Please refer the updated page mentioned above.
Here are the learning and practice materials on Sandhi prepared by Sri. V.D. Karthikeyan of Samskrita Bharati, Chennai. This will be a very useful resource for students learning Sandhi. Students are also recommended to get a copy of the book, “Sandhi”, published by Samskrita Bharati.
You can download the files by clicking on the links below:
1. श्चुत्वसन्धिः 1.1 श्चुत्वसन्धिः – अभ्यासः
2. ष्टुत्वसन्धिः 2.1 ष्टुत्वसन्धिः – अभ्यासः
3. जश्त्वसन्धिः 3.1 जश्त्वसन्धिः – अभ्यासः
5. अनुनासिकसन्धिः 5.1 अनुनासिकसन्धिः – अभ्यासः 5.2. अनुनासिकसन्धिः – Table
6. अनुस्वारसन्धिः 6.1 अनुस्वारसन्धिः – अभ्यासः
7. परसवर्णसन्धिः 7.1 परसवर्णसन्धिः – अभ्यासः
8 ङमुडागमसन्धिः 8.1 ङमुडागमसन्धिः – अभ्यासः
9. पूर्वसवर्णसन्धिः 9.1 पूर्वसवर्णसन्धिः – अभ्यासः
10. छत्वसन्धिः 10.1 छत्वसन्धिः – अभ्यासः
11. सत्वसन्धिः 11.1 सत्वसन्धि-अभ्यासः
12. यवलोपसन्धिः 12.1 यवलोप-सन्धि-अभ्यासः rev
13. तुगागमसन्धिः 13.1 तुगागमसन्धि-अभ्यासः
Visarga Sandhi Introduction Visarga Sandhi
1. visarga lopa 1.1 visarga lopa practice
2. visarga ukaaraadesha 2.1 visaraga ukaaraadesha practice
3. visarga rephadesha 3.1 visarga rephadesha practice
4. visarga sakaaraadesha 4.1 visarga sakaaraadesha practice
5. visarga jihvaamooleeya 5.1 visarga jihvaamooleeya practice
6. visarga upadmaaneeya 6.1 visarga upadmaaneeya practice
Taddhita pratyayas are one of the most important pratyayas in Sanskrit. Neelesh is conducting a six months course that has started today.
पाणिनीयव्याकरणस्य तद्धितप्रकरणस्य पठनार्थं निर्मितः जालपुटः – https://sites.google.com/view/setu-taddhita । The classes are held every Saturday and Sunday from 10:30 AM to 12:00 noon IST. Anybody who wants to learn तद्धितप्रकरणम् using अष्टाध्यायी is welcome to attend the classes.
You may join this group to get notified – https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/setu-taddhita
Even without joining the group, you can access the links to directly join the sessions in Hangout or anonymously in YouTube – https://sites.google.com/view/setu-taddhita
Here is the video of the first introductory class.
Here is the playlist which includes this series of sessions on Taddhita
Class in Simple Sanskrit on Taddhitaah from Kovida portions by Dr. R. Ramachandranji (RRji) at Gita Shibhiram 2016.
Here are the presentation material used during the sessions:
In these online classes, there will be an overview of Paniniya-Vyakaranam. Neelesh will talk about Ashtadhyaayi, along with the fundamental principals and methods that Panini used in constructing various sutras in Ashtadhyayi. Neelesh will also talk about what is commonly referred as “Paniniya Parampara” and share its constituents. He will conclude with a mention about the more recent granthas of sanskrit grammar and talk about their advantages.
This is a two-days session and it is meant for those who are beginners of Paniniya vyakaranam and want to start their study of Ashtadhyayi in a systematic way.
Here are the links to the earlier sessions by Sri Neelesh.
Link to the Presentation Material
Here are the links to some short speeches given by Smt. Sowmya Krishnapur on Panini, Ashtaadyaayi, Maheshwara Sutraani, etc. This can be used by KSOU MA students to answer the short note questions in the paper on Grammar.
Video Recording of the session on Dvandva samaasa. There is also a general introduction to Samaasas. The material used for the presentation is also included here.
901 2.2.29 चार्थे द्वंद्वः । i.e., चार्थे ७/१ द्वन्द्वः १/१ (ref)
अनेकं सुबन्तं चार्थे वर्तमानं वा समस्यते स द्वन्द्वः | Many सुबन्तs implying the sense of च (“and”) are compounded optionally and the compound is called द्वन्द्व. There are four senses in which the term च is used. समुच्चय-अन्वाचय-इतरेतरयोग-समाहारः चार्थः | Among the four senses, dvandva comes only in two cases.
- समुच्चय – conjugation where each सुबन्त independently gets added to a kriya – ईश्वरं गुरुं च भजस्व | Even though the kriya of worshipping applies to both god and guru, it has to be done differently or independently. Hence there cannot be a dvandva samaasa.
- अन्वाचय – there are two actions, one is important and the other is secondary. भिक्षां अट गां च आनय | The main work is to go for alms. The secondary work is to get a cow if it was found on the way.
