He accorded the highest place for Riti or the style of composition as the soul of poetry.

The term used to denote that core or fundamental element or the principle which defines the very essence of Kavya is the Atma or the soul. The soul of the kavya is truly the poet’s vision without which its other constituents cannot come together.

Bhamaha defined kavya as shabdaarthasahitaukavyam. Kavya is the combination or the complex of words and their meanings. It also implies blemish-free or nirdosha. He later extended it to include the element of alamkara in the definition. Dandin also went with this view. But the later schools felt that this definition of kavya was centred on the external element or the body of the kavya and not the spirit or the soul of kavya. Thus began the quest for the soul of kavya.

Vamana the author of Kavyalankara sutra vritti declared Ritihaatmakavyasya. Though Vamana advocates Riti, he also states that Alamkara enhances the beauty of kavya. Vamana says Kavya is the union of sound and sense which is free from poetic flaws [nirdosha] and is adorned with excellences [gunas] and alamkaras [ornamentation or figures of speech].  To him Riti is a beautiful collocation endowed with excellences – vishishtaapadarachanaareetihvisheshogunaatmaa.

According to Vamana, Riti represents the particular structure of sounds combined with poetic excellence. Riti is the going or the flowing together of the elements of a poem.

Vamana expanded on the concept of Gunas dealt by Dandin. Kavyalamkarasutravritti is divided into 5 adhikaranas each consisting of 2 or 3 adhyayas.

Though Vamana retained the 10 gunas enumerated by Dandin [Ojas, Prasada, Shlesha, Samata, Samadhi, Madhurya, Sukumarata, Udavarta, Arthavyakti and Kanti], he modified their names and increased the number of gunas to 20. He created 2 sets of the same 10 Gunas under 2 headings namely Shabdaguna and Arthaguna.

He attempts to explain each guna in terms of both Shabda and Artha. For eg, Prasada [clarity] means shaithilya [readability] under shabdaguna while it means Auchitya [propriety] under arthaguna.

He abandoned the approach of Bhamaha and Dandin who treated Rasa as a subsidiary element of the verse.

Although he did not accord rasa an independent status, he treated rasa as an aspect of arthaguna.

Riti, according to Vamana, is a particular mode or organisation of verbal structure that is different from common usage and also has excellence of gunas.

Dandin had named literary styles as Marga and mentioned Vaidarbhi and Gaudiya margas. Vamana not only modified this concept of style, he also renamed Marga as Riti and included Panchali to the above list.

Panchali has Madhurya and Saukumaryagunas while Gaudiya has Ojas and Kanti. It is however Vaidarbhi that has all 10 gunas and is the most preferred style. He terminates the view that the practice of Gaudi and Panchali would help a poet gain experience to adopt Vaidarbhi. The interesting example given by him is:

nashanasutravaanabhyaasetrasarasutravaanvaichitryalaabhah.

How can anyone trained in weaving jute cloth ever hope to weave silk cloth?

Vamana treats alamkaras as a subsidiary significance. Guna and kavya have a samavayasambandha while Alamkara and kavya are said to be in samyogasambandha. Guna is related to the soul of the poetry while Alamkara is related to the body of the poetry. He has considered only 2 shabdalankaras namely, Yamaka and Anuprasa. With regard to Arthalankaras, he opines that most of all Alamkaras lies only in comparison. His collective name for all figures is Upamaaprapancha.

Vamana’s conception of rasa corresponds to that of Dandin as far as status allotted to it is concerned. But while Dandin brings Rasa under Alamkaras, Vamana treats it as belonging to Gunas.

Vamana laid the foundation to the theory of Vichchithi which was later developed by Kuntaka. However the Riti school of Vamana did not have followers in the same way as Rasa, Alamkara and Dhvani schools had. The general conception of Riti was severely criticised by Mammata. In spite of all this, Vamana was the ablest writer to formulate a definite theory so as to determine the soul of poetry.


 

Function of Vyanjana

ShabdaVyapara or functions of a word are of 3 kinds namely, Abhidaana – denotation,  Lakshana – indication  and Vyanjana – suggestion.

Vyanjana is that function of the word which unfolds the vyangya or the suggested meaning. The importance of vyanjana in poetry cannot be overstated. Rasa which is the quintessence of poetry can manifest only through vyanjana and it is the suggested sense which makes kavya beautiful and charming.

Vyanjana is understood as 1.based on lakshana and 2.based on abhidaa.

When we say gangayam goshah, the word ganga denotes the stream. This is the abhidaa or denoted meaning. Further since there is an incompatibility between ganga and gosha (hamlet), we adopt the indicated meaning [lakshana] which helps us understand ganga as ganga tata – the bank.  The prayojana or purpose for resorting to the indicated meaning is to highlight that the qualities of ganga [sacredness, coolness, etc.] are present in the hamlet also due to its closeness. Thus Vyanjana is required to realize the prayojana or phala or the intended purpose.

For example in gangayamgoshah, the special qualities which are cognised in the bank ie.,sacredness and so on are grasped through a function which is different from abhidhaa, lakshanaa and tatparyaa. That function is called vyanjanaa, dhvananaa, dyotanaa etc. This is an example of vyanjana based on lakshana.

The next category is Vyanjanaa based on Abhidaa. There are 14 conditions in this category.

  1. Samyoga: Contact.

Eg.Hari carrying shankha and chakra . The meaning is restricted to Vishnu because he is known to have a contact with shankha and chakra.

  1. Viprayoga: Separation.

Eg.Hari without shankha and chakra. Again we understand Hari as Vishnu because he is the only one capable of being separated from them.

  1. Saahacharya: Association.

Eg.Ramalakshmanau. Here meaning of the word Rama is restricted to son of Dasharatha due to his association with Lakshmana.

  1. Virodhita: Enmity.

Eg.Ramarjunagatistayoh. Here Rama is Parashurama and Arjuna is Kartaveeryarjuna. Their known enmity is referred here.

  1. Artha: Purpose.

Eg.Sthanumbhajabhavachchide. Here Sthanu can mean pole or Shiva. Here it refers to Lord Shiva due to the purpose of bhavachedana that can be attributed to him.

  1. Prakarana: Context.

Eg.Sarvamjanatidevah. Here the meaning is based on the context. Devah can mean God or a king. Here it refers to the person addressed to in that context.

  1. Linga: Peculiar feature.

Eg.Kupitahmakaradhwajah. Here makaradhwajah can mean Manmatha or the ocean. Here kopa or anger can be linked to Manmatha only.

  1. Shabdantarasannidhi: Proximity of another word.

Eg.Devasyapuraratheh. Here again deva can have different meanings. But due to the proximity with the word purarathe, we understand Deva as Lord Shiva.

  1. Saamarthyam: Ability.

Eg.Madhunamathahkokilah. The word madhu has various meanings liquor, nectar, honey etc. but the ability to produce intoxication in kokila exists only in vasantaritu. So madhu here refers to the season vasanta.

  1. Auchiti: Propriety.

Eg.Patuvodayitaamukham. Here mukham can mean face, presence, beginning etc. based on propriety here it means presence.

  1. Deshah: Place.

Eg.Bhatyatraparameshwarah.Parameshwara can refer to God and king. The meaning here is king as the sentence is spoken in the capital city of a kingdom.

  1. Kalah: Time.

Eg.Chitrabhanurvibhati.Chitrabhanu means sun and fire. If the sentence is spoken during day, it refers to sun and at night it refers to fire.

  1. Vyaktih: Gender.

Eg.Mitrambhati or mitrahbhati.Mitram neuter gender means friend while mitrah masculine gender means sun.

  1. Svara: Accents used in Vedas, namely Udaatta,Anudaatta and Svarita.

Eg.Based on the accents, Indrashatru can mean 1. One for whom Indra will be the killer and 2. Indra’s killer. The first one is a Bahuvrihi compound and will have Purvapadaprakritiswara or Adyodaatta. While the second is Tatpurusha compound and is Antodaatta.


Videos – Important quotations from Dhvanyaaloka

 

This post and the video covers the important quotations that have been asked in the KSOU MA exam. (Also refer to the other posts on Dhvanyaaloka containing the notes from the sessions by professors – Dr. H.V.Nagaraja Rao, Smt. Vanitha Ramaswamy, and Sri Sivakumaraswamy).

||ध्वन्यालोकः ||

||प्रथम उद्योतः ||

Mangala shloka

स्वेच्छाकेसरिणःस्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः |

त्रायन्तां वो मधुरिपोः प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदो नखाः ||

Let the claws of that Hari who manifested in the form of man-lion at His own will, which claws have outshone the moon in their crystal white hue, and which quells the afflictions of His devotees, protect you.

 

Anubhanda Chatrustayam

काव्यस्यात्मा ध्वनिरिति बुधैर्यः समाम्नातपूर्व-</*>

स्तस्याभावं जगदुरपरे भाक्तमाहुस्तमन्ये |

केचिद्वाचाम् स्थितमविषये तत्त्वमूचुस्तदीयम्

तेन ब्रूमःसहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् || 1.१ ||</*>

काव्यस्य+आत्मा ध्वनिः इति बुधैः यः समाम्नातपूर्वः

तस्य अभावं जगदुः अपरे भाक्तम् आहुः तम् अन्ये |

केचित् वाचाम् स्थितम् अविषये तत्त्वम् ऊचुः तदीयम्

तेन ब्रूमःसहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् ||

Dhvani (ध्वनि:) was declared (समाम्नातम्) to be the soul of poetry (काव्यस्यात्मा) by learned persons (बुधै:) of yore  (पूर्वै: ). All the same some would refute its existence (तस्याभावं); some would consider it as something that could be logically implied (अपरे भाक्तम्+आहु:+तम्); some others speak of its presence as being beyond the provision of expression (अन्ये केचित्+वाचाम् स्थितम्+अविषये). Hence, we hereby intend explaining (तेन ब्रूमः ) what its nature (तत्स्वरूपम्) is so as to cause delight to the hearts of sympathetic critics (सहृदय+मनः+प्रीतये).

 

Intro to Dhvani

योऽर्थः सहृदयश्लाघ्यः काव्यात्मेति व्यवस्थितः |

वाच्यप्रतीयमानाख्यौ तस्य भेदावुभौ स्मृतौ || 1.२ ||</*>

यः अर्थः सहृदय-श्लाघ्यः काव्य+आत्मा+इति व्यवस्थितः |

वाच्य+प्रतीयमान+आख्यौ तस्य भेदौ उभौ स्मृतौ ||

That sense (य:+अर्थः) which wins the approbation (admiration) of sensitive critics (सहृदय+श्लाघ्यः) is declared to be the soul of poetry (काव्य+आत्मा+इति व्यवस्थितः). The “denotative” and the “suggestive” (वाच्य+प्रतीयमाना+आख्यौ) are considered to be its two aspects (तस्य भेदौ उभौ स्मृतौ).

 

Existence of another meaning – Dhvani

 

प्रतीयमानं पुनरन्यदेव वस्त्वस्ति वाणीषु महाकवीनाम्|</***>

यत्तत्प्रसिद्धावयवातिरिक्तं विभाति लावण्यमिवाङ्गनासु || 1.४ ||</*>

प्रतीयमानं पुनः अन्यत् एव वस्तु अस्ति वाणीषु महाकवीनाम् |

यत् तत् प्रसिद्ध+अवयव+अतिरिक्तं विभाति लावण्यम् इव अङ्गनासु || 1.४ ||</*>

But the suggestive aspect is distinct from this (explicit – denotative – conventional) (प्रतीयमानं पुन: अन्यत् एव). It shows itself brilliantly in the words(वाणीषु) of celebrated poets (महाकवि) and reigns supreme over and above (अतिरिक्तंविभाति) the striking external elements प्रसिद्ध+ अवयव, even as charm among ladies(लावण्यम् इव अङ्गनासु). (4)

In the words of the mahakavis, there will be a meaning which is referred to as the Prateeyamaana – that which flashes. That is called Dhvani. When the overall beauty or laavanya of a woman is noticed, it is not pin-pointable to any specific feature.

 

Examples of Dhvani – vidhi vs nisheda

स हि कदाचिद्वाच्ये विधिरूपे प्रतिषेधरूपः |</**>| 1.4 ++ |

स: हि कदाचित् वाच्ये विधिरूपे प्रतिषेधरूपः |

 

Sometimes the suggestive idea will be prohibitive, where as the denotative (conventional) meaning is positive in nature.
भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः स शुनकोऽद्य मारितस्तेन |
गोदावरी-नदी-कूल-लता-गहन-वासिना दृप्त-सिंहेन ||
Freely (विस्रब्धः) roam (भ्रम) about, O Ascetic! That dog (स: शुनक:) which you were afraid of, has been killed (मारित:) recently (अद्य) by (तेन) the ferocious lion (दृप्त+सिंहेन) that dwells (लतागहन+वासिना) on the bank of Godavari river(गोदावरी+नदी+कूल).
Suggested meaning: Don’t worry that there is no privacy. The person who used to haunt us has been removed away by a more powerful person. So we can’t meet.

 

श्वश्रूरत्र शेते (अथवा निमज्जति) अत्राहं दिवसकं प्रलोकय |</****>

मा पथिक रात्र्यन्धः शय्यायामावयोः शयिष्ठाः ||<//****>| 1.4 ++ |

श्वश्रूः अत्र शेते (अथवा निमज्जति) अत्र अहं दिवसकं प्रलोकय |

मा पथिक रात्र्यन्धः शय्यायाम् आवयोः शयिष्ठाः ||

Mother-in-law lies here, fast asleep. I will be here. You shall know these before it gets dark. O traveller, don’t you tumble into our beds blinded by night.

 

In this example, the conventional (explicit) meaning prohibits the action whereas the suggestive (implicit) meaning approves of the proposal.

कस्य वा न भवति रोषो दृष्ट्वा प्रियायाः सव्रणमधरम् |</*>

सभ्रमरपद्माघ्राणशीले वारितवामे सहस्वेदानीम् ||<//*>| 1.4 ++ |

कस्य वा न भवति रोषः दृष्ट्वा प्रियायाः सव्रणम् अधरम् |

सभ्रमर+पद्म+आघ्राण+शीले वारित+वामे सहस्व इदानीम् ||

Whose rage is not aroused when one sees the lower lip of his beloved being hurt? You who are habituated to smell the lotus flower with the bee inside, being indifferent to my caution, face the situation (now).

 

Sometimes, the suggested meaning relates to something which is absolutely different from that with which the conventional meaning is associated. Here the lady’s friend is cautioning her about the consequences that she has to face from her husband if she continues to visit her lover.

 

Rasa is suggested

स्वशब्देन सा केवलमनूद्यते, न तु तत्कृता | </*> 1.4 ++ |

स्वशब्देन सा केवलम् अनूद्यते, न तु तत्कृता |

The experience of sentiments, etc., can never be restricted by the proper name though it gets its name. In reality, we do not experience sentiments, etc., in all instances where proper names are employed.

 

i.e., The rasa is not experienced by the mere mention of the name of the rasa. The rasa is suggested by the description of the characters. We clearly experience the rasa in cases where the name is not explicitly stated. Therefore, stating of name of the rasa merely reinstates the rasa and it does not cause the readers to experience the rasa.

 

Rasadhvani is the soul of poetry

काव्यस्यात्मा स एवार्थस्तथा चादिकवेः पुरा | </*>
क्रौञ्चद्वन्द्ववियोगोत्थः शोकः श्लोकत्वमागतः || ५ ||</**>  | 1.5 |

 

काव्यस्यात्मा स: एव+अर्थ:+तथा च+आदिकवेः पुरा |
क्रौञ्च-द्वन्द्व-वियोग+उत्थः शोकः श्लोकत्वम्+आगतः ||

 

That meaning (Rasadhvani) alone is the soul of poetry. This is quite evident from the very incident of the first poet’s Valmiki’s grief which become evoked (in him) due to the wailing of the separate Kraunca bird (from its male mate drenched in pool of blood), which struck the inner core of the sage so as to present the flow of poetry.स: एव+अर्थ: = प्रतीयमान अर्थ: ;

 

शोको हि करुणस्थायिभावः |</*>  | 1.5 ++ |

शोक: हि करुण+स्थायिभावः |

Sorrow (shoka) is the abiding emotion (sthaayibhaava) which stands as the sentiment of pathos (karuna). It will be of the nature of suggestion. Example – The grief of the first poet Valmiki became transformed into a Shloka.

Only like-minded people can appreciate

शब्दार्थशासनज्ञानमात्रेणैव न वेद्यते|

वेद्यते स तु काव्यार्थतत्त्वज्ञैरेव केवलम् || ७ ||</***>

 

शब्दार्थ+शासन+ज्ञान+मात्रेण एव न वेद्यते |

वेद्यते स: तु काव्यार्थ+तत्त्वज्ञै: एव केवलम् || ७ ||
That meaning cannot be comprehended by the mere knowledge of the rules of grammar (word and sense) but can be realised only by those who have understood the real significance of poetry. (7)

This Dhvani or vyangyaarthaa will not be understandable by everyone. Only काव्यार्थतत्त्वज्ञः or the connoisseurs or experts in poetry can understand the suggested meaning. Ordinary people cannot understand.

Eg. In Kumaarasambhava, when Parvathi’s tapas is described. That it is as per Yoga shastra can be understood only by those who are aware of it.

 

Importance of vaakyaartha

आलोकार्थी यथा दीपशिखायां यत्नवाञ्जनः |

तदुपायतया तद्वदर्थे वाच्ये तदादृतः || ९||</*>
आलोक+अर्थी यथा दीप+शिखायां यत्नवान्+जनः |

तत्+उपायतया तद्वत्+अर्थे वाच्ये तत्+आदृतः || ९ ||

In the same manner(यथा – तद्वत्) as a man(जनः) intent upon seeing an object in darkness (आलोक+अर्थी), puts forth his efforts(यत्नवान्) towards fetching a lamp (दीप+शिखायां) owing to its being a means to realise his goal (of seeing the object) (तत्+उपायतया) one who is very much interested (तत्+आदृतः) in the suggested meaning (अर्थे) would at the outset direct his effort towards (understanding) the conventional meaning (वाच्ये). (9)
Though he does not want the flame of the lamp, and he wants the light only, he still brings the deepa shikaa because without the flame, there is not going to be any light. The flame of lamp is just an upaayaa – a means to the required end. Vachyaartha is the upaaya or the means. Vengyaartha is the upeya or desired goal. Vengyaartha could come for Vaachyaartha or Lakshyaartha. Lakshanaa is a vyaapaara or function where a meaning is indicated. There can be only one Vaachyaartha. There could be many intended or suggested meanings. In Mammata’s kavya prakaasha,

गतोस्तमर्क: |  गत:+अस्तम्+अर्क:  = अर्क: अस्तम् गत:  |

The vaachyaartha is that the sun has set. The Vaidhika Brahmana understands that it is time for Sandhya vandana. The thief thinks that he should start his work. The students want to start studying. Based on the nature of the listener, the message conveyed differs.

 

Definition of Dhvani

13th Kaarikaa (Important to be memorised)

 

यत्रार्थः शब्दो वा तमर्थमुपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ |

व्यङ्क्तः काव्यविशेषः स ध्वनिरिति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३ ||</*>

 

यत्र+अर्थः शब्द:+वा तम्+अर्थम्+उपसर्जनी+कृतस्वार्थौ |

व्यङ्क्तः काव्य+विशेषः स: ध्वनि:+इति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३ ||

 

The conventional word शब्द: and the conventional meaning अर्थः   (स्व+अर्थौ =  स्व + शब्द: + अर्थः) are abandoned उपसर्जनी+कृत |  अर्थः शब्द:वाव्यङ्क्तः | They become suggested word or meaning. व्यङ्क्तः = प्रतीयमान: अर्थ: भवति | That is a specialty of the poem called Dhvani.

 

That kind of poetry in which the conventional meaning or the conventional word renders its meaning sub-ordinate and suggests the intended or implied meaning, is termed “Dhvani” or “suggestive poetry” by the learned people.

Some time the meaning subdues itself and gives a more beautiful meaning. In other cases, the word does this. It can be shabda shakti mula dhvani or artha shakti mula dhvani.

 

व्यङ्ग्यप्राधान्येहि ध्वनिः |</*>  | 1.13+|

Aanandavardhana authoritatively declares that suggestion becomes possible only when the suggested element is absolutely prominent. This is not so in समासोक्ति (concise speech or condensed metaphor) and the like.

 

Dhvani Defn –Example of non-prominent suggestion

उपोढरागेण विलोलतारकं तथा गृहीतं शशिना निशामुखम् |</****>

यथा समस्तं तिमिरांशुकं तया पुरोऽपि रागाद्गलितं न लक्षितम् ||<//****>| 1.13+|

उपोढ-रागेण विलोल-तारकं तथा गृहीतं शशिना निशा-मुखम् |

यथा समस्तं तिमिर+अंशुकं तया पुरः अपि रागात् गलितं न लक्षितम् ||

The twilight with twinkling stars became brightened by the moon glowing red suddenly so that the whole mass of darkness vanishing in the east due to brightness was not noticed at all.

 

With reference to the lady, “The heroine’s face with its bright pupils was kissed by the hero overcome by passion with such intense love that the black garment which she had put on slipped away even in the very front was not at all noticed due to intense love.”

 

It is the explicit meaning which alone remains prominent and the suggested meaning serves only as subservient to it. In this stanza, the main purport is the description of the night and the moon over which the disposition of a heroine and of a hero are ascribed to them. That is secondary only.

 

In this illustration, the words though are primarily addressed to the moon and the night, also refer to in an implicit way to the disposition of a lover and the beloved, which has been heaped on moon and the night. Therefore the suggested sense is subservient to the conventional meaning. Hence Dhvani can never be included in Samaasookti.

 

Samasokti is compound statement / concise speech. The words of the stanza have double meaning. Note the pun in raaga – meaning redness and love. Taraka means pupil as well as stars. Purah means in front of her and also in the east. Note the masculine gender word for moon and feminine gender word for night.

Dhvani Defn – Dhvani is not a limb

न चावयव एव पृथग्भूतोऽवयवीति प्रसिद्धः |</*>  | 1.13+|

न च+अवयव एव पृथक्+भूत: अवयवी+इति प्रसिद्धः |

“अवयवी अवयव न एव | अवयवी पृथक्+भूत: च |” इति प्रसिद्धः

The limbs cannot be thought of as body.

 

Dhvani cannot be brought under other heads. It is because of the declaration that it is only the full-fledged kinds of poetry that could be called Dhvani. The limbs of poetry are figures of speech, qualities (Gunas) and varieties of diction (वृत्त्य:).The limbs cannot be thought of as body. When we consider them together, it will be a part of the whole but never identical with the whole. Even granting that identity may be possible in some of the instances, suggestive poetry cannot be deemed as conditioned by its limbs stated above, since Dhvani is quite extensive.

 

Dhavani Defn –Example – Dhvani

सुवर्णपुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषास्त्रयः |</*>

शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च यश्च जानाति सेवितुम् ||<//*></*>| 1.13+|

सुवर्ण+पुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषा: त्रयः |
शूर: च कृतविद्य: च य: च जानाति सेवितुम् ||

There are plenty of golden flowers in this world. Only 3 types of people can gather it – namely warriors (valorous in battle), Scholar (one who has mastered any vidya) and people who know how to serve. (Three men will collect flowers of gold out of the earth – the courageous, the learned and he who knows how to serve.  Mahaabharata – 5.35.64)

This is an example of Deepaka alamkaara. Three people have the same common factor of being able to gather the golden flowers. In such verses, there will be Dhvani. But the prominence is not for Dhvani. The prominence is for the one who serves. The common factor applies to the other two types of people also. Deepa iva deepakam. Like the deepa lit in the door step, that lights the house, also lights outside.

Dhvani is classified into two, namely अविवक्षितवाच्य (unintended literal import) and विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य (intended but further extending literal import). In the first one, the literal sense is not intended. In the second one, the literal sense is intended, but is subordinated to a second meaning. This is an example of the first one, avivakshitavaachya. The flower of gold means success or worldly advancement.

Dhavani Defn – Example – विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य

शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम कियच्चिरं किमभिधानमसावकरोत्तपः । </*>
तरुणि येन तवाधरपाटलं दशति बिम्बफलं शुकशावकः ।। 1.13+|

शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम ? कियत् चिरम् ? किम् अभिधानम् असौ अकरोत् तपः । </*>
तरुणि येन तव अधरपाटलं दशति बिम्बफलं शुकशावकः ।। 1.13+|

हे तरुणि | येन तपसा शुकशावकः तव अधरपाटलं बिम्बफलं दशति, किम् अभिधानम् असौ तपः अकरोत् ? क्व नु नाम शिखरिणि तपः अकरोत् ? कियत् चिरं तपः अकरोत् ?

A person tells the parrot that it is very fortunate and it must have done a lot of penance. “On which mountain and for how long a time did this young parrot perform penance and what might be the name of the penance? For, this young parrot has been chewing the limb or fruit which is as red as your lips”. Here the suggested meaning is that he envies it as he was not able to reach his lover whereas it was able to go close to her / the fruit. Dhvani is classified into two, namely अविवक्षितवाच्य (unintended literal import) and विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य (intended but further extending literal import). In this, the literal sense is intended, but is subordinated to a second meaning. So it is विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य.
In its implication, this is a eulogy addressed to a lady by an impassioned lover, who communicates to her his secret desire in an artful manner. What is suggested is a parallel between the action of the parrot and that of the would-be lover – the speaker wishes he were in the position of the parrot, in relation to the maiden’s lips. This meaning, it is argued, flows directly from the expressed meaning of the sentence; there is no secondary meaning here because the literal meaning that “the lucky parrot is pecking at the plum that is red like your lip” is intact. On closer examination, however, we notice that the description of the parrot is the non-contextual meaning – the lover cannot simply be saying “What a lucky guy the parrot must be to peck the plum!” Such a remark would be rather pointless in the lover’s context. This consideration, together with other telltale signs, such as the absurdity of a parrot performing a penance and the likening of the plum to the lady’s lips (which would also have been pointless without an amorous intent on the part of the speaker), leads to the suggestion of a parallel between the explicit subject (the parrot) and the implicit subject (the would-be lover), the latter being the contextual or relevant meaning. Thus, even in this case, there is obstruction to the surface meaning, on the basis of which we arrive at the implied contextual meaning – the parallel of the lover relishing the maiden’s lips.  (Source: Sanskrit Criticism By V. K. Chari)

 

Dhavani Defn – Not Bhakti

भक्त्या बिभर्ति नैकत्वम् रूपभेदादयं ध्वनिः</*>| 1.13+|

भक्त्या बिभर्ति न+एकत्वम् रूपभेदात्+अयं ध्वनिः  |

Suggestion and secondary signification are not one and the same because of the innate different between the two. अयं ध्वनिः रूपभेदात् भक्त्या एकत्वं न बिभर्ति | If that is considered identical with suggestion, it commits the fallacies of “too wide” a definition and “too narrow” a definition.

