संस्कृतसाहित्ये स्मृतेः महत्वम्
Sruthis and Smritis
स्मृतिः श्रुतिः हरेः आज्ञा says ऋषि: वाधूल: pointing out that the Smritis and Shrutis are created by the command of Hari or Sriman Narayana. श्रूयते अनेन इति श्रुतिः i.e., That which is heard is Shruti. स्मर्यते अनेन इति स्मृतिः i.e., That which is remembered is Smruti. It recollects the important points of the Vedas and provides us in a concise manner.
Purpose of Smritis
Vedas contain विधि and निषेध i.e., ordained actions and prohibited actions. The Smritis are the commentaries by the Rishis on the Vedic injunctions. श्रुतिस्तु वेदो विज्ञेयो धर्मशास्त्रं तु वै स्मृतिः | Gautama refers to Smruti as the essence of Dharma. These scriptures explain how to practice Dharma, the importance of adhering to it, and the ill-effects of not following the principles of Dharma.
The need for Smritis
The Vedas are the Shrutis. They are the most authoritative of all the scriptures. While the Vedas are अपौरुषेय – not written by man, the Smritis are written by Rishis. This being the case, it is very important to understand the need for creating these Smritis. The roles and responsibilities of the different members of the society of that particular times are explained in the Smritis. It provides for some changes in the actions to be performed, according to the requirement of times, without contradicting the Vedic injunctions. So Smriti text can be written any number of times, depending on the need of the times. But it should not be against the dicta of the Shruti, which elaborate the fundamental Dharma of the mankind.
Validity of the Smritis
Vedas are स्वतः सिद्धप्रमाण – these propositions are self-evident and they do not require any external proof for their correctness. Though Smritis are written by individuals, it is also accepted to be correct since it is based on the Vedas. आप्तवाक्यप्रमाण – It is considered to be correct because it is the words of those Rishis who are concerned with our welfare. आप्तवाक्यं शब्दः। The words of our well-wishers is to be taken as the truth as per Shabda Pramaana. When there is वक्त्रानुकूल्य, श्रोतानुकूल्य and प्रसङ्गानुकूल्य i.e., when the disposition of speaker, the disposition of the listener and the atmosphere are conducive, whatever is being said has to be taken as आप्त वाक्यम् – the well-wisher’s advice and they ought to be followed.
Characteristics of the Smriti Authors
The Smriti authors explain the Vedic ideals without any misinterpretations. The Smritikaaras had the intention to lead their disciples in the right path and elevate them to higher levels. आचिनोति आचरत्यपि आचार्यः – An Aacharya acquires knowledge and carries out his actions based on the acquired knowledge. He has unity in thoughts, words and action. ऋषिः is a gnaani. He sees oneness in humanity – सर्वंखल्विदं ब्रह्म | He shows the direction to all the human beings. मार्गदर्शी महर्षिः | There is no selfish interest in him. He is concerned about everyone. Since each person’s life is unique, the Rishi considers everyone and provides the appropriate guidance.
The Tone of the Smritis
The Smritis contain the advice of a guru to his disciples. So these are considered as शासन – the rules that need to be adhered to. Among the three types of classification of the scriptures as Prabhu Sammita (stated with an authority), Mitra Sammita (stated in a friendly manner) and Kaantaa Sammita (stated in a loving way), the Smritis come under Prabhu Sammita as these are like the orders of the master that need to be obeyed, failing which there would be punishment. So, whether one likes or not, the injunctions stated in the Smritis are to be carried out, at least due to the fear of the punishment. भीतारग्निर्धावतिमृयुर्धावति पञ्चम एति | Things are happening in a specific order in the world because of the fear of the consequences.
The Style of the Smritis
Usually the Smritis are in Gadya or Prose form. There are a few which are in Padya or Poetry form set to specific Chandas. There are also Smritis which are in Champu style – i.e., a combination of Gadya and Padya.
There are 37 important Smritis. Some of the popular Smritis are: Manu Smriti, Yagnavalkya Smriti, Narada Smriti, Parashara Smriti, Brihaspati Smriti and Katyayana Smriti. There are also many other Smritis like Daksa Smriti, Angirasa Smriti, etc. The Smritis are mostly named after the authors or writers – the one who collates and documents the work.
The Subject Matter of the Smritis
There are many topics that have been repeatedly covered in many Smritis or even multiple times within the same Smriti due to the significance of the matter of consideration. We will see some of the main topics in this assignment.
One such aspect which has gained the prominence among the subjects dealt with in the Smritis is Varnaashramadharma. The duties to be carried out by the people belonging to different Varnaas are the Varna Dharma. Similarly, the duties to be carried out by the people considering their present phase of life are the Ashrama Dharma.
According to our scriptures, everyone is a Shudra at birth – जन्मना जायते शूद्रः | Only when the person gets initiation into studies, by the Upanayana Karma, he takes his second birth as a Brahmin. Sri Krishna mentions in the Gita (4.13) – “चातुर्वर्ण्यं मया सृष्टं गुणकर्मविभागशः”. The Varna is determined based on the predominant quality namely Sattva, Rajas or Tamas; and the nature of work undertaken by the person for his livelihood. This is not to be confused with the present day caste system that is based on heredity.
Pancha Maha Yagna
Different Smritis elaborate about the Panch-Maha-Yagnas. Though there might be slight variations, those are mostly taken to be Deva Yagna (worship of Gods and demi-gods), Pitru Yagna (worship of one’s forefathers), Manushya Yagna (worship of fellow humans), Bhuta Yagna (worship of other beings), and Brahma Yagna (worship of knowledge).
The three debts or ऋणत्रयम् are पितृ-ऋण, देव-ऋण and गुरु-ऋण | The Smritis elaborate on these types of debts, how they are to be repaid, what is the parihaara or remedy in the event of not fulfilling the debts. In काश्यपस्मृति, condensing the information that is present in the other Smritis, Kashyapa says – देवपितृमनुष्यभूतब्रह्मयज्ञानुपसेवमानः | According to him, Smritis mainly deals with these topics – the types of the Yagnas (to the god, parents, human beings, other beings and towards knowledge) and the way to do upaseva of these Yagna.
The Duals द्वन्द्वः
The Smritis also deal with some dual concepts or Dvandvas which are extremely important like the two eyes. Some of them are
- सत्य – धर्म or सत्य – निष्ठा Truth & Righteousness
- न्याय – दण्ड Honesty and punishment.
- यजन – याजन Doing Yagna and getting others to do it.
- अध्ययन – अध्यापन Studying and teaching.
- दान-परिग्रह Giving and receiving charity.
Three types of Karmas
अवश्यं अनुभोक्तव्यं कृतं कर्म शुभाशुभम् | Whether it is the good fortune or the bad fortune, it has to be experienced. The karmas are classified as Sanchita Karmas (accumulated works), Prarabdha Karmas (ripe or fructuous actions), and Kriyamana or Agami Karmas (current works).
Types ojk,f Dharma
The actions to be undertaken are stated as Dharma. The different types of Dharma and Karmas are सामान्यधर्म (General), विशेषधर्म (Specific to the person), आपद्धर्म (when in distress), नित्यकर्म (Daily), नैमित्तिककर्म (occasional), काम्यकर्म (with a specific objective) and मोक्षधर्म (for self-realisation). Aapad Dharma are the actions that can be performed in case of a distress. The Smritis deal with this in detail. The Smritis clarify which situation can be considered as Aapad or being in distress to ensure that people do not abuse the liberty given only for exceptional situations. When carrying out all the actions, the person should always keep in mind that the ultimate goal is the Moksha Dharma and progress towards this highest goal of self realization.
General laws that govern humanity are covered in these Smriti literatures. It is based on the Vedas, and these were written by recollecting the Vedic literature. The duties and responsibilities to be carried out at different phases of life and in different circumstances are covered in the Smritis. It elaborates the activities to be performed as per the phases of life or the four Ashramas. If we want to have an integrated society and work in a united manner, a set of common principles that are respected by all people is required. These literatures were not written for a specific community. These were called as Maanava Dharma and are applicable to the entire humanity.
If Vedas are the solid gold, the Smriti texts are the golden jewels minted at different times to suit the trend of the present times. This flexibility in undergoing change according to the changing times is the beauty of the Vedic literature. This is the reason that Vedas and the Sanaatana dharma have stood the test of time. It would have been a dead literature if it had been rigid. There is scope of change in the Smritis according to the current needs of the people. Thus the greatness of Smritis is that they are important for the protection of the human race. The adherence to Smriti is a wonderful concept that has to be preserved and practiced in the society for the sake of humanity. As suggested by Vivekananda we need a new Smriti for the present century. “As time rolls on, more and more of the Smritis will go, sages will come, and they will change and direct society into better channels, into duties and into paths which accord with the necessity of the age, and without which it is impossible that society can live.”
Source: Vidyadaanam (nivedita2015.wordpress.com) – Classes by Dr. Gururaja Rao and by Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy
अर्थशास्त्रोक्तरीत्या विनयाधिकरणस्य निरूपणम्
Vinayadhikarana in Arthashastra
अर्थशास्त्रम् is a Sanskrit treatise compiled in the 4th century BC by Chanakya. In this assignment, we will see an overview of the first book or Adhikarana of Arthashaastra called Vinayadhikarana.
Chanakya was also known as Kautilya and Vishnu Gupta. He was a scholar at Takshashila. Being a king maker, he was the teacher and guardian of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya, who brought down the Nanda Dynasty. Chanakya has authored another famous work called Chanakya Neeti.
A शास्त्रम् gives a holistic treatment towards a subject area and reveals important definitions, techniques and processes to achieve the desired results, without causing undue harm to the environment. अर्थशास्त्रम् is a treatise written in Sanskrit on political economy, trade & commerce, statecraft, economic policy and military strategy. It contains 15 अधिकरण or books, 150 अध्याय or chapters, 180 प्रकरण or sections and 6000 सूत्र or aphorisms. It covers three parts namely – national security issues; administration of justice; and economics involving development policies. For the very first time, it was published by Sri. R. Shamasastry of the Oriental Research Institute at Mysore, in 1909.
Chankya summaries his work in this way, in the concluding book or Adhikaranam –
मनुष्याणां वृत्तिरर्थः । मनुष्यवती भूमिरित्यर्थः ।। (१५.१.०१) तस्याः पृथिव्याः लाभ-पालनोपायः शास्त्रम् अर्थशास्त्रम् इति ॥ (१५.१.०२)
The livelihood of humans is called “artha”, the territory containing human resources with different skills is “artha”, the shastra dealing with the techniques relating to acquiring and maintaining such territory is called “Artha Shastra”.
Purpose of Arthashastra
Artha is not alone. It is part of the triad of dharma-artha-kama. While concluding his work, Chanakya mentions : धर्मम् अर्थं च कामं च प्रवर्तयति पाति च । अधर्म-अनर्थ-विद्वेषानिदं शास्त्रं निहन्ति च ।। (१५.१.७२) Proper study and implementation of this Shastra not only promotes and protects the tri-varga of धर्म-अर्थ-काम; it eliminates disorderly (अधर्म), meaningless (अनर्थ) conflicts (विद्वेषा) seen in the individuals and societies.
So, the Shastra Prayojana, i.e, the purpose of this Shastra is not just acquiring and maintaining mere livelihood of individuals and societies. It is providing a proper order, meaning and fulfillment to them. This is only possible with a holistic system run by a Raja Rishi or an enlightened king. This king carries out the establishment and governance of the holistic system, with the support of several other roles making up the system.
Introduction to विनयाधिकरणम् – Guidance to Lead
The first adhikarana with 21 adhyayas is called Vinayaadhikaranam. It covers 18 prakaranas or the topics / sections related to vinaya, i.e., the training needed for a King. Here, Kautilya mentions that if students are trained by a capable teacher in a systematic way, they would be well disciplined and would have a good character.
The King is the leader. He leads the territory. The basis on which he attains the territory is called “vinaya”. नय means “to direct” or “to lead” and नायक means the leader. विनय means leading the leader; or making and directing a successful leader. विनय also means specialized or विशिष्ट guiding principle or नय or नीति शास्त्रम् |
Chanakya mentions about two types of vinaya – कृतकः स्वाभाविकश्च विनयः (०१.५.०३). The first type is the one which comes naturally by birth (स्वाभाविकः) and the second type is that which is acquired (कृतकः). A great emphasis is given to both natural and acquired knowledge just as the raw diamond shines when polished and cut. Identification of such a leader like a raw diamond and training him to shine with the required vidya or skills results in a Rajarishi.
Chanakya explains the sequence to Vinaya in his other work, Chanakya Neeti.
सुखस्य मूलं धर्मः – The basis of happiness is righteousness.
धर्मस्य मूलमर्थः – The basis of righteousness is society (human resources)
अर्थस्य मूलं राज्यम – The basis for society is kingdom (natural resources)
राज्यमूलमिन्द्रियजयः – The basis of kingdom is victory over senses!
इन्द्रियजयस्य मूलं विनयः – The basis for winning over senses is vinaya (i.e., proper guidance / training )
विनयस्य मूलं वृद्धोपसेवा – The basis for guidance is serving the elders / knowledgeable ones (guru).
वृद्धसेवया विज्ञानम् – by serving the Guru, knowledge is obtained
विज्ञानेनात्मानं संपादयेत – by knowledge realize your own potential
संपादितात्मा जितात्मा भवति – Having realized the self, one wins over the self.
In Arthashaastra, he says विद्याविनीतो राजा हि प्रजानां विनये रतः | (०१.५.१७) — Only a king who is disciplined through the study of the sciences gets engaged in disciplining his subjects.
In the first chapter of Arthashaastra, the books within this scripture and their sections are listed as a table of contents covering various aspects of the life of a King.
Need for Logical Philosophy
In the second chapter, the first topic is Vidya or knowledge.
आन्वीक्षिकी त्रयी वार्त्ता दण्ड-नीतिश्चैति विद्याः (०१.२.०१)
Critical philosophical enquiry constituted by samkhya, yoga and lokaayatana, etc. (आन्वीक्षिकी), Rig-Sama-Yajur Vedas (त्रयी), livelihood subjects like agriculture, animal husbandry, economics / commerce / trade etc., (वार्ता) and Law & the art of punishment (दण्डनीतिः) are called Vidyas.
Kautilya says these four are needed for a King and this vidya provides proper understanding to discriminate between dharma and adharma & artha from anartha.
प्रदीपः सर्व विद्यानाम् उपायः सर्व कर्मणाम् । आश्रयः सर्व धर्माणां शश्वदन्वीक्षिकी मता ॥ (०१.२.१२) Elders state that the philosophical inquiry (आन्वीक्षिकी) is the light that shows proper meaning of all vidyas, provides techniques (उपायः) for all the actions and covers all dharmas.
That is the importance of philosophy in the view of Chanakya. It is the primary skill needed for the Leader. As the Leader needs to be well versed in philosophy, he is called a Raajarishi or a kingly sage or an enlightened king.
Importance of Vedas – The Triad
In Chapter 3, Chanakya establishes the importance of Vedas. Rig, Sama and Yajur Vedas are called Trayee. Atharva Veda, Itihasas (like Mahabharata and Ramayana) are also included in this part of education.
Profession and Punishments
Chapter 4 deals with the determination of the place of Profession and Punishments. The education that develops a skill to make money is called वार्ता which leads to a वृत्ति or profession. It could be based on agriculture, animal husbandry or economics & trade – कृषि-पाशुपाल्ये वणिज्या च वार्ता (०१.४.०१).
While concluding, Chanakya says that in a kingdom that is taken care (पालितः) by a King who uses the punishments (दण्ड) properly, the people (लोकः) consisting of four castes and four orders of religious life will engage themselves in their own duties and actions – चतुर्-वर्ण-आश्रमो लोको राज्ञा दण्डेन पालितः । स्वधर्म-कर्म-अभिरतो वर्तते स्वेषु वर्त्मसु ।। (०१.४.१६)
Association with elders
In Chapter 5, Chanakya explains the importance of acquiring knowledge and wisdom by associating oneself with the wise and elderly people. विद्याविनीतो राजा हि प्रजानां विनये रतः | (०१.५.१७) — Only a king who is disciplined through the study of the sciences gets engaged in disciplining his subjects.
Victory over senses
The 6th chapter deals with इन्द्रिय जयः i.e., victory over senses. Chanakya says विद्या विनय हेतुः इन्द्रिय जयः काम-क्रोध-लोभ-मान-मद-हर्ष-त्यागात्कार्यः (०१.६.०१) The basis for learning and training is victory over senses. Desire, anger, possessiveness, ego, pride and making fun of elders have to be given up. The sense organs – ears, skin, eyes, tongue, and nose respectively should be decoupled from their subjects – sound, touch, shape, taste, and smell, by strong will and the enjoyments should be controlled as per the Shastra with the necessary restraints.
कृत्स्नं हि शास्त्रम् इदम् इन्द्रिय जयः (०१.६.०३) – This Shastra is all about victory over senses!
