कौटिलीयं अर्थशास्त्रम् (Session by Smt. Divya – For KSOU MA exam)
(Also refer the other two posts – one having a summary of Vinayadhikarana and another with the quotations asked in the exam).
<Start of Part 1>
Samhita, Brahmana, Aranyaka, Upanishat and Vedangas are वैदिक वाङ्ग्मय. All others are लौकिक वाङ्ग्मय. So, Arthashastra comes under the second category.
In the Vedic literature there are references of ‘Rajasabha’, Sarvajanika Sabha’, ‘Mandala’. These were guidelines to the king or for the benefit of the citizens. However, we don’t find a separate section for Rajakeeya Shastra.
The first available elaborate work on ‘Rajaneeti’ is Kautilya’s Arthashastra.
There were efforts by many on the field. Kautilya consolidated prominent theories of his time and put forward his own opinion in his work. After this major task, all the previous works lost relevance. (Since the contents of this encompasses all those)
Artha shastra acknowledges धर्म, अर्थ and काम, but emphasizes on अर्थ. This is written as a guideline to the King in good governance. Though Kautilya gives utmost importance to the rule of the Emperor, he makes sure of a system where the emperor does not become a ruthless dictator (निरङ्कुश प्रभुः)
अर्थशास्त्रस्य व्याख्या :
अर्थस्य शास्त्रम् – The study of ‘अर्थ’.
What is ‘अर्थ’? Different word meanings are used – प्रयोजन , purpose – उद्देश, meaning of words – पदस्य अर्थ.
- Kautilya says “मनुष्याणां वृत्तिः अर्थः, मनुष्यवती भूमिरित्यर्थः, तस्याः पृथिव्याः लाभपालनोपायः शास्त्रं अर्थशास्त्रं इति ’. The Earth is essential for the existence of the mankind, which is called artha. Therefore the shastra that tells about the maintenance, governance of it is Arthashastra.
- Somadeva in his नीतिवाक्यामृत says “यतः सर्वप्रयोजनसिद्धिः सोर्थः”. That which gives all the benefits.
- Acharya Shankara in his Jayamangala says “अर्थो येन लोको वर्तते” He opines that the world exists due to this.
अर्थ is one among the धर्म – अर्थ – काम –मोक्ष.
In वैदिक वाङ्ग्मय dharma gets the most emphasis and Artha & Kama are considered as part of the Dharmashastra or Neetishastra. Kautilya’s work is given importance as ‘Rajadharma’ and ‘Rajaneeti shastra’.
Yajnavalkya says ‘अर्थशास्त्रात्तु बलवद्धर्मशास्त्रमिति स्थितिः’. When there is a conflict of opinion between Arthashastra and Dharmashastra, instruction as in Dharmashastra has to be followed.
Similar works prior to Kautilya’s Arthashastra :
- In Vedas, Varuna is referred as ‘Raja’.
- In Brahmanas, ब्रह्मक्षत्र is explained.
- In Dharmasutras of Kalpa (one of the 6 Vedangas) , Rajadharma is explained.
- In बौधायन धर्मसूत्र, आपस्तम्भ धर्मसूत्र, गौतम धर्मसूत्र the guidelines for a good governance are explained.
- Manu Smriti and Yajnavalkya Smriti mention the same.
- In Ramayana , the tattvas are indirectly explained.
- In Mahabharata , there are direct upadeshas on Rajadharma.
- After the war, Bhishma’s upadesha to Yudhishtira
- Vidura Neeti to Dhrutarashtra
- Bharadhwaja – Drona Acharya has the same name.
- Vishalaksha – Jayamangala says he is Maheshwara
- Pishuna – Known to be Narada – according to Jayamangala.
- Kaunapadanta – Bheeshma. Arthashastra doesn’t mention as Bheeshma. (short note question on Smriti)
- Vaatavyadhi – Uddhava.
- Baahudantee putra – According to Jayamangala he is Indra.
- Paarashara – Followers of Parashara
- Maanava – Followers of Manu
- Barhaspatyaa – Followers of Bruhaspati
- Aushanaa – Followers of Ushanas (Shukra)
- Aambheeyaa – Followers of Ambhi
- Aacharyaa – Specifically not known
Similar works post Kautilya’s Arthashastra :
- Kamandakeeya Neetisara – A collective work on Arthashastra by Kamandaka. All adhikaranas except 2,3,4 and 15.