Among the three functions of the word, the second function is called Lakshana Vyaapaara or Bhakti. Believers of Bhakti are Bhaktaas. They are also called as Laakshanikaas. Suggestion and Bhakti are different since their forms are different (roopa bheda).

 

ध्वन्यलोक २

The different types of Dhvani

  1. अविवक्षितवाच्य: (unintended literal import – लक्षणामूलध्वानि)
    • अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य:
    • अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य:
  2. विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: (intended but further extending literal import अभिधामूलध्वनि)
    • संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः (Vastu, Alamkaara) (shabda-shakti, artha-shakti)
    • असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः (Rasaadi)

Two types within अविवक्षित

अर्थान्तरे सङ्क्रमितमत्यन्तं वा तिरस्कृतम् |</*>

अविवक्षितवाच्यस्य ध्वनेर्वाच्यं द्विधा मतम् || 2.१||

अर्थ+अन्तरे सङ्क्रमितम् अत्यन्तं वा तिरस्कृतम् |

अविवक्षित-वाच्यस्य ध्वनेः वाच्यं द्विधा मतम् || 2.१||

The expressed meaning in the former variety i.e., अविवक्षितवाच्य is sub-divided into two, namely, अर्थान्तरसंक्रमित (transformed into some other sense) and अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत (totally discarded).

Example of अर्थान्तरसंक्रमित

स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतो वेल्लद्बलाका घना
वाताः शीकरिणः पयोदसुहृदामानन्दकेकाः कलाः |
कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोरहृदयो रामोऽस्मि सर्वं सहे
वैदेही तु कथम् भविष्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव ||

कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोर-हृदयः रामः अस्मि सर्वं सहे
वैदेही तु कथम् भविष्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव ||
(Meaning: स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतः, वेल्लद्बलाकाः, घनाः वाताः शीकरिणः, पयोदसुहृदाम् आनन्दकेकाः कलाः | कामं सन्तु दृढम् | कठोर+हृदय: राम: अस्मि | अहं सर्वं सहे | वैदेही तु कथं भविष्यति ? हहा हा | देवि, त्वं धीरा भव |

The quarters are all painted as it was with the glistening dark clouds; the cranes are flying with excitement, forming a circle as it were. The gentle wind is full of moisture; these friends of clouds, i.e., the peacocks are giving out joyous notes in the wind. Let all these confront me (कामं सन्तु). I shall certainly put up with all these (सर्वं सहे), for, I am Rama (राम: अस्मि) whose heart is quite hard as adamantine (made of very hard material) (दृढं कठोर+हृदय:). But how will Sita bear with this (वैदेही तु कथम् भविश्यति)! Alas! Alas!(हहा हा) O my beloved queen!  Bear these with all fortitude or courage (देवि धीरा भव)). 

Rama is separated from Sita. He describes the season which causes more pain for the separated lovers. He hopes that Sita is able to bear this pain. He says that he will be able to bear it. Here for the term Rama the meaning to be taken is much more than the son of Dasaratha. He is to be taken as one having the capacity to bear all the pains. It is an example of अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य: | The suggestion here is that he can bear all the pain (सर्वकष्टसहिश्नुत्वशक्तिमान्) |

Examples of अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत

रविसङ्क्रान्तसौभाग्यस्तुषारावृतमण्डलः | </**>

निःश्वासान्ध इवादर्शश्चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते ||

रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्य: तुषार+आवृत+मण्डलः चन्द्रमा, निःश्वास+अन्ध: आदर्श: इव न प्रकाशते |

“All the charm (brightness) to the sun has disappeared, now that the orb is enveloped by snow. Like a mirror rendered blind by the heaving, the moon does not glow.”

At the advent of morning, the sun is raising and the brightness of moon is fading. The soubhaagyaa of chandra has now been transferred to Sun (रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्य: | ) तुषारावृत+मण्डलः | आदर्श: = दर्पणः = mirror. When we breathe out air on the mirror, the mirror becomes unclear. The person is unable to see clearly. Like that, Chandra has also is not bright now. The literal meaning here is that the mirror has become blind अन्ध: by the breathed out air. There is Dhvani in the shabda “andha” as it means that it is unable to reflect the image clearly. This type of Dhvani is अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्या. The literal meaning is overridden.

Here the word “blinded” is suggestive of the second variety. This is a famous stanza from the epic Valmiki Raamaayana. When we breathe out air on the mirror, the mirror becomes unclear for some time and then becomes bright again. Like that, Chandra is also not bright now, but he will get the light back later on. The literal meaning here is that the mirror has become blind by the breathed out air. There is Dhvani in the shabda “andha” as it means that it is unable to reflect the image clearly. This type of Dhvani is atyanta tiraskruta vaachyaa. The literal meaning is overridden. Through similarity in not being able to reflect or see clearly, the word takes the Lakshana meaning. The conventional meaning of the word “Andha” is completely discarded.

 

गगनं च मत्तमेघं धारालुलितार्जुनानि च वनानि |</**>

निरहङ्कारमृगाङ्का हरन्ति नीला अपि निशाः ||<//**>||2.1 ++||

मत्तमेघं गगनं च, धारालुलित+अर्जुनानि वनानि च, निरहङ्कार+मृगाङ्काः निशाः नीला अपि (मनः) हरन्ति ||

The sky is enveloped with intoxicated or rolling clouds गगनं मत्तमेघंच | the Arjuna trees in the forest have water drops dripping वनानि धारालुलित+अर्जुनानि च | Nights are not bright with moon bereft of pride निशाः निरहङ्कार+मृगाङ्का: | Though black in colour, they capture you नीला अपि (मन:) हरन्ति | मन: is अध्याहार: (supplying the missing text).

Here the words “rolling”, “bereft of pride” are replete (brimming) with suggestion.

Explanation about विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य:

मुख्यतया प्रकाशमानो व्यङ्ग्योऽर्थो ध्वनेरात्मा |</*> | 2.2 + |
स च वाच्यार्थापेक्षयाकश्चिदलक्ष्यक्रमतया प्रकाशते ,
कश्चिद्क्रमेणेति द्विधा मतः ||| 2.2 + |

मुख्यतया प्रकाशमान: व्यङ्ग्य: अर्थ: ध्वने: आत्मा |
स: च वाच्यार्थ अपेक्षया कश्चित् अलक्ष्यक्रमतया प्रकाशते ,
कश्चित् क्रमेण इति द्विधा मतः ||| 2.2 + |

The nature of suggestion is such that the suggested meaning can be conveyed with significance. A variety of it can be grasped along with the expressed since the sequence in comprehending both conventional and suggested meanings cannot be discerned. Another variety is that in which the sequentiality can be easily discerned.

Even when the suggested meaning is present, if it is not enjoining importance and pre-eminence, then it should not be called as Dhvani.

This is the vritti for “The nature of suggestion”. विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य (intended literal import) is also divided into two, namely संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य (where sequentiality can be discerned) and असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य (where sequentiality cannot be discerned).  One variety in which the suggested meaning is grasped along with the expressed since the sequence in comprehending both conventional and suggested meanings cannot be discerned (separated). Another variety is that in which the sequentiality can be easily discerned.

Explanation about  असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य

रसादिरर्थो हि सहैव वाच्येनावभासते |</**>  | 2.3 + | स चाङ्गित्वेनावभासमानोध्वनेरात्मा |

रसादि: अर्थ: हि सह एव वाच्येन+अवभासते | सः च अङ्गित्वेन अवभासमानः ध्वनेः आत्मा |

(Note: This is the vritti to the following kaarikaa
रसभावतदाभासतत्प्रशान्त्यादिरक्रमः |
ध्वनेरात्माङ्गिभावेन भासमानो व्यवस्थितः || २.३ || )

The elements such as Rasa (i.e., Rasa – sentiment, bhaava – emotion, Rasaabhaasa – semblance of sentiment, bhaavaabhaasa – semblance of emotion or mood, and that rise and cessation) would strike the mind along with the conventional i.e., literal, import. If they also shine prominently, there would be the soul of suggestion.

This is the vritti for “Sentiment – Rasa, emotion – bhaava, the semblance of sentiment – rasaabhaasa, semblance of emotion or mood – bhaavaabhaasa and that rise and cessation – all these form un-discerned sequentiality. It is decided that when there is prominent presence of the variety, that would be the very soul of suggestion.

It would seem like the vaachyaartha and the vyangyaartha are coming together. Kaarana has to be present before the Kaarya. Since Vaachyaartha is the Kaarana, it has to be present even before the Kaarya which is the Vyangyaartha. But the gap is so less that it feels as though they are there together. The Rasaadi Dhvanis are inseparable with the Vaachyaartha. They might seem to come together. But there is a clear order in the vastu dhvani and alamkaara dhvani where the vaachyaartha occurs first and then comes the vyangyaartha.

Definition of Rasavadalankaara

प्रधान्येऽन्यत्र वाक्यार्थे यत्राङ्गं तु रसादयः |</***>

काव्ये तस्मिन्नलङ्कारो रसादिरिति मे मतिः || ५||  |2.5|

प्रधान्ये अन्यत्र वाक्यार्थे यत्र अङ्गं तु रसादयः |

काव्ये तस्मिन् अलङ्कारः रसादिः इति मे मतिः ||

If on the other hand, the chief meaning of the sentence should direct towards something else and if Rasa etc. are to figure in only as subsidiary to it – that would be the case of Rasavadalankaara.

 

For eg., it may be easily seen how in hymns of praise (stotras), the sentiments etc. appear as sub-ordinate things. They are treated as examples of Preyas Alankaara (praising god, guru, etc.)

एवं ध्वनेरुपमादीनां रसवदलङ्कारस्य च विभक्तविषयता भवति |</*> |2.6+|

एवं ध्वने: उपमादीनां रसवदलङ्कारस्य च विभक्त-विषयता भवति |

In this way, there is a specific differentiating aspect between Dhvani, alamkaaras like upama, and the Rasavadamkaara.

Difference between Guna and Alamkaara

तमर्थमवलम्बन्ते येऽङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः |</*>

अङ्गाश्रितास्त्वलङ्कारा मन्तव्याः कटकादिवत् || ६  2.7 ||

तम्+अर्थम्+अवलम्बन्ते ये+अङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः |
अङ्ग+आश्रिता:+तु+अलङ्कारा: मन्तव्याः कटकादिवत् ||

That which depends upon this main element (here rasa) are considered as “qualities”. The figures of speech are those that are connected with its parts (here the expressed meaning and the expression) in the same way as ornaments like bracelet, etc.

The difference between Alamkaara and Guna is stated here. A person might have decorated himself in a certain way. But his Gunas or qualities are different. The Alamkaaras are decorations of the body and the Gunas always depend on the soul (अङ्गि that which contains the organs). The अङ्गि of kavya is rasa. Prasaad, Ojas, Madhurya and the other gunas are decorations of the soul, the rasa dhvani, which is the अङ्गि. शब्दार्थौ काव्यस्य शरीरम् | The alamkaaras are attached to the body which is the word, shabda and the meaning, vaachya. Yamaka is a shabda alamkara. Upamaa is an arthaalamkaara. ये अङ्गिनं तम् अर्थम् (dhvani) अवलम्बन्ते, ते गुणाः | अङ्ग-आश्रिता: तु अलङ्कारा: | कटकादिवत् = Like the bangle (कटक) and others.

Relation between Guna and Rasa

शृङ्गार एव मधुरः परः प्रह्लादनो रसः |</*>

तन्मयं काव्यमाश्रित्य माधुर्यं प्रतितिष्ठति || २.७  8||

 

Srngaara (sentiment of love) is the sweetest and most relishable of all sentiments. The quality of Maadhurya (sweetness) is declared to be in the poetic composition beaming with this sentiment.

 

Usage of Alamkaara

ध्वन्यात्मभूते शृङ्गारे यमकादिनिबन्धनम् |

शक्तावपि प्रमादित्वं विप्रलम्भे विशेषतः || २.१६ / 2.15 || </*>

ध्वनि+आत्मभूते शृङ्गारे यमकादि-निबन्धनम्
शक्तौ अपि  प्रमादित्वं विप्रलम्भे विशेषतः |

ध्वनि+आत्मभूते शृङ्गारे शक्तौ प्रमादित्वम् अपि यमकादि निबन्धनम् | विप्रलम्भे विशेषतः |

Even granting that the poet is proficient in using the figures like assonance, it would be a lapse on his part in case he were to use them while delineating the sentiment of love which is the very soul of Dhvani, especially in vipralambha shrungaara. (यमकादि शक्तौ प्रमादित्वम् = proficiency in the skill of including alamkaras like Yamaka). In this section, Anandavardhana clarifies the role of Alamkara in Dhvani poetry.

रसाक्षिप्ततया यस्य बन्धः शक्यक्रियो भवेत् |
अपृथग्यत्ननिर्वत्यः सोऽलङ्कारो ध्वनौ मतः || 2.१७ / 2.16 || </*>

रसाक्षिप्ततया यस्य बन्धः शक्यक्रियः भवेत् |
अपृथक्+यत्न+निर्वत्यः सः अलङ्कारः ध्वनौ मतः ||

The poet is permitted to use only such figures the employment of which is made possible only by the emotional exuberance (excitement) of the poet and in the use of which figure there is no special effort used.

Counter-example of Shabdashakti in Samlakshya

तस्या विनापि हारेण निसर्गादेव हारिणौ |</****>

जनयामासतुः कस्य विस्मयं न पयोधरौ ||<//****>||2.22  ++  in book||

हारेण विनापि निसर्गात् एव हारिणौ तस्याः पयोधरौ कस्य विस्मयं न जनयामासतुः |

Her bosoms having no garland though garlanded by active (attractive) as it were, whom should they not amaze.

 

That example in which a figure which is not expressed directly by any word is present and conveys solely, by the suggestive potency of the word itself, should be taken as suggestion based on the potency of the word (shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani). The shlesa on the word हार helps only in conveying a tinge of virodha or paradox on how she is garlanded with a garland. There is no suggestion based on the potency of the word. So this verse is not an example for shadba-shakti-moola-dhvani. But the sentiment of love conveyed here through Slesa or Virodha could be taken as asamlakshyakramaviyanga – suggestion with undiscerned sequentiality.

Types of Arthashaktimooladhvani

Samlakshyakramadhvani is classified into shabdashakti-moola-dhvani and arthashakti-mooladhvani. Arthashaktimooladhvani is the case where the meaning which suggests another meaning. It is of two kinds – (1) प्रौढोक्तिः found in ornamented expression. (2) स्वतः सम्भवी naturally existing.  Each of these two types are further classified into (a) वस्तुना वस्तुध्वानिः, (b) वस्तुना अलंकारध्वनिः, (c) अलंकारेण वस्तुध्वनिः, (d) अलंकारेण अलंकारध्वनिः |

Examples of Arthashakti – Svatahsambhavi – Vastunaa vastudhvani

एवंवादिनि देवर्षौ पार्श्वे पितुरधोमुखी |</***>

लीलाकमलपत्राणि गणयामास केवलम् ||<//***>  | 2.23 ++ in book|

एवं+वादिनि देवर्षौ पार्श्वे पितु: अधोमुखी |
लीला+कमल+पत्राणि गणयामास केवलम् || after 2.22

This shloka is from Kumaara Sambhava. The Sapta Rishis have come. Narada comes and tells Himaalaya that Shiva is the suitable groom for Parvathi and that he has agreed to marry Parvathi. When Narada was talking in this way (एवं+वादिनि देवर्षौ), Parvathi was standing next to her father with head facing down (पार्श्वे पितु: अधोमुखी). She was holding a lotus for play (leela) लीला+कमल+पत्राणि.  She started seriously counting its petals (गणयामास केवलम्). The bhava of shyness is suggested.

That example in which one sense leads to another sense through its own potency of suggestion and not out of the denotative potency of words will be an example of suggestion which depends upon the potency of meaning very much akin to resonance – artha-shakti-moola-dhvani. In this case, counting of petal suggests bashfulness. This is

शिखिपिच्छकर्णपूरा जाया व्याधस्य गर्विणी भ्रमति |</*>

मुक्ताफलरचितप्रसाधनानां मध्ये सपत्नीनाम् || 2.२४||<//*>

शिखिपिच्छ-कर्ण-पूरा जाया व्याधस्य गर्विणी भ्रमति |

मुक्ताफल-रचित-प्रसाधनानां मध्ये सपत्नीनाम् ||

शिखि-पिच्छ-कर्ण-पूरा With the plumes of peacock (i.e., an ornament made from the feathers in the peacock’s tail) adorning her ears, व्याधस्य जाया the wife of the hunter गर्विणी भ्रमति walks in pride मुक्ता-फल-रचित-प्रसाधनानां सपत्नीनां मध्ये in the midst of all her co-wives who are possessed of ornaments of pearls.

 

This is an example where the naturally existing sense is that which is akin to what is found in stark world. Her good fortune in the form of her winning her husband’s special love to her and the bad fortune of other wives are suggested without any imaginative twist to the meaning. So this is an example of svatah-sambhavi-arthashaktimoola-dhvani. This also comes under vastunaa vastudhvani.

Example of Vastunaa-alamkaaradhvani – Utpreksa-dhvani

चन्दनासक्तभुजगनिःश्वासानिलमूर्च्छितः |</*>

मूर्च्छयत्येष पथिकान्मधौ मलयमारुतः ||<//*>  | 2.28 ++ |

चन्दन+आसक्त+भुजग+निःश्वासानिल+मूर्च्छितः |

मूर्च्छयति एषः पथिकान्मधौ मलयमारुतः ||

In this spring season the southerly wind raising the breath of snakes reclining on sandal trees causes stupor to travelers.

 

This verse describing the spring season is an example of Utpreksa (poetic fancy) Dhvani. The southerly wind causes stupor (lethargy) in travellers because it generates passionate longing in them. The southerly wind itself is poetically fancied (i.e., imagined by the poet) as stuporous because of its coming in contact with the heaves of snakes which have encircled the sandal trees. This fancy is not directly conveyed by the words like “as it”, etc. But it is conveyed through suggestion by the potency of sense in the sentence. It is just like resonance. Since the cause of the lethargy is an imaginative one, it is an example of हेतूत्प्रेक्षा | Here the suggester is a vastu and hence this is an example of vastunaa alamkaaradhvani.

Example of Yathaasamkhya-dhvani (alamkaarena-alamkaara Dhvani)

अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च सहकारः |</*>

अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च हृदि मदनः ||<//*> | 2.28 ++ |

The mango tree sheds sprouts, converts into leaf, buds and flowers. Love (treasured) in the hearts sprouts, turns into leaf, buds and flowers.

The following is one example of the suggested – यथासंख्यध्वनि: (suggested relative).

Here the resonance-like charm maintaining the same order of occurrence referring to love and mango tree is far far greater than the charm associated with the expressed figure तुल्ययोगिता (combination of equals). The expressed alamkara, tulyayogitaa results in resonance and suggests यथासंख्य alamkara.
(Side note: My understanding of yathasankhya alankara is this – An alamkara where the object and the mirrored object – both follow an enumeration in a fixed order.  Further, I am guessing in this case, since both are not made to follow a single enumeration and rather there is resonance in its place, it does not become that alamkara. But it remains as a suggested alamkaara).

Utility of Alamkaaradhvani

शरीरीकरणं येषां वाच्यत्वे न व्यवस्थितम् |</*>

तेऽलङ्काराः परां छायां यान्ति ध्वन्यङ्गतां गतः || २८||<//*>   | 2.29 |

येषां वाच्यत्वे शरीरीकरणं न व्यवस्थितम्, ते अलङ्काराः ध्वन्यङ्गतां गतः परां छायां यान्ति |

The following aphorism points out the utility of suggested figures. The very same figures of speech (ते अलङ्काराः) which cannot afford to become even the body of poetry (येषां वाच्यत्वे शरीरीकरणं न व्यवस्थितम्), will gain special beauty (परां छायां यान्ति) much more than what they were in their expressed aspect, when they become involved in suggestion (ध्वन्यङ्गतां गतः).

 

ध्वन्यालोकः ३

In this 3rd udhyotta, the different types are listed from the perspective of the Vyanjaka – word while in the earlier chapter, it was based on the Vyangya – meaning.

Example of वाक्यप्रकाशता in अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी | </*>

यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः || <//*>  | 3.1 eg |

 

The following is the example of a suggestive sentence of the sub-class of “Primary sense totally discarded (अत्यन्त तिरस्कृतवाच्य) under the class of “that with intended expressed sense” (अविवक्षितवाच्य).

 

What is night for all beings, the saint keeps himself awake during then; when the beings are awake that will be night for the saint.

 

The expressed sense that one should be awake during night, and remain sleeping during other time is absolutely irrelevant to what is intended. This only suggests predominantly that the wise saint has been with spiritual alertness and has shunned false notions about Reality. The primary meaning thus has been totally discarded and the suggested meaning comes to the forefront in the mind of a connoisseur. Hence it is an instance of a suggestive sentence (वाक्यप्रकाशता).  Suggestive sentence and suggestive word are the two categories under the subdivision of अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्यध्वनि.

Types of Sanghatanaa or Texture of compositions

 

असमासा समासेन मध्यमेन च भूषिता |

तथा दीर्घसमासेति त्रिधा सङ्घटनोदिता|| ५||</***>  | 3.5 |
Composition (texture – सङ्घटना) is of three kinds namely (1) without compounds असमासा (2) with medium compounds मध्यमेन समासेन भूषिता and (3) with long compounds दीर्घसमासा. Gunas or qualities like maadhuryam or sweetness and prasaada or perspicuity (eloquence / articulacy) are constantly found in plenty only when vipralambhashrungaara (love in separation) is delineated. Oojas (forcefulness) goes with Raudra (Furious) and adbhuta (wonder). But the same conformity does not apply to the Sanghatanaa. Thus we find sanghatanaa when we have long compounds even when erotic sentiment is delineated and even when we have no compounds in Raudra Rasa.

Avoid Rasabhanga by avoiding Anuchityaa

अनौचित्यादृते नान्यद्रसभङ्गस्य कारणम् | </*>

प्रसिद्धौचित्यबन्धस्तु रसस्योपनिषत्परा || ३. १४++ ||  | 3.14 |

अनौचित्यात्+ऋते न+अन्यत्+रसभङ्गस्य कारणम् |
प्रसिद्ध+औचित्य+बन्ध:+तु रसस्य+उपनिषद्+परा ||

रसभन्गस्य कारणम् अन्यत् न There could be no other cause for a breach in sentiment अनौचित्यात्+ऋते except impropriety. रसस्य परा उपनिषद् The greatest secret about the delineation of sentiment is प्रसिद्ध+औचित्य+बन्ध: to conform to the well-known and accepted considerations of propriety.

 

An interruption of aesthetic relish is called Rasa bhanga. The main reason for this is anauchitya. Bharata laid down the strict rule that in the stage play par excellence, only a well-known plot and a familiar noble hero should figure in. If this rule is adopted, a poet can ill-afford to go wrong in the matter of maintaining propriety in relation to the hero with impossible super human characteristics while writing a drama with its plot invented by him.

औचित्यम् = propriety – suitableness – it is the bhava of uchita. उचितम् = proper.

[Side note: A Kashmiri poet, Kshemendra (after Anandavardhana) wrote a work called Auchitya Vichaara Charchaa. He states that Guna, Alamkaaraa, Vrutti, Pravrutti or the suggested meaning vyangyaartha – all these should been within the limits of auchitya. Else it will become a laughing stock].

There is the suitability of the character and the suitability of even Vrutti, Pravrutti and Sannivesha (situation) are to be considered. For example, the king taking out his sword to fight enemy is acceptable but if he takes out his sword in a fight with his wife, it is not appropriate. Even in the Natya Shastra, when Indra flies in the sky, it is acceptable for the audience to accept the divine feats only by gods. But when an ordinary man says that he will fly to the heaven, it is inappropriate. Another example – in a drama, there is a pandit. His speech could indicate his knowledge. But the character of a servant cannot be shown to be talking in that same manner. For each rasa like adbhuda, karuna, vira or bhayaanaka, the poem has to be written appropriately. The dialog and the actions for Karuna and Vira will be different. Adbhuda might have a lengthy dialog expressing surprise. Thus the most important factor among the suitability is Rasa Auchitya. The auchitya is decided according to the main rasa. The characters have 3 types of prakruti – daivi prakruti, aasuree prakruti or maanavee prakruti. Based on their prakruti, everything else should match like the dress and the mannerism. There is another thing called Sandarba auchitya. What is appropriate in such situation has to be considered. Most importantly the rasa’s auchitya has to be ensured.

Example of suggestion through Krudanta

अतिक्रान्तसुखाः कालाः प्रत्युपस्थितदारुणाः |

श्वः श्वः पापीयदिवसा पृथिवी गतयौवना || 3.१६++

अतिक्रान्तसुखाः | कालाः प्रत्युपस्थितदारुणाः | श्वः श्वः पापीय-दिवसा | पृथिवी गतयौवना |

Gone are the delights and times pose more and more depression. The earth has become destitute of youth and every next day (tomorrow) is a sinful day.

In the above verse suggestion with alakshyakrama  is communicated through primary suffix – krudantaah (अतिक्रान्त, प्रत्युपस्थित, गत), number – bahu vachaana (सुखाः, कालाः)  and the suggestion with the expressed totally discarded (अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य) is found in the expression “पृथिवी गतयौवना” |

One Prominent Rasa should be present

प्रसिद्धेऽपि प्रबन्धानां नानारसनिबन्धने |

एको रसोऽङ्गीकर्तव्यस्तेषामुत्कर्षमिच्छता || २१||</******>  | 3.21 |

प्रसिद्धे नाना-रस-निबन्धने अपि प्रबन्धानां तेषाम् उत्कर्षम् इच्छता (कविना) एकः रसः अङ्गी कर्तव्यः |

No doubt, there is a convention that in entire literary composition, there should be more than one sentiment. It is ordained here that one of those sentiments should be made the main by any poet who wants his work to be great.

Angi rasa – is the prominent rasa which should be present from the beginning till the end of the Kavya. Anga rasa is the secondary rasa which could appear in between at some time.

There are two vibhaavaas namely Aalambana Vibhaavaa and Udeepana Vibhaavaa. The object towards which the rasa is targeted is Aalambana Vibhaavaa. Bhima says that he will drink Dhushaasanaa’s blood. So Bhima is the kaarana or Aalambana Vibhaavaa for Dhushsaasanaa’s fear. When Bhima comes, there are others who come with him making loud noises beating their drums. They become the secondary cause and enhance the fear. They are the Udeepana Vibhaavaa. So the Vibaavaa, Anubhaavaa and Sanchaaribhaavaa included by the poet should enhance the main rasa. It should not be against the main rasa.