Profession of a King
In Chapter 7, Chanakya gives a view of life of a Raajarishi i.e, a saintly or an enlightened King. An aspiring king should first conquer indriyas. Then he should get trained by the elders by serving them. By being alert, he should focus on yoga (acquiring new things) and kshema (protecting already acquired). By delegating work, he should engage others following him in their own duties. He should gain practical knowledge (vinayam) by learning vidyas. By properly distributing the money in welfare activities, he should be liked by the people. He should make long term beneficial plans for the people and run the government.
The various Administrative roles
सहाय-साध्यं राजत्वं चक्रम् एकं न वर्तते | (०१.७.०९) The administration of the kingdom is possible only with others’ help; only one wheel does not revolve. So, the Chapters 8 to 14 deal with the various important administrative positions in the kingdom. Chapter 8 deals with the appointment of ministerial officers referred to as Amaatyas. Chapter 9 deals with the appointment of Purohits and Councilors.
The Purohita is the prime mentor who foresees the problems before they manifest. He can provide remedies to unforeseen problems. He monitors and mentors the Leader – the king, the Amaatyas or ministerial officers and mantris or councilors in the difficult situations.
In Chapter 10, Chanakya mentions about the method of “Secret Testing” to check the integrity and loyalty of ministers. अमात्यानुपधाभिः शोधयेत् (०१.१०.०१). The king should test the amaatyaas by means of upadhaa-s. There are four types of upadhaas namely धर्म-उपधा, काम-उपधा, अर्थ-उपधा and भय-उपधा.
Secret Services by Spies and Protection of the King
In Chapter 11 and 12, the creation of an establishment of spies and the appointments of such people in the secret services are being elaborated. The five types of people called संथाः who reside at their location and four types of people called संचाराः who are wanderers, are described as being the best suited for secret services working for the King undercover and providing all the needed intelligence to run the kingdom.
Chapter 13 and Chapter 14 deal with the protection of the King from seducible कृत्य and non-seducible अकृत्य parties in his country and winning over those in the enemy’s country respectively.
Council meetings to frame a Winning Strategy
कर्मणामारम्भोपायः पुरुषद्रव्यसम्पत् देशकाल विभागः विनिपातप्रतीकारः कार्यसिद्धिः इति पञ्चांगो मन्त्रः ॥
The five aspects (or components) making up a winning strategy or मन्त्रः mentioned in Chapter 15 are :
- कर्मणाम् आरम्भ-उपायः An approach to the project
- पुरुष-द्रव्य-सम्पत् An estimate of required human and material resources
- देश-काल विभागः An implementation plan showing place and time of tasks
- विनिपात-प्रतीकारः A complete list of risks and mitigations
- कार्य-सिद्धिः A well defined success criteria
This is applicable even to this day. A great strategy includes these 5 aspects – Project approach, resource estimation, a detailed work-break-down structure, risk management plan and the clearly defined exit criteria.
Appointing the Envoys
In Chapter 16, Chanakya says that the King, having finalized the strategy, should appoint the right diplomatic messenger दूत-प्रणिधिः to start the deployment of the strategy. उद्वृत्त-मन्त्रो दूत-प्रणिधिः (०१.१६.०१) Whoever has succeeded as a councilor is an envoy.
Protection of the Prince
In Chapter 17, Chanakya mentions about राजपुत्र-रक्षणम् or the protection of the prince. Once the territory is established, a Leader or the King should consider having a succession plan in place. जन्म-प्रभृति राज-पुत्रान्रक्षेत् (०१.१७.०४) Ever since their birth, the king should take special care of the princes. The eldest and most suited successor from the next generation should be carefully prepared to continue the administration of the state.
बहूनामेकसंरोधः पिता पुत्रहितो भवेत् । अन्यत्रापद ऐश्वर्यं ज्येष्ठभागि तु पूज्यते ॥ ( ०१.१७.५२) If there are many indisciplined sons, they may be confined at one place. Father should be benevolent to his sons. As long as there is no major defect with the eldest son or except in the case of calamity, the leadership should be handed over to the eldest son.
In 18th Chapter Chanakya explains how a genuine successor should behave, if he is being neglected by the King.
More Guidance on Duties including Self-protection
19th Chapter deals with the duties of King or the Leader. Emphasizing the importance of remaining active and industrious, Chanakya says that activity is the root of wealth and the opposite is of disaster. The King should remain every active and carry out the administration of wealth.
20th Chapter deals with the construction of a fort that is suitable for King to live in. This chapter covers how to build a naturally fire proof palace which has several secret escape routes in case they need to be used. This chapter also deals with how the King should protect himself from unforeseen attacks from his own wives.
21st Chapter deals with the details of self-protection. All security needs for a King are described here. Possible dangers from various seemingly innocent things are discussed and the necessary precautions and antidotes are explained in detail.
Thus, in vinayadhikarana, we have seen how Chanakya elaborates on various aspects related to vinaya, the training needed for a King.
- KSOU Course Material – Course Writer, Dr. Michael and contact class conducted by Dr. Gururaj Rao.
- कौटिल्यस्य अर्थशास्त्रम् https://sa.wikisource.org/s/6ge
- The Arthashastra By Kauṭalya https://books.google.co.in/books?id=FFJz72h5qjUC
- Arthashastra. Translated by R. Shamasastry. Bangalore: Government Press, 1915, 1-50.
कौटिलीयं अर्थशास्त्रम् (Session by Smt. Divya – For KSOU MA exam)
(Also refer the other two posts – one having a summary of Vinayadhikarana and another with the quotations asked in the exam).
<Start of Part 1>
Samhita, Brahmana, Aranyaka, Upanishat and Vedangas are वैदिक वाङ्ग्मय. All others are लौकिक वाङ्ग्मय. So, Arthashastra comes under the second category.
In the Vedic literature there are references of ‘Rajasabha’, Sarvajanika Sabha’, ‘Mandala’. These were guidelines to the king or for the benefit of the citizens. However, we don’t find a separate section for Rajakeeya Shastra.
The first available elaborate work on ‘Rajaneeti’ is Kautilya’s Arthashastra.
There were efforts by many on the field. Kautilya consolidated prominent theories of his time and put forward his own opinion in his work. After this major task, all the previous works lost relevance. (Since the contents of this encompasses all those)
Artha shastra acknowledges धर्म, अर्थ and काम, but emphasizes on अर्थ. This is written as a guideline to the King in good governance. Though Kautilya gives utmost importance to the rule of the Emperor, he makes sure of a system where the emperor does not become a ruthless dictator (निरङ्कुश प्रभुः)
अर्थशास्त्रस्य व्याख्या :
अर्थस्य शास्त्रम् – The study of ‘अर्थ’.
What is ‘अर्थ’? Different word meanings are used – प्रयोजन , purpose – उद्देश, meaning of words – पदस्य अर्थ.
- Kautilya says “मनुष्याणां वृत्तिः अर्थः, मनुष्यवती भूमिरित्यर्थः, तस्याः पृथिव्याः लाभपालनोपायः शास्त्रं अर्थशास्त्रं इति ’. The Earth is essential for the existence of the mankind, which is called artha. Therefore the shastra that tells about the maintenance, governance of it is Arthashastra.
- Somadeva in his नीतिवाक्यामृत says “यतः सर्वप्रयोजनसिद्धिः सोर्थः”. That which gives all the benefits.
- Acharya Shankara in his Jayamangala says “अर्थो येन लोको वर्तते” He opines that the world exists due to this.
अर्थ is one among the धर्म – अर्थ – काम –मोक्ष.
In वैदिक वाङ्ग्मय dharma gets the most emphasis and Artha & Kama are considered as part of the Dharmashastra or Neetishastra. Kautilya’s work is given importance as ‘Rajadharma’ and ‘Rajaneeti shastra’.
Yajnavalkya says ‘अर्थशास्त्रात्तु बलवद्धर्मशास्त्रमिति स्थितिः’. When there is a conflict of opinion between Arthashastra and Dharmashastra, instruction as in Dharmashastra has to be followed.
Similar works prior to Kautilya’s Arthashastra :
- In Vedas, Varuna is referred as ‘Raja’.
- In Brahmanas, ब्रह्मक्षत्र is explained.
- In Dharmasutras of Kalpa (one of the 6 Vedangas) , Rajadharma is explained.
- In बौधायन धर्मसूत्र, आपस्तम्भ धर्मसूत्र, गौतम धर्मसूत्र the guidelines for a good governance are explained.
- Manu Smriti and Yajnavalkya Smriti mention the same.
- In Ramayana , the tattvas are indirectly explained.
- In Mahabharata , there are direct upadeshas on Rajadharma.
- After the war, Bhishma’s upadesha to Yudhishtira
- Vidura Neeti to Dhrutarashtra
- Bharadhwaja – Drona Acharya has the same name.
- Vishalaksha – Jayamangala says he is Maheshwara
- Pishuna – Known to be Narada – according to Jayamangala.
- Kaunapadanta – Bheeshma. Arthashastra doesn’t mention as Bheeshma. (short note question on Smriti)
- Vaatavyadhi – Uddhava.
- Baahudantee putra – According to Jayamangala he is Indra.
- Paarashara – Followers of Parashara
- Maanava – Followers of Manu
- Barhaspatyaa – Followers of Bruhaspati
- Aushanaa – Followers of Ushanas (Shukra)
- Aambheeyaa – Followers of Ambhi
- Aacharyaa – Specifically not known
Similar works post Kautilya’s Arthashastra :
- Kamandakeeya Neetisara – A collective work on Arthashastra by Kamandaka. All adhikaranas except 2,3,4 and 15.
- Bruhaspati Sootra – The original was written in BC. This is a rewritten version of 9-10 AD
- Shukra Neetisara – Known to be the teaching of Shukra or ‘Ushanas’. Next famous work after that of Kautilya.
- Chanakya Neetisootra – Also known as Kautileeya neetisootra – It is different from Arthashastra.
- Neetivakyamruta – Also known as Neetisootras of Somadeva. Very close to Arthashastra.
- Rajaneeti Ratnakara – Written by Chandreshwara.
कर्तृ , देश & काल :
Written by कौटिल्य also known by the names विष्णुगुप्त & चाणक्य .
Supporting References / Proofs –
- The famous commentary called ‘जयमन्गला’ says ‘कुटिलं नाम गोत्रं , तस्यापत्यं कौटल्यः’
- In Arthashastra itself the author says कौटिलीये अर्थशास्त्रेः
- In another place he says ‘स्वयमेव विष्णुगुप्तः चकार सूत्रं च भाष्यं च’.
- Kamandaka in his Neetisara mentions Vishnugupta & his work Arthashastra in the Peetikaa
- Dandi in his ‘Dashakumara charita’ mentions about Acharya Vishnugupta, who for the benefit of Maurya Kings wrote a book on Arthashastra consisting of 6000 verses.
- Bana Bhatta in Kadambari (Shukanasopadesha) says कौटिल्य शास्त्रं प्रमाणम्
Some are of the opinion that Arthashastra is written by the shishyas of Kautilya. They come to this conclusion because in Arthashastra , always his name is mentioned in third person. If he himself was the author he could use first person reference.
But this theory is not accepted because it is an accepted practice by the authors of Shastras to do the same.
Kautilya and Vaatsyaayana are the names of the same person?
- Hemachandra in ‘Abhidana Chintamani’ and Yadava Prakasha in ‘Vaijayanti’ think both are the same person
- Keith is of the same opinion
- There are many similarities between Arthashastra and Kamasutra. But there is no confirmed evidence that they both are written by the same person.
- Kautilya was known to be the Guru of Maurya King. He was instrumental in supporting Chandragupta Maurya to defeat Nanda King. Chandra Gupta Maurya came to power in 321 BC and his grandchild Ashoka became the ruler in 296 BC. Therefore Arthashastra was believed to be written during the period of 321BC- 300BC.
- Stein – 300AD
Megasthenes came to the palace of Chandragupta and wrote about his observation. According to Stein the descriptions of the society don’t match that of Arthashastra. So, his opinion is that Arthashastra must be a recent work. But later he himself agrees that such a comparison is not valid reason to decide the timeline.
- Jolly, Schmidt and Winternitz – Post AD
Arthashastra and Yajnavalkya Smruti are similar. So, one is the influence of the other.
Kamasutra and Arthashastra have similar way of presenting the theories. Kamashastras time is 4th century AD. So, the opinion is that Arthashastra must be of 3rd Century AD.
But the timeline of Kamasutra itself is not confirmed. So this theory is not valid.
There are references of Lohashastra (Metallurgy )in Arthashastra. Metallurgy is the recent understanding. So the work must be of recent past. This is not appropriate since there is no evidence that Lohashastra was not known in the olden times.
The Mahabhashya does not mention Arthashastra. So it must be a recent work.
It is not valid because Mahabhashya might not have mentioned the work even if it was existing.
Famous Commentaries on Arthashastra :
Commentary written by Shankara Acharya who belongs to 800 AD. Commentary on the first adhikarana is available.
- चाणक्य टीका
Written by Bhikshu Prabhumati. It is mentioned in Amarateekaasarwaswa in 1959. Only the first and 3rd adhyayas of 7th adhikarana are available. This is an unpublished work.
- प्रतिपद पञ्चिका
Written by Bhattaswami. Commentary is given to each word. Commentary is available only for the 7 adhyayas of 2nd adhikarana.
Written by Shri Madhava Yajwa Mishra.
7th Adhikarana – 7-11 adhyaya
12th Adhikarana – 4th adhyaya
Overview of Artha shastra
Mangala says –
“ पृथिव्या लाभे पालने च यावन्त्यर्थशास्त्राणि पूर्वाचार्यैः प्रस्थापितानि प्रायशस्तानि संह्रुत्यैकमिदमर्थशास्त्रं कृतं “
It has 15 Adhikaranas, 150 Adhyayas, 180 prakaranas and 6000 verses. Gadya is in sutra form. 380 Karikas.
|1||विनयाधिकारिकं||Establishes अन्वीक्षकी ,त्रयी, वार्ता , दण्डनीति.
Importance of Vidya and its relevance for the ruler.
Respecting the elders. Controlling of senses.
Recruitment and testing of ministers and Purohiths. Guidelines for managing spy network.
Ways to strengthen own country and to weaken the enemies. Maintenance of secrecy.
Rules for the messengers.
Upbringing of princes, making sure they are protected and the throne is protected by them. Preventing the princes from rebelling. Their expected behavior towards the King.
The duties of the king, the guidelines for his residence and his daily routines.
Safety of the king – are described in this chapter.
|2||अध्यक्षप्रचारः||Mainly about collection of taxes.
Collection of grains, management of barren land, construction of forts, maintaining safety of the warehouse, employees responsible for the calculation & collection of the taxes.
Preventing thefts. Ways to identify corruption.
Guidelines for Shasana writing.
Managing Precious jewelry and stones. Management of mines, the workers and the jewelers.
Rules for the businessmen. The chapter talks about carpentry, looms, agriculture, winery, butcher houses, animal husbandry, rules for soldiers, senapati.
|3||धर्मस्थीयं||A Person who knows about Dharmashastra and applies the knowledge in the vyavahara is Dharmastha. The guidelines for their roles are discussed in this chapter.
How the dealings (vyavahara) happens, conflicts and conflict resolution, vyavahara in relation to marriages.
About ancestral property , house, farm and estates.
The promises made are called ‘samaya’. The guidelines for the same.
Loans, ‘upanidhi ’ and issues regarding the same.
About employees and staff.
Selling – own items, buying and selling with margin, selling others’ items.
About conflicts, verbal , physical fights and gambling.
|4||कण्टकशोधनं||As the name suggests this chapter is about investigation.
About frauds in the following fields –
– Carpenter, blacksmith, goldsmith.
– merchants who cheat in weights
– Corrupt officials, thieves
Investigating with the help of sidhdhas who dress like sanyasis.
Investigation in case of an unnatural death.
Punishment for different crimes.
|5||योगवृत्तं||Yoga – here it means cheating. Vrutta is the punishment for the same.
Collection of extra taxes during the difficult times .
Management of employees, ministers etc.
When the king is in danger how to protect the prince, the role of the minister to rule until the prince is independently able to do so.
Only one prince has to be declared as the emperor.
|6||मण्डलयोनिः||Prakruti Sampada – Swami, Amatya, friend, treasury, country, fort and ‘bala’ are prakrutis.
Shamavyayamika – TODO
|7||षाड्गुण्यं||The chapter that explains the shad-guNas starting with Sandhi.
Basically this talks about how a king should align with other neighbouring kingdoms. If he is weak, he has to align with stronger neighbours (prabala), how he has to make ‘sandhi’ by giving kosha, bhoomi etc.
Ways of blocking the food supply of the enemy and directing it own country during the fight.
Forming a group of able kings and going for ‘dandayatre’.