- इतरेतरयोग – This is the unity or combination of several mutually dependent objects. Here the components are expressed separately and individually. When there are two terms, the समस्तपदम् comes in dual. Eg. रामश्च कृष्णश्च रामकृष्णौ | धवश्च खदिरश्च धवखदिरौ | धव and खदिर are two types of trees. When there are more, the समस्तपदम् will be in plural. Eg. रामलक्ष्मणभरतशत्रुघ्नाः होतृपोतृनेष्टोद्गातारः / होतापोतानेष्टोद्गातारः (Due to the optional आनङ्, तृ à ता)
- समाहारः – Several objects are combined to form a single group. Here the components are expressed as a group wholly, and not individually. Based on the विवक्षा, in most of the cases, both इतरेतर and समाहार can be done, though there are cases where only समाहार is applicable. For example, both हरिहरौ and हरिहरम् would be correct. Samaahaara will be in नपुंसकलिङ्गम् and in एकवचनम् |
- (Side notes are not important from the exam perspective. They are mentioned here just because they are related to the context).
- Side Note: Only for अकारान्त, the ending will be अम् for napumsakam. For example, for नदी, there is no अम् |
- Side Note: Though the vigraha vaakyam is same for Ekashesha (माता च पिता च पितरौ), Ekashesha is not a samaasa. It is one of the five vrttis in Samskrita. Refer the introduction to samaasas.
This sutra mentions about the order of the words in the compound word. In the compound words belong to राजदन्तादि class, the word which normally gets पूर्वनिपात is used as the उत्तरपद. This rule is an exception to the rule on पूर्वनिपात being given to upasarjana by उपसर्जनं पूर्वम् where upasarjana is defined as प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the word which is placed first in the sutra gets the upasarjana samjnaa. Eg. विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम् । is the samaasa vidhaayakam sutram for Karmadhaaraya. Since visheshanam is placed first in the sutra, in the samastapada, the adjective has to be placed first.
Eg. दन्तानां राजा राजदन्तः | Here satshtitatpurusha comes by the sutra षष्ठी. So the word in 6th case gets the upasarjana samjnaa and that needs to be placed as the first word in the compound. That is not the case since this present sutra overrules the पूर्वनिपात based on upasarjana. This राजदन्तादि class is an extendable class. Eg. जाया च पतिश्च = दम्पती = जम्पती = जायापती
This vartika explains the exception to the sutra where either of the terms could come as the first word when Dharma and such words are present.
धर्मश्च अर्थश्च = अर्थधर्मौ / धर्मार्थौ |
This sutra mentions about the order of the words in the compound word. Words technically known as घि get पूर्वनिपात in a dvandva compound. The घि संज्ञा is defined by this sutra – 1.4.7 शेषो घ्यसखि | i.e., शेषः घि असखि | The masculine word which end in इ or उ has to be placed first except for the word सखि.
Side Note: This rule is required to decide as we do not get a definite word by the rule on पूर्वनिपात being given to upasarjana by उपसर्जनं पूर्वम् where upasarjana is defined as प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the word which is placed first in the sutra gets the upasarjana samjnaa. Eg. सप्तमी शौण्डैः is the samaasa vidhaayakam sutram for saptami tatpurusha samaasa. Since the term saptami vibhakti is placed first in the sutra, in the samastapada, the word in the saptami vibhakti has to be placed first as in युधिष्ठिर: |
Eg. हरिश्च हरश्च हरिहरौ |
अभ्यर्हितं पूर्वम् (वा)
This vaartikam mentions about the order of the words in the compound word, when both have घि संज्ञा | The worshipful person/object should be placed first.
Eg. हरिश्च गिरिश्च हरिगिरी |
अनेकप्राप्तौ एकत्र नियम: | अन्यत्र अनियम: (वा)
When there are multiple words, the first has to be घि. There is no order to be followed for the remaining terms.
Eg. हरिश्च हरश्च गुरुश्च = हरिहरगुरव: or हरिगुरुहरा: or गुरुहरहरय: or गुरुहरिहरा:।
This sutra mentions about the order of the words in the compound word. That which has the fewer vowels (अच्) gets पूर्वनिपात in dvandva compound.
Eg. शिवश्च केशवश्च शिवकेशवौ |
The word referring to the elder brother gets पूर्वनिपात in a dvandva compound.
Eg. युधिष्ठिरश्च अर्जुनश्च युधिष्ठिरार्जुनौ |
906 2.4.2 द्वन्द्वश्च प्राणितूर्यसेनाङ्गानाम् । i.e., द्वन्द्वः १/१ च ०/० प्राणि-तूर्य-सेना-अङ्गानाम् ६/३
वृत्तिः – एषां द्वन्द्वः एकवत् | This sutra states the vachanam of the samastapadam and thus indicates the only possible type of dvandva. The gender is neuter by the परवल्लिङ्गापवाद sutra – स नपुंसकम् | The dvandva compound consisting of the parts (1) of the body of animals and human beings, (2) of members of an orchestra, (3) of division of an army, are always in एकवचनम्.