Example – Insertion of Opposed sentiment

सत्यं मनोरमा रामाः सत्यं रम्या विभूतयः | </*>

किं तु मत्ताङ्गनापाङ्गभङ्गलोलं हि जीवितम् || <//*> | 3.30 ++ |

 

It is indeed true that women are endearing to the heart (रामाः मनोरमाः सत्यं). It is true that wealth is quite alluring (विभूतयः रम्याः सत्यं). But life (जीवितम्) itself is much transient as to compete with the tremulous glances [ i.e., the incomplete movement (भङ्ग+लोलं) of the corner of the eyes (अपाङ्ग)] of the love-intoxicated (मत्त) lady (अङ्गना). (यथा मत्ताङ्गनाया: अपाङगात् भङ्गं लोलं अशाश्वतं क्षणिकं च, तथैव जीवितम् )

If there be slightest touch of the opposite sentiments while dealing with the Sringaara Rasa and its accessories, there may not arise any defect when the rules governing the non-opposition of sentiments are meticulously followed. Hence indeed there can be no defect with the insertion of an opposed sentiment as one finds in the above verse.

 

ध्वन्यालोकः ४

The prominent rasa of Ramayana

रामायणे हि करुणो रसः | </*> | ४.५ + |

The prominent rasa of Ramayana is being discussed. In Ramayana, there is Shringaara, Vipralambha Shringaara, Karuna, Vira, kroda, etc. Valmiki himself states that शोकः श्लोकत्वमागतः | So shoka or sorrow is the staayibhaava of this entire epic. The last scene ends with Sita entering the earth. As Karuna has been present from start to end, it is the prominent (angi) rasa of Ramayana.

Next, Mahaabhaarata is taken up. In most of the Parvaas it is mainly fight and hence Vira is a rasa. There are also Shringaara and Shoka or Karuna. But Anandavardhana says that the prominent rasa of Mahabharata is Shanta rasa. Anukramani is the table of contents. In the anukramanika of Mahabharata, there is no reference to the term Shanta. Then, how can it be taken as the main rasa? Anandavardhana says that the most obvious thing should not be stated explicitly. It should be understood through Dhvani. In the Anukramanika, there is one verse. ‘ भगवान्वासुदेवश्च कीर्त्यतेऽत्र सनातनः’   — ‘ भगवान्+वासुदेव:+च कीर्त्यते+अत्र सनातनः’ The meaning of Vaasadeva is not the son of Vasudeva. Sanaatanaa is eternal. Vasudeva’s son was not eternal. वसति इति वासु: | वासु: च असौ देव: च वासुदेवः | The praise of that eternal god is being sung in the entire Mahaabhaarata. That god is the personification of Shanta. Even if the other characters like Arjuna and Bhima are described in the Bhaarata, only this Vaasudeva is the main character. Bharata is a Kavya and it is also a Shashtra. As a Kavya, Krishna is the ultimate. As a Shashtra, Shantha is the ultimate. All the rasas culminate in Shantha.

Samvaada or Correspondence or Similarity of Thought

 

संवादास्तु भवन्त्येव बाहुल्येन सुमेधसाम् | </*>

स्थितं ह्येतत् संवादिन्य एव मेधाविनां बुद्धयः | किन्तु – – –

नैकरूपतया सर्वे ते मन्तव्या विपश्चिता || 4.११ ||

11a. There would certainly be plentiful coincidences of ideas presented by the minds.

11b. But all of them need not be considered identical by any stretch of imagination by the recipients.

Anandavardhana talks about Samvaada in the fourth chapter. Assume Shakespeare writes something. If the same thing is also said by our poets, say Kalidasa or Bhaaravi, we say that there is Samvaada or Correspondence or Similarity of thought. For example, what was found (like value of pi) by our great mathematician like Aryabhaatta and Bhaskaracharya was also found independently by European mathematicians. “Great minds think alike”. But, Krithi chauryaa – plagiarism – is stealing someone’s work.  Samvaada is Correspondence or Similarity of thought.

The thoughts of two poets might concur. सु+मेधाः = The ability to retain the knowledge is Medhaa i.e., the धारण after ग्रहण. It is the retentive memory. There will be samvaada among great poets and it cannot be avoided. Refer the earlier notes on three types. In the case where both come up with the same thought, one cannot reject the other, though there is similarity. In other cases, it becomes Kruti Chaurya.

तत्पुनः शरीरिणां प्रतिबिम्बवदालेख्याकारवत्तुल्यदेहिवच्च त्रिधा व्यवस्थितम् | (after 4.11) | (Meaning: Coincidence in poetic themes is recognized as of three types – (1) like that of reflected image of persons in a mirror (2) like that of a picture of a boy, drawn in painting, (3) like that of two individuals resembling one another). It can be like the reflection of a person शरीरिणां प्रतिबिम्बवत्, it can be like the painting आलेख्याकारवत्, or it can be like another person who has the resemblance – तुल्यदेहिवत् | Here further says about these three.

तत्र पूर्वमनन्यात्म तुच्छात्म तदनन्तरम् | तृतीयं तु प्रसिद्धात्म नान्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः || 4.१३||  तत्र पूर्वम् अनन्यात्म तुच्छात्म तत् अनन्तरम् | तृतीयं तु प्रसिद्धात्म नन्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः(Meaning: Of these, the first one has no individual existence of its own, the possibility of the second is not better than a non-entity. The third one of course has a concrete existence. A poet need not have to bypass similarity in themes).  In resemblance, it is अनन्यात्मा – it is not a different person. The painting one is inferior. The resemblance between two people like twins is acceptable since they have their own existence and specialty though they have some similar features. न अन्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः – This should not be given up by the poet. Though it is not a fault to have some idea that resembles the work of an earlier poet, it is better to avoid building on another person’s idea. There are numerous options available and the poet should try to find something new than choosing something that has already been done.

परस्वादानेच्छाविरतमनसो वस्तु सुकवेः सरस्वत्येवैषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती || 4.१७||  परस्वादान+इच्छा+विरत+मनसः वस्तु सुकवेः सरस्वति एषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती || (Meaning: The goddess of speech i.e., Sarasvati herself will help the deserving and talented poets in procuring the ideas provided they shun plagiarism). For a person who is not interested in copying another person’s idea, Goddess Saraswati herself will provide with new ideas as much as needed.

 

Short notes:

Anandavardhana is credited with creating the dhvani theory. He wrote of dhvani (meaning sound, or resonance) in regard to the “soul of poetry.” “When the poet writes,” said Anandavardhana, “he creates a resonant field of emotions.”

Questions from exams

 

Book no./ page no.

 

श्वशूरत्र निमज्जति अत्राहम् दिवसकम् प्रलोक्यम्। १/२५

कस्य वा न भवति । १/२६

उपोढरागेण विलोलतारकम् । १/५२

शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम । १/५५

सुवर्णपुष्पाम् प्ऋथिवीम्। १/५५

गगनम् मत्तमेघम् । २/५

रवि सम्क्रान्त सौभाग्य। २/५

तस्या: विनापि हारेण। २/५९

एवम् वादिनि देवर्षो पार्श्वे। २/७०

शिखिपिच्छकर्णपूरा जाया। २/७२

चन्दनासक्त भुजग। २/७६

अड़्कुरित: पल्लवित:। २/७७

या निशा सर्वभूतानाम्। ३/११

अति क्रान्त सुखा: काला:। ४/७

सत्यम् मनोरमा: रामा:। ४/५४

 

शब्दार्थौ सहितौ काव्यम्

 

अपऋथग्यत्न निर्वव्र्य: सोsलड़्कारो ध्वनौ मत:

 

Concepts  / short notes

अलङ्कारत्वसाधनम्

Different meanings for Dhvani

There are different meanings given to the term Dhvani. One is the best type of poetry – Atyuttama Kaavya. Dhvani also means the suggested meaning. The word that has the suggested meaning is also called Dhvani. The vyanjanaa vyaapaara which is the function that indicates the suggested meaning is also Dhvani. Dhvani is used in five different senses – Suggestive words, suggestive ideas, suggested ideas, suggestion and the composition in which all or any one may be found.

(Additional notes from KSOU Textbook:

  1. व्याञ्जकोऽर्थः – Suggestive meaning due to which the primary sense discards itself
  2. ध्वनिः काव्यम् – A composition where the primary senses are discarded
  3. व्यञ्जनाव्यापारः – The suggestive function through which the primary sense is discarded.
  4. व्जञ्जकः शब्दः ध्वनिः – Suggestive words whose primary sense is discarded
  5. व्यङ्ग्योऽर्थः – Suggested sense for whose sake the expressed meaning is rendered not fruitful.

List of Examples — for Quick Reference

 Dhvani – what it can be

(1) suggestive idea will be prohibitive

भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः स शुनकोऽद्य मारितस्तेन |

गोदावरी-नदी-कूल-लता-गहन-वासिना दृप्त-सिंहेन ||

(2)suggestive meaning approves.

श्वश्रूरत्र शेते (अथवा निमज्जति) अत्राहं दिवसकं प्रलोकय |</****>

मा पथिक रात्र्यन्धः शय्यायामावयोः शयिष्ठाः ||

(3)suggested meaning relates to something which is absolutely different

कस्य वा न भवति रोषो दृष्ट्वा प्रियायाः सव्रणमधरम् |</*>

सभ्रमरपद्माघ्राणशीले वारितवामे सहस्वेदानीम् ||<//*>| 1.4 ++ |

Dhvani – What it is not

(4) Samaasookti – the suggested sense is subservient to the conventional meaning

उपोढरागेण विलोलतारकं तथा गृहीतं शशिना निशामुखम् |</****>

यथा समस्तं तिमिरांशुकं तया पुरोऽपि रागाद्गलितं न लक्षितम् ||<//****>| 1.13+|

Bhakti is not Dhvani

(*) रामगिरि आश्रमेषु – yaksha – not Bhakti only Dhvani

(*) पत्र शयनं वदति – only lakshanaa. No Dhvani

Types of Dhvani

(5) अविवक्षितवाच्य

सुवर्णपुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषास्त्रयः |</*>

शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च यश्च जानाति सेवितुम् ||<//*></*>| 1.13+|

(6) विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य

शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम कियच्चिरं किमभिधानमसावकरोत्तपः । </*>

तरुणि येन तवाधरपाटलं दशति बिम्बफलं शुकशावकः ।। 1.13+|

(7) अर्थान्तरसंक्रमित within

अविवक्षितवाच्य

कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोर-हृदयः रामः अस्मि सर्वं सहे

वैदेही तु कथम् भविष्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव ||

(*) रविकिरण-अनुगृहीतानि भवन्ति कमलानि कमलानि |

(8a) अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत within अविवक्षितवाच्य

रविसङ्क्रान्तसौभाग्यस्तुषारावृतमण्डलः | </**>

निःश्वासान्ध इवादर्शश्चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते ||

(8b) अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत within अविवक्षितवाच्य

गगनं च मत्तमेघं धारालुलितार्जुनानि च वनानि |</**>

निरहङ्कारमृगाङ्का हरन्ति नीला अपि निशाः ||<//**>||2.1 ++||

(*)रसवदलंकारः — हे हेरंब किमम्ब … Hasya over Karuna.

(*)Shabdashakti in Samlakshya (eg from Kaavya Prakaasha)

भद्रात्मनो दुरधिरोहतनोर्विशाल वंशोन्नतेःकृतशिलीमुखविग्रहस्य । यस्यानुपप्लुतगतेः परवारणस्य दानाम्बुसेकसुभगः सततं करोभूत् ॥१२॥

The verse could mean both a king (contextual) and an elephant belonging to the jaati of Bhadra.

(*) note: NOT example of Sabdashakti in Samlakshya because shlesha with both meaning being contextual

सर्वदोमाधवः = सर्वदः माधवः / सर्वदा उमाधवः

(9) note: NOT example of Shabdashakti in Samlakshya

तस्या विनापि हारेण निसर्गादेव हारिणौ |</****>

जनयामासतुः कस्य विस्मयं न पयोधरौ ||<//****>||2.22  ++  ||

(10a) Arthashakti – Svatahsambhavi – Vastunaa vastudhvani

एवंवादिनि देवर्षौ पार्श्वे पितुरधोमुखी |</***>

लीलाकमलपत्राणि गणयामास पार्वती ||<//***>  | 2.23 ++ |

(10b) Arthashakti – Svatahsambhavi – Vastunaa vastudhvani

शिखिपिच्छकर्णपूरा जाया व्याधस्य गर्विणी भ्रमति |</*>

मुक्ताफलरचितप्रसाधनानां मध्ये सपत्नीनाम् || 2.२४||<//*>

(*) Arthashakti – Kavipraudokti – सज्जयति सुरभिमासः – The month arranges for manmata.

(*)Arthashakti – Kavi-nibhaddha-vaktru-praudokti शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम mentioned earlier.

(11) Vastunaa-alamkaaradhvani – Utpreksa-dhvani

चन्दनासक्तभुजगनिःश्वासानिलमूर्च्छितः |</*>

मूर्च्छयत्येष पथिकान्मधौ मलयमारुतः ||<//*>  | 2.28 ++ |

(12) Yathaasamkhya-dhvani (alamkaarena-alamkaara Dhvani)

अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च सहकारः |</*>

अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च हृदि मदनः ||<//*> | 2.28 ++ |

(13) वाक्यप्रकाशता in अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी | </*>

यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः || <//*>  | 3.1 eg |

(14) suggestion through Krudanta

अतिक्रान्तसुखाः कालाः प्रत्युपस्थितदारुणाः |

श्वः श्वः पापीयदिवसा पृथिवी गतयौवना || 3.१६++

(15) Insertion of Opposed sentiment

सत्यं मनोरमा रामाः सत्यं रम्या विभूतयः | </*>

किं तु मत्ताङ्गनापाङ्गभङ्गलोलं हि जीवितम् || <//*> | 3.30 ++ |

Kaavya Prakaasha – Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy, Lecture Series – #1

काव्यप्रकाशः – Kaavya Prakaasha

Notes from Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy’s classes

काव्यप्रकाशः – मम्मटः  – Class #1 on  30-Dec-2015

Kaavya Prakaasha is a work on Sanskrit Literature by Mammatta Bhatta. As the name suggests, it throws some light on the aspects of Kaavya or Poetry. He was present during 12th century. Note:  Dhvanyaloka was written during 10th century.

Mammatta’s contribution in his Kaavya Prakaasha:

He consolidated the theories. He recognized the importance of the various aspects. The words have to be put in the right form so that the meaning can be arrived at. शब्दार्थसहितौ काव्यम् | (भामहः शब्दार्थसहितौ काव्यम् इति काव्यस्य लक्षणम् उक्तवान् । ) Mammata agreed that words, their meaning, Alamkaara, Guna, Reethi, Dhvani, etc., are all important. Ultimately रसो वै सः | रसः = आनन्दः | The ultimate goal is Sat, Chit, Ananda. Ananda is achieved through Rasa.  Rasa leads to bliss or Ananda. There are different causes like Alamkara, Guna, Reethi. Sometimes, if the theme itself is very good, the other aspects are not required and the kaavya still brings happiness.

काव्यलक्षणं तु ..

  1. कवेः कर्म काव्यम् – राजशेखरः |
  2. उक्ति विशेषः काव्यं – विश्वनाथः |
  3. रमणीयार्थप्रतिपादकशब्द: काव्यम् – जगन्नाथः (रसगङ्गादारः) |
  4. तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ सगुणौ अनलंकृती पुनः क्वापि इति – मम्मटः |

Mammata defines Kaavya as the one without dosha or blemishes, i.e., साधु शब्दः without any grammatical mistakes, having proper meanings of the words, having gunas (among the ten gunas defined by Dandhi) , with or without alamkaara (which was considered important  by Bhaama).

Author Lakshana Grantha Soul Highlight Time
Bharata Muni Naatya Shaastra Rasa काव्यस्य आत्मा रस: |
इति वृत्तम् तुकाव्यस्य शरीरम् |
500 BC
Bhaama Kaavyaalamkaara Alamkara काव्यस्य आत्मा अलंकार: | 7th AD
Dhandi Kaavyaadharsha, Kaavyadarpanaa 10 Gunas दश गुणा: एव काव्यस्य आत्मा |  
Vaamana Kaavyaalankaara Sutra Vrutti Reeti रीतिरात्मा काव्यस्य |
(Anupraasaa – the way it is expressed – Reeti)
8th AD
Anandavardhana Dhvanyaaloka Dhvani काव्यस्य आत्मा ध्वनि: | 10th AD
Kuntaka Vakrookti Jivitam (crooked speech) Vakrotti काव्यस्य आत्मावक्रोत्ति: |  
Vishwanatha Saahitya Dharpana   उक्ति विशेषः काव्यं  
Mammata Kaavya Prakaasha   तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ सगुणौ अनलंकृती पुनः क्वापि इति 12th  AD
Jagannatha Pandita Rasa Gangadhaaraa   रमणीयार्थप्रतिपादकशब्द: काव्यम् 18th AD 

काव्यप्रकाशः – प्रथम उल्लासः

काव्यप्रकाशः/प्रथमः उल्लासः – Wikisource

Kaavya Prayojanam

काव्यं यशसेऽर्थकृते व्यवहारविदे शिवेतरक्षतये।
सद्यः परनिर्वृतये कान्तासंमिततयोपदेशयुजे ।। 2 ।।

The poetry brings refinement in one’s behavior which results in fame. Poetry earns money influenced and inspired by poetry. Poetry provides the knowledge of the worldly affairs. Shiva = mangala. Shiva-itara = not mangala. Poetry crushes the inauspicious things. Poetry gives immediate aesthetic pleasure. All these advices are given in the words of the sweet heart.

ध्वन्यालोक: Dhvanyaaloka – Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy, Lecture Series – #1

Dhvanyaaloka

Nivedita’s notes from Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy’s classes

Granthas

Granthas are of two types namely lakshya grantha (लक्ष्य ग्रन्त:) and lakshana grantha (लक्षण ग्रन्त:). The grantha that defines poetry is a lakshana grantha. Lakshana grantha is not a poem or a drama. There will be definitions and examples which are mostly cited from other works which are Lakshya Granthas. The examples could either be from the works of other famous poets or a sample poem could be written by the author himself.

Lakshya Grantha deals with the subject or some theme or vishaya and it is in the form of a poem or a drama based on a theme or plot.

[Side Note: Initially, the intent was only spiritual. There was a time when Kavya was considered as mere gossip (आलाप) by the Rishis and Vedantins. They said — काव्यालापांश्च वर्जयेत् – Stay away from poetry which is mere gossip. But after Bharata’s period, Kavya got a formal structure. It became acceptable to create Kavyas for pleasure or Manoranjana].

 

Introduction – Dhvanyaaloka ध्वन्यालोका

Dhvanyaaloka is a Lakshana Grantha. It states that Dhvani or Suggestion is the soul of poetry. Aaloka means light (jyothi / prakaasha). Since it throws light on the matter regarding Dhvani or suggestion, it is named as Dhvanyaaloka. To understand why Dhvanyaaloka was written, we need to know about Alamkara Sashtra.

Shashtra

Shash शास् means “to command”. “शासते इति शास्त्रम्” — That which rules or commands is the scripture.  There are different shashtras like Tarka, Vyakarana, Meemaamsa, etc. Dhvanyaaloka comes under Sahitya Shashtra or Alamkaara Shashtra. Only when Veda approves, it can be accepted. Bhaamaa proved that Kavya is accepted by the Vedas.

 

Sahitya Shashtra

The first of such poets to think about the nature of poems was Bharata. He lived before 500 BC. There have been many Aalankarikaas or Literary critics after him. Then only Shahitya Shashtra evolved.

Classification of Sammitaa

The literary works (Sammitaa or Saahityaa) can be classified into 3 types:

Prabhu Sammitaa Peremptory or dictatorial commands – इदमित्तं – This is how it has to be done – the lord orders. Eg. Veda.
Mitra Sammitaa Friendly advice.  Itihaasa – Epics – Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Kaantaa Sammitaa Lover’s words. As Kalidasa puts it, अशिक्षित पटुत्वं– women are very smart which is not taught by anyone.

[Side note: मन्त्र+ब्राह्मणयोर्+वेदनामधेयम् | वेद साहित्यम् = सम्हिता, आरण्यक, ब्राह्मण, उपनिषद्.  Among these samhita consists of mantras. Brahmana is the description or elaboration of the matra portion in prose form. ब्राह्मण, आरण्यक and उपनिषद् come under ब्राह्मण संहिता. यज्ञार्थं वेदा: प्रवृत्ता: | The vedas are present to spread the knowledge about Yajna. य = आश्रयः ; ज्ञा = जानाति; That which helps to know the Brahman, the ultimate desired object is Yajna. Yajna = deva poojaa, sangathi karanaa, daanaa.  For the shaastra samhita, the padya bhaagaa is got from the Rig veda and the gadya bhaaga is got from the Yajurveda. Maargadarshah maharshi – The Rishis guide the entire mankind.]

Alankaara

Alamkara is a concept (Parikalpana) in Sanskrit. In Kavya Shastra, the term Alamkara means that which beautifies the poem. काव्य शोभाकरान् धर्मान् अलंकारान् इति प्रतक्षते | The properties (dharma) which beautify the poem are Alamkaras – says Dandi in his Kaavyaadarsha. Alankaara Shashtram is Literary Criticism. One who knows fully about Alamkara is an Aalankarika.  They are the literary critics who write about Alamkaras. These critics attempted to define soul of poetry.

Author Lakshana Grantha Soul Highlight Time
Bharata Muni Naatya Shaastra Rasa काव्यस्य आत्मा रस: |
इति वृत्तम् तुकाव्यस्य शरीरम् |
500 BC
Bhaama Kaavyaalamkaara Alamkara काव्यस्य आत्मा अलंकार: | 700 AD
Dhandi Kaavyaadharsha, Kaavyadarpanaa 10 Gunas दश गुणा: एव काव्यस्य आत्मा |  
Vaamana Kaavyaalankaara Sutra Vrutti Reeti रीतिरात्मा काव्यस्य |
(Anupraasaa – the way it is expressed – Reeti)
800 AD
Anandavardhana Dhvanyaaloka Dhvani काव्यस्य आत्मा ध्वनि: | 10th  AD
Mammatta

मम्मट:

Kaavya Prakaasha (kaavya Lakshanam) तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ सगुणावनलंकृती पुनः व्कापि 12th
Kuntaka Vakrookti Jivitam (crooked speech) Vakrotti काव्यस्य आत्मावक्रोत्ति: |  
Vishwanatha

विश्वनाथः

Saahitya Dharpana Ukti

 

उक्तिविषेशः काव्यम् |  
Rajashekara
राजशेकरः
  (kaavya Lakshanam) कवेः कर्म काव्यम् |  
Jagannatha Pandita
जगन्नाथः
Rasa Gangadhaaraa (kaavya Lakshanam) रमनीयार्थ प्रतिवादक शब्द काव्यम् | 18th

Later came these aalamkaarikaas –  Udbatta, Lolata, Rudrata, Kaiyatta, (Jaina poet) Hemachandra.

[Side Note: Bharata spoke about Vibhaavaa, Anubhaavaa and Vyabhichaari Bhaava. (Refer explanation given later). He said that Kavyanandam is also like Brahmanandam. काव्यानन्दस्तु ब्रह्मानन्द सहोदर: | After him, there were Dandi and Bhaamaa].

[Side Note: The usual structure – Sutra, Vartikas, Bhaashya; Vaartikaas are Meta rules. When one person writes something, the next person develops it further with their own contribution.  Panini – Sutra, Vaartikaas – Vararuchi, Patanjali – Bhaashyaa].
Creativity in Poetry :

To understand the difference between ordinary statements and poetry, consider these two sentences. कश्चित् वृक्ष: तिष्ठति अग्रे | नीरसतरुरिव भाति पुरा | The first one simply states that a tree is present in front. The other one describes it interestingly by saying that it seem to be a tree deviod of any life or aesthetic sentiment. It has alliteration or anupraasa alamkara due to the repeated occurrence of the same letter “ra”. Along with that shabda alamkara, it also has arthaalamkara by upama or Similie to describe the dry tree. It brings out various rasa or aesthetic pleasure to different people.  The term Niirasa conveys different feelings to different people like a traveller or a young couple.

Poetry

The plot or कथा वस्तु, the theme of the story, is iti vruttam इति वृत्तम्. It is the body of the poem according to Bharata. The body is beautified with alamkaaras. Everyone accepted Bharata’s opinion about the body of the poem. Accordingly to Mammataa (or Bhamah), Kavya is word and its meaning शब्दार्थौ सहितौ काव्यम् | Also it is said that the work of the poet is poem, कवे: कर्म काव्यम् | रमणीयार्थप्रतिपादकं काव्यम् | प्रतिभायुक्तं काव्यम् | नवनवोन्मेषशालिनी प्रतिभा | That which produces newer and newer meaning is Prathibha and Poem is one that has this scope for creativity.

[Side note: चर्वित चर्वनं मा भवेत् | Let there be no imitation. So each one came up with his own idea]

[Side note: प्रयोजनम् न उद्दिश्य मन्दोऽपि न प्रवर्तते | Even a dullard does not venture into a task with considering its benefit].

On correct kavyam साधु काव्यम् and on the purpose of poetry  काव्यस्य प्रयोजनम् , Anandavardhana says this:

धर्मार्थकाममोक्षेषु वैचक्षण्यं कलासु च |

करोति कीर्थिं प्रीतिम् च साधु काव्य निषेवणम् ||

[Side Note: The goal (उद्देश) of all our shastras has been upliftment of the soul, the knowledge about the soul and the attainment of liberation (आत्मोद्धार: , आत्मज्ञानम् , मोक्षप्रप्ति: ). In the Vyaakarana Shastra, moksha is achieved through Shabda Brahma (शब्दब्रह्म). Dharma forms the nucleus of Artha, Kaama and Moksha. Through the Dharma, Artha and Kaama, the liberation or Moksha is obtained. Krishna says in Bhagavad Gita that he is the desire that is not against the dharma धर्माविरुद्धोकामोस्मि ].

There are different criteria for a Kavya to be considered as a उत्तमकाव्यम्.

  1. Provides intense, special, efficient knowledge or expertise वैचक्षणम् in the four purushaarthas namely Dharma, Artha, Kaama and Moksha.
  2. Provides the expert knowledge about the 64 Kalas.
  3. Becomes the cause for gaining the loving respect and glory करोति कीर्थिं प्रीतिम्
Shakti Expressed meaning Vaachaka Koshaarthah, Vaachyaartha, शक्यार्थ power of the word conveyed by the dictionary meaning
Bhakti Indicated or suppressed meaning Lakshana Lakshyaarthah, Lakshanaarthah,
भाक्त
Some element is suppressed (The word bank is suppressed in Gangaayaam goshah – Hamlet on the banks of Ganga and not in Ganges)
Vyakti Suggested meaning Vyangya Dhvaniyarthah, Vyanjanaarthah, vyangyaarthah It shows or reflects or suggests some other meaning. The tone of “Go, go!” might mean “Don’t go”.