When a neighbouring king is observed to be weak (either in wealth, health, or due to bad habits) taking the opportunity to attack.
Guidelines to decide who the friendly kings are.
How to behave if the enemy is stronger.
|8||व्यसनाधिकारिकं||Swami etc. are prakrutis. Vyasana are difficulties. (TODO)
Definition , classification of vyasanas.
Peedana – calamities due to water, fire etc
Stambhana – creating obstacles in governance.
Koshasanga varga – non-payment of taxes.
Balavyasana varga – problems related to the army.
Mitravyasana – how to maintain a friendship and during conflicts the decisions to be taken considering the welfare of the country.
|9||अभियास्यत् कर्म||The duties performed by विजिगीषु before the war is explained here.
He has to study the enemy’s shakti-desha-kala balaabala.
Appropriate time to attack.
Types of sainya, weapons.
Protection of the borders.
|10||साङ्ग्रामिकं||Construction of the war camps. Journey to the battlefield.
Prevention and management of obstacles during the journey.
Motivating the soldiers.
Different formations (vyoohas) in the war. About prati-vyoohas.
|11||सङ्घवृत्तं||Sangha – is the formation of united group by several rebel groups.
This chapter talks about how to control rebellion by such groups.
|12||आबलीयसं||One who is weak is aabaleeya. This is about the guidelines for the weak king.
The weak king needs to have different game-plans and tricks to be victorious.
One such trick is to kill the Senapati and the main leaders first, which will demoralize the enemy’s army.
Aligning with friends to fight the stronger enemy.
Cutting down the source of income of enemy king.
Killing the enemy with stealth.
Eka-vijaya – where the king fights alone with the enemy.
|13||दुर्गलम्भ उपायः||Winning the fort of the enemy.
Making the enemy come out of the fort, employing spy network, encircling of the fort and attacking.
Avamarda (Swaadheena – occupying) , labdha prashamana – building the trust with the citizens after occupying.
|14||औपनिषदिकं||Winning the enemy with the help of mantra and aushadha prayoga.
Also mentions the remedy if own army is attacked by mantra/aushadha prayoga.
|15||तन्त्रयुक्तिः||Summary of the previous chapters.|
The overview of prakarana and adhyayas with short description are given below. There are 18 prakaranas and 21 adhyayas in Vinayaadhikarana.
|#||Name of प्रकरणम्||#||Name of अध्यायः||Synopsis|
कौटिल्येन कृतं शास्त्रं विमुक्तग्रन्थविस्तरम्
|2||आन्वीक्षिकीस्थापना||Sankhya, Yoga and Lokayata|
|3||त्रयी स्थापना||Rig, Yajur & Saama|
|4||वार्त्ता दण्डनीति स्थापना||Vartaa -Agriculture & trade.|
|2||वृद्ध संयोगः||5||–||Here Vruddha means Jnani. Importance of Vidya samuchchaya from all the sources.|
|3||इन्द्रियजयः||6||अरिषड्वर्ग त्याग||Overcoming Kama, krodha, lobha, mana, mada & harsha|
|7||राजर्षि वृत्तिः||Guidelines for the king|
|4||अमात्य उत्पत्तिः||8||–||Who should be recruited as Amatya? Consolidation of different opinions.|
|5||मन्त्रिपुरोहित उत्पत्तिः||9||–||Qualities expected in ministers and purohits.|
|6||उपधाभिः शौचाशौचज्ञानं अमात्यानां||10||–||Testing of amatyas. Dharma, Artha, Kama and Baya upadhaa’s.|
|7||गूढ पुरुषोत्पत्तिः||11||–||Recruitment of the spies.|
|8||गूढपुरुषप्रणिधिः||12||–||Duties of the spies.|
|9||स्वविषये कृत्याकृत्यपक्षरक्षणं||13||–||Observation within the country|
|10||परविषये कृत्याकृत्यपक्ष उपग्रहः||14||–||Observation in enemy’s country|
|11||मन्त्राधिकारः||15||–||Guidelines of Mantraalochana.
|13||राजपुत्ररक्षणं||17||–||All about princes.|
|14||अवरुद्धवृत्तं||18||Both prakarana are||About rebellious or disobedient prince|
|15||अवरुद्धे वृत्तिः||18||Combined in one adhyaya||About rebellious or disobedient prince|
|16||राजप्रणिधिः||19||–||King’s duties and routine|
|Location and safety of Rajagruha|
|18||आत्मरक्षितकं||21||–||Safety of the king|
Mangala and Granthaswaroopa is given here followed by contents of the entire work.
पृथिव्यां लाभे पालने च यावन्त्यर्थशास्त्राणि पूर्वाचार्यैः प्रस्थापितानि प्रायशस्थानि संह्रुत्यैकमर्थशास्त्रं कृतं |
At the end of the adhyaya, he mentions the purpose of the grantha. It is easy to understand, with definite understanding of thathvarthapada and it is concise (sankshipta).
कौटिल्येन कृतं शास्त्रं विमुक्तग्रन्थविस्तरम्
- आन्वीक्षिकीस्थापना :
Manu’s followers say : त्रयी, वार्त्ता & दण्डनीति are the only 3 types of Vidya.
Bruhaspati’s followers say : वार्त्ता & दण्डनीति are the only two types. Their opinion is that त्रयी is just to distract people and make money. They are Charvaka followers.
Aushanasaa or followers of Ushanas/Shukra say : दण्डनीति is the only Vidya required and all the other are part of it.
**दण्डनीतिरेका विद्या इत्यौशनसाः (**short notes)
Anveekshikee consists of Saankhya (by Kapila Muni), Yoga (Maharshi Patanjali) and Lokayatha (Charvaka/Bruhaspati) –
साङ्ख्यं योगो लोकायतं च इत्यान्वीक्षिकी
It is said to be the ‘taarkika adhyayana of Darshanas’ – समीक्षासाधनातर्कः अन्वीक्षकी
It sheds light on all the shastras and gives guidance to all the work. Therefore it is ashraya for all Dharmas.
प्रदीपः सर्वविद्यानां उपायः सर्वकर्मणाम् |
**आश्रयः सर्वधर्माणां शश्वद् आन्वीक्षिकी मता
- त्रयी स्थापना :
साम.ऋग्यजुर्वेदाः त्रयः त्रयी – Atharva Veda is considered to be included (TODO). The vedangas ‘Shiksha, Kalpa, Vyakarana, Nirukta, Chandas and Jyotishya’ are part of this.
He defines Varnadharma and Ashramadharma.
ब्राह्मण – He has to do yajana, yaajana, daana& pratigraha.
क्षत्रिय – Has to engage in adhyayana, yajana, daana and protection.
वैश्य – Do adhyayana, yajana, daana, agriculture, pashupalana and trade.
शूद्र – Support the other dharmas, vaarta, shilpa and kusheelava karma.
गृहस्थ – Perform the duties, suitable marriage, daana.
ब्रह्मचर्य – Svadhyaya, agnikarya, snana, bhikshe, guru shshrooshaa.
वानप्रस्थ – Brahmacharya, simple life.
परिव्राजक – Life of detachment.
Kautilya says one has to perform duties according to ‘Swadharma’. The king has to encourage his people to follow their Dharma and be in the path of righteousness. If the teachings of Trayee are practiced, the world will be a happy place. There will not be any sorrow.
तस्मात् स्वधर्मं भूतानां राजा न व्यभिचारयेत् |
स्वधर्मं सन्दधानो हि प्रेत्य च इह च नन्दति
व्यवस्थितार्यमर्यादः कृतवर्णाश्रमस्थितिः |
**त्रय्याऽभिरक्षितो लोकः प्रसीदति न सीदति
- वार्त्ता दण्डनीति स्थापना :
Vartaa – is about agriculture, animal husbandry and trade.
Dandaneeti – is instrumental in the protection of ‘anveekshakee, trayee and vartaa’
आन्वीक्षिकी त्रयी वार्त्तानां योगक्षेमसाधनो दण्डः, तस्य नीतिर्दण्ड नीतिः, अलब्धलाभार्था लब्धपरिरक्षणी रक्षितविवर्धनी वृद्धस्य तीर्थे प्रतिपादनी च
Obtaining the alabdha, protection of that is obtained, growing of what is saved, distribution of what is grown to the needy – is what is discussed in this.
About Danda prayoga –
Acharya says Danda is the best way to control the citizens. Kautilya does not accept this.
Too much of dandaprayoga – will make the people scared and in turn disrespect the king.
Too little – King will not gain the deserved respect. People will take advantage of the situation.
Samayochita danda- is the right way according to Kautilya.
Here the word ‘Vruddha’ means knowledgeable . It talks about ‘jnanavruddhatva’ rather than an old person. The king has to strive to acquire knowledge from all sources.
The chapter is the continuation of dandaneeti. It begins with the phrase **तस्माद् दण्डमूलाः तिस्रो विद्याः
For the good governance appropriate dandaneeti is essential. In that situation it is possible for all the Vidyas to flourish. Danda should be based on ‘vinaya’.
Upadesha can make only the smart person to be polite and righteous and not the ‘mandabudhdhi’.
शुश्रूषा (Care)– श्रवण(listening)-ग्रहण(understanding)-धारण(memorizing)-विज्ञान(Vivechana)- ऊहापोह(Imagination and discarding what is not needed )-तत्त्वाभिनिविष्ट(Nirnaya of vastu swabhava)-बुद्धिं विद्या विनयति न इतरम्
Education will lead one to become polite if he has the above qualities. One needs discipline and Acharyas ‘ pramaNya.
How one should be initiated to Vidya is explained here. The rituals from Chaula karma are listed.The routine of the Gruhastha in terms of vidyarjana is given. He has to spend the first half of his morning in the practice of shashtra vidya and caring of elephants, horses etc. The second half has to be spent in listening to itihasa (purana, dharmashastra and arthashastra). The remaining day should be dedicated for study (vyasanga)
श्रुताद्द् हि प्रज्ञा उपजायते प्रज्ञाया योगो योगाद् आत्मवत्ता इति विद्यानां सामर्थ्यम्
By listening to the shastras one will attain prajna , from that yoga (udyoga sheelata) , from yoga one attains ‘atmavatta’ . This is the advantage of Vidya.
**विद्याविनीतो राजा हि प्रजानां विनये रतः |
अनन्यां पृथिवीं भुङ्क्ते सर्वभूतहिते रतः
A well learned king with vinayata is able to provide good governance. This will make him enjoy the kingdom without enemies.
**इन्द्रियजयः (long answer question)
What is indriya jaya ? विद्या विनयहेतुरिन्द्रियजयः
How ? कामक्रोधलोभमानमदहर्षत्यागात् कार्यः
- अरिषड्वर्ग त्याग
The 6 sense organs कर्णत्वग्ऽक्षिजिह्वाघ्राण and their respective activities are to be in control. Kautilya explains the importance by giving examples of kings who failed to comply and got destroyed.
काम – दाण्डक्य भोजः & वैदेह करालः
दाण्डक्य भोजः – Abducted a Bhargava Kanya during his hunting trip. Due to Bhargava’s curse, the country got destroyed by the showers of sand.
वैदेह करालः – Abducted a Brahmana’s wife. The King and the ministers died because of the curse.
क्रोध – जनमेजय, तालजङ्घः
जनमेजय – During the Ashwamedha Yaga, Indra was attracted to his queen. But the enraged king suspected the Ruthvijas and punished them. Due to their curse his head got blasted into thousand pieces.
तालजङ्घः – Someone had placed a golden box in sage Brigu’s ashram. The Hehaya King who had poverty went to grab the box. When the sage stopped him, the King Talajangha was about to kill Bhrigu. He got destroyed in the fire along with his family.
लोभ – ऐल पुरूरवः , सौवीर अजबिन्दुः
ऐल पुरूरवः – During his visit to Swargaloka, he offered pranams to only Dharma and ignored Artha & Kama. So they cursed him. Due to Kama-shapa, he got attracted to Oorvashi. Then due to Artha-shapa, he became a lobhi. He collected excess tax from his citizens. Perished due to the curse of Brahmins.
सौवीर अजबिन्दुः – He wanted to see all the wealth in one place and forced his citizens to put all their wealth. They got frustrated by his strange ways and killed him by pelting stones.
मान – रावणः , दुर्योधनः
Here mana means durabhimana. Ravana and duryodhana’s stories are well known.
मद – दम्भोद्भवः, कार्तवीर्य अर्जुनः
दम्भोद्भवः – He was very brave and was proud of his valour. He reached a point where he had no opponent to fight with & got desperate. Narada suggested him to see Nara-Narayana of Badrikashram. He got killed by Nara.
कार्तवीर्य अर्जुनः – He thought there was none like him in the world. Narada tells about Parashurama. So Arjuna comes to Sage Jamadagni’s ashram. He takes a calf and drags Parashurama into a fight. His thousand arms were chopped.
हर्ष – वृष्णि संघ, इल्वल वातापि
वृष्णि संघ- This is Yadava clan. They dress up Samba as a woman and ask Dvaipayana Durvasa ‘what baby will she deliver?’ for fun. Understanding their intention, furious sage says ‘ an iron rod that will destroy your clan’. They powder the iron rod and throw in the sea. But later they fight with the weed grown there and die. The same iron will be instrumental in Krishna’s dehatyaga as well.
इल्वल वातापि- With his Magical power, Vatapi would become goat and be cooked by Ilwala. The dish would be served to an innocent guest. During the lunch, Ilwala would call out for Vatapi, who would break open the guest’s stomach and come out. This was the wicked game they played on many. But sage Agasthya says ‘Vatapi jeerno bhava!’
Kings who achieved इन्द्रियजय are – Jamadagnya and Naabaaga Ambareesha.
- राजर्षि वृत्तिः
What is expected of a good king – Rajarshi?
- He should have the 6 enemies in control – indriyajaya
- Acquire adequate knowledge from Vruddha samyoga
- Should be aware of all the happenings with able spy network – charachakshu
- Should work relentlessly for the welfare of the country
- Establish swadharma
- Vinaya –anushasana should be done according to the shastras
- Appropriate usage of wealth and gain popularity
- Favourable mannerism
What should be relinquished by a Rajarshi?
- Should not be fickle minded
- Should give up telling lies, inappropriate dressing, sahavasa that leads to downfall
- Should give up adharmika and anartha vyavaharas
What are the roles of dharma – artha – kama for a Rajarshi?
Kautilya promotes balance. He does not say Dharma alone is great. Dharma should guide the path of Artha and Kama. He emphasizes that Kama should be given importance in such a way that it does not hinder the path of Dharma and Artha. Kama should never be relinquished.
Kautilya again emphasizes on the importance of Artha – **अर्थमूलौ हि धर्मकामाविति
Protocol to be followed by the King :
King may falter at times. So Mantri, amatya and purohits should be appointed to alert him. They should be given sufficient importance to advice the king. The king should take their suggestions. A cart will not move with one wheel. In the same manner, King alone can’t run the whole system.
**सहायसाध्यं राजत्वं चक्रं एकं न वर्तते
कुर्वीत सचिवां तस्मात् तेषां च शृणुयान् मतम्
**अमात्य उत्पत्तिः (long answer question)
Kautilya says’ पूर्वाचार्यैः प्रस्थापितानि प्रायशस्तानि संह्रुत्यैकमिदमर्थशास्त्रं कृतं ‘ in the beginning of the book. This adhyaya is a good example for that. In this he consolidates the opinion of previous Artha shastrajnas and finally states his opinion.
भारध्वाजमतम् – Saha-adhyaayis should be made as Amatyas. The king knows them since childhood and both would have developed the trust.
विशालाक्षमतम् – Does not agree with the above opinion. He thinks such Amatyas may not give due respect to the king. They may ignore the king. He says if the king has engaged in some rahasya activity with him, he should be made as amatya.
पराशरमतम् – If both have some secrets known by each other, there are chances of revealing them (blackmailing the king?). Therefore King may have to compromise on policies. One who can protect the king at any time should be appointed as Amatya.
नारदमतम् – (Also known as Pishuna) – Just protecting of king all the time shows one’s bhakti to the king. But a minister should be able to give advice and guide the king too. King should assign some work and observe. The person who performs the work to perfection and does more than what is told should be the right candidate.
कौणपदन्तमतम् – Such people are not experienced. A person who hails from the family of ministers should be appointed. He knows the right protocols since he has been observing his father, grandfathers since young. Such a person will have natural loyalty to the throne.
अमानुषेष्वपि च एतद् दृश्यते गावो ह्यसगन्धं गोगणं अतिक्रम्य सगन्धेष्वेवावतिष्ठन्ते
Even the cows will not go with a different herd.
उद्धवमतम् – Doesn’t approve of this. He says such a system will give undue control with one family. Such a minister will behave like a superior. Therefore a new candidate with suitable moral values should be appointed. Those new to the system will have fearful respect towards the king.