- Bruhaspati Sootra – The original was written in BC. This is a rewritten version of 9-10 AD
- Shukra Neetisara – Known to be the teaching of Shukra or ‘Ushanas’. Next famous work after that of Kautilya.
- Chanakya Neetisootra – Also known as Kautileeya neetisootra – It is different from Arthashastra.
- Neetivakyamruta – Also known as Neetisootras of Somadeva. Very close to Arthashastra.
- Rajaneeti Ratnakara – Written by Chandreshwara.
कर्तृ , देश & काल :
Written by कौटिल्य also known by the names विष्णुगुप्त & चाणक्य .
Supporting References / Proofs –
- The famous commentary called ‘जयमन्गला’ says ‘कुटिलं नाम गोत्रं , तस्यापत्यं कौटल्यः’
- In Arthashastra itself the author says कौटिलीये अर्थशास्त्रेः
- In another place he says ‘स्वयमेव विष्णुगुप्तः चकार सूत्रं च भाष्यं च’.
- Kamandaka in his Neetisara mentions Vishnugupta & his work Arthashastra in the Peetikaa
- Dandi in his ‘Dashakumara charita’ mentions about Acharya Vishnugupta, who for the benefit of Maurya Kings wrote a book on Arthashastra consisting of 6000 verses.
- Bana Bhatta in Kadambari (Shukanasopadesha) says कौटिल्य शास्त्रं प्रमाणम्
Some are of the opinion that Arthashastra is written by the shishyas of Kautilya. They come to this conclusion because in Arthashastra , always his name is mentioned in third person. If he himself was the author he could use first person reference.
But this theory is not accepted because it is an accepted practice by the authors of Shastras to do the same.
Kautilya and Vaatsyaayana are the names of the same person?
- Hemachandra in ‘Abhidana Chintamani’ and Yadava Prakasha in ‘Vaijayanti’ think both are the same person
- Keith is of the same opinion
- There are many similarities between Arthashastra and Kamasutra. But there is no confirmed evidence that they both are written by the same person.
- Kautilya was known to be the Guru of Maurya King. He was instrumental in supporting Chandragupta Maurya to defeat Nanda King. Chandra Gupta Maurya came to power in 321 BC and his grandchild Ashoka became the ruler in 296 BC. Therefore Arthashastra was believed to be written during the period of 321BC- 300BC.
- Stein – 300AD
Megasthenes came to the palace of Chandragupta and wrote about his observation. According to Stein the descriptions of the society don’t match that of Arthashastra. So, his opinion is that Arthashastra must be a recent work. But later he himself agrees that such a comparison is not valid reason to decide the timeline.
- Jolly, Schmidt and Winternitz – Post AD
Arthashastra and Yajnavalkya Smruti are similar. So, one is the influence of the other.
Kamasutra and Arthashastra have similar way of presenting the theories. Kamashastras time is 4th century AD. So, the opinion is that Arthashastra must be of 3rd Century AD.
But the timeline of Kamasutra itself is not confirmed. So this theory is not valid.
There are references of Lohashastra (Metallurgy )in Arthashastra. Metallurgy is the recent understanding. So the work must be of recent past. This is not appropriate since there is no evidence that Lohashastra was not known in the olden times.
The Mahabhashya does not mention Arthashastra. So it must be a recent work.
It is not valid because Mahabhashya might not have mentioned the work even if it was existing.
Famous Commentaries on Arthashastra :
Commentary written by Shankara Acharya who belongs to 800 AD. Commentary on the first adhikarana is available.
- चाणक्य टीका
Written by Bhikshu Prabhumati. It is mentioned in Amarateekaasarwaswa in 1959. Only the first and 3rd adhyayas of 7th adhikarana are available. This is an unpublished work.
- प्रतिपद पञ्चिका
Written by Bhattaswami. Commentary is given to each word. Commentary is available only for the 7 adhyayas of 2nd adhikarana.
Written by Shri Madhava Yajwa Mishra.
7th Adhikarana – 7-11 adhyaya
12th Adhikarana – 4th adhyaya
Overview of Artha shastra
Mangala says –
“ पृथिव्या लाभे पालने च यावन्त्यर्थशास्त्राणि पूर्वाचार्यैः प्रस्थापितानि प्रायशस्तानि संह्रुत्यैकमिदमर्थशास्त्रं कृतं “
It has 15 Adhikaranas, 150 Adhyayas, 180 prakaranas and 6000 verses. Gadya is in sutra form. 380 Karikas.
|1||विनयाधिकारिकं||Establishes अन्वीक्षकी ,त्रयी, वार्ता , दण्डनीति.