Once Anandavardhana puts forth his theory that Dhvani is the soul of poetry, there arises among his critics the prima facie argument against it. Abhaavavaadis are those who claim that is no such thing as Dhvani. Anandavardhana partially accepts some of the earlier theories and he also denies some of the earlier theories (पूर्व सिद्धान्तानां निराकरणम्). He accepts that there is importance for Rasa, Guna, Alamkaras, Reeti, Vakroktihi, etc. But he claims that the soul is the Dhvani.
[Side Note:  Prof. N. Hiriyanna’s book “Aestetic Experience”]

—– ———–

Dhvanyaaloka

The structure of Dhvanyaaloka consists of Kaarikas and Vrutti. Even the Vrutti is believed to be written by Anandavardhana. The commentary written by his disciple, Abhinava Gupta is called lochana. This work is written in 9th century. His point of view is that Dhvani which he clarifies as Rasa Dhvani is the soul of the poem.

[Side Note on Rasa:

When a person watches Sita Swayamvaram, he or she understands Raama’s rati bhava when Rama sees sita through vakra drushti. They forget later the theater, Ramayana, Rama and Sita.  An young boy might enjoy the feeling of Romance. In the same way, even tragedy in दुरन्त: नाटकम् when expressed nicely gives a good feeling. The tears brought out of the audience are the success.

There should be poshana of the Rasa. In another story, before Duryodhana leaves for the war, Bhanumati cries. The rise of the emotion of the feeling of Vira is hampered. Rather than poshaka, it was vighnaha. The process of catharsis happens in the minds of the connoisseur. i.e., the purging out of the inner instincts happens. It gives a sense of satisfaction.

Vira, Shringara and Karuna can only be the dominant sentiments (mukhya rasaa) of a literary work. Hasya can only be supplimentary. It will be an Anga rasa or Gauna rasa].

Example of suggestion:

A woman is living with her blind-in-laws while her husband has gone out of town for a long time. A traveller पथिक: happens to stay in her house. She is attracted. She tells him to note where each person sleeps. She points to her bed and tells him not to come over there in the night. The suggested meaning is that she wants him to come and fall on me.

श्वश्रूरत्र शेते अथवा निमज्जति अत्राहं दिवसकं प्रलोकय |
मा पथिक रात्र्यन्धः शय्यायामावयोः शयिष्ठाः ||

श्वश्रू: अत्र शेते अथवा निमज्जति अत्र अहं दिवसकं प्रलोकय |
मा पथिक रात्रि अन्धः शय्यायाम्+आवयोः शयिष्ठाः ||

“Mother-in-law lies here, fast asleep. I will be here. You shall know these before it gets dark. O traveller, don’t you tumble into our beds blinded by night”.

ध्वन्यलोक १

नान्दी

स्वेच्छाकेसरिणः  स्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः |

त्रायन्तां वो मधुरिपोः प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदो नखाः ||

Let the claws of that Hari who manifested in the form of man-lion at His own will, which claws have outshone the moon in their crystal white hue, and which quells the afflictions of His devotees, protect you.

स्वेच्छा केसरिणः = By his own wish, he was born as a kesari or lion.

नखाः  = His nails are curved like the cresent moon.

स्वच्छ स्वच्छाया आयासित इन्दवः = By their pure splendour, the nails cause the cresent moons to feel exhaused (defeated).

त्रायन्तां व: = Let him protect you all.

प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदो = प्रपन्न + आर्ति + छिद: = Those who surrender to god are Prapannas. आर्ति  = suffering;  छिद: = tears off

1st Kaarikaa

काव्यस्यात्मा ध्वनिरिति बुधैर्यः समाम्नातपूर्व-

स्तस्याभावं जगदुरपरे भाक्तमाहुस्तमन्ये |

केचिद्वाचाम् स्थितमविषये तत्त्वमूचुस्तदीयम्

तेन ब्रूमः  सहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् || १ ||

काव्यस्य+आत्मा ध्वनि:+इति बुधै: य: समाम्नातपूर्व:

तस्य+अभावं जगदु:+अपरे भाक्तम्+आहु:+तम्+अन्ये |

केचित्+वाचाम् स्थितम्+अविषये तत्त्वमूचु:+तदीयम्

तेन ब्रूमः  सहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् || १ ||

 

Dhvani (ध्वनि:) was declared (समाम्नातम्) to be the soul of poetry (काव्यस्यात्मा) by learned persons (बुधै:) of yore  (पूर्वै: ). All the same some would refute its existence (तस्याभावं); some would consider it as something that could be logically implied (अपरे भाक्तम्+आहु:+तम्); some others speak of its presence as being beyond the provision of expression (अन्ये केचित्+वाचाम् स्थितम्+अविषये). Hence, we hereby intend explaining (तेन ब्रूमः ) what its nature (तत्स्वरूपम्) is so as to cause delight to the hearts of sympathetic critics (सहृदय+मनः+प्रीतये).

जगदु: = वाक्, words; अपरे = earlier people like Bharata and Bhaamaa; Anandavardhana says like Yajnavalkya with a lot of confidence that what he says is right, Anandavardhana first condemns the arguments put forth by his earlier alamkaarikaas.

Some Bhaktas (which are followers of Bhakti or suppressed meaning) consider Bhakti to be supreme. There are others who consider crooked speech or indirect indication to be supreme केचित्+वाचाम् स्थितम्+अविषये. I am now telling this for the sake of the connoisseurs or enthusiasts (सहृदय+मनः+प्रीतये).

यस्मिन्नस्ति न वस्तु किंचन मनःप्रह्लादि सालंकृति

व्युत्पन्नै रचितं च नैव वचनैर्वक्रोक्तिशून्यं च यत् |

काव्यं तद्ध्वनिना समन्वितमिति प्रीत्या प्रशंसञ्जडो

नो विद्मोऽभिदधाति किं सुमतिना पृष्टः स्वरूपं ध्वनेः ||

Poetry in which there can be least delight to the mind (मनःप्रह्लादि) and no embellishment (सालंकृति), which does not present any welcoming words and artistic turn in expressions (यस्मिन्नस्ति न वस्तु किंचन), is so much praised with all vehemence by the stupids (प्रीत्या प्रशंस: जड: न: विद्म:+अभिदधाति), as being wth suggestion (Dhvani) (काव्यं तत्+ध्वनिना समन्वितम्+इति). But one fails to imagine what answer the theorist would furnish if asked to present the nature of Dhvani (स्वरूपं ध्वनेः) itself!”

यस्मिन्नस्ति न वस्तु किंचन – No plot in the kavya (small verses like Muktaka). मनःप्रह्लादि – causes happiness; सालंकृति – adorned with alamkaara; व्युत्पन्नै रचितं च – written by great scholars; नैव वचनै: वक्रोक्ति+शून्यं च यत् – not devoid of crooked speech; तत् काव्यं धवनिना समन्वितम् – that kavya has suggestion; इति प्रीत्या प्रशंसन् – praised with all enthusiasm; जड: न: विद्म: अभिदधाति – even stupid people can appreciate it; किं सुमतिना पृष्टः – what to say about the theorist when they are asked; ध्वनेः स्वरूपं – about the nature of Dhvani. They know it very well. I am not saying anything new.

At different points of time, different propositions have been made regarding the soul of poetry. This verse is cited from Manoratha’s kavya who was a contemporary of Ananda Vardhana.

2nd कारिका

य:+अर्थः सहृदय+श्लाघ्यः काव्य+आत्मा+इति व्यवस्थितः |

वाच्य+प्रतीयमाना+आख्यौ तस्य भेदौ+उभौ स्मृतौ || २ ||

That sense (य:+अर्थः) which wins the approbation of sensitive critics (सहृदय+श्लाघ्यः) is declared to be the soul of poetry (काव्य+आत्मा+इति व्यवस्थितः). The “denotative” and the “suggestive” (वाच्य+प्रतीयमाना+आख्यौ) are considered to be its two aspects (तस्य भेदौ उभौ स्मृतौ).

वाच्यः – प्रसिद्द अर्था, dictionary meaning; प्रतीयमाना – suggestive; Based on the staayibhava in the person, the experience would differ. The suggestive meaning differs from person to person. It flashes to them. The term Neerasa would bring different kinds of thoughts to travellers or young couple.

3rd कारिका

तत्र वाच्यः प्रसिद्ध:+यः प्रकारै:+उपमादिभिः |

बहुधा व्याकृतः स: अन्यैः (काव्य+लक्ष्मविधायिभिः)  तत: न इह प्रतन्यते (केवलमनूद्यते पुनर्यथोपयोगमिति) || ३ ||

Of these two, the explicit (denotative-conventional) (तत्र वाच्यः) is generally known (प्रसिद्ध:) and it has been already covered (व्याकृतः)  in many ways (बहुधा) through figures of speech such as simile (उपमादिभिः  प्रकारै:)  by other writers (अन्यैः). Therefore that is not to be discussed here in detail. (तत:ह प्रतन्यते) (3)

 

The expression “other writers” refers to writers on Alankaarasaastra such as Bhatta, Udbhata, etc. Though it is stated it need not be discussed here in detail, the conclusions reached by them will be referred to as and when the occasions demand.

4th Kaarikaa

प्रतीयमानं पुनरन्यदेव वस्त्वस्ति वाणीषु महाकवीनाम् |

यत्तत्प्रसिद्धावयवातिरिक्तं विभाति लावण्यमिवांगनासु || ४ ||

प्रतीयमानं पुन: अन्यदेव वस्तु+अस्ति वाणीषु महा+कवीनाम् |

यत् + तत्+ प्रसिद्ध+ अवयव+ अतिरिक्तं विभाति लावण्यम्+इवांगनासु || ४ ||

But the suggestive aspect is distinct from this (explicit – denotative  – conventional) (प्रतीयमानं पुन: अन्यत् एव). It shows itself brilliantly in the words of celebrated poets (महाकवि) and reigns supreme over and above (अतिरिक्तं विभाति) the striking external elements प्रसिद्ध+ अवयव, even as charm among ladies (लावण्यम् इव अङ्गनासु). (4)

In a lady, the charm is not due to any specific organs but it is something beyond the parts that cause the overall impression.

Example for Dhvani is shown in 2 ways. Self made example and by picking up from earlier works.

भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः स शुनकोऽद्य मारितस्तेन |

गोदावरी+नदी+कूल+लतागहन+वासिना दृप्त+सिंहेन ||

Freely (विस्रब्धः) roam (भ्रम) about, O Ascetic! That dog (स: शुनक:) which you were afraid of, has been killed (मारित:) recently (अद्य) by (तेन) the ferocious lion (दृप्त+सिंहेन) that dwells (लतागहन+वासिना) on the bank of Godavari river (गोदावरी+नदी+कूल).

Suggested meaning: Don’t worry that there is no privacy. The person who used to haunt us has been removed away. We can meet.

व्रज ममैवैकस्या भवन्तु निःश्वासरोदितव्यानि |

मा तवापि तया विना दाक्षिण्यहतस्य जनिषत ||

व्रज मम एव एकस्या भवन्तु निःश्वास+रोदितव्यानि |

मा तवापि तया विना दाक्षिण्य+हतस्य जनिषत ||

Get away, I beseach you; let all the sighs and tears be mine only and not yours who have feign consideration to me. Here the conventional meaning is of the nature of a positive stand, the suggestive sense is neither prohibition nor a positive proposal.

5th Kaarikaa

काव्यस्यात्मा स एवार्थस्तथा चादिकवेः पुरा |

क्रौञ्चद्वन्द्ववियोगोत्थः शोकः श्लोकत्वमागतः || ५||

काव्यस्यात्मा स: एव+अर्थ:+तथा च+आदिकवेः पुरा |

क्रौञ्चद्वन्द्व+वियोग+उत्थः शोकः श्लोकत्वम्+आगतः || ५ ||

That meaning (Rasadhvani) alone is the soul of poetry. This is quite evident from the very incident of the first poet’s Valmiki’s grief which become evoked (in him) due to the wailing of the separate Kraunca bird (from its male mate drenched in pool of blood), which struck the inner core of the sage so as to present the flow of poetry).

स: एव+अर्थ: = प्रतीयमान अर्थ: ;

Example of Dhvani from Valmiki – मा निषाद

मा निषाद प्रतिष्ठां त्वमगम: शाश्वती: समा: |

सत्क्रौञ्चमिथुनादेकम् अवधी: काममोहितम् ||

Anushtub was earlier only a Veda chandas. Valmiki was the first to use it as a Kavya chandas. Valmiki’s shaapaa was extempore. He had just heard the story of Rama. Even Karuna is enjoyed by the readers and leaves an impact.

Aadhibautika Meaning – at the physical level by other living entities:

निषाद ! शाश्वती: समा: प्रतिष्ठां त्वम् मा अगम: — Hey Hunter! You will not get the glory (प्रतिष्ठां) till eternity (शाश्वती:) for many years (समा:) ; सत् काममोहितम्

क्रौञ्चमिथुनात् एकम् अवधी: – Because you killed one among the two krauncha birds that were in love.

Aadidaivika Meaning – at the spiritual level: In Naandhi, the stoy has to be indicated.

मा निषाद ! शाश्वती: समा: प्रतिष्ठां त्वम् अगम: — Beloved of Lakshmi! You will get the glory (प्रतिष्ठां) till eternity (शाश्वती:) for many years (समा:) ; सत् काममोहितम्

क्रौञ्चमिथुनात् एकम् अवधी: – Because you killed the crooked (क्रौञ्च) one among the couple (मिथुन) , Ravana, who was passionate (काममोहितम्).

Adyaatmika meaning – pertaining to body and mind :  By Yoga, the desire is killed.

[Side Note: The Staayibhava of Karuna is Shoka. Kalidasa was always protected by Kings. Because of his samskaara, his poems are more on Shrungaara rasa. Even the viraga is to enhance (pooshana) Shrungaara only].

Anandavardhana mentions about three types of Dhvani namely VastuDhvani, Alamkaaradhvani and Rasadhvani. He mentions that Anandaa is got by Rasadhvani only.

6th Kaarikaa

[Side Note: Staayi Bhaava is the inherent feeling. Rasaa gets generated based on this inherent Staayi Bhaava. For example, Kalidasa lead a comfortable life under the patronage of the kings and so his poems are more romantic]

सरस्वती स्वादु तत्+अर्थ+वस्तु निःष्यन्दमाना महतां कवीनाम् |

अलोक+सामान्यम्+अभिव्यनक्ति परिस्फुरन्तम् प्रतिभा+विशेषम् || ६ ||

वस्तु तत्त्वम् = इति वृत्तम् theme; निःष्यन्दमाना = dripping; महतां कवीनाम् = great poet’s; सरस्वती = भरति, वाक्, speech; अलोक-सामान्यम् = = not ordinary, extra-ordinary; प्रतिभा+विशेषम्  = the speciality of creativity; परिस्फुरन्तम् = flashing; अभिव्यनक्ति = expresses;

This is a scale of measurement to measure the greatness of the poets – that it should bring forth the genius in them.

The speech of the celebrated poets revealing a theme infused with suggestion would certainly bring forth the striking and inspiring extra-ordinary genius in them and the same is uncommon yet brilliant (6).

तत् वस्तुतत्त्वं निःष्यन्दमाना महतां कवीनां भारती अलोकसामान्यं प्रतिभाविशेषं  परिस्फुरन्तमभिव्यनक्ति | येनास्मिन्नतिविचित्रकवि- परम्परावाहिनि संसारे कालिदासप्रभृतयो द्वित्राः पञ्चषा वा महाकवय इति गण्यन्ते |

The speech (भारती) of the celebrated poets (महतां कवीनां) manifests such subjects which are replete or brimming (निःष्यन्दमाना) with the said meaning (तत् वस्तुतत्त्वं) and brings out vividly the special genius in them. Hence it is held that there have been countless number of poets who have contributed and are yet contributing to enrich the poetic world. Still only two or three or at the most five or six among them such as Kalidaasa are counted upon as celebrated poets (महाकवय).

[Side note: Great poets were being counted. The last finger was counted for Kalidasa. For the next ring finger, a poet equal to Kalidasa could not be found and hence it was named Anaamikaa].

7th Kaarikaa

इदं च अपरं प्रतीयमानस्य अर्थस्य सद्भावसाधनं प्रमाणम् |

प्रतीयमान अर्थ = Dhvani Artha or suggested meaning.

There is another proof for establising the prevelence and significance of the suggested meaning.

शब्दार्थशासनज्ञानमात्रेणैव न वेद्यते |

वेद्यते स तु काव्यार्थतत्त्वज्ञैरेव केवलम् || ७ ||

शब्दार्थ+शासन+ज्ञान+मात्रेण एव न वेद्यते |

वेद्यते स: तु काव्यार्थ+तत्त्वज्ञै: एव केवलम् || ७ ||

शासन = rule;  This greatness cannot be achieved by merely learning the ordained word meanings. This capacity of identifying great poems is only present in those who know the Kavyaartha Tattvam.

That meaning cannot be comprehended by the mere knowledge of the rules of grammar (word and sense) but can be realised only by those who have understood the real significance of poetry. (7)

8th Kaarikaa

सोऽर्थस्तद्व्यक्तिसामर्थ्ययोगी शब्दश्च कश्चन |

यत्नतः प्रत्यभिज्ञेयौ तौ शब्दार्थौ महाकवेः || ८ ||

स: अर्थ: तत् व्यक्ति+सामर्थ्य+योगी शब्द: च कश्चन |

यत्नतः प्रत्यभिज्ञेयौ तौ शब्दार्थौ महाकवेः || ८ ||

That sense and that uncommon word which has the potency of conveying it, only those two should be marked carefully by the celebrated poets.

व्यङ्ग्य: अर्थ: तत् व्यक्ति+सामर्थ्य+योगी शब्दश्च कश्चन |  न शब्द- मात्रम् | तावेव शब्दार्थौ महाकवेः प्रत्यभिज्ञेयौ | व्यङ्ग्यव्यञ्ज-काभ्यामेव सुप्रयुक्ताभ्यां महाकवित्वलाभो महाकवीनां, न वाच्यवाचकरचनामात्रेण |

व्यङ्ग्य: अर्थ: = तत् व्यक्ति; व्युत्पत्ति = vocabulary; व्युत्पन्न: = one who has rich vocabulary;  सामर्थ्य योगी = good poet, श्रेष्ठ कवि: ;

A good poet would know in which place, in which intensity, which word has to be used to get the suggested meaning or vyangyaartha. The poet has to have a good vocabulary so that he can choose the most apt term for the situation. So Vaachyaartha is a basic necessity to produce Vengyaartha.

[Side note: In Kalidaasaa’s Megha Doota, when the cloud (megha) has to convey the message of the Yaksha to the Yakshini, it addresses her as “Hey! अविधवे (Not a widow)”.   The Yakshin was worried about the welfare of her husband. So, the cloud wants to convey first that he is alive and that she is not a widow. This news gives her maximum relief and gets her to listen to the messager with interest].

9th Kaarikaa

आलोकार्थी यथा दीपशिखायां यत्नवाञ्जनः |

तदुपायतया तद्वदर्थे वाच्ये तदादृतः || ९ ||

आलोक+अर्थी यथा दीप+शिखायां यत्नवान्+जनः |

तत्+उपायतया तद्वदर्थे वाच्ये तदादृतः || ९ ||

आलोक = to see, अवलोक;

In the same manner as a man intent upon seeing an object in darkness, puts forth his efforts towards fetching a lamp owing to its being a means to realise his goal (of seeing the object) one who is very much interested in the suggested meaning would at the outset direct his effort towards (understanding) the conventional meaning. (9)

 

When there is darkness, one tries to bring the light (दीप+शिखा). Only when the light is brought, the darkness can be dispelled. Only when the dictionary meaning is known (vaakyaartha), the vengyaartha can be used. The knowledge of the word is very important.

10th Kaarikaa

यथा पदार्थद्वारेण वाक्यार्थः सम्प्रतीयते |

वाच्यार्थपूर्विका तद्वत्प्रतिपत्तस्य वस्तुनः || १० ||

Just as the full meaning of a sentence can become grasped through the meaning of individual words, the kknowledge of that suggested meaning can be comprehended only through the medium of the expressed meaning. (10)

 

Word meaning helps to understand the sentence meaning. But once the sentence is framed, the word-meaning looses its significance. This is like the final dish having a taste of its own which is different from the ingredients though the taste is arrived due to the ingredients only. Also depending on the context the appropriate meaning has to be taken. For example, saindavam सैन्धवं could mean salt or horse.

If so much importance is to be given for the Vaachyaartha or word-import, the question arises whether the other suggested meaning is important. Anandavardhana clarifies that though the word-import is important, ultimately the suggested meaning is only more important than it.

11th Kaarikaa

स्व+सामर्थ्य+वशेन+एव वाक्यार्थं प्रतिपादयन् |

यथा व्यापारनिष्पत्तौ पदार्थो न विभाव्यते || ११ ||

Though by its own potency (स्व+सामर्थ्य+वशेन+एव), the word-import (वाक्यार्थं) becomes responsible for the sentence-import and just as it disappears when once its purpose is served. (व्यापारनिष्पत्तौ) (11)

 

Rasa is the feeling that is remains in the audience even after the theatre and the story is forgotten.

12th Kaarikaa

तद्वत्सचेतसां स: अर्थ: वाच्यार्थ+विमुखात्मनाम् |

बुद्धौ तत्त्वार्थ+दर्शिन्यां झटिति+एव+अवभासते || १२ ||

So also the suggested meaning flashes across the connoisseurs’ mind when they turn away from the conventional meaning.

The meaning (स: अर्थ:) flashes (अवभासते) in the mind (बुद्धौ) of the connoisseurs (तत्त्वार्थदर्शिनी), the very moment itself (झटिति+एव).

13th Kaarikaa (Important to be memorised)

यत्रार्थः शब्दो वा तमर्थमुपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ .

व्यङ्क्तः काव्यविशेषः स ध्वनिरिति सूरिभिः कथितः .. १३..

यत्र+अर्थः शब्द:+वा तम्+अर्थम्+उपसर्जनी+कृतस्वार्थौ |

व्यङ्क्तः काव्य+विशेषः स: ध्वनि:+इति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३ ||

 

The conventional word शब्द: and the conventional meaning अर्थः   (स्व+अर्थौ =  स्व + शब्द: + अर्थः) are abandoned उपसर्जनी+कृत |  अर्थः शब्द: वा व्यङ्क्तः | They become suggested word or meaning. व्यङ्क्तः = प्रतीयमान: अर्थ: भवति | That is a speciality of the poem called Dhvani.
That kind of poetry in which the conventional meaning or the conventional word renders its meaning sub-ordinate and suggests the intended or implied meaning, is termed “Dhvani” or “suggestive poetry” by the learned people.

[Side Note: Important verse defining Dhvani]

All the parafernalia are forgotten like the theater or the actors. But the Rasa remains. In the same way, the word-meanings are forgotten but the suggested meaning remains. That vyangyaartha is Dhvani. There are vastu dhvani, alamkara dhvani and rasa dhvani. Kavyasya aatmaa is this rasa dhvani only.

परिकरश्लोकाश्चात्र: – (Supporting stanzas or reminding verse)
(सिद्धान्तस्य अनुकरणार्थं नूतन श्लोकस्य आवृत्ति: )

व्यङ्ग्य+व्यञ्जक+सम्बन्ध+निबन्धनतया ध्वनेः |

वाच्य+वाचक+चारुत्व+हेतु+अन्तःपातिता कुतः ||

Suggestion ध्वनेः, is governed (निबन्धनतया) by the relation (सम्बन्ध) between the suggested (व्यङ्ग्य) and the suggester (व्यञ्जक). How (कुतः) can it be included (अन्तःपातिता) in the source (हेतु) of beauty (चारुत्व) found in the expressed (वाचक) and the expression (वाच्य)?

 

There is a relationship (सम्बन्ध) between the suggester or the word (व्यञ्जक) and the suggested meaning (व्यङ्ग्य – य: प्रतीयमान: अर्थ: ध्वनित:). वाचक is the word, say the word “पुस्तकम्” | वाच्यार्थ is the dictionary meaning. In samaasokti, the vaachyaartha is only important and not vyangyaartha. There Dhvani is not present.

There are other entities like samaasaas also which give a different meaning. The question arises whether Dhvani can be considered to be subsumed in those alankaaraas where there is an element of suggested meaning. In the Lochana, Abhinava Gupta question how that can be included and refutes it. He differentiates the suggested meaning from these other entities that provide an enhanced meaning over the basic meaning of the words. In Gangaayaam Goshah, the vaakyaartha of Ganga still has its importance. Only when the word-meaning disappears and a suggested meaning stays, it is considered as Dhvani. Nevertheless, in all the uttama alamkaaras, Dhvani could be present, where the primary meaning is not considered.

Anandavardhana authoritatively declares that suggestion becomes possible only when the suggested element is absolutely prominent.

समासोक्तौ तावत् – – –

उपोढरागेण विलोलतारकं तथा गृहीतं शशिना निशामुखम् |

यथा समस्तं तिमिरांशुकं तया पुरोऽपि रागाद्गलितं न लक्षितम् ||

The twilight with twinkling stars became brightened by the moon glowing red suddenly so that the whole mass of darkness vanishing in the east due to brightness was not noticed at all.

The earlier alamkaarikas (पूर्वपक्षा) have already told about samasokthi which also includes some inherent meaning. Isn’t that Dhvani? What is new about it now? – asks the earlier alamkaarikas. Anandavardhana clarifies that these are not Dhvani as the moola shabda and moola artha is still present. There should not be importance for the Vaachya and Vaachaka. There should be importance only for Vyanjyaka and vyangya. Suggestion is possible only when the suggested element is absolutely prominent. This is not so in Samaasokti (condensed metaphor) and the like.

अनुरागवती सन्ध्या दिवसस्तत्पुरस्सरः |

अहो दैवगतिः कीदृक्तथापि न समागमः ||

Twilight (सन्ध्या) is full of love (अनुरागवती) and the day  (दिवस:)  follows (तत्पुरस्सरः) her face to face.  Alas! (अहो)  What is ordained (कीदृक्तथापि) by decree of fate (दैवगतिः) is that they never () meet (समागमः) ! 

Notes from the class on 22-7-2015:

We will see the concepts (परिकल्पनानि) that are needed to understand Dhvani.