बाहुदन्तीपुत्रमतम् – A person totally new to the system, however good he may be will not perform well. He may make mistakes that may be costly. So, his qualities should be well known – अभिजन-प्रज्ञा-शौच-शौर्यानुरागयुक्तान् अमात्यान् कुर्वीत
Kautilya – He says all the opinions are valid. Depending on one’s ability the job has to assigned. One has to observe his gunas, desha-kala and appoint him.
Qualities expected from Amatya –
जानपदो अभिजातः स्ववग्रहः कृतशिल्पश्चक्षुष्मान् प्राज्ञो धारयिष्णुर्दक्षो वाग्मी प्रगल्भः प्रतिपत्तिमान् उत्साहप्रभावयुक्तः क्लेशसहः शुचिर्मैत्रो दृढभक्तिः शीलबलारोग्यसत्त्वयुक्तः स्तम्भचापलहीनः सम्प्रियो वैराणां अकर्ता इत्यमात्यसम्पत्
- Brought up in a good surrounding
- From a good family
- Has good control (over himself and can take control)
- Knowledgeable in finearts
- Having knowledge of Shastras
- Excellent memory skills
- Daksha – skillful
- pragalbha – chatura
- With presence of mind
- Having the ability tolerate difficulties
- Clean – Shuchi – shudhdha chitta
- Having faith
- Devoid of egoistic and fickle-minded nature
- Liked by all
- Without enemies
Classifications of Amatya – One who has most of the qualities is the best. One who has atleast 3/4th of the qualities listed here is ‘Madhyama’ and having half the qualities is ‘adhama’.
Ways to check the qualities –
- To know about the person’s nature and interaction with people, enquire with those who closely interact with him.
- To know about his education and knowledge, enquire with his peers
- Observe his work to know about his knowledge, memory and skill
- Observe the conversation to understand his oratory skills, presence of mind
- During the times of difficulty assess his enthusiasm and kashtasahishnuta
- Enquire about sheela-bala-arogya-sattva with neighbours
- Remaining with observation.
**प्रत्यक्षपरोक्षानुमेया हि राजवृत्तिः
There are three ways of knowing. Pratyaksha is when we directly see something. Paroksha is when we hear about it from someone. Anumeya is by observing what the person has done and what he has not done. A King can’t be everywhere and do all the tasks. So he needs able amatyas to get the work done.
About Able purohithas –
Purohitha should be from the family of the learned , with knowledge of Veda- Vedangas, having religious, spiritual knowledge, Shakuna – knowledge of omens , knowledge of dandaneeti, should be able to practice techniques of Atharva veda to ward away Daiva Amanusha disturbances. Such a purohitha should be respected by the king.
Purohita should be respected in these manner – the king should treat the purohita like an acharya, a father and a master.
**उपधाभिः शौचाशौचज्ञानं अमात्यानां (long answer question)
King should appoint jobs to the Amatyas and with the help of purohitha and mantri test their abilities , weakness and loyalty. Such a test is called ‘Upadha’. After the quality is known, suitable duties will be assigned to the amatyas.
This is to observe how the amatya follows ‘Dharma’. The situation should be especially created for this. A yaga should be organized with a person who doesn’t know to perform it properly. King has to fire him for his inability to perform his duty. The purohith (who is part of the plan/upadha) should approach the amatya and say that “This king is not a Dharmika. Let us all conspire against him and choose someone appropriate to be our king”. He could be someone from the same vamsha, a prince, a Samantha or someone from the kshatriya clan who is able.
If the Amatya disagrees to this , he is known to be clean/shuchi.
This is to test the political aspect and loyalty of the newly appointed amatya. An army general has to be fired (part of the plan/upadha). He should approach the amatya to conspire a coup. He should also mention that all the other amatyas are with us. And the opinion of the amatya should be asked. If Amatya does not agree he is shuchi.
A maid of the anthah-pura tries to lure the amatya to meet the queen, who is said to be attracted to him. If he denies, he is Shuchi.
One amatya (part of the plan) should invite all the other amatyas for a fun event. The king comes to know of this and (pretends to) suspects they are united for a wicked cause. All are dismissed and put in house arrest. A Kapatika (A student who is a spy) meets the amatyas one by one to plan a coup against the king. Now all the amatyas are unsure of King’s next action. The one who doesn’t fall for the words of the spy is shuddha.
Assignment of duties according to the outcome of upadha –
Shuddha in Dharmopada – To be appointed in Dharmastheeya kantakashodhana
Shuddha in Arthopada – In samahartr karma and Sannidhatr karma (Dhanasangraha and Dhana rakshana)
Shuddha in Kamopada – In security of the anthahpura and royal gardens.
Shuddha in Bhayopada – To be appointed close to the king in his security department.
One who is shuddha in all the upadhas is eligible to become a mantri.
One who fails in all the tests should be appointed in the departments of mines, timber , forestry etc where the work is more labour intensive.
Kautilya’s opinion on Upadha –
The king and the queen should not be part of the Upadha.
कृता च कलुषाबुद्धिरुपधाभिश्चतुर्विधा
One should not poison the pure water. In the same way a noble person should not feel cheated in the name of Upadha. Once the process of Upadha has begun, it has to reach completion with a clear result.It should never be left half way.
Kautilya says king and the anthah-pura should be left in the process. Keeping other aspects in mind, with the help of spies Upadha has to be carried out.
<End of Part 1>
<Start of Part 2>
**गूढ पुरुषोत्पत्तिः (**short notes question)
This chapter and the next are about the ‘goodha purusha’ as Kautilya has already said the king should be ‘ चारेण चक्षुः’.
There are mainly two types – संस्थाः (discussed in this chapter) & सञ्चाराः (discussed in the next chapter)
These group of spies are stationed at one place. The place can also be called as a ‘Samstha’ . They are spies by profession. (compare with sancharas) They are appointed by the ministers and the king.
परमर्मज्ञः प्रगल्भश्छात्रः कापटिकः
Kaapatika is a smart student having the ability to secretly observe the others’ intentions.
प्रव्रज्या प्रत्यवसितः प्रज्ञाशौचयुक्त उदास्थितः
He is a person who had a stint as a sannyasi, but returned because of his inability to stick to the rules of the ashram. He is appointed as a spy with the condition that he has to maintain the appearance of a sannyasi. He is given sufficient funds and students to run an ashram (basically a samstha) to run the activities of goodaacharya.
कर्षको वृत्तिक्षीणः प्रज्ञाशौचयुक्तो गृहपतिकव्यञ्जनः
An agriculturist who lost his job but with his prajna-shaucha intact. He is given a land to work but is expected to serve the ruler in information gathering.
वाणिजको वृत्तिक्षीणः प्रज्ञाशौचयुक्तो वैदेहकव्यञ्जनः
Similar to gruhapatika, but was involved in trade or business.
मुण्डो जटिलो वा वृत्तिकामः तापसव्यञ्जनः
People living as Bhikshus but wanting aid from the king come under this category. They have to maintain external appearance and lifestyle of ascetics. They need to interact with people. Kapatikas should behave like their shishyavarga and publicize their supernatural abilities. These group of spies should understand the general opinion of the public about the king.
If people are genuinely unhappy, they should be pleased by appropriate monetary benefits or with due respect given. The citizens who disrespect the king without valid reason should be appropriately punished.
गूढपुरुषप्रणिधिः (short notes question)
This chapter speaks about the ‘Sanchara’s and the duties of the spies.
The spies in this category move about individually. They take up different jobs and gather information. These are not spies by profession (it is like a part time duty !) They are appointed by the king himself (without the involvement of the ministers)
सत्त्रि – These are dependants. For example -children, aged, orphans or who are sad or are in difficulty. If these people know shakuna shastra, magic, palm reading etc, they are selected for the job. They are not employed by anyone else.
तीक्ष्ण– These are capable of doing anything – even to fight with a tiger – for the sake of money. They may be in different occupations.
रसद – Rough natured and cruel people.
भिक्षुकी – A female spy who is independent. She may be poor, a widow or respected in the queen’s residence, or who has access to Amatya’s household.
How they work –
Depending on the ability of the sancharas, the king appoints them with any of the 18 senior officials.
मन्त्रि, पुरोहित, सेनापति, युवराज, दौवारिक, अन्तर्वंशिक, प्रशास्तृ,
समाहर्तृ, सम्निधातृ, प्रदेष्टृ, नायक, पौरव्यावहारिक, कार्मान्तिक, मन्त्रि, परिषद्ऽध्यक्ष, दण्डपाल, दुर्गान्तपाल, आटविक
Theekshnas will be appointed to hold chatra, chamara or any other duties to the above officials. They gather information about the officials (external behaviours, mannerism etc) and pass them to the Samstha.
The people employed in the households like cook, barber, musicians, female employees gather the personal information of the above said 18 types of officials. They update the information to Samstha as well.
The heads of the Samstha arrange their own personnel to inform the king about their observation. However, no two samsthas should be in contact. The sancharas who worked as informants should not know who are there in the samstha. Else, they would form their own group and give a distorted information to the king.
If any spy is stopped from entering the workplace, if they are suspected for their role in spying, they should send secret code messages to the samstha. The people involved should discretely quit the job in that place. (without being caught)
The king should verify the validity of information by checking three sources of information. If one repeatedly reports distorted information he should be punished or prevented from the work.
**उभयवेतनाः – This is regarding those who are stationed in other states as part of their duty. They are expected to work as informants of that country. So, they should work in that place (obviously to avoid detection). Such spies are called Ubhayavetanas.
**गृहीतपुत्रदारांश्च कुर्याद् उभयवेतनान्
Their spouse and families should to be kept respectfully in the custody of the king. (This is to ensure that there are loyal). Such ubhayavethanas should be checked on often.
Thus the chaaras should keep an eye on the friends, foes, neutral parties as well as the 18 types of officias.
Different occupation of people should be appointed at different places –
- Residences – dwarves, artisans, deaf people , florists etc
- Forts – traders
- Outside the fort – tapasa/sanyasi
- Village – agriculturists, udasthitas
- Countryside – Gopalakas
- Forests – vanacharas , forest guards
An appropriate system should be followed to relay the information quickly to the king. They should be able to identify the spies from the other countries too.
The officials who are loyal and will not yield to external pressure are ‘akrutya’s. After enacting a ‘rajadroha’ they should be sent out. In reality they are appointed in disguise at different parts of the country to oversee the spy network, to know about foreign spies. They are appointed at the borders as well.
कृत्या – क्रुद्धलुब्धभीतमानिनः तु परेषां कृत्याः
Those who are angry with the king, those who are ambitious for power or money, those who are afraid of the severe punishment and those who felt insulted by the king are called Krutyaah. They have some negative opinion about the king and are easy targets for the enemies
This chapter describes how to identify ‘Krutya’s in the country with the help of ‘sathri’s. Two groups of sathris should get into an argument about the king/governance in a crowded place. One group has to criticize the king about the hefty tax collection while the other should defend him by giving reasons.
These spies will observe people and gather information about the loyal citizens and about those who are unhappy. The happy and content citizens should be respected. The disgruntled people should be given some jobs like collection of tax. This will make them interact with common people and face their ire. This is an indirect punishment for them.
The ‘Krutya’s are vulnerable to be lured by the enemies. Therefore their family has to be house arrested and kept in a secret place.
परविषये कृत्याकृत्यपक्ष उपग्रहः
This chapter talks about observing the krutya – akrutyas of the enemy kingdom and luring the people to own side.
Kautilya says 4 classifications – क्रुद्धवर्गः (angry citizens), भीतवर्गः (in fear), लुब्धवर्गः (bankrupt), मानिवर्गः (egoistic)
उपजपावृत्तिः (short notes)
Vasheekarana vidhana is explained to lure each of the mentioned category.
क्रुद्धवर्गः – If the angry citizen of the enemy side has faith in saints, a spy dressed up like a saint should approach him and advice him – ‘this King is Adharmi. The situation of the country in his control will be like of a place destroyed by a tusker’.
Example of a tusker is given.
भीतवर्गः – Fear about the king should be instilled in these people. ‘This king may find fault in you anytime. Therefore it is better you go to another place.’
Example of a poisonous snake .
लुब्धवर्गः – This king favours only those people whom he likes. He is not able enough to identify the good qualities and reward.
Example is of a dog owner’s cow giving milk only to the dogs and not to a Brahmana.
मानिवर्गः – This king is a neecha. He is dependable only to other neechas. Such a king does not deserve the service of a noble person like you.
Example of a water well specifically meant for chandalas and none other than them are allowed to use it.
मन्त्राधिकारः (The topic of Counsel)
Any work has to be initiated only after ‘mantralochana’. Since important issues are discussed, decisions taken during this, utmost secrecy has to be maintained.
- The place chosen should be quiet and deserted.
- What is spoken inside should not be heard outside.
- Even the birds should not be able to see the place. There were instances of parrots , dogs and other animals working as spies.
- One who is not authorized should be seen in the area.
- One who does ‘mantra bheda’ should be punished.
Instances of मन्त्रभेद –
The secret could be revealed by doota-amatya-swami – by their ‘ingita’ or ‘akruti’.
इङ्गितं अन्यथावृत्तिः – Change of opinion.
आकृतिग्रहणं आकारः – Change of appearance/expression.
A person involved with Mantralochana knows about the decision being taken or about some important work that is going to happen. From the period of counsel to the commencement of the work, one should be careful to maintain the secrecy. He should not disclose it during the sleep or when he is drunk.
Ways to protect the mantra :
भारद्वाजः – King should arrive at a conclusion alone.
विशालाक्षः – Does not agree with it. He says the king’s dealings have to be ‘pratyaksha, paroksha and anumeya’. The king has to take the opinion of others.
पाराशराः – This is just collection of opinions. He says King should put forth similar situation (not the one currently in his mind) and ask for the opinions. By knowing their views, he should take appropriate decisions.
पिशुनः – The ministers will not be interested to get involved in non-existing issues. He says king should selectively approach the ministers for advice depending on their expertise.
कौटिल्यः – does not agree with this. He says a king should consult 3 or 4 ministers. If he depends on only one Mantri, the mantra may take the upper hand in governance. If the number is more it is difficult to arrive at a conclusion.
How to do mantralochana :
पुरुष-द्रव्यसम्पद्- देशकालविभागो- विनिपातप्रतीकारः- कार्यसिद्धिरिति पञ्चाङ्गो मन्त्रः
Preparation, Assembly of required men, collection of items needed, place & time, plan to avoid obstacles and karyasiddhi – These 5 are important in mantralochana.
About Mantri Parishat :
How many should be present ?
मानवाः – 12 amaatyas
बार्हस्पत्याः – 16
इत्यौशनसाः – 20
कौटिल्यः – यथासामर्थ्यं
The Mantri parishat should think from the point of view of the King and the other party as well.
They have to oversee – initiation of the work that needs to be done – anushtaana of what has been begun – enforce obedience to orders.
अकृतारम्भं आरब्धानुष्ठानं अनुष्ठितविशेषं नियोगसम्पदं च कर्मणां कुर्युः
Supervision of work is to be done by observation. If the party is far away, the updates have to be gathered through mail.
Mantri Parishath is like ‘eyes’ to the king. Comparison of Indra’s counsel consisting of 1000 rishis. “सहस्राक्षं आहुः” | During emergency situation, after consulting ministers and mantra parishat, the majority opinion has to be implemented.
The secrecy of the meeting has to be maintained. Efforts should be made to know the proceedings of the enemy’s meetings.
गूहेत् कूर्म इवाङ्गानि यत् स्याद् विवृतं आत्मनः
The ministers who are competent should be part of the counsel.
**दूतप्रणिधिः (long answer question)
Categories of दूत / envoy depending on the ability –
निसृष्टार्थः – One with all the twenty expected qualities of ‘Amatya’. He is able to take up responsibilities independently.
परिमितार्थः – Having 3/4th (In the text they say one who has all the qualities but less by a quarter). He will be given a specific task.
शासनहरः – Having half the qualities. He will be appointed as a messenger carrying a written message.
Responsibilities of the envoy –
- Proper preparation of the vehicles, people and clear idea of the mission – before starting.
- During the travel he has to make friends with the officials.
- Observe the placement of military stations , army strong holds (of enemy as well)
- Identify the short cut and escape routes on his way
- Assess the enemies’ fort, size of the country, strengths and weaknesses.
- Enter the country with the consent. Even when there is danger to his life, he has to relay the message as is.
- After relaying the message to the king, he has to observe the expressions of the king to understand if the reaction is favourable or not.
- If he is asked to remain in the country, he should not be flattered by the hospitality extended. He has to abstain himself from women and liquor.
- He has to obtain information about the enemy country through the spies or ‘ubhayavetana’. If this is not possible he has to gather information by observing the words of the beggar and common people. He should try to understand the situation at temples, from paintings and secret writings /‘sanjna’s.
- If he is asked to remain the enemy’s country even after his job is done, he has to understand the purpose of the same. Kautilya lists many possibilities regarding this. Is the enemy king planning something against our king? Is he buying time (to strengthen his army, fort etc) by delaying the reply to my message? Are there any threats to enemy from other parts? Is the enemy contemplating a friendly relationship with our king through marriage?