Eg. पाण्योः पादयोश्च समाहारः = पाणी च पादौ च समाहारः = पाणिपादम् | Eg. मार्दङ्गिकाश्च वैणविकाश्चैषां समाहार: = मार्दङ्गिकवैणविकम् – A group of mrudanga (a kind of drum) players and veenaa (lute) players. Eg. रथिकाश्चाश्वारोहाश्चैषां समाहार: = रथिकाश्वारोहम् – A group of chariot riders and horse-back riders.
This sutra states the vachanam of the samastapadam and thus indicates the only possible type of dvandva. Dvandva compounds made up of the words denoting that they are in eternal enmity are in ekavachana.
Eg. अहिश्च नकुलश्च = अहिनकुलम् | Eg. गोश्च व्याघ्रश्च = गोव्याघ्रम् |
This sutra indicates the only possible type of Dvandva for certain words. Dvandva compounds included in the गवाश्वादि class are restricted to समाहारद्वन्द्व only in the form they are listed.
Eg. गावाश्च अश्वाश्च = गवाश्वम् |
916 2.4.12 विभाषा वृक्षमृगतृणधान्यव्यञ्जनपशुशकुन्यश्ववडवपूर्वापराधरोत्तराणाम् । विभाषा १/१ वृक्ष-मृग-तृण-धान्य-व्यञ्जन-पशु-शकुनि-अश्ववडव-पूर्वापर-अधरोत्तराणाम् ६/३ (Ref)
Dvandva compounds of different kinds of trees, deer, grass, grain, flavorings, animals, birds as well as the compounds अश्वावडव, पूर्वापर and अधरोत्तर are एकवत् only optionally.
Eg. व्रीहि: च यव: च = व्रीहियवम् / व्रीहियवा: |
The dvandva compounds of words implying contrary characteristics and referring to non-substances are optionally in एकवचनम्.
Eg. शीतं च उष्णं च शीतोष्णम् / शीतोष्णे |
This sutra states the change to the first word पूर्वपदविकारः where in it gets the आनङ् आदेश:. There is the आदेश of आनङ् for the first member of the dvandva compound constituted by ऋकारान्त words denoting the relation of knowledge or family.
Eg. होता च पोता च होतापोतारौ | The Rig Veda priest and the priest assisting the Brahma priest.
Eg. माता च पिता च = मातापितरौ |
This sutra states the change to the first word पूर्वपदविकारः where in it gets the आनङ् आदेश:. In the compound word formed by coming two deities, आनङ् comes to the poorvapada.
Eg. मित्रश्च वरुणश्च मित्रावरुणौ |
वायुशब्दप्रयोगे प्रतिषेधः (वा)
The आनङ् does not apply in the case of देवताद्वंद्व poorvapada when vaayu is one of the constituents.
Eg. अग्निश्च वायुश्च अग्निवायू | Eg. वायुश्च अग्निश्च वाय्वग्नी |
वृत्तिः – देवताद्वन्द्वे उत्तरपदे परे । When an uttarapada follows in a devataadvandva, दिव् gets द्यावादेश |
Eg. द्यौश्च भूमिश्च द्यावाभूमी | Heaven and earth. (एकवचने – द्यौः ; द्विवचने – द्यावौ or दिवौ ; बहुवचने – द्यावः or दिवः) Eg. द्यौश्च क्षमा च द्यावाक्षमे |
929 6.3.32 मातरपितरावुदीचाम् । i.e., मातरपितरौ १/२ उदीचाम् ६/३ (Ref)
In the opinion of the Northern scholars the form of the compound of माता च पिता च is मातरपितरौ | For the Eastern scholars, the form is मातापितरौ |
Eg. माता च पिता च मातरपितरौ |
वृत्तिः – एषां समाहारे द्वन्द्व एकवत् स्यात्। The dvandva compounds of the names of minute creatures are in the singular only having samaahaara dvandva.
Eg. यूकालिक्षम् – यूकाश्च लिक्षाश्च | युक is lice. लिक्ष is vermin – Earth worm.
आनकुलात् क्षुद्रजन्तवः | All the beings starting from Nakula i.e., mangoose downwards, i.e., which are inferior to it, are considered as kshudrajantu. Here आ indicates “starting from” 2.1.13 आङ् मर्यादाऽभिविध्योः ।
930 5.4.106 द्वन्द्वाच्चुदषहान्तात् समाहारे । i.e., द्वन्द्वात् ५/१ चु-द-ष-ह-अन्तात् ५/१ समाहारे ७/१
This sutra mentions the rule to apply टच् प्रत्यय: as the समासान्त:. टच् प्रत्यय: comes as a समासान्त after द्वन्द्व compounds in the sense of समाहार when they end in चवर्ग, द, ष, and ह |
Eg. वाक् च त्वक् च वाक्त्वचम् | This is an example of the word ending in च getting टच् |
Here is the link to the presentation — व्याकरणपरिचय- – दशगणा-
This PDF has the answers for all the questions related Samaastapada and Vigrahavaakya, asked in KSOU Final Year question paper from 2007 to 2014.
To be updated again after the Contact Classes.
Thanks to Ms. Sowmya Krishnapur of Vyoma Labs for the MA Grammar lessons.
(Also refer the notes from the Contact classes held in 2015, which has been already posted in this blog).