Vaachyaartha – Dictionary Meaning

Shakti has many synonyms. Koshaarthah, Vaachyah, Vaachyaartha, शक्यार्थ, mukhyaartha, Abhidaa vruttihi, Abhidaa vyaapaarah, Sanketaartha.  Abhidhaa (अभिधा) vyaapaarah – kasmaat vyaapaarat koshartam avagantum shakyate asmaabhihi;  वृत्ति = vyaapaarah means function or activity. We all understand the word Pustakam to mean a book. So this term is Koshaartha. Abhidaa vyaapaara, Lakshanaa vyaapaara and vyanjanaa vyaapaara are the 3 vyaapaaras. पदपदार्थयो: संबन्ध: वृत्ति: |

Lakshyaartha Secondary Meaning

Why do we need Lakshanaa vyaapaara? मुख्यार्थस्य बाध: एव लक्षण व्यापारस्य आधारः | Lakshanaa obstructs the mukhyaartha. बाध:  means to reject or not accept. So we go to the indicatory or suppressed meaning. Eg. Gangaayaam gosha – Here the expressed meaning is not acceptable, so the indicatory meaning is taken. गूढं सत् चमत्करोति |  To enhance the beauty of the poem, such indicatory meanings are used. These latent / hidden / suppressed / indicatory (goodam) meanings cause fascination and excitement. There is always a relationship (संबन्धः) between the mukhyaartha and the suppressed meaning.

Dhvani or व्यङ्गार्थ – Suggestion

How is व्यङ्गार्थ different from this suppressed meaning? For dhvani, there are no conditions like it should obstruct or have a relationship with the original meaning. The characteristics of Dhvani are described later. To arrive at the suggested meaning, the characters and the context are important. Anandavardhana is referred to as Dhvanikaarah. He tells again and again that Dhvani is the Pratiyamaanaartha, the meaning that flashes in the mind. मनसि प्रकाशते | मनसि उद्बव: भवति | When the mother tells a boy going to the movie, “Go, Go!”, based on the context, it could have the opposite meaning of “Don’t go!”. So, here, it is neither the dictionary meaning nor a suppressed meaning. Here it is the suggested meaning. This is an example of Vastu Dhvani. The 3 types are Vastu Dhvani, Alamkaara Dhvani and Rasa Dhvani. The most superior amongst these is the Rasa Dhvani.

अनुबन्ध चतुष्टय:

It is a well established practice while writing a treatise to develop on four aspects namely subject matter, relationship, utility and the recipient together called technically Anubhanda Chatrustayam. Here the subject matter is to bring home the fact that the quintessence of poetry, the soul of poetry is suggestion (Dhvani). The relationship that subseves between the subject matter and the present treatise is that this is the only work which has established its view point namely, काव्यतत्त्व (Suggestion). Its utility is only to present the view point so as to discipline the mind of the poets and the critics as well since both have similar disposition – नायकस्य कवे: श्रोतु: समान: अनुभवस्तत: | says Bhattatauta, the teacher of Abhinavagupta, in viewing or appreciating a literary composition. The recicpients of the ideas presented in the work are those persons talented in writing poetry and the sympathetic or refined critics (सहृदया:)

Anubhanda = related to Bhanda; Bhanda = prabhanda = granta.  There are 4 things that the author should consider before writing a granta.  Vishayah, sambhandah, prayojanam and adhikaari are the 4 aspects.

Vishayah in this work is Dhvani. Sambhandah or relationship is pratipaadya and pratipaadaka (saahityam), for all shastra grantas. Prayojanam is the knowledge of the vishaya by the sahrudayas.  Adhikaaris are those who are interested in this knowledge.

Usually the author covers these 4 things in the mangala shloka itself. (We have come across it last year in Tarka Sangraha).

अनुबन्ध चतुष्टय:

विषय:  — ध्वनिस्वरूपस्य निरूपणम् | विषयस्य उल्लेखं (description) प्रधानम् |  There was an argument that the earlier poets have not spoken about Dhvani and so it does not exist. So, there is a need to prove that earlier poets have mentioned about Dhvani. “काव्यस्य आत्मा ध्वनि: इति  बुधै: आम्नातपूर्व: |” आम्नात = indicated or referred to.

“अत: ब्रूमः  सहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् |”

प्रयोजनम् – तत् ज्ञानस्य प्रयोजनत्वम् | सहृदयेभ्य: ध्वने: स्वरूपस्य ज्ञानम् | What is the use of the knowledge of Dhvani in our lives? प्रयोजन्स्य प्रयोजनं सहृदयमनस्तोष: | काव्ये तु आनन्द: प्रधान-प्रयोजनम् | Gnaana is moksha.

संबन्धः – सिद्धान्त ग्रन्तेषु प्रतिपाद्य-प्रतिपादक-भाव: संबन्ध:  | सिद्धान्त: (conclusion or doctrine or theory).  प्रतिपाद्य – that which needs to be proved. प्रतिपादक – one who is proving it.

अधिकारी – सहृदयानां काव्य-रसिकानां तत् जिज्ञासूनां अधिकारित्वं | Those who want to learn are the adhikaaris. शिष्य शिक्षार्थं मङ्गलम् | This is told by  Anandavardhana himself. Once the student understands it, the work is considered to be good.

13th Kaarikaa (Important to be memorised)

यत्र+अर्थः शब्द:+वा तम्+अर्थम्+उपसर्जनी+कृत+स्व+अर्थौ |
व्यङ्क्तः काव्य+विशेषः स: ध्वनि:+इति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३ ||

Refer notes given earlier.

मा निषाद example is taken by Anandavardhana to prove that this Dhavani aspect is recognized by the earlier poets also. For that he takes the example of Aadikavi Valmiki’s lakshya granta, Raamaayanam. All that Sita wanted was that she should always be with Raama. The shoka staayibhaava is present in Valmiki. The shoka took the form of a shloka. Karuna rasa is predominant in that. He was impacted by the suffering of the women separated from their husbands – wives of Dasaratha, Tara, Mandodari and Sita. Anandavardhana says that the predominant (angi – pradhaana) rasa is Karuna. The other rasas are only secondary (anga – apradhaana) rasa. Refer notes given earlier.

[Side note: पतनात् त्रायते इति पत्नी | Mandodari advices Ravana. She praises Rama in four slokas after the death of Ravana – Mandodari chatushloki.  All men and women are considered as women and only the supreme god is considered as the single male. In Brindavan also, Krishna is considered as the supreme husband. Other relationships are considered only as being secondary.  A man’s support might be required for companionship or for getting progeny प्रजायै कन्यां दास्यामि | For other daanaas except kanyaa daanaa, they say “तवेदं न मम |” Vivekananda says that a new Smriti work has to be created for the modern men and women].

व्यङ्ग्यव्यञ्जकसम्बन्धनिबन्धनतया ध्वनेः |

वाच्यवाचकचारुत्वहेत्वन्तःपातिता कुतः ||

Refer the earlier class’s notes.
व्यङ्ग्यस्य यत्राप्राधान्यं वाच्यमात्रानुयायिनः |
समासोक्त्यादयस्तत्र वाच्यालङ्कृतयः स्फुटाः ||

व्यङ्ग्यस्य यत्र + अप्राधान्यं वाच्य+मात्र+अनुयायिनः |
समासोक्ति आदय: तत्र वाच्य+अलङ्कृतयः स्फुटाः ||
If we notice that the suggested meaning is not important (व्यङ्ग्यस्य यत्र + अप्राधान्यं) and remains secondary (अनुयायिनः) to the expressed (वाच्य+मात्र), we should understand that such examples are only to be reckoned (स्फुटाः) as figure of speech (वाच्य+अलङ्कृतयः) like Samaasokti (समासोक्ति आदय: ).


व्यङ्ग्यस्य प्रतिभामात्रे वाच्यार्थानुगमेऽपि वा |
न ध्वनिर्यत्र वा तस्य प्राधान्यं न प्रतीयते ||

व्यङ्ग्यस्य प्रतिभा+मात्रे वाच्यार्थ+अनुगमे+अपि वा |
न ध्वनि:+यत्र वा तस्य प्राधान्यं न प्रतीयते ||

If in places we have a glimpse of the suggested (व्यङ्ग्यस्य प्रतिभा+मात्रे), or the suggested remaining a second fiddle to the expressed meaning (वाच्यार्थ+अनुगमे+अपि वा), or if its primary significance cannot be easily experienced (यत्र वा तस्य प्राधान्यं न प्रतीयते), it should not be deemed suggestive poetry (न ध्वनि:).

 

The relation to the expressed meaning has to be given up for Dhvani.
तत्परावेव शब्दार्थौ यत्र व्यङ्ग्यं प्रति स्थितौ |
ध्वनेः स एव विषयो मन्तव्यः संकरोज्झितः ||

तत् +परौ+एव शब्द+अर्थौ यत्र व्यङ्ग्यं प्रति स्थितौ |
ध्वनेः स: एव विषय: मन्तव्यः संकर+उज्झितः ||

If we come to know that both the word and meaning (तत् +परौ+एव शब्द+अर्थौ) are in the main devoted to suggest (यत्र व्यङ्ग्यं प्रति स्थितौ), such examples should be considered as genuine instances of suggestive poetry (स: एव ध्वनेः विषय: मन्तव्यः) with all certainty (free from confusion – संकर+उज्झितः )  

यत्र = यस्मिन् काव्ये | ध्वनि: सर्वतन्त्र स्वतन्त्र: | There are no rules with respect to Dhvani. For lakshnaartha, there is a rule that there has to be some relationship to the vaachyaartha. It abandons all types of connections – संकर+उज्झितः | Dhvani need not have any connection with vaachyaartha.

There are 3 types of meaning. The first one is the pradhaanarthaa, mukhyaartha is the vaakyaartha, which is the koshaartha. The second one is the lakshnaartha where there is an objection to the mukhyaartha. Dhvani is based only on shabda and artha. It has no relationship with the Vaachyaartha, the expressed meaning and the lakshyaartha, the indicatory meaning. It can mean anything. It depends on the prathibha or talent of the poet. The sahrudayaas get into the raptours joy.

Rasa dhvani is only considered as the soul of poetry. The vastu dhvani and alamkaara dhvani are not considered to be the soul of poetry.

29-15-2014
13th Kaarikaa continued with an example

 

Dhvani is classified into two, namely अविवक्षितवाच्य (unintended literal import) and विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य (intended but further extending literal import). This is an example of avivakshitavaachya.

 

सुवर्णपुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषास्त्रयः |
शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च यश्च जानाति सेवितुम् ||

सुवर्ण+पुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषा: त्रयः |
शूर: च कृतविद्य: च य: च जानाति सेवितुम् ||
Three men will collect flowers of gold out of the earth – the courageous, the learned and he who knows how to serve.

There are plenty of golden flowers in this world. Only 3 types of people can gather it – namely warriors (valorous in battle), Scholar (one who has mastered any vidhya) and people who know how to serve.  Suvarna pushpam = uttama jeevanam

14th Kaarikaa

Bhaaktaah = Laakshanikaah; Mahimabhatta’s work is called Vyakti Vivekah. He is a Taarkikah. He says that Anumaanam eva Dhvanihi. Anumaana pramaana is the proof by inference where the tattva is proved using the five limbed sentences – Pancha avayava vaakyaani.  Parvatho vanhimaan dhoomah – A person sees the smoke and concludes about the fire. In same way, Dhvani is also anumaanam says the Laakshanikaah.
[Side Note: An example of the five constituents of inference follows:

  1. Pratijna – There is fire on the hill.
  2. Hetu – Because (on the hill) there is smoke.
  3. Drstanta – Where there is smoke there is fire, as in the stove.
  4. Upanaya – There is smoke on this hill.
  5. Nigamana – Hence, there is fire on this hill]भक्त्या बिभर्ति नैकत्वम् रूपभेदादयं ध्वनिः || १४ A||
    भक्त्या बिभर्ति न+एकत्वम् रूपभेदात्+अयं ध्वनिः |
    Suggestion and secondary signification are not one and the same because of the innate difference between the two.

वृत्ति:

अयमुक्तप्रकारो ध्वनिर्भक्त्या नैकत्वं बिभर्ति भिन्नरूपत्वात् |

अयं उक्तप्रकार: ध्वनि: भक्त्या एकत्वम् न बिभर्ति भिन्नरूपत्वात् |
Suggestion which is explained previously cannot be considered identical with secondary significantion (bhakti) or logical implication since their nature is different.

 

बिभर्ति = भवति | भक्त्या = laakshaneekarthena; Among the three functions of the word, the second function is called Lakshana Vyaapaara or Bhakti. Believers of Bhakti are Bhaktaas. Suggestion and Bhakti are different since their forms are different (roopa bheda).

वाच्यव्यतिरिक्तस्यार्थस्य वाच्यवाचकाभ्यां तात्पर्येण प्रकाशनं यत्र व्यङ्ग्यप्राधान्ये स ध्वनिः | उपचारमात्रं तु भक्तिः |

वाच्य+व्यतिरिक्तस्य+अर्थस्य वाच्य+वाचकाभ्यां तात्पर्येण प्रकाशनं यत्र व्यङ्ग्य+प्राधान्ये स: ध्वनिः |

That sense in which there is the manifestation of a meaning other than the conventional through the expression and the conventional sense and in which the suggested meaning is much more preminent than the conventional, is to be deemed Dhvani. Bhakti has only secondary signification or metaphorical significance (उपचरितवृत्ति:)

भक्ति: वाच्यात् अतिरिक्तं न | वाच्य संबन्धेन एव वाच्यार्थ: भवति | Dhvani has a meaning that is over an above the vaachyaartha. The relationship between Dhvani and vaachaka is that of meaning and the word (वाच्य वाचक संबन्धः) वाचका = शब्द: = word | वाच्या = अर्थ: = meaning | The relationship happens due to some taatparya. It explains how bhakti is different from Dhvani.

अतिव्याप्तेरथाव्याप्तेर्न चासौ लक्ष्यते तया || १४ B||

अतिव्याप्ते:+अथ+अव्याप्ते: न चासौ लक्ष्यते तया

If that is considered identical with suggestion, it commits the fallacies of “too wide” a definition and “too narrow” a definition.

नैव भक्त्या ध्वनिर्लक्ष्यते | कथम् ? अतिव्याप्तेरव्याप्तेश्च |

न एव भक्त्या ध्वनि: लक्ष्यते | कथम् ? अतिव्याप्ते: अव्याप्ते: च |

Suggestion cannot be determined by indication (bhakti). Because it would involve too wide a definition and too narrow a definition.

If we consider Bhakti to be Dhvani, there will be two faults namely athivyaapti or too wide definition and avyaapti or too narrow definition.

तत्रातिव्याप्तिर्ध्वनिव्यतिरिक्तेऽपि विषये भक्तेः सम्भवात् |

तत्र+अतिव्याप्ति+र्ध्वनिव्यतिरिक्ते+अपि विषये भक्तेः सम्भवात् |

The first one occurs because indication can afford to exist in such instances and are free from suggestion.

 

In some of the lakshyaarthas, Dhvani could also occur. But not all. So it becomes too-wide a definition. Over-extensiveness.

यत्र हि व्यङ्ग्यकृतं महत्सौष्ठवं नास्ति तत्राप्युपचरितशब्दवृत्त्या प्रसिद्ध्यनुरोधप्रवर्तितव्यवहाराः कवयो दृश्यन्ते

When no special charm could be experienced due to the presence of situation, metaphorical indications will be used by poets following the established convention.

 

There are cases where Dhvani occurs even in the absence of Bhakti. There it becomes avyaapti to say that Dhvani is only bhakti.

परार्थे यः पीडामनुभवति भङ्गेऽपि मधुरो

यदीयः सर्वेषामिह खलु विकारोऽप्यभिमतः |

न सम्प्राप्तो वृद्धिं यदि स भृशमक्षेत्रपतितः

किमिक्षोर्दोषोऽसौ न पुनरगुणाया मरुभुवः ||
परार्थे यः पीडाम्+अनुभवति भङ्गे+अपि मधुर:

यदीयः सर्वेषाम्+इह खलु विकार:+अप्यभिमतः |

न सम्प्राप्त: वृद्धिं यदि स: भृशम्+अक्षेत्रपतितः

किम्+इक्षोर्दोष:+असौ न पुन:+अगुणाया मरुभुवः ||

If that which experiences pain for the sake of others (परार्थे यः पीडाम्+अनुभवति) and yet remains sweet even when split (मधुर: भङ्गे+अपि), if that whose manifold deformities (विकार:)  too are deemed to be pleasing (अप्यभिमतः), falls in a barren region (भृशम्+अक्षेत्रपतितः)  and fails to grow (न सम्प्राप्त: वृद्धिं यदि स:), could it be the default of the sugar cane (किम्+इक्षोर्दोष:) and not at all (न पुन:) of the useless (अगुणाया) desert (मरुभुवः)?

This is only indication and not Dhvani.

15th Kaarikaa

उक्त्यन्तरेणाशक्यं यत्तच्चारुत्वं प्रकाशयन् |

शब्दो व्यञ्जकतां बिभ्रद् ध्वन्युक्तेर्विषयीभवेत् || १५ ||
उक्ति +अन्तरेण+अशक्यं यत्+तत्+चारुत्वं प्रकाशयन् |

शब्द: व्यञ्जकतां बिभ्रद् ध्वनि+उक्ते: विषयी+भवेत् || १५ ||

<Meaning> … replete with the suggestive potency, becomes worthy enough to be designated as “suggestive”.

 

Having stated that Dhvani is different from Bhakti, now Anandavardhana explains about Dhvani.  When the word gives a meaning that is different from the vaachyaartha, then it is Dhvani.

लक्ष्यम् = padyaas that are given as examples, लक्षणम् = definition.  There were लक्ष्यम् or examples given for cases where Bhakti is not Dhvani.

16th Kaarikaa

रूढा ये विषयेऽन्यत्र शब्दाः स्वविषयादपि |

लावण्याद्याः प्रयुक्तास्ते न भवन्ति पदं ध्वनेः || १६||

रूढा ये विषये+अन्यत्र शब्दाः स्व+विषयात्+अपि |

लावण्याद्याः प्रयुक्ता:+ते न भवन्ति पदं ध्वनेः || १६||

Words which signify conventional meanings other than what they primarily denote, as for example, the word “Laavanya” do not at all become the explaes of suggestion. (16)

तेषु चोपचरितशब्दवृत्तिरस्तीति |

तेषु च+उपचरित+शब्द+वृत्ति:+अस्ति+इति |

उपचरित = explained. वृत्ति: – it is the relationship of the word with the meaning.

In such words there will be metaphorical application (पचरित+शब्द+वृत्तिJ Even in case there is a possibility of suggestion in such instances, it would be on a different criterion.

Everyone knows the meaning of Laavanya or Charming. So it cannot become Dhvani as it has a prashiddha artha.

17th Kaarikaa

मुख्यां वृत्तिं परित्यज्य गुणवृत्त्याऽर्थदर्शनम् |

यदुद्दिश्य फलं तत्र शब्दो नैव स्खलद्गतिः || १७ ||

मुख्यां वृत्तिं परित्यज्य गुण+वृत्त्या+अर्थ+दर्शनम् |

यत्+उद्दिश्य फलं तत्र शब्द: न+एव स्खलद्गतिः || १७ ||

If a word gives up its primary denotative potency (मुख्यां वृत्तिं परित्यज्य) and is understood in its secondary sense (गुण+वृत्त्या+र्थ+दर्शनम्), it is with a definite purpose (त्+उद्दिश्य फलं). In conveying this purpose, the word does not move falteringly as it moves when it indicates a secondary meaning (तत्र शब्द:+एव स्खलद्गतिः.)

Vrutti is the relationship between the word and the meaning. There are 3 vrutti. Abhida vruttihi, lakshanaa vruttihi, vyanjanaa vruttihi. Vrutti is the vyaapaara or function.

Abhida vruttihi = मुख्यां वृत्तिं, परित्यज्य – it has to be abandoned. lakshanaa vruttihi = गौणवृत्ति = secondary meaning = indicatory meaning = lakshyaartha = gauNaartha.

The purpose is to communicate a meaning full of charm, for resorting to a secondary meaning. If the word is capable of achieving this purpose in a secondary way, then … <meaning>

18th Kaarikaa

वाचकत्वाश्रयेणैव गुणवृत्तिर्व्यवस्थिता |

व्यञ्जकत्वैकमूलस्य ध्वनेः स्याल्लक्षणं कथम् || १८ ||

वाचकत्व+आश्रयेण+एव गुणवृत्ति:+व्यवस्थिता |

व्यञ्जकत्व+एक+मूलस्य ध्वनेः स्यात्+लक्षणं कथम्

In reality, indication is based on (गुणवृत्ति:+व्यवस्थिता) the primary denotative potency of words (वाचकत्व+श्रयेण+एव). How can it afford to be a definition of suggestion (ध्वनेः क्षणं कथम् स्यात् ) whose sole basis is suggestivity (व्यञ्जकत्व+ए+मूलस्य)? (18)

For gaunaartha, it is very important to have association with the primary meaning. For Dhvani, the property of suggesting some meaning is the basis. The property of indicating is the basis of Gauna Vritti. How can they be the same?

19th Kaarikaa

कस्यचिद् ध्वनिभेदस्य सा तु स्यादुपलक्षणम् || १९ A||

कस्यचिद् ध्वनि+भेदस्य सा तु स्यात्+उपलक्षणम् |

सा तु कस्यचित् ध्वनिभेदस्य उपलक्षणम्  स्यात् |

At best, it could be included under one of the sub-divisions of suggestion.

i.e., In some cases, it is possible for this to be Dhvani also.

 

लक्षणेऽन्यैः कृते चास्य पक्षसंसिद्धिरेव नः || १९  B||

लक्षणेन+अन्यैः कृते च + अस्य पक्षसंसिद्धि: एव नः || १९ ||

If any one is to argue that the definition of suggestion has already been provided by others (लक्षणेन+अन्यैः कृते), it would prove our stand only (अस्य नः पक्षसंसिद्धि: एव).

Some abhaavavaadis say that Dhvani is a new concept. So we cannot accept it. When they accept that sometimes Dhvani can be present in cases of indicatory meaning, then that means that they have accepted Dhvani. लक्षणेन+अन्यैः कृते – if you accept the existence of something else other than lakshna, then the existence of Dhvani is already proved.

ध्वन्यलोक २

2.1st Karika

In the first chapter itself, the lakshananikaas arguments were refuted. There were 3 abhaavavaadi’s propositions that were refuted. Then the form of Dhvani was explained.

Dhvani is classified into two, namely अविवक्षितवाच्य (unintended literal import) and विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य (intended but further extending literal import). In the second chapter, the अविवक्षितवाच्य is discussed. विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य was discussed.

अर्थान्तरे सङ्क्रमितमत्यन्तं वा तिरस्कृतम् |

अविवक्षितवाच्यस्य ध्वनेर्वाच्यं द्विधा मतम् || १||

अर्थ+अन्तरे सङ्क्रमितम्+अत्यन्तं वा तिरस्कृतम् |

अविवक्षितवाच्यस्य ध्वने:+ वाच्यं द्विधा मतम् || १||

The expressed meaning in the former variety i.e., अविवक्षितवाच्य is sub-divided into two, namely, अर्थान्तरसंक्रमित (transformed into some other sense) and अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत (totally discarded).

अर्थ+अन्तरे = अन्य: अर्थ: ; सङ्क्रमित – to move (to a different meaning) = गमनं कृतम्;  अत्यन्त = संपूर्णतया ; तिरस्कृतम् –discarded; ध्वने:+ वाच्यं = The Dhvani’s meaning could be either to transform to another sense or to totally discard it.

स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतो वेल्लद्बलाका घना

वाताः शीकरिणः पयोदसुहृदामानन्दकेकाः कलाः |

कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोरहृदयो रामोऽस्मि सर्वं सहे

वैदेही तु कथम् भविश्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव ||

स्निग्ध+श्यामल+कान्ति+लिप्त+वियतो वेल्लद्+बलाका घना

वाताः शीकरिणः पयोद+सुहृदाम+आनन्द+केकाः कलाः |

कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोर+हृदय:+ राम:+अस्मि सर्वं सहे

वैदेही तु कथम् भविश्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव ||

The quarters are all painted as it was with the glistening dark clouds; the cranes are flying with excitement, forming a circle as it were. The gentle wind is full of moisture; these friends of clouds, i.e., the peococks are giving out joyous notes in the wind. Let all these confront me. I shall certainly put up with all these, for, I am Rama whose heart is quite hard as adamantine (made of very hard material). But how will Sita bear with this! Alas! Alas! O my beloved queen!  Bear these with all fortitude (courage).

The word Rama does not refer merely to the individual having that proper name but conveys the sense of a being who has braved many odds in life, by the potency of suggestion. कठोरहृदय: राम: | The dhvani is that Rama conveys that he is not a hard-hearted fellow. Just as it is affecting her, it is affecting him also. He is also affected and he is missing her.

तदा जायन्ते गुणा यदा ते सहृदयैर्गृह्यन्ते |

रविकिरणानुगृहीतानि भवन्ति कमलानि कमलानि ||

तदा जायन्ते गुणा यदा ते सहृदयै: + गृह्यन्ते |

रवि+किरण+अनुगृहीतानि भवन्ति कमलानि कमलानि ||

Merits do become merits where refined critics consider them so. Lotuses will be lotus as only when the rays of sun shelter them.

This is from Anandavardhana’s Visamsbaanalitaa. Only when you recognize it, you can reap the benefits. Here the second “Lotuses” is suggestive example of expressed meaning totally discarded. The second time usage of lotus could mean different things like the abode of Lakshmi, sakala soundarya aakara, sun’s friend, etc. The lotus grabs the opportunity and blooms. Same way people have to grab the opportunity. The second usage of lotus is the अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्या.

रविसङ्क्रान्तसौभाग्यस्तुषारावृतमण्डलः |

निःश्वासान्ध इवादर्शश्चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते ||

रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्य: तुषार+आवृत+मण्डलः |

निःश्वास+अन्ध: इव+आदर्श:+चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते ||

All the charm (brightness) of the moon has gone to the sun. रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्य:  It has disappeared now that the orb is enveloped by snow तुषार+आवृत+मण्डलः |  Like a mirror rendered blind by the heaving निःश्वास+अन्ध: इव+आदर्श:, the moon does not glow न्द्रमा न प्रकाशते |

Here the word “blinded” is suggestive of the second variety. This is also a famous stanza from epic Raamaayana. When we breathe out air on the mirror, the mirror becomes unclear for some time and then becomes bright again. Like that, Chandra has also is not bright now, but will get the light back later on. The literal meaning here is that the mirror has become blind by the breathed out air. There is Dhvani in the shabda “andha” as it means that it is unable to reflect the image clearly. This type of Dhvani is adyanta tiraskruta vaachyaa. The literal meaning is overridden. Through similarity in not being able to reflect or see clearly, the word takes the Lakshana meaning. The conventional meaning of the word “Andha” is completely discarded.

Chandra retrieves the brightness from the sun. He becomes like the mirror that is blinded or become dulled by the vapor breathed out. But chandra comes back the next day.  It becomes a common saying applying to various situations to mean that one cannot take another person’s shakti.