- When not immediately sent, the envoy can choose to stay for as long as he wishes or decide to return. He can request the enemy king to speed up the process and arrange his return. If the consequence message is dangerous (punishment or threat to his life), he is allowed to return without the consent.
Duties of the envoy –
- Carrying of messages, sandhi-palana, build friendship, mitra-bhedha, fetching secret force, stealth of relatives or precious stones, information gathering, winning over the officials of the enemy.
The king has to ensure the envoy performs the duties and make sure the information, secrets of his country is not accessible to the envoy of the enemy.
**राजपुत्ररक्षणं (long answer question)
After King’s personal safety from the queen and sons is ensured, he is able to maintain the safety of the kingdom. रक्षितो राजा राज्यं रक्षत्यासन्नेभ्यः परेभ्यश्च, पूर्वं दारेभ्यः पुत्रेभ्यश्च
This chapter deals with the safety of the king from the princes. Though the prince is going to be the next king, it is observed that he has to be dealt with cautiously. Some princes may be a threat to the king – कर्कटकसधर्माणो हि जनकभक्षा राजपुत्राः.
भारद्वाजः – Says such princes should be punished in childhood before they develop affection with their father.
विशालाक्षः – It is adharma to kill an innocent. And the heir apparent would be killed. Therefore instead of getting him killed, he has to be put under guard in a safe place.
पाराशराः – It is compared to the fear of a snake. The son may think that the king is afraid of his strength and abilities. He might start controlling the father. Therefore the prince must be kept under the custody of guards (anthapaala) in a fort.
पिशुनः –The above is compared to the fear of the sheep. The prince may develop friendship with the anthapaala and conspire against the king. Therefore he has to be kept in the custody of a ‘Saamantha’.
कौणपदन्तः – वत्सस्थानं एतद् – It is like keeping the calf. The Samantha may start taking advantage of the situation and keep on demanding. Therefore the child has to be with his maternal relatives.
वातव्याधिः – Bringing up the prince in maternal relatives’ place will be like ध्वजस्थानं. They may use him and start demanding as well. Instead, the prince should be left to enjoy life. Then he may not be interested to uproot the throne.
कौटिल्यः – Does not agree with this opinion. A country with weak prince will perish like a wood attacked by termites. Instead, the prince should be brought up with good education. When the queen conceives appropriate offerings and havanas are to be performed. After the birth of the child, putrasanskara followed by good education should be given.
आम्भीयाः – They say two groups of sathris should lure the prince with hunting, gambling, women or drinking. Then they should talk ill of the king and observe the reaction of the prince.
Kautilya does not agree with the above idea. Teaching the vices to an innocent person is mahadosha. Only appropriate Dharma has to be taught to the young mind. Adharma and Anartha should never be taught.
तस्माद् धर्म्यं अर्थ्यं चास्य उपदिशेन्नाधर्म्यं अनर्थ्यं च
With the help of the sathris – any vices that the prince has should be removed.
Even after dharmika upbringing, if the prince develops displeasure with the king or has negative qualities, Kautilya suggests the following actions –
- After the efforts by the sathris, if the prince has not changed his ways, he should be imprisoned even though he is the only and favourite son.
- If there are many (other) princes, the one with wrong ways to a different location.
- The prince with noble qualities should be appointed as senapati or yuvaraja.
Three types of the princes :
Buddhiman – One who learns and implements the dharma-artha theories learnt from the Guru.
Aaharyabuddhi – One who has learnt from the Guru, but does not practice.
Durbuddhi – One has durbuddhi. He hates Dharma-Artha.
- If the king has only one son who is of the third category, efforts should be made to get putrasantana.
- Or the daughter’s son can be made as heir.
- If the king is old or disabled, he should get a Santana in his ‘kshetra’ – either from a maternal relative or from a person of the same kula or a noble king from the neighbouring country.
- A disobedient son should never be installed on the throne.
- The king has to be polite/favourable to the sons (‘hitha’)
- If there are many sons, the eldest should be the heir.
अवरुद्धवृत्तं & अवरुद्धे वृत्तिः
This is about the prince who is kept under restraint by the king. A prince may be sent away by the king for several reasons. This chapter speaks from both the king’s and the prince’s perspective.
The prince having noble qualities should be appointed as senadhipathi or heir apparent. But the other princes will be ‘vijigeeshu’s. Such a prince who has been sent or restrained has to faithfully follow the king and his orders. He has to request the king to appoint a ‘veekshaka purusha’. The prince will engage in noble activities and he should give the profit gained to the king.
- Even after this if the king does not show appreciation, or if he is partial to other princes or the sons of other queens, this prince should request permission to go to the forest.
- If there is any threat to his life or safety, he has to approach a good natured Samantha and take shelter.
- There he will develop connections with able men , acquire wealth and relationships (marriage with the princess of a strong country) , build an army with the help of tribal people
- Try to win over the citizens of his father’s state
- If he is alone without the support of a Samantha, he should acquire wealth by trading of precious stones and jewels, work in mines etc.
- Once he has gained sufficient wealth, army and support from various parties, he should approach the king and declare that he is the heir-apparent. It is not appropriate that the king alone enjoys the luxuries. Else he should threaten the king that he will employ those who come to his side with double the salary.
The role of the King –
There are three types of unfavourable princes. According to their category, the king has to take appropriate actions.
अवरुद्धः – The prince who is a heir apparent but was sent by the king. He has to be called back with the help of spies or his mother.
त्यक्तः – The prince with wicked qualities and sent by the king. He may be killed by the spies with the help of weapons or poison.
अत्यक्तः – He is the prince who has left on his own, fearing punishment or threat to his life. He will be brought back with the help of women or spies. He should be assured of the throne -‘after the death of the king’. If there are other able princes, he should be banished.
If the king is disciplined, the employees will be disciplined as well. Else, the entire system becomes weak and susceptible to attack by enemies.
Division of the Day –
Day is divided into 8 parts. Night is divided into 8 parts.
|Attend to Rakshaavidhana & Expenditure
|Meet the citizens||Snana,
| 1.Collection of taxes
2.Appointment of Adhyakshas
|1.Meet mantra parishad –patra
|Oversee elephants, horses, chariots, soldiers||Meet the Senapati
|Proceed to the sleeping chamber
|1.Wake with ghosha
2.Think about shastras
3.Overview of the day’s work
2.assign work to goodapurusha
|1.Get the blessings of acharyas
2.Meet the doctor, cook and jyothishka
3.Worship the family of a cow
4.Proceed to the Asthana mantapa
More information on the routine of the king-
- King should always be accessible for the people concerned with the work. If not the situation will lead displeasure of the citizens. This in turn will make the country weak and easy target for enemies.
- Therefore he has to personally attend to the work related to देवताऽऽश्रमपाषण्डश्रोत्रियपशुपुण्यस्थाना, बालवृद्धव्याधितव्यसन्य्ऽनाथानां स्त्रीणां कार्याणि पश्येत्, कार्यगौरवाद् आत्ययिकवशेन वा
- The important work that has to be done should be done without delay. If it is postponed it may be difficult or impossible to complete the task.
- At the yagashaala, the saints and vaidyas should be respectfully welcomed by the king along with his purohitha & acharyas.
- The business related to the saints should be done with the ‘thraividya’s , else he will have to face their anger.
- For the king , readiness of action is vratam. Duty is yajna – राज्ञो हि व्रतं उत्थानं यज्ञः कार्यानुशासनम् .
- Being impartial is Dakshina. Abhisheka is deeksha. दक्षिणा वृत्तिसाम्यं तु दीक्षा तस्याभिशेचनम्
- In the happiness of his subjects lies his happiness. In their welfare his welfare. **प्रजासुखे सुखं राज्ञः प्रजानां च हिते हितम् .
- He does not consider his personal likings to be good unless it is good for the country and people. नात्मप्रियं हितं राज्ञः प्रजानां तु प्रियं हितम्
- Therefore the king should always be alert and be engaged in performing his duties.
- His appropriate actions are the basis for the wealth of the country.
- If the king becomes lazy it will lead to the country to destruction.
**निशान्तप्रणिधिः (long answer question)
The residence of the king and queen is mentioned as अन्तःपुरम्
Location & Construction – The royal residence complex should be built in a safe and suitable location. The anthah-pura should surrounded by several rooms and with a parapet & ditch provided with a door.
The house(mohanagruha) should have secret pathways hidden by the walls. The house can be underground as well. The doors should be adorned with divine figurines or carvings. The underground should have convenient stairs, hidden from the view. The system can be made collapsible as a protection during emergency from sahadhyayis.
Safety from Fire –
- If 3 times ‘apradakshina’ is done with a man made fire to the harem, it will be protected from any fire.
- Even the fire created from the lightening will not affect it.
- If the walls are built with the ash from lightening, soil and the water from hailstorms, the walls will be protected from fire as well.
Safety from Poison –
- जीवन्ती-श्वेता-मुष्ककपुष्प-वन्दाका-अश्वत्थस्य पत्र – By keeping the flowers and the said leaves, snakes and other poisonous creatures can be avoided.
- Freely roaming birds and animals will eat the snakes or keep them away. They are – cats, peacocks, mongooses and spotted deer.
- Birds like parrots, myna, bhringa raja birds scream if they smell poison. This will be an indication if any poisoning effort is done.
- Heron faints, जीवञ्जीवकः will be distressed and cuckoo dies in the presence of poison. चकोर bird’s eyes will change colour.
Royal compound –
- The complex should have rooms for the women, pregnant ladies, for the doctors and servants – behind the main residence. Park and a water body should be present.
- The residences for the prince and princes are outside these .
- In front of these, toilet ground (अलङ्कारभूमि), council ground, the offices of the yuvaraja and other officials are located.
- Security troupes in charge of the harem should be stationed near all the above places.
Safety of the king in the queen’s chamber –
The king has to be protected in the queen’s chamber. King has to meet the queen only after she has been thoroughly checked for purity by a trusted attendant. The king should not interact with any women who are not tested for purity. Kautilya gives several instances where the king was harmed in the harem –
भद्रसेन – was killed by his brother in hidden queen’s chamber.
कारूषम् – was killed by his son who was hiding in his mother’s bed.
काशिराजं – was killed by his queen who offered puffed rice. She added poison instead of honey.
वैरन्त्य –was killed by his queens with poison painted anklet.
सौवीर- was killed by the queen with poisoned gem.
जालूथ –was killed by the queen with poisoned mirror.
विदूरथ –was killed by the queen with a weapon hidden in her hair.
Rules for the queens –
King should always be alert and assign proper rules .
- The queens should not meet un-authorized womenfolk (like munda, jatila or kuhaka) from outside.
- Even the ladies of the higher society should not be allowed, but outsiders should be allowed only during pregnancy or illness of the queen.
- The Veshyas too should approach the king with personal cleanliness.
- 80 men, 50 women in the guise of fathers, relatives or eunuchs will be in charge of maintaining the royal residence.
- Everyone should live in the place assigned to him/her.
- The residents are not allowed to be in touch with the outsiders.
- All the goods that come to (or go out of) the royal residence should be checked for security (with the ‘mudra’)
**आत्मरक्षितकं (long answer question)
Safety of the King during his routine:
- The team of armed women should receive the King when he gets up.
- At the second row, people holding the coat and head gear should be present.
- Dwarves and crooked people at the third row
- Fourth row will be of ministers, relatives and door keepers
- The staff should be loyal to the king and serving for generations.
- The army of the Royal residence should protect the residence and the king
- The main cook has to test the food several times.
- The food has to be offered to the fire, birds by the king and then consumed.
Characteristics and tests for poisoning :
- A food when put to the fire makes it turn blue or flutter – is poisoned
- If the birds die after eating, the food is poisoned
- If the vapour of the hot rice turns blue, if it cools quickly, if it has unnatural colour,too watery or too hard, uncooked, dries quickly , dark, or with foam – the food that doesn’t have natural taste are all the signs of posion.
- If the liquids have blue lines, red in milk, dark shaded water, grey curds , white in honey – are the signs of poison
- If the ants and insects die after consuming it –
Identifying the culprit –
- The person responsible for poisoning has dry or parched mouth. Perspires a lot, yawns, shivers or stammers.
- If he takes too long to talk, thinks and talks or skips the topics – he is a suspect
- Can’t perform any activity or stay in the designated place
Remedy for poisoning –
Doctors should be with the king. They should treat the king and administer appropriate medicine.
Safety during the bath and dressing up –
- The servants in charge of dressing up the king should have taken bath, should wear clean clothes. They should get the toiletries which bears the seal.
- Bathing, massage, making the bed, washing, etc., — duties are done by Daasis.
- Those responsible should press the royal clothe and jewels to their eyes, fragrant lotions, powders applied on their chest and arms (so as to test it) before presenting to the king.
- The musicians and artists should not make use of weapons, fire or chariots in the display of their talent.
- All the musical instruments, ornaments of elephants and horses should be kept inside.
Safety during the travel –
- King should board the chariot, boat or ship that are driven by an experienced (whose family has been serving the royal family) person.
- Should not board a boat which is tied to another boat and sails depending on the direction of wind.
- Soldiers should be present at both the banks.
- He should travel in the water tested by fishermen, forests checked by snake charmers.
- To practice his aiming skills, he should go to the forest having only deer and devoid of thieves, robbers, enemies or wild animals.
- He should meet ascetics in the presence of armed bodyguard. The envoys should be met in the presence of ministers.
- When he is in military dress and he has to observe his army.
- When he goes out or comes into the capital. Both sides of the road should be protected by guards. The ascetics, dwarves should not be present.
- When the king visits the temple , procession or some ceremony, he should be with the band of ten men (dasha-varnika)
The king has to anticipate the chaaras and ensure his safety.
Short notes on Arthashastrajnas:
|भारद्वाजः||Drona Acharya||Amatya||Classmates should be made as amatyas.|
|Mantra||The king should think alone|
|Rajaputra||The princes are like crabs. They have to be killed before they bond with their father.|
|विशालाक्षः||Maheshwara||Amatya||One has worked in some secret mission with the king should be amatya.|
|Mantra||Pratyaksha-paroksha-anumeya. Ask for everyone’s opinion.|
|Rajaputra||Killing of innocents is not right. Send them to a safe place with guards.|
|पाराशराः||Followers of Parashara||Amatya||One who is ready to give up his life for the king.|
|Mantra||Present a general scenario and ask the opinion of ministers.
Secrecy will be maintained
|पिशुनः||Narada||Amatya||Assign a duty. One who completes the task to perfection and does more than what is required.|
|Mantra||With general queries, ministers will not be keen to say genuine opinion. So, have a specific discussion with only relevant ministers|
|Rajaputra||Keeping with antapala is like a goat. Send him to a Samantha|
|कौणपदन्तः||Bheeshma||Amatya||From a family of amatyas.|
|Rajaputra||Samanta durga is like vatsasthana. They may demand from the king. Prince should be with mothers’ relatives.
|वातव्याधिः||Uddhava||Amatya||If from the family of amatyas, they may control the king.
A new able person is better
|Rajaputra||Mother’s side will use him like dhwaja. Let them have a relaxed life. If they are merrymaking will not be interested in the kingdom.|
|बाहुदन्ती पुत्रः||Indra||Amatya||Not totally new to the field, but with qualities|
|Rajaputra||If he is kept away, may think the king is afraid of him. So keep him with anthapala. (This opinion is the second in the discussion).|
|मानवाः||Followers of Manu||Mantri parishad||12 amatyas|
|बार्हस्पत्याः||Followers of Bruhaspati||Vidya||Trayee is not a vidya.|
|औशनसाः||Followers of Ushanas (Shukra)||Vidya||Dandaneeti is the only vidya|
|आम्भीयाः||Followers of Ambhi||R||R|
<End of Part 2>
- अर्थपरिणतिभेदान् सोदाहरणं निरूपय
- अर्थपरिवर्तनस्य कारणानि कानि सोदाहरणं विवृणुत
- वर्णानां स्थान प्रयत्न विवेकमधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं लिखत
- भाषोत्पत्ति वादान् अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं
- वर्णात्मक भाषाशास्त्रस्य स्थूल परिचयं
- ध्वनिविज्ञानं अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं
- भारोपीयम् भाषापरिवारं अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं
- ध्वनिनियमान् सोदाहरणं वर्णयत
- भाषाणां वंशाधारित वर्गीकरणम्
अर्थपरिणतिभेदान् सोदाहरणं निरूपय
Arthaparinati: The ways in which the meaning changes
The language deals with words and meanings. There are different types of meanings like mukhyaartha, gaunaartha, vyangyaartha, yogikaartha, etc.
A word or sentence could have different meaning for different people. The best example is how Devas, Asuras and the humans were blessed by Brahma with “Da” wherein Devas took it as Dayaa, Asuras took it as Damana, humans took it as Daana.