Importance of Vidya and its relevance for the ruler.
Respecting the elders. Controlling of senses.
Recruitment and testing of ministers and Purohiths. Guidelines for managing spy network.
Ways to strengthen own country and to weaken the enemies. Maintenance of secrecy.
Rules for the messengers.
Upbringing of princes, making sure they are protected and the throne is protected by them. Preventing the princes from rebelling. Their expected behavior towards the King.
The duties of the king, the guidelines for his residence and his daily routines.
Safety of the king – are described in this chapter.
|2||अध्यक्षप्रचारः||Mainly about collection of taxes.
Collection of grains, management of barren land, construction of forts, maintaining safety of the warehouse, employees responsible for the calculation & collection of the taxes.
Preventing thefts. Ways to identify corruption.
Guidelines for Shasana writing.
Managing Precious jewelry and stones. Management of mines, the workers and the jewelers.
Rules for the businessmen. The chapter talks about carpentry, looms, agriculture, winery, butcher houses, animal husbandry, rules for soldiers, senapati.
|3||धर्मस्थीयं||A Person who knows about Dharmashastra and applies the knowledge in the vyavahara is Dharmastha. The guidelines for their roles are discussed in this chapter.
How the dealings (vyavahara) happens, conflicts and conflict resolution, vyavahara in relation to marriages.
About ancestral property , house, farm and estates.
The promises made are called ‘samaya’. The guidelines for the same.
Loans, ‘upanidhi ’ and issues regarding the same.
About employees and staff.
Selling – own items, buying and selling with margin, selling others’ items.
About conflicts, verbal , physical fights and gambling.
|4||कण्टकशोधनं||As the name suggests this chapter is about investigation.
About frauds in the following fields –
– Carpenter, blacksmith, goldsmith.
– merchants who cheat in weights
– Corrupt officials, thieves
Investigating with the help of sidhdhas who dress like sanyasis.
Investigation in case of an unnatural death.
Punishment for different crimes.
|5||योगवृत्तं||Yoga – here it means cheating. Vrutta is the punishment for the same.
Collection of extra taxes during the difficult times .
Management of employees, ministers etc.
When the king is in danger how to protect the prince, the role of the minister to rule until the prince is independently able to do so.
Only one prince has to be declared as the emperor.
|6||मण्डलयोनिः||Prakruti Sampada – Swami, Amatya, friend, treasury, country, fort and ‘bala’ are prakrutis.
Shamavyayamika – TODO
|7||षाड्गुण्यं||The chapter that explains the shad-guNas starting with Sandhi.
Basically this talks about how a king should align with other neighbouring kingdoms. If he is weak, he has to align with stronger neighbours (prabala), how he has to make ‘sandhi’ by giving kosha, bhoomi etc.
Ways of blocking the food supply of the enemy and directing it own country during the fight.
Forming a group of able kings and going for ‘dandayatre’.
When a neighbouring king is observed to be weak (either in wealth, health, or due to bad habits) taking the opportunity to attack.
Guidelines to decide who the friendly kings are.
How to behave if the enemy is stronger.
|8||व्यसनाधिकारिकं||Swami etc. are prakrutis. Vyasana are difficulties. (TODO)
Definition , classification of vyasanas.
Peedana – calamities due to water, fire etc
Stambhana – creating obstacles in governance.
Koshasanga varga – non-payment of taxes.
Balavyasana varga – problems related to the army.
Mitravyasana – how to maintain a friendship and during conflicts the decisions to be taken considering the welfare of the country.
|9||अभियास्यत् कर्म||The duties performed by विजिगीषु before the war is explained here.
He has to study the enemy’s shakti-desha-kala balaabala.
Appropriate time to attack.
Types of sainya, weapons.
Protection of the borders.
|10||साङ्ग्रामिकं||Construction of the war camps. Journey to the battlefield.
Prevention and management of obstacles during the journey.
Motivating the soldiers.
Different formations (vyoohas) in the war. About prati-vyoohas.
|11||सङ्घवृत्तं||Sangha – is the formation of united group by several rebel groups.