गगनं च मत्तमेघं धारालुलितार्जुनानि च वनानि |

निरहङ्कारमृगाङ्का हरन्ति नीला अपि निशाः ||

The sky is enveloped with intoxicated or rolling clouds गगनं मत्तमेघं च | the Arjuna trees in the forest have water drops dripping वनानि धारालुलित+अर्जुनानि च | Nights are not bright with moon bereft of pride निशाः निरहङ्कार+मृगाङ्का: | Though black in colour, they capture you नीला अपि (मन:) हरन्ति |   
मन: is अध्याहार: (supplying the missing text).

In the kavi samayaa or the poetic convention, the sky enveloping with clouds means the time for the hero to stay at home with his wife during the rainy season.

Here the words “intoxicated” and “bereft of pride” are replete with suggestions. मत्त is incompatible in relation to clouds. Since there is some similarity with a drunkard, the word indicates the sense of clouds by Laksana. Giving rise to improper acts, loss of balance and rolling are suggested here. So also the word निरहङ्कार, takes the lakshana meaning suggesting that he is not shining, not bright with the usual pride and that he is hiding. The night is dark as a moon is not shining.

05-08-2015

गगनं च मत्तमेघं धारालुलित+अर्जुनानि च वनानि | </**>

निरहङ्कारमृगाङ्का हरन्ति नीला अपि निशाः ||  <//**>

Refer the earlier notes.

2.2nd Karika

असंलक्ष्यक्रमोद्द्योतः क्रमेण द्योतितः परः |

विवक्षिताभिधेयस्य ध्वनेरात्मा द्विधा मतः || २||

मुख्यतया प्रकाशमानो व्यङ्ग्योऽर्थो ध्वनेरात्मा | </*>  | 2.2 + |

स च वाच्यार्थापेक्षया कश्चिदलक्ष्यक्रमतया प्रकाशते , कश्चिद्क्रमेणेति द्विधा मतः |

When the vaachyaartha is recognized and then the vyengartha is recognized, there is a kramaa or process. This is samlakshyakramaa. When at the same time vyengartha is also recognized along with the vaachyaartha, it is called asamlakshyakrama.

रसभावतदाभासतत्प्रशान्त्यादिरक्रमः |

ध्वनेरात्माङ्गिभावेन भासमानो व्यवस्थितः || 2.३ ||

रस+भाव+तदा+अभास+तत्+ प्रशान्ति+आदि:+ अक्रमः |

ध्वने:+आत्मा+ अङ्गि+भावेन भासमान: व्यवस्थितः ||

There could be rasa or bhava or or rasaabhaasa or bhaavaabhaasa. These are asamlakshyakraama. Vaachyaartha could come with any one of these. When you are impressed by the upama or some other factor rather than by its dhvani, then dhyvani is secondary or gauna. The poem is called gunibhootavyangya kaavya. Where it is primary, it is the Vyangya Kaavya.

रसादिरर्थो हि सहैव वाच्येनावभासते | </**>  | 2.3 + |

रसादि: + अर्थ: हि सहैव वाच्येन+अवभासते | </**>  | 2.3 + |

स चाङ्गित्वेनावभासमानो ध्वनेरात्मा |

स: च अङ्गित्वेन+अवभासमान: ध्वने: आत्मा |

रसादि: अर्थ: सहैव वाच्येन यत्र अवभासते स: एव ध्वनि: अन्गित्वेन दृश्यते |

<meaning>

The minds of the sahrudayaas do not go into the vaachyaartha. It instantaneously goes to the suggested meaning. The dhvani becomes the Angi or the prominent factor rather than being an anga or a supplementary factor. The soul of the poem is dhvani. The soul of dhvani is this characteristic where the suggested meaning flashes immediately.

To enjoy the rasa, the Vibhaavaas and the Anubhaavaas are not simply declared. Yet the reader gets to know the rasa. Similarly for Dhvani, it has to be understood by the reader and should not be explained explicitly.

Samaasokti and rasavadaadi alamkaaraa are accepted by Anandavardhana as Dhvani kaavyaas. Rasavadaalamkaaraa itself becomes Rasa Dhvani.

Vibhaavaa is the stage setup. Vibhava is a medium through which an emotion arises in an actor. These Vibhaavaas are the settings, like seasons, gardens, fragrance, moonlight, etc. Anubhava are all the physical changes arising due to the vibhavas e.g.changes in facial expression and body language, the hero looking at the heroine. Vyabhichaari bhava are the instantaneous reactions of the actors, i.e., the transient emotions eg.weeping with joy. Vyabhicharati means violating the rules and regulations. There is no stated rule as to how a certain emotion has to be expressed in Vyabhichaari bhaava. A good actor will find his own way to show that emotion. Thus there are only guidelines for Vyabhichaari bhaavas. Tarkaa is reasoning. Vitarkaa is going beyong reasoning. The actor could do something different using one’s creativity for Vyabhichaari bhaavaa. It becomes relishable.

Sakrama is doing it as per the kramaa or the order. Akrama is not following the order of vaachyaartha first and vengyaartha next. This is more relishable. The unexpected action of the actor comes out as a pleasant surprise.

ध्वन्यालोक: Dhvanyaaloka – Summary of Lectures by Dr. H.V. Nagaraja Rao (2015)

ध्वन्यालोक: – KSOU MA 2nd year

Introduction — Here is the summary from the lectures by Dr. H.V.Nagaraja Rao on Dhvanyaaloka  by Ananda Vardhana. This is conducted as part of the contact programme in the year 2015 for the MA Final Year students. This material is prepared by me based on the recordings.

<Start of First session>

स्वेच्छाकेसरिणः स्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः |

त्रायन्तां वो मधुरिपोः प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदो नखाः ||

This is the first shloka of Dhvanyaaloka .

Dhvanyaaloka  ध्वन्यालोकः

This is the light of Dhvani. The ग्रन्तकार is explaining what Dhvani is. This book also has another name called सहृदयालोकः | समानं हृदयं यस्य सः सहृदयः | Only a person having the same interests will be able to appreciate and enjoy the poetry. Abhinava Gupta wrote the commentary called Lochana for this Dhvanyaaloka  written by Anandavardhana. येषां काव्यानुशीलनाभ्यासवशाद्विशदीभूते मनोमुकुरे वर्णनीयतन्मयीभवनयोग्यता ते स्वहृदयसंवादभाजः सहृदयाः | Abhinava Gupta gives this definition for the term सहृदयाः. Different types of poetry are to be studied. Then the mind will start reflecting clearly like a mirror. In such a state, the purport of the Kaavya will be understood. The similarity in heart will be achieved then. Such a person is called a सहृदयः. This book shows light to such Sahrudayas and it is also called Sahrudayaaloka.

Write an essay on the Life and works of Anandavardhana

आनन्दवर्धनः कस्य नासीत् आनन्दवर्धनः | Whose Ananda did Anandavardhana fail to increase? In our country, the centre of all Shaastric studies has been Kashmir. 8th century to 11th century, all the great thoughts, be it in Nyaya, or Alamkaara or Naatya, originated from Kashmir. Anandavardhana also is from Kashmir. Only in Kashmir the title of “राजानक” is awarded. Anandavardhana had that title. आनक is the drum. The poet who makes the fame of the king be known everywhere gets awarded with this title. Anandavardhana lived in the second half of 9th century. Kalhana’s Rajatarangini is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly about the kings of Kashmir. It was written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri Brahman Kalhana in the 12th century CE. While describing the king’s rule, he also mentions the poets that adorned their courts and the works produced by them. A king named King Avantivarma is mentioned in this Raajatarangini to have been ruled in the later half of 9th century. He wrote – मुक्ताकणः शिवस्वामी कविरानन्दवर्धनः । प्रथां रत्नाकराश्चागात् साम्राज्येऽवन्तिवर्मणः ॥ In King Avantivarma’s court, these poets were present – Muktaakana, Shivasvaami, Kavi Aanandavardhana and Ratnaakara.

Anandavardhana was an expert in Sanskrit and Prakruti languages. While citing examples in Dhavanyaaloka, he would quote from his own works. “यथा मम विषमभानलीलायाम्” – For example, he would state “As mentioned in my work – Vishama Bhaana Leela” and cite the example. Vishama Bhaana Leela has been written in Prakruta. His other works are अर्जुनचरितम् – a mahaakavya, तत्त्वालोक – a dharshanika granta – a philosophical treatise, Vishama Bhaana Leela,  धर्मोत्तार्त्विवृति – Dharmottartvivrti – a Buddhist doctrine and a poem called देविशतकम् | Among the works of Anandavardhana, only Dhvanyaaloka  and Devishatakam are available now. 100 shlokas on Devi was written by him as ordained by Devi who came in his dreams. This work comprises of beautiful shabdaalamkaara with the word Saraswati. देव्या स्वप्नोद्गमादिष्ट-देवीशतक-संज्ञया देशितो अनुपमामादात् अथ नोणसुतो नुतिम्  There he refers to himself as नोणसुतः  – so his father’s name is Nona.

Abhinava Gupta has written the commentary for this work by name Lochana. He also wrote the commentary called Abhinava Bharati for the Bharata’s Naatya Shaastra. Dhvanyaaloka  is the light of Dhvani. Since the light will be useful only when there are eyes, he has named his commentary appropriately as Lochana or eyes. किं लोचनं विनालोको भाति चन्द्रिकयापि हि । i.e., लोचनं विना आलोकः भाति किम्?

Even before Abhinava Gupta’s Lochana, there was another commentary by someone in Anandavardhana’s lineage itself and this work was called Chandrikaa or splendor. Hence Abhinava Gupta includes चन्द्रिकया अपि हि – even by using Chandrikaa |

The words of common people just convey one meaning. But the words of great poets continue to resonate in our hearts and give numerous meanings as one reflects on it. He does not say it explicitly. Yet these meanings appear in the minds of the readers. This is called Dhvani. The true pleasure is experienced when the reader realizes something that is not explicitly stated. For that, the readers need to be eligible – be knowledgeable to understand the hidden message. John Keats says “Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard are sweeter”. The readers should develop that sense of understanding the untold meaning.

Prior to Anandavardhana, the focus was only on the superfluous decorations of Kaavya like the Alamkaara. Then the focus changed to Guna. For the object without the soul, whatever is the decoration done, it will like the decoration done for the dead body.  अलम् means पूर्णम्. That which is done to make a thing complete is the Alamkaara – अलं करोति इति अलंकारः | It makes sense only to beautify something that has a life. Vaamana was the first one to think about the soul of poetry. He wrote Kaavyaalamkaara Sutras. He stated “रितिरात्मा काव्यस्य”. There were further debates on the soul of poetry. Anandavardhana proposed Dhvani as the soul of poetry.

[Side note: In those days, only when the verses taught earlier were memorized, the next set of verses will be taught. There is pushtakastha vidya and mastakastha vidya. In mastakastha vidya, the knowledge stays in the head rather than in the book].

काव्यस्यात्मा ध्वनिरिति बुधैर्यः समाम्नातपूर्व-
स्तस्याभावं जगदुरपरे भाक्तमाहुस्तमन्ये |
केचिद्वाचाम् स्थितमविषये तत्त्वमूचुस्तदीयम्
तेन ब्रूमः सहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् || १ ||

काव्यस्य आत्मा ध्वनि: इति बुधै: य: समाम्नातपूर्व:
तस्य अभावं जगदु: अपरे भाक्तम् आहु: तम् अन्ये |
केचित् वाचाम् स्थितम् अविषये तत्त्वमूचु: तदीयम्
तेन ब्रूमः सहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् || १ ||

Dhvani (ध्वनि:) was declared (समाम्नातम्) to be the soul of poetry (काव्यस्यात्मा) by learned persons (बुधै:) of yore (पूर्वै: ). All the same, some would refute its existence (तस्य अभावं जगदु: अपरे); some would consider it as something that could be logically implied (भाक्तम् आहु: तम् अन्ये); some others speak of its presence as being beyond the provision of expression (केचित् वाचाम् स्थितम् अविषये). Hence, we hereby intend explaining (तेन ब्रूमः ) what its nature (तत्  स्वरूपम्) is so as to cause delight to the hearts of sympathetic critics (सहृदय+मनः+प्रीतये).

That meaning which is indirectly suggested is Dhvani and that is the soul of poetry. This is not something that I am telling on my own. This was declared by the earlier poets itself. He clarifies the need for his work, if it is something that is already stated by earlier poets. There are people who do not accept its existence – तस्य अभावं जगदु: अपरे | They say that they have analyzed the poems and found word, meanings, alamkaaras or figures of speech, gunas, reeti, etc. (This is similar to saying that on dissecting the body, there have been internal organs that have been identified but not the soul).

There are others that say this Dhvani should be some form of Bhakti – भक्तेः परिणामं भाक्तम् | Here Bhakti is लक्षणा वृत्तिः | The primary power of the word to convey a meaning is called अभिधा. The primary meaning is शक्तिः. In some cases, we indicate a meaning which is different from the primary meaning. For example, when we say that a person is Mercury, it indicates certain quality of Mercury like being very brisk and active. In this case, the primary meaning is not taken. This secondary meaning is called लक्षणार्थः. The famous example is गङ्गायां घोषः | It means – आभीरपल्ली – the hamlet of cowherds. A person is selling milk and milk products. A housewife enquires “भद्रा! क्व ते घोषः ?” The milkman says “अम्ब! गङ्गायां घोषः”. Since the housewife wants to know if the person’s village is having good water resource which would result in a fertile land causing the cows to give good quality milk, the milkman gives an apt reply that his village is in the Ganges. Though he mentions only Ganga, it is understood as “गङ्गातीरे”. The power of the word to indicate a secondary meaning which is different from the primary meaning is called लक्षणा. Another term for it is भक्ति. The followers of the Bhakti theory are Bhaaktas. They say that Dhvani is not something other than Bhakti.

There is a third group which says that the poets would write some great poetry without realizing the beautifying factor. Later, they themselves will realize the significance of the words that they use. The poetry should be enjoyed. We should not analyze how the pleasure is explained.

[Side note: U.R. Anantamoorthy wrote the story called Samskaara which was made into a kannada movie. There is a shudra boy who is called putta. Actually, this putta is the modified version of पुत्र. The author mentioned in his commentary that he did not consciously use that term in this sense. Someone had pointed out it later to him].

इक्षु-क्षीर-घुडादीनां मादुर्यस्य अन्तरं महत् तथापि नतदाख्यातुं सरस्वत्यापि शक्यते | There is a huge difference in the tastes of sugarcane, milk and jaggery. But even Saraswati will not be able to describe it in words.

The third group says that the pleasure experienced is अनिर्वचनीयः – that which cannot be verbally explained – केचित् वाचाम् स्थितम् अविषये.

So far the enjoyment of the Sahrudayas, I am explaining it in this work. तेन ब्रूमः सहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् |

Dhvanyaaloka  has both Karikaas and Vrittis. Some are of the opinion that Anandavardhana himself wrote both. Some consider them to be written by different authors. P.V. Kane has written a book on “The History of Sanskrit Poetics”. In this he mentions that the authors are different. Dr. K. Krishnamoorthy, a scholar from Karnataka, is of the opinion that both were written by Anandavardhana only.

[Side Note: P.V. Kane got Bharata Ratna award during the period of Rajendra Prasad. He is the only Sanskrit Pandit to get this award. His Magnum Opus work is “The History of Dharma Shaastra”].

Kashmir was a centre of all intellectual debate. When a person proposes a theory, there will be so many critical works on the new theory. There will be a counter argument. Kavi Bilhana was an 11th-century Kashmiri poet. He went around the country and finally settled down in Karnataka. In the place called Kalyaan, the Chaulka kings were ruling.  There was a King named Vikramaaditya or Vikramanka. Bilhana became the court-poet. In praise of the King who patronized him, he wrote a mahakaavya called “Vikramaankadeva Charita”.  In that poem he mentions about Kashmir – “sahodara-kumkuma-kesaraanaam भवन्ति मन्ये कविता विलासाः na shaaradaa-desham-apaasya theshaam drushto yadanyatra maaprarohah” He says that the Kumkuma-kesari and Kavyas are siblings. Both of them are born only in Kashmir and not anywhere else. Thus Kashmir was at the peak of its glory. When Anandavardana proposed his Dhvani theory, there was counter-thesis from Poet Manoratha. Quoting this counter-thesis in Dhvanyaaloka , Anandavardhana provides his response to it.

यस्मिन्नस्ति न वस्तु किंचन मनःप्रह्लादि सालंकृति
व्युत्पन्नै रचितं च नैव वचनैर्वक्रोक्तिशून्यं च यत्
काव्यं तद्ध्वनिना समन्वितमिति प्रीत्या प्रशंसञ्जडो
नो विद्मोऽभिदधाति किं सुमतिना पृष्टः स्वरूपं ध्वनेः ||
Poetry in which there can be least delight to the mind (मनःप्रह्लादि) and no embellishment (सालंकृति), which does not present any welcoming words and artistic turn in expressions (यस्मिन्नस्ति न वस्तु किंचन), is so much praised with all vehemence by the stupid (प्रीत्या प्रशंस: जड: नो विद्म:+अभिदधाति), as being with suggestion (Dhvani) (काव्यं तत्+ध्वनिना समन्वितम्+इति). But one fails to imagine what answer the theorist would furnish if asked to present the nature of Dhvani (स्वरूपं ध्वनेः) itself!”

Manoratha’s argument was this “There is no vastu. There is no alamkara. There is no mastery demonstrated in the choice of words. Vakroti or crooked speech is also absent (Kuntaka wrote Vakroti-jeevitam). But you say that there is still Dhvani. It is like closing the eyes and dancing”. He demanded that the nature of Dhvani be explicitly described.

प्रतिपत्तिः is understanding. अप्रतिपत्तिः is the no understanding. विप्रतिपत्तिः is the misunderstanding. सुप्रतिपत्तिः is the right understanding. Anandavardhana says that he is writing this Dhavanyaaloka to clarify the misunderstanding about Dhvani.

There are three sub-groups among the first group which says that Dhvani does not exist. One group says there have been earlier literary critics like Bharata, Bhaama, Dhandi who have already analyzed poetry and have provided Alamkaara, Guna, Vritti, etc. as the beautifying aspects of poetry. We cannot see anything other than these aspects in poetry. So Dhvani does not exist.

The second abhaavavadi group says if something other than the existing beautifying aspects of poetry exists, it has to be only a दोषः or a fault. So it cannot be taken as the soul of poetry.

The third abhaavavadi group mentioned that there is no limit to the decorations that can be done. In the same way, the Alamkaara is unlimited. Bharata has stated 4 alamkaaraas – उपमा रूपकं चैव दीपकं यमकं तथा. Later writers like Bhaamah increased it to 36. And then in Kavya Prakaasha, there are 60. In chandraloka, there are 100. In Kuvalayaananda, there are around 120. Even after this, there were new alamkaaras there were identified like – bhaavandi, bhaavodaya, bhaavashaanti, rasavat, preyasvat, ojasvi, etc. In the jewelry shop, there are no limits on the design. The third abhaavavadi group said that you might have introduced a new alamkara. There is nothing great about it that it be called as the soul of poetry.

For the first school, Anandavardhana says that great poets like Valmiki and Vyasaa have also used this. Anandavardhana states that he is not saying something new. So this suggestion definitely exists.

वाल्मीकिव्यासमुख्याश्च ये प्रख्याताः कवीश्वराः |

तदभिप्रायबाह्योऽयं नास्माभिर्दर्शितो नयः .. इति || ३.१९ end||

वाल्मीकि+व्यास+मुख्या: च ये प्रख्याताः कवि+ईश्वराः |

तत् अभिप्राय+बाह्य: अयं न अस्माभि: दर्शित: नयः इति ||

The principles laid down are in-keeping with the features followed by celebrated poets such as Vaalmiki, Vyaasa and the like.

In that case, that it is not something new, then he was asked to explain what is Dhvani. It is that which flashes.

प्रतीयमानं पुनरन्यदेव वस्त्वस्ति वाणीषु महाकवीनाम् | </***>

यत्तत्प्रसिद्धावयवातिरिक्तं विभाति लावण्यमिवांगनासु || ४||  </*>

But the suggestive aspect is distinct from this (explicit – denotative – conventional) (प्रतीयमानं पुन: अन्यत् एव). It shows itself brilliantly in the words of celebrated poets (महाकवीनाम् वाणीषु वस्तु अस्ति) and reigns supreme over and above (अतिरिक्तं विभाति) the striking external elements (प्रसिद्ध+अवयव), even as charm among ladies (लावण्यम् इव अङ्गनासु). (4)

In the words of the mahakavis, there will be a meaning which is referred to as the Prateeyamaana – that which flashes. That is called Dhvani. When the overall beauty or soundarya of a woman is noticed, it is not pin-pointable to any specific feature.

सरस्वती स्वादु तदर्थवस्तु निःष्यन्दमाना महतां कवीनाम् |

अलोकसामान्यमभिव्यनक्ति परिस्फुरन्तम् प्रतिभाविशेषम् || ६||

सरस्वती स्वादु तत्+अर्थ+वस्तु निःष्यन्दमाना महतां कवीनाम् |
अलोक+सामान्यम्+अभिव्यनक्ति परिस्फुरन्तम् प्रतिभा+विशेषम् || ६ ||

The speech of the celebrated poets revealing a theme infused with suggestion would certainly bring forth the striking and inspiring extra-ordinary genius in them and the same is uncommon yet brilliant (6).

[Side Note: Dr. H.V. Nagaraja Rao sir memorized these verses in 1964].

वस्तुतत्त्वम् = इति वृत्तम् theme; निःष्यन्दमाना = dripping; महतां कवीनाम् = great poet’s; सरस्वती = भरति, वाक्, speech; अलोक-सामान्यम् =  not ordinary, extra-ordinary; प्रतिभा+विशेषम्  = the specialty of creativity; परिस्फुरन्तम् = flashing or vibrating; अभिव्यनक्ति = expresses;

This ability to create great poems is not obtained by putting in efforts or by learning the techniques. By their nature, they have got this capacity. It is an inborn gift. It is अलोक-सामान्यम् – something not very commonly found in this world.

[Side note: There was a boy who used to write poems. His father did not want him to write poems and scolded him. The boy responded in this way “Father, Father, Mercy take! I shall verses never make!!” J ]

There are four Udhyotas or chapters in Dhvanyaaloka . There is a lot of information in it. The greatness of Anandavardhana can be understood only when his words are fully read. No other literary critic has gone into the subtle aspects or nuances of poetry to the extent that Anandavardhana had analyzed it.

Some of the important questions from exam perspective are:

* Dhvani abhaava vaada

* dhavani lakshana

* Rasavadalamkaara

* Gunaah Sangatana

* The prominent rasa of Mahaabhaarata and Raamaayana

* Essay on life and works of Anandavardhana

<End of first session>

<Start of second session>

Show the 3 types of Dhvani are present in the first verse

स्वेच्छाकेसरिणः स्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः |

त्रायन्तां वो मधुरिपोः प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदो नखाः ||

Vastu Dhvani, Alamkara Dhvani, Rasaadi Dhvani – 3 types of Dhvani in Dhvanyaaloka .

Vastu Dhvani – Some other thing comes to our mind when we read about the thing that is mentioned.

Alamkara Dhvani- Alamkara or figure of speech should be suggested or expressed without being told explicitly.  It should not be openly said or denoted. Examples of Alamkara are Upama, Ropaka, Athisayokti

Rasaadi Dhvani – Rasa or Bhava, etc. should be suggested by what is said by the poet.

Abhinava Gupta shows that Anandavardhana has got all 3 Dhvanis in his mangala shloka itself.

स्वेच्छाकेसरिणः = By his own wish, he was born as a kesari or lion.

नखाः स्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः

नखाः  = His nails are curved like the crescent moon.

स्वच्छ-स्वच्छाया आयासित इन्दवः= By their pure splendor, the nails cause the crescent moons to feel exhausted (defeated).

त्रायन्तां व: = Let him protect you all.

प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदो = प्रपन्न + आर्ति + छिद: = Those who surrender to god are Prapannas. आर्ति  = suffering;  छिद: = tears off

Vastu Dhvani –  The luster of the nails are many-folds brighter than the shine of the moon. That it is brighter is not stated directly. But saying that the moon felt shy, the brightness of the nails has been suggested. This luster is being suggested. So it is Vastu Dhvani. स्वेच्छाकेसरिणः  It is suggested that he is extraordinary when compared to other lions as he took the form on his own desire while the other lion are on account of their Karma.

Alamkara Dhvani – By the shine of the nails, even the moon has been defeated. This is Vyatireka alamkara where the upameya (say the face) is considered to be superior to the upamaana (say the lotus). यत्र उपमानम् उपमेयात् अतिशयत्वं प्राप्नोति तत्र व्यतिरेकालंकारः भवति | “व्यतिरेको विषयस्ते उपमानो उपमेययोः” is the definition of vyatireka in Kuvalayaananda. The nails are the upameyaas. The crescent moon is the upamaana. But here the poet has suggested that the nails / upameyaas are better than the moon/ upamaana.

Rasaadi Dhvani – The devotion of the poet towards Lord Narasimha is suggested when he says that he can protect you all. So the Bhakti bhaavaa is suggested. Rasaadi means Rasa, Bhaava, etc. According to this system, there are only 9 rasas namely – Shringaara, Haasya, Karuna, Raudra, Veera, Bhayaanaka, Bheebatsa, Adbhuta, and Shanta.

Show that Dhvani is the most important thing in poetry.

In ordinary talk, there are only two functions of the word. They are abhidaa and lakshnaa. Abhidaa is when the term indicates only its primary meaning. सिंहो मानवक: That boy is a lion. Here the term lion indicates ferociousness, aggressiveness, and other such qualities in the boy. In the poems, there is a third type. It is Vyanjana. The व्यञ्जन-व्यापार is the third function of the poet’s word. It is much more pleasant than the first two types. Dhvani is a type of poetry where the words are not only giving their primary meaning. They are also suggesting some other more beautiful meaning.

यत्रार्थः शब्दो वा तमर्थमुपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ |

व्यङ्क्तः काव्यविशेषः स ध्वनिरिति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३ ||

यत्र+अर्थः शब्द:+वा तम्+अर्थम्+उपसर्जनी+कृतस्वार्थौ |

व्यङ्क्तः काव्य+विशेषः स: ध्वनि:+इति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३ ||

That kind of poetry in which the conventional meaning or the conventional word renders its meaning subordinate and suggests the intended or implied meaning, is termed “Dhvani” or “suggestive poetry” by the learned people.

Some time the meaning subdues itself and gives a more beautiful meaning. In other cases, the word does this. It can be shabda shakti mula dhvani or artha shakti mula dhvani.