The meaning changes – Arthaparinati
“Arthasankocha” – The meaning becomes narrowed-down. Eg.Modaka refers to sweets. But these days, it refers to a specific dish. Annam refers to any edible item but in particular it is used to refer to rice only. Mruga used to refer to any animal. Now only deer.
Artha-apakarsha – degeneration. In aabaalaviruddaah – “a” refers to the limit. “aasuraparyantamvandaneeyaah” – until suras or the devas are to be worshipped. But asuras now is being used to refer to only to a specific group.
जुगुप्सा ->to hide [gup dhatu] ->disgust
महाराज ->चक्रवर्ति ->cook
महापात्र ->विध्वाम्स ->dead people
Arthavistruti – Using the word in a different context wherein it conveys a different meaning. “Gavekshana” is “Gavaamikshana” – that is to look out for the cows which have not returned to their cowshed by evening. But now this term is being used in general to refer to the act of searching.
Only the oil that is got out of तिल had the name तैल. But now, it refers to oil in general.
Kaadambari, rather than referring to a specific work indicates novels. Naataka is a specific type of Drama, but is being used to refer to drama in general also
Taalapatra originally meant only the palm leaves. Now Patra refers to letters though it is on paper and not on palm leaves.
Artha-utkarsha – elevated meaning – the meaning changes from an inferior one to a more superior meaning.
गौरव->गुरुत्व heavy ->पूर्णत्व.
साहस ->व्यभिचार / हत्य ->courageous deeds
दृष्ट ->लज्जाहीन ->धैर्यशाली
मुग्ध ->मूर्ख ->सरळ
Arthaantara-praapti – That which results in a different meaning. paashanda, viraagi, bikshu, etc – earlier it referred to the revered ascetics. But in kaavyas, it is used to mean those who are not reliable. Earlier Grantha referred to the collection of palm leaves that are well arranged irrespective of whether it has been used or nothing is written on it. Now it refers to a book especially those which have high ideals of life like Ramayana.
Bhraata – now means Brother. It used to mean the person who does not belong to the group – odd man out.
अर्थपरिवर्तनस्य कारणानि Reasons for the changes in the words
Poetic liberty:Sometimes, the poets could change the word by dropping certain aksharaas to make it suit the chandas.This could result in apakarsha or utkarsha. Eg.Paaramgata – one who crosses the river to reach the other side. But it has a special meaning now to refer to a realized soul. The word madhura-vaani used to refer to only the sound of the birds. But not to anyone who speaks sweetly.
There are other environmental, social and geographical factors. An example for the change in geographical environment is the term ushtra. Earlier the term meant buffalo and later it acquired the meaning of camel because Aryans migrated to different regions where there were camels and no buffaloes.
Change in social environment can be understood from the kannada example kattemeaning platform. Earlier it meant a raised platform built around a tree where people used to sit and talk. It also meant a bund built to stop the flow of water. Current day scenario it means a kitchen platform in urban homes.
श्वशुरः – used mostly to mean father-in-law. But there are cases where it means enemy.
Side note: जामाता दशमो ग्रहः |JSon-in-law is the 10th planet.
Vinayokti – As a mark of respect, the language is changed when we address elders. Another example – सावकाशेन भुञ्जीत – In Ayurveda, it is suggested that one should eat leaving some empty space in the stomach. But now saavakaasha means leisurely.
Side note: स्निग्धं उष्णं अल्पंच भोजनम् |
Saumyokti – To make it pleasing to the other – calling Differently-abled rather than disabled. Mangalavaara.Example – अमङ्गलस्य वारस्य यथा मङ्गलवारः | Another example – दिवङ्गत: Earlier the literal meaning was there – the rishi could just visit the paraloka and come back. In that case, the disciples could say that the guru has gone to visit the paraloka. But now, it is a decent way of saying that the person is dead. Saying the person passed away or the person is no more is a polished way of saying that the person died.
अधेनुं धेनुम् इति –Rather than saying that the cow has not started milking yet and it does not qualify to be worshipped, it is politely put that it will become dhenu.
Vyangyokti – Bruhaspati or panditaputrah – for example might indicate an idiot. It is conveyed in an indirect way.
Final reason is ignorance. By mistake, wrong words are used. Tikka used to refer only to the critical review of good and bad points. But now, it refers to commentary.
वर्णानां स्थान प्रयत्न विवेकमधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं लिखत
Production of speech sounds takes place by the disturbance of the air column which comes out of the lungs and passes through the gullet, oral cavity and exits through mouth and sometimes nose.
Organs of speech can be broadly divided into 2 as movable and immovable organs.
Immovable organs are upper lip, upper teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate and dome of the mouth [roof].
Movable organs are lower lip, lower teeth, tip of the tongue, blade of the tongue, middle of the tongue, back of the tongue and uvula.
Articulation or movement of these organs results in speech production. There are 3 components in the process of articulation.
- Place or point of articulation [immovable part – that which is touched]
- The articulator [movable part – that which touches]
- The manner of articulation.
Based on the manner of articulation the speech sounds are classified as vowels and consonants.
Vowels: the stream of air passes out without any obstruction or audible friction. Changes in the shape and the size of the resonance chamber causes different vowel sounds..aa – wide open, ee – lips are closer but wider. Etc
Consonants: here the point of articulation, articulator and manner of articulation play an important role.
Manner of articulation: 7 types are mentioned.
- Stops स्पर्श – movement of air is stopped and suddenly released.[ ट]
- Affricates अनुघर्ष – movement of air is stopped but the release is gradual.[त]
- Fricatives घर्ष – the articulator does not touch the point of articulation but goes near it and air passes with great friction. [र]
- Nasals अनुनासिक – similar to stop but air passes through the nasal cavity.
- Laterals पार्श्विक- midline is closed and air passes through the sides.
- Trills ताडित- similar to fricatives but the articulator itself vibrates with the movement of air.[drrrrum]
- Flap अनुताडित- fast single sweeping movement of the articulator. [Up]
Voiced घोषित and voiceless अघोष consonants : if the vocal cords vibrate then it is voiced. If the vocal cords are wide open and the air passes through it then it is voiceless as in whispering.
Aspirated consonants महाप्राण: extra puff of air is added to the release.
अकुहविसर्जनीयानां कण्ठ:, इचुयशानां तालु,ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा, लृतुलसानां दन्ताः, उपूपध्मानीयानां ओष्ठौ, ञमङणनानां नासिका च, एदैतोः कण्ठतालु, ओदौतोः कण्ठोष्ठम्, वकारस्य दान्तोष्ठम्
ध्वनि विज्ञानमधिकृत्य प्रबन्धम् essay on phonetics
- Organs of speech
- Physics of sound
Phonetics is studied under 3 heads.
- Articulatory phonetics उच्चारणात्मक ध्वनि विज्ञान: the production of speech sounds in the oral cavity of the speaker.
- Auditory phonetics श्रवणात्मक: the perception of the listener.
- Acoustic phonetics तरङ्गात्मक: physical properties of sound waves in form of pitch, formants, loudness etc.
भाषोत्पत्ति वादान् अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं
Language may be defined as an arbitrary system of vocal symbols by means of which human beings as members of a social group and participants in culture interact and communicate. Language consists of orally produced meaningful words and sentences.
Words are definitely not inborn, but the capacity to acquire a language and use it creatively seems to be inborn. Noam Chomsky calls this ability the LAD (Language Acquisition Device). Today we will ask two questions: how did this language instinct in humans originate? And how did the first language come into being?
Concerning the origin of the first language, there are two main hypotheses, or beliefs. Neither can be proven or disproved given present knowledge.
1) Belief in divine creation. Many societies throughout history believed that language is the gift of the gods to humans. The most familiar is found in Genesis 2:20, which tells us that Adam gave names to all living creatures. [mentionabtshabda and ishvarasanketa] This belief predicates that humans were created from the start with an innate capacity to use language.
It can’t be proven that language is as old as humans, but it is definitely true that language and human society are inseparable. Wherever humans exist language exists. There are no primitive languages, nor are any known to have existed in the past–even among the most remote tribes of stone age hunter-gatherers.
Nevertheless, it is impossible to prove that the first anatomically modern humans possessed creative language. It is also impossible to disprove the hypothesis that primitive languages might have existed at some point in the distant past of Homo sapiens development.
2) Natural evolution hypothesis. At some point in their evolutionary development humans acquired a more sophisticated brain which made language invention and learning possible. In other words, at some point in time humans evolved a language acquisition device, whatever this may be in real physical terms. The simple vocalizations and gestures inherited from our primate ancestors then quickly gave way to a creative system of language–perhaps within a single generation or two. This hypothesis cannot be proven either.
Invention hypotheses. Whether it is divine gift or by evolution, there are various theories to explain how language was invented. Each of it has been criticised and not accepted universally. Most linguists agree that the origin of language is still a mystery.
First, there are four imitation hypotheses that hold that language began through some sort of human mimicry of naturally occurring sounds or movements:
1) The “ding-dong” hypothesis. Language began when humans started naming objects, actions and phenomena after a recognizable sound associated with it in real life. This hypothesis holds that the first human words were a type of verbalicon, a sign whose form is an exact image of its meaning: crash became the word for thunder, boom for explosion. Some words in language obviously did derive from imitation of natural sounds associated with some object: Chinook Indian word for heart–tun-tun, Basque word for knife: ai-ai (literally ouch-ouch).
The problem with this hypothesis is that onomatopoeia (imitation of sound, auditory iconicity) is a very limited part of the vocabulary of any language; imitative sounds differ from language to language. Even if onomatopoeia provided the first dozen or so words, then where did names for the thousands of naturally noiseless concepts such as rock, sun, sky or love come from?
2) The “pooh-pooh” hypothesis holds that the first words came from involuntary exclamations of dislike, hunger, pain, or pleasure, eventually leading to the expression of more developed ideas and emotions. In this case the first word would have been an involuntary ha-ha-ha, wa-wa-wa These began to be used to name the actions which caused these sounds.
The problem with this hypothesis is that, once again, emotional exclamations are a very small part of any language. They are also highly language specific. For instance, to express sudden pain or discomfort: Eng. ouch; Russ. oi.; Cherokee eee. Thus, exclamations are more like other words in that they reflect the phonology of each separate language. Unlike sneezes, tears, hiccoughs or laughter, which are innate human responses to stimuli, the form of exclamations depends on language. Also, exclamations, like most other words are symbols, showing at least a partially arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning.
3) The “bow-wow” hypothesis anukaranasiddhanta (the most famous and therefore the most ridiculed hypothesis) holds that vocabulary developed from imitations of animal noises, such as: Moo, bark, hiss, meow, quack-quack. In other words, the first human words were a type of index, a sign whose form is naturally connected with its meaning.
But, once again, onomatopoeia is a limited part of the vocabulary of any language. The linguistic renditions of animal sounds differ considerably from language to language, although each species of animal everywhere makes essentially the same sound:
- a)Dog:bow-wow; Chinese:wu-wu; Jap.wan-wanRuss gaf-gaf, tyaff-tyaff;
- b)Cat-meow, Russ.myaoo, Chin–mao, Jap.nya-nya purr in French is ronron.
- c)Pig:oink-oink; Russ. hryu-hryu; Chin.–oh-ee-oh-ee; Jap. bu-bu.
- d)Russian rooster:kukareiku. Japanese kokekoko
- e)Russian owl:ukh; Cherokeegoo-ku Spanish, Japanese— no special word
Thus, the human interpretation of animal sounds is dependent upon the individual language, and it seems unlikely than entire vocabularies derived from them.
4) A somewhat different hypothesis is the “ta-ta” hypothesis. Charles Darwin hypothesized (though he himself was sceptical about his own hypothesis) that speech may have developed as a sort of mouth pantomime: the organs of speech were used to imitate the gestures of the hand. In other words, language developed from gestures that began to be imitated by the organs of speech–the first words were lip icons of hand gestures.
It is very possible that human language, which today is mostly verbal, had its origin in some system of gestures; other primates rely on gesture as an integral part of communication, so it is plausible that human communication began in the same way. Human gestures, however, just like imitation of sound words, differ from culture to culture. Cf. English crossing the finger for good luck vs. Russian “fig” gesture; nodding for yes vs. for no in Turkish and Bulgarian; knocking on wood vs. spitting over the left shoulder three times.
A second set of hypotheses on language origin holds that language began as a response to some acute necessity in the community. Here are several necessity hypotheses of the invention of language:
1) Warning hypothesis. Language may have evolved from warning signals such as those used by animals. Perhaps language started with a warning to others, such as Look out, Run, or Help to alert members of the tribe when some lumbering beast was approaching. Other first words could have been hunting instructions or instructions connected with other work. In other words, the first words were indexes used during everyday activities and situations.
2) The “yo-he-ho” hypothesis. Language developed on the basis of human cooperative efforts.
The earliest language was chanting to simulate collective effort, whether moving great stones to block off cave entrances from roving carnivores or repeating warlike phrases to inflame the fighting spirit.
It is fairly certain that the first poetry and song came from this aspect of beginning speech. Songs of this type are still with us: Volga boatmen, military marching chants, seven dwarfs working song.
Plato also believed that language developed out of sheer practical necessity. And Modern English has the saying: Necessity is the mother of invention.
3) A more colorful idea is the lying hypothesis. E. H. Sturtevant argued that, since all real intentions or emotions get involuntarily expressed by gesture, look or sound, voluntary communication must have been invented for the purpose of lying or deceiving. He proposed that the need to deceive and lie–to use language in contrast to reality for selfish ends– was the social prompting that got language started.
Each of the imitation hypotheses might explain how certain isolated words of language developed. Very few words in human language are verbal icons. Most are symbols, displaying an arbitrary relationship of sound and meaning. (Example: the word tree in several languages: Spanish árbol; French arbre; Slovak strom; Georgian he; Ket oks; Estonianpuu; German Baum; Russian derevo; Latvian koks; Hawaiian lä’au)
The extended use of natural indexes still leaves unexplained the development of grammar–the patterns in language which have definite structural functions but no specific meaning. The creative, generative aspect of human language that we call grammar is language’s most unique feature. Where did grammar come from? No conclusive theories yet.
भारोपीयम भाषापरिवारं / भाषाणां वंशाधारित वर्गीकरणम्
When the languages across the globe were analysed it was found to consist of many similarities. Eg.Haalu in kannada is paalu in tamil. Similarly Hoovu-poovu etc. This led them to believe that certain languages can be grouped together and presumed to have a common source of origin. These groups were called language families. Linguists have classified all the languages into 7 principal language families: Indo-European, Afro-Asiatic, Sino-Tibetan, Altaic, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Finno-Ugric.
Indo-European is a family of languages that first spread throughout Europe and many parts of South Asia, and later to every corner of the globe as a result of colonization. The term Indo-European refers to the easternmost extension of the family from the Indian subcontinent to its westernmost reach in Europe. The family includes most of the languages of Europe, as well as many languages of Southwest, Central and South Asia. The Indo-European language family has the largest number of speakers of all language families as well as the widest dispersion around the world.
These languages are akin to each other in Linguistic structure and therefore their phonological, morphological, syntactical and semantic equations are possible. It is true that these languages have undergone a change and have developed in their own way, but still they have followed some definite laws in the course of their development and changes.
It would not have been possible to establish the existence of the Indo-European language family if scholars had not compared the systematically recurring resemblances among European languages and Sanskrit, the oldest language of the Indian subcontinent that left many written documents. The common origin of European languages and Sanskrit was first proposed by Sir William Jones(1746-1794). Systematic comparisons between these languages by Franz Bopp supported this theory and laid the foundation for postulating that all Indo-European languages descended from a common ancestor, Proto-Indo-European (PIE), thought to have been spoken before 3,000 B.C. It then split into different branches which, in turn, split into different languages in the subsequent millennia.
Indo-European languages are classified into 11 [10 acc to material] major groups, 2 of which are extinct, comprising 449 languages.
Baltic: It has preserved many archaic features thought to have been present in PIE.
Celtic:They were once spread over Europe in the pre-Christian era. The oldest records of these languages date back to the 4th century AD. It includes the following languages
Germanic is divided into West Germanic and North Germanic.
West Germanic includes:
|English||US UK Australia Canada|
North Germanic includes:
Romanic [Italic] includes
|Spanish||Spain, Latin America|
Slavic is divided into 3 groups:
West Slavic includes:
East Slavic includes:
South Slavic includes
[Indo-Iranian group is divided into Indo-Aryan and Iranian according to course material]
Indo-Aryan [Indic] includes
|Romani||Romania and elsewhere|
Iranian: Ancient variety of Iranian group is Avesta or Zend Avesta which is the holy language of Zoroastrianism. Another language, Old Persian was the official language of Persia during the kingdom of Doria [522-486 BC]
|Kurdish||Iraq and elsewhere|
|Pashto||Afghanistan and elsewhere|
Albanian: Single language spoken in Albania.
Armenian: Single language spoken in Armenia.
Greek: It belongs to the Hellenic group of which Greek is the only surviving member. Spoken in Greece.
Tocharian [1000 AD] and Anatolian [7 cen BC] are both extinct.
ध्वनि नियमान् सोदाहरणं वर्णयत
Dhvani refers to even the pronunciation. Theories that were proposed to explain the differences in pronunciation and syllable changes are covered under Laws of Linguistics or dhvaniniyama.
Grimm’s Law is a about a historical sound change linking Proto-Indo-European with Germanic.Jacob Grimm was one of the great linguists of the 19th century. He found evidence for the unity of all the modern Germanic languages in the phenomenon known as the First Germanic Sound Shift (also known as Grimm’s law ), which set the Germanic branch apart from the other branches of the Indo-European family.
First level of change believed to have occurred in the prehistoric period. Second level of change occurred around the 7thcen possibly due to the influence of Yahudis and Christians.
There are 3 set of shifts that occur according to Grimm.
|Voiced Aspirated Stops घोषित महाप्राण||Voiced Stops घोषित अल्पप्राण||Voiceless stops अघोष अल्पप्राण||Voiceless Fricatives अघोष महाप्राण|
भ् -> ब् eg: Bhrata ->Brotar
द् -> त्eg: Dve ->two
प् -> फ्eg: Pita ->Father. Paada ->Fotu
In every case the location remains the same or close to it. The manner or voicing changes.
There are exceptions to Grimm’s Law. We see one in the table above. The middle “t” of Sanskrit “bhratar” correspnds to a “d” in Gothic “brodar”. But wait! “t” is supposed to go to “th”. Exception!
This particular exception is quite systematic and has to do with stress. It later got explained by Karl Verner with a different Law .
Grassmann’s law,[grasamannniyamaha] named after its discoverer Hermann Grassmann, is a dissimilatory phonological process in Ancient Greek and Sanskrit which states that if an aspirated [mahaprana] consonant is followed by another aspirated consonant in the next syllable, the first one loses the aspiration.uOne of the oldest and most established of the ‘laws’ of Indo-European (IE) is Grassmann’s Law (GL), first proposed in Grassmann 1863. This dissimilation process applies to Greek and Sanskrit alone among all IE languages: aspiration on two successive syllables is disallowed. If two aspirated consonants occur in contiguous syllables, sometimes within the same root, the first one loses its aspiration. Thus diaspirate roots turn up in surface form with aspiration only on the second consonant.
bhudh – ‘awaken’: past participle underlying form bhudh +ta ➝buddh a
dh ā- ‘put’: 1 sg. pres. underlying form dh a+dhā+mi➝da+dhā+mi
bh ū- ‘be’: 1 sg. perf. underlying form bha+bhuv+a➝babhuva
वर्णात्मक भाषाशास्त्रस्य स्थूलपरिचयं लिखतDescriptive Linguistics
Linguistics deals with the scientific study of a language. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group co-operates. It consists of orally produced meaningful words and sentences. Language is also said to be a system of 3 distinguishable systems namely – phonological system [sounds], morphological system [words] and syntactic system [sentences].
Linguistics developed in 2 stages. The earlier stage was the Descriptive school of linguistics also called Structural school. The latter one was the Transformational Generative school of Linguistics.
Descriptive school was pioneered by Bloomfield and his followers. It was popular between 1935 and 1960. The basic theoretical assumptions of this school are as follows:
- Every language has its own structure unrelated to the structure of any other language.
- A native speaker who has learnt the language as the mother tongue, from the parents or family, represents the structure.
- This structure can be studied, analyzed and described based on the specimen provided by the native speaker [informant].
- Description of the structural grammar of the language is derived at the end of this analysis.
- The structural grammar would be useful for learning and teaching the language.
- A language is a learnt behavior, learnt by observation and imitation.
Phonetics ध्वनि विज्ञान: In order to gather the specimen correctly a linguist should be able to identify the sounds uttered by the informant and represent it in an unambiguous and consistent writing system [universal phonetic script]. The branch of linguistics which deals with identifying the speech sounds of any language and representing them in the form of writing is called Phonetics.
Phonemics ध्वनिम विज्ञान: the study of phonemes [ध्वनिम] is called phonemics.
Phonemes are the significant sounds of a language. Sounds whose presence or absence can alter the meaning of the words in a language are called phonemes.
Eg: uri, kuri, guri in kannada. The k and g are phonemes here.
The descriptive school later developed into the Transformational generative school.
Simple and complex sentences.सरल वाक्यानि मिश्र वाक्यानि
Simple sentences are those that have only 2 constituents, a subject and a predicate and the predicate has only one verb.
मम अनुजः भरतः शीघ्रं धावति
प्रख्याताश्वा रमा अस्यां स्पर्धायां धावति
Complex sentences are those where 2 or more simple sentences are joined together. Here one of it is the main clause and the rest are subordinate clauses.
दशरथपुत्रः रामः रावणं संहरति –रामः दशरथपुत्रः अस्ति , रामः रावणं संहरति इति द्वौ विभागौ स्थः
दशरथपुत्रः रामः लङ्कापतिं रावणं संहरति –रामः रावणं संहरति, रामः दशरथपुत्रः, रावणः लङ्कापतिःइति
Compound sentences: here there are 2 or more independent main clauses with or without sub-clauses.
अहं कदलीफलं खादामि च सः आम्रफलं खादति
अस्वस्थः रामः संस्कारितयूषं पिबति च स्वस्थः कृष्णः परमान्नं खादति
रामः संस्कारितयूषं पिबति, रामःअस्वस्थः, कृष्णः परमान्नं खादति, कृष्णःस्वस्थः
Ekavarnalopa – Haplology (from Greek ἁπλός haplos “simple” and λόγος logos, “speech”) is defined as the elimination of a syllable when two consecutive identical or similar syllables occur. A sound change involving the loss of a syllable when it is next to a phonetically identical (or similar) syllable. The phenomenon was identified by American philologist Maurice Bloomfield in the 20th century. Linguists sometimes jokingly refer to the phenomenon as “haplogy” (subjecting the word haplology to haplology)
- Engla land> England 
- morphophonology> morphonology
- coercitive(obsolete spelling) > coercive
- mono nomial> monomial
- saamved for saamaveda – north Indian Sanskrit pronounciation
- व्याघ्रपाद -> व्याघ्रपात्
Satem – Centum: [shatamkentum]
Indo-European family was linguistically divided into 2 groups named Satem and Centum groups. [Division only for convenience sake]. Geographically they include the eastern [Asia] side and western [Europe] side respectively. The chief criterion for the classification is the treatment of the original Indo-European palatal sounds. It has been postulated that the original Indo-European had 3 series of gutturals.
- Palatals – K^ Kh^ G^ Gh^
- Velars – K Kh G Gh
- Labio-velars – Kw KhwGwGhw
In Satemgroup the velars coincide with labio-velars and the palatals have developed into sibilants. It includes Sanskrit, Avestan, Old Persian, Albanian, Armenian, Baltic and Slovenic. The word Satem is derived from the Avestan word meaning hundred.
In Centum group the velars coincide with the palatals. It includes Greek, Latin, Germanic, Celtic and Tokharian. The word Centum is derived for Latin word meaning hundred.
Aksharapallata: The letter va becoming ba in Bengali [chakravarthy = Chakraborty] and pa in tamil becoming ha in kannada [paalu=haalu, poovu=hoovu] ya becoming ja in certain dialects of hindi and Sanskrit of north India [ Yamuna=jamuna] similarly Vrindavan becoming Brindavan. These differences are mainly attributed to regional differences and change in dialects.
स्वर भक्ति: in order to make pronunciation simpler and easier, introduction of a letter [usually a swara] in a samyuktakshara is done. This is called swara bhakti
इन्द्र – इन्दिर
पृथ्वी – पृथिवी
चन्द्र – चन्दिर
स्वर्ण – सुवर्ण
Sanskrit to prakrit
श्री – सिरि
स्नेह – सणेह
क्लिष्ट – किल्लिष्ट
प्रसाद – परसाद
Sometimes a vyanjana may come in between.
सूनर – सुन्दर
वानर – बन्दर [वन्दर]
Here are the probable questions prepared in 2015 by Sri Penukonda Vijayadhwaja <firstname.lastname@example.org> pertaining to MA (Sanskrit) previous-First Year. These are all probables and most of the questions appear every year in one form or the other, just like “उक्तं हि वक्ति भूयः”. Thanks to Sri Vijayadhwaja for sharing these papers that will help the candidates to prepare for the examination. Kindly reach out directly to him with your feedback.
History of Sanskrit Poetics – Short Notes
Consolidated documents — history-of-sanskrit-poetics-harini history-of-sanskrit-poetics-2016-dr-shivakumaraswamy
Two important works on this topic have been written by P.V. Kane and S.K. De.
Bharata or NaatyaShaastra
Bharata Muni wrote the NaatyaShaastra. It mainly deals with Drama though it is the earliest text on Poetics. It consists of 36 chapters. Its commentary is called AbhinavaBharati, which is written by Abhinava Gupta. This Naatyashaashtra describes all aspects of Drama and these performing arts. Bharata has mentioned about the four alamkaaras, 10 gunas and 36 lakshanas. He describes 10 types of Dramas or Rupakas namely, Nataka, Prakarana, Samavakara, Ihamrga, Dima, Vyayoga, Anka, Prahasana, Bhana and Vithi. During his time, the art of Drama had developed very well. In naatyashaastra, the four alamkaaras mentioned are उपमा, दीपक, रूपक and यमक. Yamaka is a shabdaalamkaara having 10 forms. The others are arthaalamkaaras. The concept of Rasa applicable for Dramas is explained by Bharata in NaatyaShashtra. The causes of rasa are Vibhaava, Anubhaava and Vyabhichaaribhaava. The ingredients of Rasa are Vibhaavas (AalambanaVibhaava, UdveepanaVibhaava), Anubhaava (which includes Saatvikabhaavas) and vyabhichaaribhaava (which are the Sahakaarikaaranas). From the संयोग union of these components, रसनिष्पत्तिः – the realization of the Rasa is achieved. When the sahrudayas watch the vibhaavas, anubhaavas and vyabhichaaribhaavas, the staayibhaavaa in their hearts is kindled. It is nourished by these components and it transforms itself into Rasaa or the aesthetic sentiment.
Bhaamaha or Kaavyaalamkaara
Bhaamaha wrote Kaavyaalamkaara. He is considered to have lived during 700 AD. Bhaamaha proved that Kavya is accepted by the Vedas. According to the earlier Alamkaara-praadaanya-vaadis like Bhaama, Dhandi, Udbhatta, and Rudratta, Alamkaara is the most important aspect of Poetry. He mentioned up to 30 alamkaaras. Bhaamaha and Dhandi mention about the earlier Alamkaarikas. But their works are not available to us. From Bharata’s 4 alamkaaras, we notice that the evolution of 36alamaarakas have happened by the collaboration of the 4 alamkaaras with the 36 lakshanas.
Bhaamaha states in काव्यालंकार that Kavya comprises of words and their meanings – शब्दार्थौ सहितौ काव्यम् | Stressing on the importance of Alamkaara, it has been mentioned,न कान्तमपि निर्भूषं विभाति वनिताननम् – the beautiful face of the wife does not shine with radiance without proper ornaments – says Bhaamaha.
नाकवित्वमधर्माय व्याधये दण्डनाय वा ।कुकवित्वं पुनः साक्षान्मृतिमाहुर्मनीषिणः ।। १.१२ ।। (kaavyaalamkaara)
न+अकवित्वम्+अधर्माय व्याधये दण्डनाय वा ।कुकवित्वं पुनः साक्षात् मृतिम् आहुः मनीषिणः ।।
“Not writing poetry is no crime; it won’t cause illness or lead to punishment; but writing bad poetry is a living death”, says Bhaamahin Kaavyaalamkaara.
Dhandin and hisKaavyaadharsha
Kaavyaadharsha is a work by Dhandi. He is believed to have lived in the 7th century AD. He lived near Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu. His other works are DashakumaaraCharita and Avanti SundariKathaa. In Avanti SundariKathaa, he has mentioned about his own life – how his ancestors came from North India, one of them named Dhamodaraa was his forefather, and states his own experiences. Kaavyaadharsha was a very popular text on Sanskrit Poetics. It had been translated into various languages more than 1000 years ago. It was translated into Tibetan language. This work is also the source for one of the earliest Kannada work – KaviRaajaMaarga. Even later writers have also referred to this work. Many verses of Kaavyaadharsha reflect what is said by Bhaamaha in Kaavyaalamkaara. They appear to be similar to Bhaamaha’s work, (probably Dhandhi had borrowed from Bhaama) along with Dhandi’s own opinions. There are many Sanskrit commentaries on Kaavyaadharsa like those by VaaliJangaala, Ratna Sri Jnaana and TarunaVaachaspati. It continues to be a very popular work across the world.
Udbhataand his KaavyaalankaaraSaaraSangraha
Udbhata hails from Kashmir as the very name indicates. His name has been mentioned in the Raajatarangini of Kalhana as a poet adorning the court of Jayaapida. His period is after Bhaamaha (750 AD) and before Anandavardhana (850 AD). His work on poetics is KaavyaalankaaraSaaraSangraha. He is always quoted with respect by his successors even when they differed from his views. He differs from Bhaama and Dhandin in defining certain Alamkaaras having Rasa such as, Preyas, Rasavad and Urjasvin. Preyas according to him, comes only when there is a developed emotion such as Srngaara to that extent only when it could remain a Bhaava and is not developed into Rasa. ऊर्जस्वि according to him is the development of indecorous or misplaced Rasa and Bhaava as for example the attitude of Raavana towards Sita. He also declares that Shanta Rasa could be developed possibly through action on the stage.
Vaamana, propounder of RitiSiddhantaand his KavyalankaraSutra Vritti
Vaamana who lived during the 8th century AD, in Kashmir was a contemporary of Udbhata. Vamana was the pioneer of RitiSiddhanta. He accorded the highest place for Riti or the style of composition as the soul of poetry.
The Aatma or the soul is that core or fundamental element or the principle which defines the very essence of Kaavya.
Bhaamaha defined Kavya as shabdaarthasahitauKavyam. Kavya is the combination or the complex of words and their meanings. It also implies blemish-free or nirdosha. He later extended it to include the element of alamkara in the definition. Dandin also went with this view. But the later schools felt that this definition of Kavya was centered on the external element or the body of the Kavya and not the spirit or the soul of Kavya. Thus began the quest for the soul of Kavya.
Vamana the author of KavyalankaraSutra Vritti declared RitihaatmaKavyasya – रीतिरात्मा काव्यस्य | ThoughVamana advocates Riti, he also states that Alamkara enhances the beauty of Kavya. Vamana says Kavya is the union of sound and sense which is free from poetic flaws [nirdosha] and is adorned with excellences [gunas] and ornamentation or figures of speech [alamkaras]. To him Riti is a beautiful collocation endowed with excellences – “विशिष्ट पदरचना रीतिः” “विशेषो गुणात्मा”.Riti represents for Vamana the particular structure of sounds combined with poetic excellence. Riti is the going or the flowing together of the elements of a poem.
Vamana expanded on the concept of Gunas dealt by Dandin. Kavyalamkarasutravrittiis divided into 5 adhikaranas each consisting of 2 or 3 adhyayas.
Though Vamana retained the 10 gunas enumerated by Dandin [Ojas, Prasada, Shlesha, Samata, Samadhi, Madhurya, Sukumarata, Udavarta, Arthavyakti and Kanti], he modified their names and increased the number of gunas to 20. He created 2 sets of the same 10 Gunas under 2 headings namely Shabdaguna and Arthaguna.
He attempts to explain each guna in terms of both Shabda and Artha. For eg, Prasada [clarity] means shaithilya [readability] under shabdaguna while it means Auchitya [propriety] under arthaguna.
He abandoned the approach of Bhamaha and Dandin who treated Rasa as a subsidiary element of the verse.
Although he did not accord rasa an independent status, he treated rasa as an aspect of arthaguna.
Riti, according to Vamana, is a particular mode or organisation of verbal structure that is different from common usage and also has excellence of gunas.
Dandin had named literary styles as Margaमार्गः and mentioned Vaidarbhiवैदर्भिः and Gaudiyaगौडीय margas. Vamana not only modified this concept of style, he also renamed Marga as Riti and included Panchali पाञ्चाली to the above list.
Panchali has Madhurya and Saukumaryagunas while Gaudiya has Ojas and Kanti. It is however Vaidarbhi that has all 10 gunas and is the most preferred style. He terminates the view that the practice of Gaudi and Panchali would help a poet gain experience to adopt Vaidarbhi. The interesting example given by him is:
How can anyone trained in weaving jute cloth ever hope to weave silk cloth?