Mammatta wrote a book called Kavya Prakaashaa. According to him, poetry is of three types. Uttama, madhyama and Adhama. Only when the dhvani is there, the kavya is considered as a uttama kavya. उत्तमकाव्यं ध्वनिः इति कथ्यते |  मद्यम काव्यं गुणिभूतव्यङ्ग्य | madyama kaavyam guni bhoota vyangyaa | mukhya = pradhaanaa, Guna = not primary, gauna = secondary. Poetry is called Dhvani when there is a suggested meaning and that suggested meaning is the principal meaning. In those poems, where there is vyangyaa but it has become secondary and is not the primary, are considered as the middle level of poetry. Where there is no suggested meaning, the poem is a Chitra kaavya. It is an adhama kaavya. It might have good shabda almkaaras. Eg. from Kaavya  Prakaasha, “भिद्या-दुद्यदुदार-दर्दुरदरी-दीर्घा-दरिद्र-द्रुम | द्रोहोद्रेकमहोर्मिमेदुरमदा मन्दाकिनी मन्दताम् ॥” It is an Adhama Kaavya. The shabdas are good. But the meaning is not so interesting.

Thus Dhvani is the most entertaining among poetry. When a great poet writes, he would focus on the meaning and he would not create stunts with words that can attract only the lay men.

वेद्यते स तु काव्यार्थतत्त्वज्ञैरेव केवलम् ||७ || 1.7 ||

स: तु काव्यार्थतत्त्वज्ञै: एव केवलम् वेद्यते |

This Dhvani or vyangyaarthaa will not be understandable by everyone. Only काव्यार्थतत्त्वज्ञः or the connoisseurs or experts in poetry can understand the suggested meaning. Ordinary people cannot understand.

Eg. In Kumaarasambhava, when Parvathi’s tapas is described –

स्थिताक्षणं पक्ष्मसु ताडिताधरा: पयोधरोत्सेधनिपातचूर्णिता:।

वलीषु तस्या: स्खलिता: प्रपेदिरे चिरेण नाभिं प्रथमोदबिन्दव:।।

“The first drop of rain water प्रथमोदबिन्दव: falling on her at the advent of the rainy season. On the lashes of the eyes, that water droplet stood for only one moment – स्थिता: क्षणं पक्ष्मसु. It hit her on the lips ताडिताधरा: They fell on her breasts and split into tiny droplets – पयोधरोत्सेधनिपातचूर्णिता: | They jumped on the folds of her stomach and hesitated तस्या: वलीषु स्खलिता: प्रपेदिरे | After sometime चिरेण, they flowed down and entered her navel बिन्दव: नाभिं प्रथमोद | In the poetry of high standards, the suggested meaning should be present and it will be more attractive and beautiful. Kalidasa is suggesting the secret of Yoga. When doing penance, the eye should neither be completely open nor should it completely closed. नासाग्रन्यस्तनयन: संवृतास्यः सुनिश्चलः ध्यायीत मनसा देवं पुरोविष्टभ्य चागृत <TODO – to be verified>   [ Similar Quote from the internet — समग्रीवशिराः सम्यक् संवृतास्यः सुनिश्चलः ॥ प्राङ्मुखोदङ्मुखो वाऽपि नासाग्रन्यस्तलोचनः ।  ] That ‘the eyes should be pointed at the nose’ is described in the Yoga shastra. If she had closed her eyes, the rain drop would not have stayed there. If she had kept her eyes fully open, then they would stay there and not fall down. The drop fell down after a second suggests that her eyes were half-open. The mouth should not be open during dhyaanaa, done in the yogic posture. So the drop fell on her lower lip. Her lips were so soft that it just did not flow. The fall of the drop hurt her lips. While standing in tapas, one should not be stooping or bending. The person should stand firm and erect. Since she stood straight without bending, it fell on her breasts.

This demonstrates that only knowledgeable people would be able to appreciate this inner meaning.

Sanghatana संघटना

Sanghatana is the arrangement of words in poetry. There is a lot of discussion in the 3rd chapter of Dhvanyaaloka  on Sanghatana. Anandavardhana discusses whether Gunas and Sanghatanas are one and the same or are they different. There are 3 types of Sanghatana.

असमासा समासेन मध्यमेन च भूषिता |

तथा दीर्घसमासेति त्रिधा सङ्घटनोदिता || 3.5 ||

The first type is Asamaasa – without any samaasa giving each pada separately like those of Kalidasa – (अस्ति उत्तरस्यां) अस्त्युतरस्यां दिशि देवतात्मा हिमालयो नाम नगाधिराज:। The second type is Madhyama – where there are smaller samaasaas or compound words. The third type is Deergasamaasa – eg. Kadambari first sentences – आसीत् अशेष-नरपति-शिर-स्समभ्यच्चित्त-शासन:  where there are very long samaasas like the style of Baanaa.  Vedanta Desika in his Yadavaaabhyudaya writes with long samaasas. लोलपतच्चरणलीलाहतिश्चरितहालाहलेनिजपनी नृत्यन्तमप्रतिग कृत्यन्तमप्रतिमा मत्यन्तचारोकुशम् |

Bharata has stated 10 gunas – Slesha, prasada, samata, madhurya, sukumarata, arthavyaki, udaratva, ojas, kanti and samadhi – these ten are the gunas. Anandavardha and Mammataa said that 3 would suffice – Maadhurya, Prasaada and Ojas. Prasaada is the understandability i.e. the meaning of the verse should be understood in one reading. Shruthi maatrena shabdaanaam yena arthappratyayo bhavet sa prasaado guno gneyah | The meaning should be able to be understood as soon as the listener hears the verse. Ojas is samaasa bhuyatvam – the presence of samaasas. Maadhuryaa is avoidance of the jaaring sounds like “ट ठ ड ढ ” or “भ” – “apasaaraya ganasaaram…” – these letters are avoided when a lover talks to his beloved.

Anandavardhanaa says in the 3rd chapter of Dhvanyaaloka that Guna and Sanghatana are different.

काव्यस्य+आत्मा ध्वनि:

काव्यस्य+आत्मा ध्वनि:+इति बुधै: य: समाम्नातपूर्व:

तस्य+अभावं जगदु:+अपरे भाक्तम्+आहु:+तम्+अन्ये |

केचित्+वाचाम् स्थितम्+अविषये तत्त्वमूचु:+तदीयम्

तेन ब्रूमःसहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् || 1. ||

प्रतीयमानं पुनरन्यदेव वस्त्वस्ति वाणीषु महाकवीनाम् |

यत्तत्प्रसिद्धावयवातिरिक्तं विभाति लावण्यमिवांगनासु ||1.४ ||

In the words of the mahakavis’, there will be a meaning which is referred to as the Prateeyamaana प्रतीयमानं पुनरन्यदेव वस्त्वस्ति वाणीषु महाकवीनाम् |That is called Dhvani. There are Dhvanyaabhaavavaadis who do not accept the presence of Dhvani. There are others who say that Dhvani is nothing new. It is the Bhakti or the laakshanaa vrutti भाक्तम्+आहु:+तम्+अन्ये | The third group said that it is anirvachaneeya – that which cannot be explained. वाचाम स्थितम्+अविषये तत्त्वमूचु:+तदीयम् | Because there are these many varied opinions, to clarify the correct form of Dhvani, for bringing happiness to the minds of the Sahrudayaas, I am saying this. तेन ब्रूमःसहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम्  |

Reeti Siddhanta

Vaamana was the first to highlight the importance of Reeti. रीतिरात्मा काव्यस्य | Reeti is the style of writing prevalent in different countries.  Gowdi, Paanchaali, Vaidharbhi are the 3 styles. Gowda refers to Bengal region. Gowdeshu aksharaadambharah – Forceful long compounds (aadambhara of akshaa) are the characteristics of the Gowdi style. Praasa or Rhyme will be more in this style. Paanchala is the region where Draupadi was born. Paanchaali is neither too complex nor too simple. Kalidaasa’s style is Vaidharbhi. Vaidharbhi was also the style of Vijjikka. Ganga Devi was a queen, born in Karnataka and was the wife of Kamparaaya, a king in the Vijayanagara Empire. She wrote the mahakaavya Madhuraa vijayam. The Delhi sultanas had encroached Mathura / madurai. Kamparaaya fought them. Vaidharbhi refer to the vidharba region which comprises of Nagpur and other areas in Maharashtra. Dhamayanti, the wife of Nala was the princess of Vidharba desha. Krishna’s first wife, Rukmini also belongs to Vidharbha. समग्र-गुण-संपन्ना वैदर्भीरीतिरिष्यते | All the 10 gunas will be present in Vaidharbhi. This is considered as the atyuttamaa reeti.  Anandavardhana says that Dhvani is different from Reeti and Dhvani is the antassattva in all the poems.

Notes from last year’s class by Dr. Guru Raj Rao:

  • Vaidharbhi= द्राक्षा पाक: very simple. Eg. Valmiki Ramayana; like Sita, very kind to everyone
  • Paanchaali = कदली पाक: medium complexity, like Draupadi, being good to good people and bad to bad people
  • Gowdi = नारिकेल पाक: Complex with long compounds (Oojo guna), like the Kshatriya mahila, being very rough and tough. Eg. Shishupaala Vadha, Naishadeeyacharitam. Bhaanabhata – one word 11 lines long.

<End of second session>

<Start of third session>

Rasa auchitya

औचित्यम् = propriety – suitableness – it is the bhava of uchita. उचितम् = proper.

[Side note: A Kashmiri poet, Kshemendra (after Anandavardhana) wrote a work called Auchitya Vichaara Charchaa. He states that Guna, Alamkaaraa, Vrutti, Pravrutti or the suggested meaning vyangyaartha – all these should been within the limits of auchitya. Else it will become a laughing stock].

An interruption of aesthetic relish is called Rasa bhanga. The main reason for this is anauchitya.

अनौचित्यादृते नान्यद्रसभन्गस्य कारणम् |

प्रसिद्धौचित्यबन्धस्तु रसस्योपनिषत्परा || 3.14 ++ ||

अनौचित्यात्+ऋते न+अन्यत्+रसभन्गस्य कारणम् |

प्रसिद्ध+औचित्य+बन्ध:+तु रसस्य+उपनिषद्+परा ||

Except for अनौचित्या there is no other reason for Rasa bhanga. The kaavyaas made using auchitya is the Upanishad or rahasya or the secret of the best rasa.

There is the suitability of the character and the suitability of even Vrutti, Pravrutti and Sannivesha (situation) are to be considered. For example, the king taking out his sword to fight enemy is acceptable but if he takes out his sword in a fight with his wife, it is not appropriate. Even in the Natya Shastra, when Indra flies in the sky, it is acceptable for the audience to accept the divine feats only by gods. But when an ordinary man says that he will fly to the heaven, it is inappropriate. Another example – in a drama, there is a pandit. His speech could indicate his knowledge. But the character of a servant cannot be shown to be talking in that same manner. For each rasa like adbhuda, karuna, vira or bhayaanaka, the poem has to be written appropriately. The dialog and the actions for Karuna and Vira will be different. Adbhuda might have a lengthy dialog expressing surprise. Thus the most important factor among the suitability is Rasa Auchitya.

Angi rasa – is the prominent rasa which should be present from the beginning till the end of the Kavya. Anga rasa is the secondary rasa which could appear in between at some time.

There are two vibhaavaas namely Aalambana Vibhaavaa and Udeepana Vibhaavaa. The object towards which the rasa is targeted is Aalambana Vibhaavaa. Bhima says that he will drink Dhushaasanaa’s blood. So Bhima is the kaarana or Aalambana Vibhaavaa for Dhushsaasanaa’s fear. When Bhima comes, there are others who come with him making loud noises beating their drums. They become the secondary cause and enhance the fear. They are the Udeepana Vibhaavaa. So the Vibaavaa, Anubhaavaa and Sanchaaribhaavaa included by the poet should enhance the main rasa. It should not be against the main rasa.

Difference between Vaachaya and Vyangyaa

Vaachyaa is the denoted meaning. Vyangyaa is the suggested meaning. Vaachyaa is the meaning that anyone who knows the language or one who has the dictionary can understand. Vyangyaa or the suggested meaning is understood only by Sahrudayaas. Vyangyaa should be more charming and beautiful than the Vaachyaa. Understanding of the vaachyaa is very important for the understanding of the Vyangyaa. If a person cannot understand the vaachyaa, then he/she would not be able to understand the Vyangyaa.

यथा पदार्थ+द्वारेण वाक्यार्थः सम्प्रतीयते |

वाच्यार्थ+पूर्विका तद्वत्प्रतिपत्तस्य वस्तुनः || १० ||

Just as the full meaning of a sentence can become grasped through the meaning of individual words, the knowledge of that suggested meaning can be comprehended only through the medium of the expressed meaning. (10)

उदा. अहं बलाहकम् अपश्यम् | If one does not know the meaning of the word बलाहकम् to be cloud, then the meaning of the sentence cannot be understood.

आलोकार्थी यथा दीपशिखायां यत्नवाञ्जनः |

तदुपायतया तद्वदर्थे वाच्ये तदादृतः || ९ ||

आलोक+अर्थी यथा दीप+शिखायां यत्नवान्+जनः |

तत्+उपायतया तद्वदर्थे वाच्ये तदादृतः || ९ ||

In the same manner as a man intent upon seeing an object in darkness, puts forth his efforts towards fetching a lamp owing to its being a means to realise his goal (of seeing the object) one who is very much interested in the suggested meaning would at the outset direct his effort towards (understanding) the conventional meaning. (9)

 

Though he does not want the flame of the lamp, and he wants the light only, he still brings the deepa shikaa because without the flame, there is not going to be any light. The flame of lamp is just an upaayaa – a means to the required end. Vachyaartha is the upaaya or the means. Vengyaartha is the upeya or desired goal. Vengyaartha could come for Vaachyaartha or Lakshyaartha. Lakshanaa is a vyaapaara or function where a meaning is indicated. There can be only one Vaachyaartha. There could be many intended or suggested meanings. In Mammata’s kavya prakaasha,

गतोस्तमर्क: |  गत:+अस्तम्+अर्क:  = अर्क: अस्तम् गत:  |

The vaachyaartha is that the sun has set. The Vaidhika Brahmana understands that it is time for Sandhya vandana. The thief thinks that he should start his work. The students want to start studying. Based on the nature of the listener, the message conveyed differs.

Explain the arguments of those who do not accept Dhvani and refute their arguments.

There are three different schools of Dhvani-abhaava-vaadees which maintain that there is no Dhvani. The first group says all beautifying factors of poetry have already been stated by earlier writers. It may be Alamkaara, Guna, Reeti or Vritti. All these things have already been stated by the earlier poets. Apart from them, there is nothing required. All the beautifying factions have already been stated.  So there is nothing called Dhvani.

The second group says that if Dhvani is something other than what is already stated, then it must be a dosha or fault. If it is not Alamkaara, Guna, Reeti or Vritti, it cannot be something that beautifies the poetry and it has to be only a defect or blemish.

The third group says that the varieties of descriptions are endless. Therefore there is an increase of the number of alamkaaras in all the texts. First, Bharat stated only 4 alamkaaras – Upamaa, Roopakam, Deepakam, and Yamakam. Later writers like Bhaamah increased it to 36. And then in Kavya Prakaasha, there are 60. In Kuvalayaananda, there are more than 100. Like this, the ways or the manners, in which a poet can describe any object is not limited. And therefore, you might have shown some other way of description. It is like some other type of a new Alamkaara. So it is not a new concept. It has to be just another type of Alamkaara. And many more new alamkaaras could come in future also. They do not demand any special importance.

For the first one, Anandavardhana argues that Dhvani is different from the earlier stated concepts. In Dhvani, the suggested meaning is one which is not explicitly stated, yet it is understood by the Sahrudayaas. In Chitra Meemaamsaa, Appaiya Deekshita quotes an example काञ्चित् काञ्चनगौराङ्गी वीक्ष्य साक्षादिव श्रियम् वरदः संशयापन्नो वक्षःस्थलमवैक्षत |   अन्वयः — साक्षात् श्रियम् इव काञ्चित् काञ्चनगौराङ्गी वीक्ष्य संशयापन्नः वरदः वक्षःस्थलम् अवैक्षत | In Kanchi, there is Varadaraaja Swamy Temple. In the Vasanthostava, Varadaraajaa himself came to play with the devotees. At that time, he notices a woman. She is काञ्चनगौराङ्गी  i.e., she has a golden yellowish body; साक्षात् श्रियम् इव – She resembled Goddess Lakshmi Herself. वरद: संशयम् आपन्न: – Lord Varada was confused and he looked at his heart वक्षःस्थलम् अवैक्षत.  The poet has not stated why he looked at his heart. His heart is the seat of Lakshmi as she is vakshassthala vaasini. Some readers will assume that Varada wants to check if Lakshmi has left that place and has come here in person. Another reader interprets it this way – Since Lakshmi has the arrogance that she is only the most beautiful woman, Varada wants to see her reaction when this lady with golden complexion is in front of him. A third person says that Varada looked at his heart to compare Lakshmi with the lady. Thus the suggested meaning is different and it cannot be classified as any other earlier defined entity. The great poets have included this Dhvani in their poems. The readers enjoy this suggestion which is different from the other alamkaaras.

For the first school, Anandavardhana says that if they do not accept the existence of Dhvani, which gives beauty to the poem, he can only pity them. He points out that great poets like Valmiki and Vyasaa have also used this. Anandavardhana states that he is not saying something new. So this suggestion definitely exists.

वाल्मीकिव्यासमुख्याश्च ये प्रख्याताः कवीश्वराः |

तदभिप्रायबाह्योऽयं नास्माभिर्दर्शितो नयः .. इति || ३.१९ end||

वाल्मीकि+व्यास+मुख्या: च ये प्रख्याताः कवि+ईश्वराः |

तत् अभिप्राय+बाह्य: अयं न अस्माभि: दर्शित: नयः इति ||

The principles laid down are in-keeping with the features followed by celebrated poets such as Vaalmiki, Vyaasa and the like.

For the second school, which consider anything new to be dosha or a fault only, Anandavardhana says that when the readers enjoy the suggestive rasa, it cannot be considered to be a negative aspect. He says that he can only pity such people, who say that Dhvani is a defect, who fail to recognize the Ananda produced by Dhvani.

For the third school, who claim that Dhvani is nothing new but another alamkaara, Anandavardhana explains how Dhvani is different from the other alamkaaras. Dhvani is something that is understood on account of the alamkaara. Alamkaara itself could suggest various meanings. Lakshyaartha could suggest a different meaning. There are shabha shakti mula dhvani and artha shakti mula dhvani and endless varieties like that. Therefore, Dhvani is not just another alamkaara. Dhvani is a separate entity conveying the suggested meaning. There is a third type of meaning called Dhvani or Vyangyaartha.

भक्त्या बिभर्ति नैकत्वम् रूपभेदादयं ध्वनिः  |……
अतिव्याप्तेरथाव्याप्तेर्न चासौ लक्ष्यते तया || 1.14 ||

भक्त्या बिभर्ति न+एकत्वम् रूपभेदात्+अयं ध्वनिः  |….

अतिव्याप्ते:+अथ+अव्याप्ते:+न च+असौ लक्ष्यते तया |

Suggestion and secondary signification are not one and the same because of the innate different between the two. अयं ध्वनिः रूपभेदात् भक्त्या एकत्वं न बिभर्ति | If that is considered identical with suggestion, it commits the fallacies of “too wide” a definition and “too narrow” a definition.

Among the three functions of the word, the second function is called Lakshana Vyaapaara or Bhakti. Believers of Bhakti are Bhaktaas. They are also called as Laakshanikaas. Suggestion and Bhakti are different since their forms are different (roopa bheda).

The three doshaas in definitions are Athivyaapti, avyaapti and asambhavaa. What is a cow? को नाम गौ: ? (गो shabda can be used in both male and female gender). If the definition is given as that which has 2 horns and 4 legs (शृङ्गी चतुष्पात्), it becomes athivyaapi since there are many other animals that this definition will apply. If the definition is given as that which has 4 legs and white coloured skin, it becomes avyaapti since there are cows which are not in white color and the definition does not cover all the cows. If the definition is given as that which has 3 horns, it is asambhavaa as it is not possible.

If laskshanaa is stated to be same as Dhvani, there will be athivyaapti and avyaapti doshaas. There are many examples where the poet is describing a situation and a certain emotion (rasa) that is delineated or understood. In such cases, there is no lakshana and yet we get dhvani directly from the vaachyaartha.

मुख्यार्थबाधे तद्योगे रूढितोऽथ प्रयोजनात् ।
अन्योऽर्थो लक्ष्यते यत्सा लक्षणारोपिता क्रिया ॥ काप्र-९ ॥ मम्मट: – काव्यप्रकाश

For lakshanaa, the primary meaning should be unacceptable. There has to be bhaadaa or obstruction of the primary meaning. सिंहो मानवक: That boy is a lion. Here the term lion indicates ferociousness, aggressiveness, and other such qualities in the boy. Only when there is inconsistency in the meaning, the lakshanaa is taken.

In Meghadoota, the Yaksha is cursed to live away from his wife for 1 year.

यक्षश्‍चक्रे जनकतनयास्‍नानपुण्‍योदकेषु
स्निग्‍धच्‍छायातरुषु वसतिं रामगिर्याश्रमेषु।।

यक्षः+चक्रे जनक-तनया-स्नान-पुण्य-उदकेषु
स्निग्ध-छाया-तरुषु वसतिं रामगिरि-आश्रमेषु।।१।।

He took residence among the hermitages of Ramagiri, where the trees give cool shade, and the waters are purified by the baths of Janaka’s daughter.

He lived in ashramas in Ramagiri. Why is it mentioned in plural here? He builds one ashram. He is engrossed in thoughts about his wife. He forgets that and starts building another one elsewhere. The pathetic state of the Yaksha is being described in this way. In this example, there is no inconsistency in the literal meaning. But there is the Dhvani of Vipralambha Shringaara. So Lakshanaa cannot be equated to Dhvani as Dhvani could occur in the absence of Lakshanaa.

In many instances, Lakshanaa will not be Dhvani. Hence Avyaapti also occurs. There are “dead metaphors” which have been used for a long time and hence they do not carry any ability to convey a special meaning. For example, a woman is praised for her charm and grace or “laavanya”. Laavanya is the bhava of Lavana – saltness. There is no longer any metaphor as people understand laavanya as charm. The term was initially used to mean that she has a special characteristic which makes her look so beautiful just as the salt adds a taste to the food without which it would not be good. In such situations, there is Lakshanaa but there is no Dhvani.

परिम्लानं पीनस्तनजघनसङ्गादुभयत-
स्तनोर्मध्यस्यान्तः परिमिलनमप्राप्य हरितम् |
इदं व्यस्तन्यासं श्लथभुजलताक्षेपवलनैः
कृशाङ्ग्याः सन्तापं वदति बिसिनीपत्रशयनम् || eg for 14 ||

“This bed prepared with lotus leaves (बिसिनी+पत्र+शयनम्) speaks (वदति) of the affliction of the beautiful lady who slept on it. For, its two edges one faded because of her robust bosom and plumpy hips. That portion which was occupied by her slender waist has retained its greenness. The movements of her drooping creeper-like arm have rendered it disorderly.”

Ratnaavali had slept somewhere. Later, Vatsa Raaja is seeing that place. The word vadati means that it “indicates” rather than conveying its literal meaning of “saying”. But since such usage is so common, there is no Dhvani in that. It is just a cliché, i.e., a phrase used to the point of no meaning or importance, ironic because it is intended to make an impact like “I love you” or “I am so grateful to you” or the pleasantries like “I am extremely happy to see you”.

Since there can be Dhvani without Lakshana and also Lakshana without Dhvani, these two cannot be the same.

The difference between Alamkaara and Guna

तमर्थमवलम्बन्ते येऽङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः |
अङ्गाश्रितास्त्वलङ्कारा मन्तव्याः कटकादिवत् || 2.7 ||

तम्+अर्थम्+अवलम्बन्ते ये+अङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः |
अङ्ग+आश्रिता:+तु+अलङ्कारा: मन्तव्याः कटकादिवत् ||

That which depends upon this main element (here rasa) are considered as “qualities”. The figures of speech are those that are connected with its parts (here the expressed meaning and the expression) in the same way as ornaments like bracelet, etc.

The difference between Alamkaara and Guna is stated here. A person might have decorated himself in a certain way. But his Gunas or qualities are different. The Alamkaaras are decorations of the body and the Gunas always depend on the soul (अङ्गि that which contains the organs). The अङ्गि of kavya is rasa. Prasaad, Ojas, Madhurya and the other gunas are decorations of the soul, the rasa dhvani, which is the अङ्गि. शब्दार्थौ काव्यस्य शरीरम् | The alamkaaras are attached to the body which is the word, shabda and the meaning, vaachya. Yamaka is a shabda alamkara. Upamaa is a arthaalamkaara. ये अङ्गिनं तम् अर्थम् (dhvani) अवलम्बन्ते, ते गुणाः | अङ्ग-आश्रिता: तु अलङ्कारा: | कटकादिवत् = Like the bangle (कटक) and others.

शब्दार्थौ सहितौ काव्यम् |

Everyone agreed that word and meaning together make a poem. Word and meaning cannot exist individually without each other. Pandita Raja Jagannatha in his Rasa Gangaadhara did not agree to this. He said that Kavyaa is only shabda and not Artha.  रमणीयार्थप्रतिपादकः शब्दः काव्यम् |

<End of third session>

<Start of fourth session>

In the fourth chapter of Dhvanyaaloka , Anandavardhana does practical criticism. The general complain about Indian alamkaarikas is that they take samples from different works and point out the figures of speech. But they do not take up one whole literary work and do a literary criticism doing an exhaustive review of its specialty. But that is not true. We find an exhaustive review of Ramayana and Mahabharata in the 4th of chapter of Dhvanyaaloka .

रामायण

रविसङ्क्रान्तसौभाग्यस्तुषारावृतमण्डलः |
निःश्वासान्ध इवादर्शश्चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते ||2.1 ++ ||

रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्य:+तुषारावृत+मण्डलः |
निःश्वास+अन्ध:+इव+आदर्श:+चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते ||

All the charm (brightness) to the sun has disappeared now that the orb is enveloped by snow. Like a mirror rendered blind by the heaving, the moon does not glow.

At the advent of morning, the sun is raising and the brightness of moon is fading. The soubhaagyaa of chandra has now been transferred to Sun (रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्य: | )

तुषारावृत+मण्डलः | आदर्श: = दर्पणः = mirror. When we breathe out air on the mirror, the mirror becomes unclear. The person is unable to see clearly. Like that, Chandra has also is not bright now. The literal meaning here is that the mirror has become blind अन्ध: by the breathed out air. There is Dhvani in the shabda “andha” as it means that it is unable to reflect the image clearly. This type of Dhvani is अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्या. The literal meaning is overridden. Like this, some shloka will be taken and its criticism is not present is the allegation. This is refuted by Anandavardhana. In the 4th chapter, the entire text of Ramayana and Mahabharata are being reviewed.