Vamana treats alamkaras as a subsidiary significance. Guna and Kavya have asamavayasambandha (inseparable concomitance) while Alamkara and Kavya are said to be in samyogasambandha(Relation by contact). Guna is related to the soul of the poetry while Alamkara is related to the body of the poetry. He has considered only 2 shabdalankaras namely, Yamaka(rhyme) and Anuprasa (Alliteration). With regard to Arthalankaras, he opines that most of all Alamkaras lies only in comparison. His collective name for all figures is Upamaaprapancha.
Vamana’s conception of rasa corresponds to that of Dandin as far as status allotted to it is concerned. But while Dandin brings Rasa under Alamkaras, Vamana treats it as belonging to Gunas.
Vamana laid the foundation to the theory of Vichchithi which was later developed by Kuntaka. However the Riti school of Vamana did not have followers in the same way as Rasa, Alamkara and Dhvani schools had. The general conception of Riti was severely criticised by Mammata. Inspite of all this, Vamana was the ablest writer to formulate a definite theory so as to determine the soul of poetry.
Kuntaka,propounder of VakroktiSiddhantaand hisVakrokti-jivita
The term Vakroktiवक्रोक्तिः has been used to mean different things by Sanskrit poetics.
- Bana has used the term in Kadambari.
- Dandin uses vakrokti to mean something that is contradictory to svabhavokti. Svabhavokti is a plain statement or fact, while vakrokti is striking or oblique speech.
- Bhamaha thinks atishayokti is vakrokti and it brings beauty to all Alankaras and it converts ordinary things into vibhavas.
- Vamana thinks that Saadrushyalakshana [similitude] is vakrokti.
Kuntaka entered the scene after Anandavardhana, probably a contemporary of Abhinavagupta. He was a unique and original thinker who did not approve the dhvani doctrine whole-heartedly. He revived the concept of Vakrokti giving it a new twist and meaning. His work is called Vakrokti-jivita.
To him Kavyavyaapaara is the crucial factor in Kavya. Hence he is called vyaapaarapraadhaanyavaadi. He defines Kavya as follows
शब्दार्थौ सहितौ वक्रकविव्यापारशालिनी। बन्धे व्यवस्थितौ काव्यं तद्विदाह्लादकारिणि।। (वक्रोक्तिजीवितम्-१.७) Shabdaarthausahitauvakrakavivyaapaarashaalini
Shabda and artha are the objects to be adorned and vakrokti is the adornment. He has described many types of vakrata and has included all types of gunas and types of dhvani under them.
Vakrokti-jivita denied the independent existence of dhvani or vyangya as the soul of poetry and tries to include it under the all-pervading vakrokti. Since he defends vakrokti, he does not accept svabhavokti as an alankara. Although he widened the scope of vakrokti, not many followers are found.
MahimabhattacriticisesKuntaka vehemently. He states that vakrokti is also inference mainly. It is just a new name because he has used the same examples which were given by Anandavardhana for Dhvani. Bhojaraja says that literature has 3 divisions namely, svabhavokti, vakrokti and rasokti. AppayaDikshita considers vakrokti as alankara only. He follows Rudrata who classifies vakrokti as Sleshavakroti and Kakuvakroti and placed them under alankara.
Kshemendraor doctrine of Auchitya or Auchityavichaaracharcha
Kshemendra was the son of Prakashendra and the student of Abhinavagupta. He lived during the reign of King Ananta and later King Kalasha in the 11century AD. He was a prolific writer with many works to his credit. Of which Kavikantaabharanam, auchityavichaaracharcha and suvruttatilakam pertain to poetics. He calls himself “vyasadasa”.
Anauchitya is the root of all doshas. Bharata enumerates 10 doshas and says that wrongly placed ornament only causes laughter. Bhamaha has also detailed about doshas. Dandin however shifts the perspective to the sahrdayas. If the discerning scholar has no irritation while reading a piece of literature then doshas are not blemished. So auchityaऔचित्य indicates what is right or wrong and this is very subjective. Anandavardhana has employed the term anauchitya on more than one occasion. He says auchitya decides the type of sanghatana in a Kavya. Also says that anauchitya is the greatest hindrance for the relishment of rasa. Abhinava says that auchitya means harmony of all elements of Kavya with rasa as the main element. Kuntaka considers auchitya as a guna. Mahimabhatta says anauchitya is of 2 kinds. Antaranga and bahiranga.
According to Kshemendra, auchitya is the jivita of rasa. If rasa is the essence of a Kavya, Auchitya is the quintessence of Rasa. He says that alankara, guna, dosha, etc., are all meaningless without auchitya.
An item which is suited to another is called uchita [proper]. The state of being proper is auchitya [propriety].
27 types of auchitya have been mentioned by Kshemendra. Propriety should be present in pada, artha, prabhandaartha, guna, alankara, rasa, kriya, karaka, linga, vachaa, visheshana, upasarga, nipata, kala, desha, kula, vrata [vow], tattva[reality], abhipraya, svabhava, saarasangraha, pratibha, avastha[state or condition], vichara, aashishinaamnyata[benediction], Kavyaanga.
Auchitya with reference to rasa has been dealt with in detail by him. He says that if different rasas are mixed properly, they enhance the relish.
JagannathaPandita and hisRasagangadhara
Jagannathaजगन्नाथःwas the author of Rasagangadhara. He was a Telugu Brahmin who lived during 1620-1665 near Rajahmundry. He was patronised by Moghul emperor Shahjahan and he received the title “Panditaraja” from the emperor of Delhi. He defines Kavya as रमणीयार्थ प्रतिपादकः शब्दः काव्यम् He considers rasadhvani as paramaramaniya. He describes rasa sutra according to various authors. He tries to improve upon Abhinavagupta’s view. According to Jagannatha there is not much difference between the views of Abhinavagupta and Bhattanayaka.
He has presented a new view of the Navyas. Rasa is said to occur on account of contemplation. It is compared to silver seen in seashell. It is a kind of illusion and indescribable. He is a traditionalist and accepts 9 rasas and rejects the arguments of those who want rasatva for bhakti. He says bharata’s words are the final in this regard. He also opines that Pratibha is the only cause for Kavya and not the combination of pratibha, nipunata and abhyasa. He is a follower of dhvani school. He however says that it is wrong to classify shabdachitra and arthachitra together and so has 4 categories of Kavya.
He was a great critic as well as a great writer. NageshaBhatta the famous grammarian of 18th century has written a commentary on Rasagangadhara,namedMarmaprakasha. Some of his other works include Gangalahari, Lakshmilahari, Karunalahari, Sudhalahari, Jagadaabharana, Praanabharana, etc. He has choicest abuse for AppayaDikshita in his workChitramimamsakhandana. Manoramakuchamardini is a criticism of BhattojiDikshita’sPraudamanorama. All illustrative stanzas in it are Jagannatha’sown. The important illustrations in the Rasagangadhara and some other charming stanzas of Jagannatha have been collected in the work named Bhaminivilasa.
Rajashekaraand his Kavyamimamsa
Rajashekara is the author of Kavyamimamsa. He has referred to Anandhavardhana, Vakpatiraja and Bhavabhuti. He is believed to have lived under the patronage of King Mahipala, during the later part of 9th and first part of 10th century AD. He was the son of Silavati and Durduka. He was proficient in Sanskrit and many dialects of Prakrit. He is believed to have composed 6 works.
There is no discussion or exposition of rasas, gunas and alankaras in Kavyamimamsa (Investigation of Poetics). It belongs to kavishiksha or training of poets.Various chapters in the book describe the daily routine of the poet, the systematic rigor that goes into the making of a poet and the discipline that is to be inculcated in their lifestyle, amongst other things.
Dhananjaya and Dhanika and their Dasharupaka and Avaloka
Dhananjaya wrote Dasharupaka and Dhanika wrote Avaloka, a commentary on it. Dhananjaya is believed to have lived in 9th century AD under the patronage of Vakpatiraja. Dhanika probably belonged to 11th century AD. (They are considered to be brothers – so they cannot be belonging to different centuries. To be verified). They both vehemently opposed the vyanjanavyapara. They also do not accept shanta rasa as fit to be depicted in drama. They say that it is impossible to enact shama which is complete stoppage of all action. Dhanika says that Tatparya is the main function in ordinary language and poetry as well. Tatparya cannot be restricted and conveys suggested meaning too. Hence a separate vritti called vyanjana is not required.
Dhananjaya refers to sthayibhaava as the ocean which may get disturbed now and then but always retains its original position. The basic mental state lies in the dominant mood and cannot be upset by other Bhaavas but renders the bhaavas to remain subordinate to itself.
Viswanatha and hisSaahityadarpana
Viswanathawas born in the 14th century AD at Orissa as the son of Chandrasekhara. He had the titleSaandhivigrahikaMahapatra. His most important work is Saahityadarpana.
Other works include Raghavavilasa-mahakavya, Kuvalayashvacharita, Prabhavatiparinaya, Chandrakala, Prashastiratnavali and Kavyaprakashadarpana[commentary on Mammata’s work]. Saahityadarpana combines both poetics and dramaturgy. His style is simple and elegant and his expressions are also clear. However he lacks originality. VakyamrasatmakamKavyam is his theory.
Mahimabhattaand his Vyaktiviveka
Mahimabhatta was an opponent of dhvani theory. He was a follower of Srishankuka’s theory of anumana. He is believed to have lived in Kashmir in 11th century AD. He was a good scholar endowed with acumen. Vyaktiviveka has 3 chapters called vimarshas.
1st vimarsha severely examines Anandhavardhana’sDhvani concept and points out 10 defects. 2nd vimarsha deals with anauchitya. 5 types of anauchitya [vidheaavimarsha, prakramabheda, kramabheda, paunaruktya and vachyaavachana] are discussed. 3rd vimarsha takes up shlokas of Anandhavardhana from Dhvanyaloka and shows how each of them can be an instance of anumana. An incomplete commentary on vyaktiviveka is available and it is believed to have been written by Ruyyaka.
Rupagoswami and his Bhaktirasaamritasindhu
Rupagoswami lived during last part of 15th and first part of 16th century. He promoted the Bhakthi concept. He was a disciple of Chaitanyamahaprabhu and wrote 2 works namely Ujjvalanilamani and Bhaktirasaamritasindhu.Religious teachings of Bhakti school are presented here. Love of Krishna is the sole object and 360 types of nayikasare described. His other works include Natakachandrika[on dramaturgy], PadyavaliandDanakelikaumudi.Like MadhusoodhanaSaraswati, he also considered Bhakti to be a rasa.
Sharadatanayaand his BhavaPrakashana
12th century. Scholar of Sanskrit poetics; author of Bhava-prakashana which compiles the whole range of views on literature from Barata 2nd century to Kshemendra 11th century. The author also incorporated views on music and dance, especially about the origin and development of these forms. It has not yet been possible to establish firmly his dates or the places where he was born and lived.
Bhava-prakasha (12th or 14th) by Sharadatanaya. A work on dramaturgy in ten chapters called “Adhikara”. It is particularly valuable for the indication it gives of the opinions of other scholars whose works have not survived. The author, son of BhattaGopala and grandson of Krishna, was a native of North India. This work is also known as Bhava-prakashika and Bhava-prakashana.
AppayyaDheekshitar and his ChitraMimamsa
This is an elaborate descriptive work with full examples of the Lakshana of the more important Arthalankaras. Following this pattern, Sri JagannadhaPandita wrote his famous Rasagangadhara. The ChitraMimamsa has been written in the traditional sastraic manner.Chitramimamsa-khandana was a work by JagannathaPanditathat includes his uncompromising and abusive criticisms of Appaya.
Mammata In the history of Kavyasastra, Mammata is a luminous star, remembered with respect and adoration. Mammata lived in Kashmir, known as Shaaradadesha, during the latter half of 11th century and first half of 12th century (1090 – 1160 AD). Mammata was a Kashmiri Shaivite. He had the title Raajaanaka which was generally conferred on poets particularly in Kashmir. He was also called Saraswathiavatara or Vaakdevataavataara by his admirers.
Mammata’s two works are Kaavyapraakasa and Sabda-vyaapara-vicaara. Mammatta’sKaavyaPrakaasha is based on DhvaniSiddhanta. He consolidated the earlier concepts and created a work (प्रकरण-ग्रन्थ) as a textbook. He is a SamanvayaAacharya or Samanvayakaarah as he consolidated all the aspects like Alankaara, Guna, Reeti, Dhvani, Auchityam, Rasa, etc. He accepted the earlier concepts. He agreed that Alamkara could enhance the poetry in certain cases. He agreed that Reeti could also enhance poetry when these concepts come to support Dhvani.
The study of Kavyasasthra is considered incomplete without the study of KavyaPrakasa. The studies on Kavyasastra from Bharatha to Bhoja are beautifully explained in KavyaPrakasa. The popularity of the text can be known by its numerous commentaries. There are more than 50 commentaries.
AppayyaDikshita lived in Tamil Nadu in the 16th century (1520-1593). Shaiva Philosopher and Major contributer to alankarashastra.Author of Kuvalayanda, chitra-mimamsa and vrittivartika. A lost work named Lakshana-ratnavali is ascribed to him that probably dealt with dramaturgy. He was influenced by Jayadeva’sChandraloka. So he named his work Kuvalayananda as kuvalaya or lily looks upon the Chandra or moon for Ananda. Kuvalayananda is a lakshanagrantha on alankarashastra which mentions about 120 alankaras with examples from chitrameemaamsa. Chitrameemaamsa contains examples for various alankaras. This is an elaborate descriptive work with full examples of the Lakshana of the more important Arthalankaras. Following this pattern, Sri JagannadhaPandita wrote his famousRasagangadhara. The ChitraMimamsa has been written in the traditional sastraic manner.Jagannata was the biggest critic of chitrameemaamsa and he wrote chitrameemaamsakhandana.VrittiVartikadeals with the Vrittis which are described in the AlankaraSastras as Abidha, Lakshana and Vyanjana. This is a small work. He has written 104 works including many devotional and philosophical texts.
Dhananjaya and Dhanika:Dhananjaya (late 10th century) wrote Dasharupaka and Dhanika wrote Avaloka, a commentary on it. Dhananjaya is believed to have lived in the 10th century enjoying the patronage of Munja, Paramar king of Malwa. Dhanika is considered to be his brother by some scholars. Dhanika’s other work is KaavyaNirnaya. Their father’s name is Vishnu, who was a minister to the Paramar King, Utpaladeva. (1) They both vehemently opposed the vyanjanavyapara. (2) They claim that shanta rasa is not fit to be depicted in drama. They say that it is impossible to enact shama which is complete stoppage of all action. (3) Dhanika says that Tatparya is the main function in ordinary language and poetry as well. Tatparya cannot be restricted and conveys suggested meaning too. Hence a separate vritti called vyanjana is not required. (4) Dhananjaya refers to sthayibhaava as the ocean which may get disturbed now and then but always retains its original position. The basic mental state lies in the dominant mood and cannot be upset by other Bhaavas but renders the bhaavas to remain subordinate to itself.
Jagannathaजगन्नाथः was the author of Rasagangadhara. He was a Telugu Brahmin who lived during 1620-1665 near Rajahmundry. He was patronised by Moghul emperor Shahjahan and he received the title “Panditaraja” from the emperor of Delhi. He defines Kavya as रमणीयार्थ प्रतिपादकः शब्दः काव्यम् He considers rasadhvani as paramaramaniya. He describes rasa sutra according to various authors. He tries to improve upon Abhinavagupta’s view. According to Jagannatha there is not much difference between the views of Abhinavagupta and Bhattanayaka. Rasa is said to occur on account of contemplation. It is compared to silver seen in seashell. It is a kind of illusion and indescribable. He is a traditionalist and accepts 9 rasas and rejects the arguments of those who want rasatva for bhakti. He says bharata’s words are the final in this regard. He also opines that Pratibha is the only cause for Kavya and not the combination of pratibha, nipunata and abhyasa. He is a follower of dhvani school. He however says that it is wrong to classify shabdachitra and arthachitra together and so has 4 categories of Kavya. He was a great critic as well as a great writer. NageshaBhatta the famous grammarian of 18th century has written a commentary on Rasagangadhara, named Marmaprakasha. Some of his other works include Gangalahari, Lakshmilahari, Karunalahari, Sudhalahari, Jagadaabharana, Praanabharana, etc. He has choicest abuse for AppayaDikshita in his work Chitramimamsakhandana. Manoramakuchamardini is a criticism of BhattojiDikshita’sPraudamanorama which was a commentary on SiddhantaKaumudi. All illustrative stanzas in it are Jagannatha’s own. The important illustrations in the Rasagangadhara and some other charming stanzas of Jagannatha have been collected in the work named Bhaminivilasa which was prepared with didactic intentions (intention to teach).
- Shaantha rasa
Reference :A Dictionary of Indian Literature, Volume 1 By Sujit Mukherjeehttps://books.google.co.in/books?id=YCJrUfVtZxoC