The prominent rasa of Ramayana is being discussed. In Ramayana, there is Shringaara, Vipralambha Shringaara, Karuna, Vira, kroda, etc. शोकः श्लोकत्वमागतः | So shoka or sorrow is the staayibhaava of this entire epic. The last scene ends with Sita entering the earth. As Karunaa has been present from start to end, it is the prominent (angi) rasa of Ramayana.

[Side note: Example of Krodha

न स संकुचितः पंथा येन वाली हतो गतः |
समये तिष्ठ सुग्रीव मा वालि पथम् अन्वगाः || ४-३०-८१

Oh, great-mighty Lakshmana, you may proceed to Kishkindhaa and let Sugreeva know through you, as to how my fury takes shape, and oh, brave one, he may betold this word also, ‘Oh, Sugreeva, abide by your commitment. The path by which slain Vaali has gone is not tapered off, as such do not tread Vaali’s path.]

Next, Mahaabhaarata is taken up. In most of the Parvaas it is mainly fight and hence Vira is a rasa. There are also Shringaara and Shoka or Karuna. But Anandavardhana says that the prominent rasa of Mahabharata is Shanta rasa. Anukramani is the contents. In the anukramani of Mahabharata, there is no reference to the term Shanta. Then, how can it be taken as the main rasa? Anandavardhana says that the most obvious thing should not be stated explicitly. It should be understood through Dhvani. In the Anukramani, there is one verse. ‘ भगवान्वासुदेवश्च कीर्त्यतेऽत्र सनातनः’   — ‘ भगवान्+वासुदेव:+च कीर्त्यते+अत्र सनातनः’ The meaning of Vaasadeva is not the son of Vasudeva. Sanaatanaa is eternal. Vasudeva’s son was not eternal. वसति इति वासु: | वासु: च असौ देव: च वासुदेवः | The praise of that eternal god is being sung in the entire Mahaabhaarata. That god is the personification of Shanta. Even if the other characters like Arjuna and Bhima are described in the Bhaarata, only this Vaasudeva is the main character. Bharata is a Kavya and it is also a Shashtra. As a Kavya, Krishna is the ultimate. As a Shashtra, Shantha is the ultimate. All the rasas culminate in Shantha.

स्वं स्वं निमित्तमासाद्य शान्ताद्भावः प्रवर्तते । । ६.८२*४ । ।
पुनर्निमित्तापाये च शान्त एवोपलीयते ।

स्वं स्वं निमित्तम्+आसाद्य शान्तात्+भावः प्रवर्तते ।
पुन: निमित्त+अपाये च शान्त एव+उपलीयते । |

Taking their own nimittaas from Shanta, all bhavas occur. Resorting to its respective cause [each] bhaava arises from Shanta. After their cause, the bhaavas cling to Shanta only. So Shantha rasa is the prominent rasa of Bhaarata.

Different types of Dhvani

Vastu Dhvani, Alamkaara Dhvani and Rasa Dhvani are one way of classifying Dhvani, which was explained earlier. Another way of classification is as follows.

अस्ति ध्वनिः | स चासावविवक्षितवाच्यो विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्यश्चेतिद्विविधः सामान्येन |

(१) अविवक्षितवाच्य:
(१.१) अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्या
(१.२) अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्या

(२) विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य:
(२.१) संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य
(२.२) असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य

अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्या

तदा जायन्ते गुणा यदा ते सहृदयैर्गृह्यन्ते |
रविकिरणानुगृहीतानि भवन्ति कमलानि कमलानि ||

तदा जायन्ते गुणा: यदा ते सहृदयै: गृह्यन्ते |
रविकिरण+अनुगृहीतानि भवन्ति कमलानि कमलानि ||

Merits do become merits where refined critics consider them so. Lotuses will be lotus as only when the rays of sun shelter them.

Anandavardhana gives his own verse as an example. A guna is a guna only when the friends recognize it. A lotus will be a lotus only when it is blessed by the sun’s rays. The second time usage of lotus could mean different things like the abode of Lakshmi, sakala soundarya aakara, etc. The second usage is the अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्या.   [Note: KSOU material – Here the second “Lotuses” is suggestive example of expressed meaning totally discarded WHICH IS WRONG].

विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: = विवक्षितवाच्य:

See note below

असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य

The order does not matter. Shatapatra-patrashata-beda-nyaayaa. The order in which they were cut does not matter when 100 lotuses (Shatapatra) are cut, because of the quickness. In the same way, the overall feeling is understood while going through the work, without having to analyze each aspect for identifying the specific bhaavaa there. On account of the quickness, the order is not noticed. Note that it is not said that the order or क्रम is not present. It is only unnoticed – असंलक्ष्य.

An example from Kuvalayaananda – नागरिक! समधिकोन्नतिरिह महिषः कोऽयमुभयतः पुच्छः। नहि नहि करिकलभोऽयं शुण्डादण्डोऽयमस्य न तु पुच्छम्‌॥ A person sees the elephant for the first time and is surprised that it is having tail on both sides. Another person clarifies that it is an elephant and the one in the front is trunk and not tail. How did this verse become Haasya rasa? It cannot be described. It could be because Man has ego. He thinks that he is better than others. So when another person does not know the elephant, while he knows it, he thinks high of himself.

Rasavadalamkaara swaroopa

रस: अस्मिन् अस्ति इति रसवत् | ( धनं अस्य अस्ति इति धनवान् | धनवान् इव) | The earlier alamkaarikaas mentioned that the alamkaaras that have rasa can be taken to be Rasavadalamkaaraa. Anandhavardhana does not agree with this. He said that where the rasa is prominent, it should be called as Rasadhvani. Rasa should be vyangya or suggested and it should be prominent. Sometimes, the rasa will be the anga or secondary to some other aspect. Usually the king is more important than the servant. But when the king is attending the marriage of the servant, in that situation, the servant gains prominence (भृत्य-विवाह-प्रवृत्त-राजवत्). Like that, in some remote cases, where some alamkaara gains more importance than the rasa, it will be called as rasavadalamkaara. It should be considered as Rasadhvani only when Rasa gains prominence.

प्रधान्येऽन्यत्र वाक्यार्थे यत्राङ्गं तु रसादयः |
काव्ये तस्मिन्नलङ्कारो रसादिरिति मे मतिः ||२.५ ||

प्रधान्ये+अन्यत्र वाक्यार्थे यत्र+अङ्गं तु रसादयः |
काव्ये तस्मिन्+अलङ्कार: रसादि: इति मे मतिः ||२.५ ||

If on the other hand, the chief meaning of the sentence should direct towards something else and if Rasa, etc. are to figure in only as subsidiary to it, that would be the case of Rasavadalankaara.

Where the vaakyaartha is important अन्यत्र वाक्यार्थे प्रधान्ये and rasa, bhava, etc. are only secondary यत्र रसादयः तु अङ्गम्, in those kaavyas तस्मिन् काव्ये, these secondary rasa, bhava, etc. will become Alamkaara रसादि: अलङ्कार:, is my opinion इति मे मतिः.

क्षिप्तो हस्तावलग्नः प्रसभमभिहतोऽप्याददानोऽशुकान्तं
गृह्णन् केशेष्वपास्तश्चरणनिपतितो नेक्षितः सम्भ्रमेण |
आलिङ्गन् योऽवधूतस्त्रिपुरयुवतिभिः साश्रुनेत्रोत्पलाभिः
कामीवार्द्रापराधः स दहतु दुरितं शाम्भवो वः शराग्निः ||

क्षिप्त: हस्तावलग्नः, प्रसभम् अभिहत: अपि आददान: अशुकान्तं
गृह्णन् केशेषु अपास्त: चरण-निपतित: नेक्षितः सम्भ्रमेण |
आलिङ्गन् यः अवधूतस्त्रिपुरयुवतिभिः साश्रुनेत्रोत्पलाभिः
कामी-वार्द्रापराधः स: दहतु दुरितं शाम्भव: वः शराग्निः ||

May that fiery arrow of Shiva burn down all our sins. That arrow who worked out in the form of a lover who has committed a new offence towards his beloved. Though avoided by the wives of Tripura with fear stricken lilly-like eyes, it would cling intently to their hands, though compellingly pushed out, it would still hold on to the tips of garment, though harshly pushed aside by the hair of its feather, it would fall at their feet and yet remain unrecognized due to their agitation, and despite it being pushed back, it would embrace them.

Tripura Samhaara is when Shiva kills three demons, who travel in space, as though in a space shuttle. Vishnu is the arrow.  Meru mountain is the bow. At a specific point of time, all three of them come in one line. Thus Shiva killed the demons. The fire comes and falls at the hands of the ladies (क्षिप्त: हस्तावलग्नः). Even when they push it (प्रसभम् अभिहत: अपि), it holds onto the edge of their sarees (आददान: अशुकान्तम्). The fire falls on their hair (गृह्णन् केशेषु अपास्त:). When they push it from there, it goes and falls at their feet (चरण-निपतित:). The poet says that the fire is like their lovers (कामी+वार्द्रापराधः). Even though there is karuna rasa in the act of protecting the people, here the prominent rasa is the vira or the prathaapa of Shiva. So this is rasavat alamkaara. In most of the slokas after all the praise, it concludes by seeking the blessings. In such cases, Karuna is not prominent.

हे हेरम्ब किमम्ब रोदिषि कुतः? कर्णौ लुठत्यग्निभूः
किं ते स्कन्द विचेष्टितं मम पुरा संख्या कृता चक्षुषाम्।
नैतत्तेप्युचितं गजास्य चरितं नासां मिमीतेऽम्ब मे
तावेवं सहसा विलोक्य हसितव्यग्रा शिवा पातु वः॥

Hasya rasaa is prominent and Karuna is not prominent though it ends saying let that Parvathi protect us. Hence this is Rasavadalamkaara.

[Side Note: Felicitation Volume in the honor of Prof. S. Ramachandra has an article by him on Rasavadalamkaara.  On the same topic, Sri V. Raghavan also wrote an article in that felicitation volume].

Samvaada – Correspondence – संवादः

Anandavardhana talks about Samvaada in the fourth chapter. Assume Shakespeare writes something. If the same thing is also said by our poets, say Kalidasa or Bhaaravi, we say that there is Samvaada or Correspondence or Similarity of thought. For example, what was found (like value of pi) by our great mathematician like Aryabhaatta and Bhaskaracharya was also found independently by European mathematicians. “Great minds think alike”. But, Krithi chauryaa – plagiarism – is stealing someone’s work.

संवादो ह्यन्यसादृश्यं तत्पुनः प्रतिबिम्बवत् |
आलेख्याकारवत्तुल्यदेहिवच्च शरीरिणाम् || 4. १२ ||

संवादः हि अन्यसादृश्यं तत् पुनः प्रतिबिम्बवत् |
आलेख्या+कारवत् तुल्य+देहिवत् च शरीरिणाम् || 4. १२ ||

Coincidence is nothing but correspondence with the other. It may be in the form of an image reflected in a mirror, like that of a picture, and like that of two individuals resembling one another.

In the first case, it is copying like bhimba pratibhimba or reflection (प्रतिबिम्बवत्). It is a copy. Second is like an artist who tries to draw on his own looking at the original आलेख्याकारवत् | आलेख्या is painting. Third one is resemblance – तुल्य देहिवत्. Similar – तुल्य.

तत्र पूर्वमनन्यात्म तुच्छात्म तदनन्तरम् |
तृतीयं तु प्रसिद्धात्म नान्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः ||४.१३ ||

तत्र पूर्वम्+अनन्यात्म तुच्छ+आत्म तत्+अनन्तरम् |
तृतीयं तु प्रसिद्ध+आत्म न+अन्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्+कविः ||४.१३ ||

Of these, the first one has no individual existence of its own, the possibility of the send is not better than a non-entity. The third one of course has a concrete existence. A poet need not have to bypass similarity in themes.

In the first one (तत्र पूर्वम्), there is no atma (अनन्यात्म). In the second one (तत्+अनन्तरम्), through there is likeness it has empty soul (तुच्छ+आत्म). Looking at the picture, the person will be identified. Yet the soul is not present there. In the third (तृतीयं तु), the other one also has a soul of its own (प्रसिद्ध+आत्म). The kavi should not leave this (कविः अन्यसाम्यं न त्यजेत्).

Rajashekara in Kaavya Meemaamsaa mentions about Saadrushyaa showing some 16 types with examples. There are poets who translate the Sanskrit poet’s verses and include it in their works in the other regional languages.

परस्वादानेच्छाविरतमनसो वस्तु सुकवेः|
सरस्वत्येवैषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती  || ४.१७ ||

पर-स्वा-आदान-इच्छा-विरत-मनस: वस्तु सुकवेः |
सरस्वती एव एषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती  || ४.१७ ||

The Goddess of speech, Saraswati herself will help the deserving and talented poets in procuring the ideas provided they shun plagiarism.

If someone is keen on producing his own work, without copying, Saraswati herself will help him with a lot of ideas.

अतो ह्यन्यतमेनापि प्रकारेण विभूषिता |
वाणी नवत्वमायाति पूर्वार्थान्वयवत्यपि ||४.२||

अत: हि अन्यतमेन+अपि प्रकारेण विभूषिता |
वाणी नवत्वम्+आयाति पूर्वार्थ+अन्वयवती +अपि ||४.२||

By a mere contact of even a single variety of suggestion out of the many that have been enlisted earlier, the poets’ expression will gain novelty though it might present a hackneyed idea.

पूर्वार्थ+अन्वयवति अपि – Even if it is follows the earlier poet’s thoughts.  It is acceptable if the poet creates it with dhvani. The subject might be the same. But if I enhance it with my own individuality including dhvani (अन्यतमेन प्रकारेण विभूषिता वाणी) , then there is no fault. It becomes a new one नवत्वम्+आयाति.

Example. Someone praises the simha that because of its own tejas, it is invincible. “स्वतेजःक्रीतमहिमा केनान्येनातिशय्यते”. Later another poet writes “ यः प्रथमः प्रथमः …  श्वापदगणेषु सिंहः सिंहः केनाधरीक्रियते” The person who is Numero Uno – number one, i.e., the most important person will be the most important person. In the same way, the lion will be a lion, being the best among the animals. Because of this dhvani अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्या, it is a new idea and it is not considered as a copying.

<End of fourth session>

<Start of fifth session>

Kaavyaadharsha

Kaavyaadharsha is a work by Dhandi. He is believed to have lived in the 7th century AD. He lived near Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu. He has other works like Dashakumaara Charita, Avanti Sundari Kathaa to his credit. In Avanti Sundari Kathaa, he has mentioned about his own life – how his ancestors came from North India, one of them named Dhamodaraa was his forefather, and states his own experiences. Kaavyaadharsha was a very popular text on Sanskrit Poetics. It had been translated into various languages more than 1000 years ago. It was translated into Tibetan language. This work is also the source for one of the earliest Kannada work – Kavi Raaja Maarga. Even later writers have also referred to this work. Many verses of Kaavyaadharsha reflect what is said by Bhaama in Kaavyaalamkaara. They appear to be similar to Bhaama’s work, (probably Dhandhi had borrowed from Bhaama) along with Dhandi’s own opinions. There are many Sanskrit commentaries on Kaavyaadharsa like those by Vaali Jangaala, Ratna Sri Jnaana and Taruna Vaachaspati. It continues to be a very popular work across the world.

Naatyashaashtra

Naatyashaashtra is a work by Bharata Muni. It consists of 36 chapters. Its commentary is called Abhinava Bharati, which is written by Abhinava Gupta. This Naatyashaashtra describes all aspects of Drama and these performing arts. He describes 10 types of Dramas or Rupakas namely, Nataka, Prakarana, Samavakara, Ihamrga, Dima, Vyayoga, Anka, Prahasana, Bhana and Vithi. During his time, the art of Drama had developed very well.

स ध्वनिरिति सूरिभिः कथितः

यत्रार्थः शब्दो वा तमर्थमुपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ |
व्यङ्क्तः काव्यविशेषः स ध्वनिरिति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३ ||

यत्र+अर्थः शब्द:+वा तम्+अर्थम्+उपसर्जनी+कृतस्वार्थौ |
व्यङ्क्तः काव्य+विशेषः स: ध्वनि:+इति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३ ||

This is the definition of Dhvani. See the details given above.

शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च यश्च जानाति सेवितुम् – Explain

सुवर्णपुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषास्त्रयः |
शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च यश्च जानाति सेवितुम् ||

सुवर्ण+पुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषा: त्रयः |
शूर: च कृतविद्य: च य: च जानाति सेवितुम् ||

There are plenty of golden flowers in this world. Only 3 types of people can gather it – namely warriors (valorous in battle), Scholar (one who has mastered any vidhya) and people who know how to serve.

This is an example of Deepaka alamkaara. Three people have the same common factor of being able to gather the golden flowers. In such verses, there will be Dhvani. But the prominence is not for Dhvani. The prominence is for the one who serves. The common factor applies to the other two types of people also. Deepa iva deepakam. Like the deepa lit in the door step, that lights the house, also lights outside.

Contribution of Anandavardhana to Alamkaara Shastra

Until the time of Anandavardhana, all the theorists were paying attention to the superficial factors like figures of speech, alliteration, simile, metaphor, etc. It was Anandavardhana who changed the course of Sanskrit Poetics. His period is a milestone. The era before and post Anandavardhana are different. He propounded Dhvani. The true enjoyment of Kavya comes due to the Dhvani. There are Vastu Dhvani, Alamkaara Dhvani and Rasa Dhvani, amongst which Rasa Dhvani give the supreme enjoyment. अलङ्कारत्वसाधनम् (explained below) is a major contribution of Anandavardhana. Also Anandavardhana was the first one to provide criticism of a literary work as a whole. Until then, the critics were paying attention to only particular stanzas, word or sentences. He discussed about Prabhanda Dhvani, the Dhvani or the main sentiment that is present in the whole work.

अलङ्कारत्वसाधनम्

रसभावादितात्पर्यमाश्रित्य विनिवेशनम् |
अलङ्कृतीनां सर्वासामलङ्कारत्वसाधनम् ||2.6

रस+भावादि+तात्पर्यम्+आश्रित्य विनिवेशनम् |
अलङ्कृतीनां सर्वासाम्+अलङ्कारत्व+साधनम् ||

It is only the use of Alamkaaraas in view of the principal idea of Rasa, Bhaava etc. that really proves as sources of charm.

When the ornaments are kept for display in the shop, it is not serving the purpose of an ornament. Only when someone wears it, it becomes a decorative item. Just the presence of alamkara in a poem does not have any significance unless it becomes a decoration for the Dhvani in the poem.

काव्यस्य आत्मा ध्वनि: with example

In Meghadoota, there is Vipralambha Shringaara (see earlier note).

विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: = विवक्षितवाच्य:

Where there is no hindrance to the vaachyaartha and yet another meaning flashes, that is विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: = विवक्षितवाच्य dhvani. वक्तुम् इच्छा विवक्षा | Vivaksha is the desire to express. Vivakshita is the message that the poet wants to express.

The two types within it are संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यand असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य. Any shloka that has rasa or bhava is an example for असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य. The stotra will sing the praise of the deity and there would be a prayer for protection also. So, any stotra can also become an example of Bhava Dhvani as there will be Bhakti Bhaava in it. For संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य, verses having the Vastu Dhvani or Alamkaara Dhvani are examples.

काव्ये प्रतिभा

प्रतिभा = जन्मान्तर संस्कार: | Poets are born and not made. Some say that only the poets who have the Prathibha (talent or power of imagination or the creative intuition) can write poems. Some say that even the Prathibha (talent) can be learnt and gained. There are some actors who become great even without going to the film institute. There are some film institute students who fail to become good actors.

नाकवित्वमधर्माय व्याधये दण्डनाय वा ।
कुकवित्वं पुनः साक्षान्मृतिमाहुर्मनीषिणः ।। १.१२ ।।

“Not writing poetry is no crime; it won’t cause illness or lead to punishment; but writing bad poetry is a living death”, says Bhaamah in Kaavyaalamkaara.

न केवलं प्रतिभा अपि तु

शक्तिर्निपुणता लोकशास्त्रकाव्याद्यवेक्षणात् ।
काव्यज्ञशिक्षयाभ्यास इति हेतुस्तदुद्भवे ॥ काप्र-३ ॥

शक्ति: + निपुणता लोक+शास्त्र+काव्यादि+अवेक्षणात् ।
काव्यज्ञ+शिक्षयाभ्यास: इति हेतु:+तत्+उद्भवे ॥ काप्र-३ ॥

According to Mammata, the author of Kaavya Prakaasha, 3 factors become one cause (hetu) of poetry. Shakti and Prathibha are synonyms. One has to gain expertise by studying the grammar in the shashtras. You have to study what is already mentioned in the Kaavyaas of other poets and avoid repeating it. The third point is to practice (अभ्यास:) and get trained (शिक्षया) under the direction of those (काव्यज्ञ:) who know to write poems.

Auchitya औचित्यम्

Refer notes given above. औचित्यम् = propriety – suitableness – it is the bhava of uchita. उचितम् = proper. It is the soul of all beauty. Without propriety, whatever you do, will be wrong. You cannot wear a very beautiful pair of shoes around your neck. If it is not proper, it becomes a matter of ridicule. The auchitya is decided according to the main rasa. The characters have 3 types of prakruti – daivi prakruti, aasuree prakruti or maanavee prakruti. Based on their prakruti, everything else should match like the dress and the mannerism. There is another thing called Sandarba auchitya. What is appropriate in such situation has to be considered. Most importantly the rasa’s auchitya has to be ensured.

अनौचित्यादृते नान्यद्रसभन्गस्य कारणम् |
प्रसिद्धौचित्यबन्धस्तु रसस्योपनिषत्परा || ३. १४++ ||

Refer the meaning given earlier. Mention that A Kashmiri poet, Kshemendra has written a work called Auchitya Vichaara Charchaa.

मुख्यतया प्रकाशमानो व्यङ्ग्योऽर्थो ध्वनेरात्मा

मुख्यतया प्रकाशमानो व्यङ्ग्योऽर्थो ध्वनेरात्मा |
स च वाच्यार्थापेक्षयाकश्चिदलक्ष्यक्रमतया प्रकाशते ,
कश्चिद्क्रमेणेति द्विधा मतः ||after २||

मुख्यतया प्रकाशमान: व्यङ्ग्य: अर्थ: ध्वने: आत्मा |
स: च वाच्यार्थ अपेक्षयाकश्चित् अलक्ष्यक्रमतया प्रकाशते ,
कश्चित् क्रमेण इति द्विधा मतः ||after २||

Sentiment (Rasa), emotion (bhaava), the semblance of sentiment (Rasaabhaasa), semblance of motion (bhaavaabhaasa) or mood and that rise and cessation – all these from undiscerned sequantiality. It is decided that when there is prominent presence of the variety, that would be the very soul of suggestion.

Even when the suggested meaning is present, if it is not enjoining importance and pre-eminence, then it should not be called as Dhvani. There are different meanings given to the term Dhvani. One is the best type of poetry – Atyuttama Kaavya. Dhvani also means the suggested meaning. The word that has the suggested meaning is also called Dhvani. The vyanjanaa vyaapaara which is the function that indicates the suggested meaning is also Dhvani. Dhvani is used in five different senses.

रसादिरर्थो हि सहेव वाच्येनावभासते |

रसादिरर्थो हि सहेव वाच्येनावभासते |
स चाङ्गित्वेनावभासमानोध्वनेरात्मा |

रसादि: अर्थ: हि सह इव वाच्येन+अवभासते | after 2.3

It would seem like the vaachyaartha and the vyangyaartha are coming together. Kaarana has to be present before the Kaarya. Since Vaachyaartha is the Kaarana, it has to be present even before the Kaarya which is the Vyangyaartha. But the gap is so less that it feels as though they are there together. The Rasaadi Dhvanis are inseparable with the Vaachyaartha. They might seem to come together. But there is a clear order in the vastu dhvani and alamkaara dhvani where the vaachyaartha occurs first and then comes the vyangyaartha.

एवंवादिनि देवर्षौ पार्श्वे पितुरधोमुखी |
लीलाकमलपत्राणि गणयामास केवलम् || after 2.22

एवं+वादिनि देवर्षौ पार्श्वे पितु: अधोमुखी |
लीला+कमल+पत्राणि गणयामास केवलम् || after 2.22

This shloka is from Kumaara Sambhava. The Sapta Rishis have come. Narada comes and tells Himaalaya that Shiva is the suitable groom for Parvathi and that he has agreed to marry Parvathi. When Narada was talking in this way (एवं+वादिनि देवर्षौ), Parvathi was standing next to her father with head facing down (पार्श्वे पितु: अधोमुखी). She was holding a lotus for play (leela) लीला+कमल+पत्राणि.  She started seriously counting its petals (गणयामास केवलम्). The bhava of shyness is suggested.

संवादास्तु भवन्त्येव बाहुल्येन सुमेधसाम् |  4.11 |

सुमेधसाम् बाहुल्येन संवादा: तु भवन्ति एव |

Samvaada is Correspondence or Similarity of thought. Refer notes given earlier. The thoughts of two poets might concur. सु+मेधाः = The ability to retain the knowledge is Medhaa i.e., the धारण after ग्रहण. It is the retentive memory.

(Side Note: प्रातिपदिकम् – मेधस् ; Panini sutra – नित्यमसिच् प्रजामेधयोः॥ ५।४।१२२.  There will always be आसीच् प्रत्यय for the words प्रजा and मेधा. Eg for प्रजाः is in Venkatesha Suprabhatam – कौसल्याः सुप्रजाः राम – there the प्रातिपदिकम् is सुप्रजस्). There will be samvaada among great poets and it cannot be avoided. Refer the earlier notes on three types. In the case where both come up with the same thought, one cannot reject the other, though there is similarity. In other cases, it becomes Kruti Chaurya.

काव्यदोषा:

दोष means मुख्यार्थ-हानिः – the factor that prevents the main meaning from being understood. A blemish that damages or destroys the desired meaning is kaavya dosha. पददोष,  वाक्यदोष, अर्थदोष, रसदोष, etc., are the types of faults. पददोष’s example would be spelling mistakes. वाक्यदोष where there could be some grammatical mistakes like singular-plural mismatch between कर्तृ and क्रिया. Rasa is most important. रसदोष is the blemish that damages the rasa. It is acceptable even if a गुण or good quality is missing. But it is not acceptable to have a दोष. Not having a दोष itself is an अलंकार.

Definition of Kavya or Poetry given by Mammata in Kavya Prakashaa – तत् अदोषौ शब्दार्थौ सगुणौ अनलंकृती पुनः क्वापि (काव्यप्रकाश 1.4)   –  इति काव्यलक्षणं | The first condition is that there should not be any fault अदोषौ.