This chapter talks about how to control rebellion by such groups.
|12||आबलीयसं||One who is weak is aabaleeya. This is about the guidelines for the weak king.
The weak king needs to have different game-plans and tricks to be victorious.
One such trick is to kill the Senapati and the main leaders first, which will demoralize the enemy’s army.
Aligning with friends to fight the stronger enemy.
Cutting down the source of income of enemy king.
Killing the enemy with stealth.
Eka-vijaya – where the king fights alone with the enemy.
|13||दुर्गलम्भ उपायः||Winning the fort of the enemy.
Making the enemy come out of the fort, employing spy network, encircling of the fort and attacking.
Avamarda (Swaadheena – occupying) , labdha prashamana – building the trust with the citizens after occupying.
|14||औपनिषदिकं||Winning the enemy with the help of mantra and aushadha prayoga.
Also mentions the remedy if own army is attacked by mantra/aushadha prayoga.
|15||तन्त्रयुक्तिः||Summary of the previous chapters.|
The overview of prakarana and adhyayas with short description are given below. There are 18 prakaranas and 21 adhyayas in Vinayaadhikarana.
|#||Name of प्रकरणम्||#||Name of अध्यायः||Synopsis|
कौटिल्येन कृतं शास्त्रं विमुक्तग्रन्थविस्तरम्
|2||आन्वीक्षिकीस्थापना||Sankhya, Yoga and Lokayata|
|3||त्रयी स्थापना||Rig, Yajur & Saama|
|4||वार्त्ता दण्डनीति स्थापना||Vartaa -Agriculture & trade.|
|2||वृद्ध संयोगः||5||–||Here Vruddha means Jnani. Importance of Vidya samuchchaya from all the sources.|
|3||इन्द्रियजयः||6||अरिषड्वर्ग त्याग||Overcoming Kama, krodha, lobha, mana, mada & harsha|
|7||राजर्षि वृत्तिः||Guidelines for the king|
|4||अमात्य उत्पत्तिः||8||–||Who should be recruited as Amatya? Consolidation of different opinions.|
|5||मन्त्रिपुरोहित उत्पत्तिः||9||–||Qualities expected in ministers and purohits.|
|6||उपधाभिः शौचाशौचज्ञानं अमात्यानां||10||–||Testing of amatyas. Dharma, Artha, Kama and Baya upadhaa’s.|
|7||गूढ पुरुषोत्पत्तिः||11||–||Recruitment of the spies.|
|8||गूढपुरुषप्रणिधिः||12||–||Duties of the spies.|
|9||स्वविषये कृत्याकृत्यपक्षरक्षणं||13||–||Observation within the country|
|10||परविषये कृत्याकृत्यपक्ष उपग्रहः||14||–||Observation in enemy’s country|
|11||मन्त्राधिकारः||15||–||Guidelines of Mantraalochana.
|13||राजपुत्ररक्षणं||17||–||All about princes.|
|14||अवरुद्धवृत्तं||18||Both prakarana are||About rebellious or disobedient prince|
|15||अवरुद्धे वृत्तिः||18||Combined in one adhyaya||About rebellious or disobedient prince|
|16||राजप्रणिधिः||19||–||King’s duties and routine|
|Location and safety of Rajagruha|
|18||आत्मरक्षितकं||21||–||Safety of the king|
Mangala and Granthaswaroopa is given here followed by contents of the entire work.
पृथिव्यां लाभे पालने च यावन्त्यर्थशास्त्राणि पूर्वाचार्यैः प्रस्थापितानि प्रायशस्थानि संह्रुत्यैकमर्थशास्त्रं कृतं |
At the end of the adhyaya, he mentions the purpose of the grantha. It is easy to understand, with definite understanding of thathvarthapada and it is concise (sankshipta).
कौटिल्येन कृतं शास्त्रं विमुक्तग्रन्थविस्तरम्
- आन्वीक्षिकीस्थापना :
Manu’s followers say : त्रयी, वार्त्ता & दण्डनीति are the only 3 types of Vidya.
Bruhaspati’s followers say : वार्त्ता & दण्डनीति are the only two types. Their opinion is that त्रयी is just to distract people and make money. They are Charvaka followers.
Aushanasaa or followers of Ushanas/Shukra say : दण्डनीति is the only Vidya required and all the other are part of it.
**दण्डनीतिरेका विद्या इत्यौशनसाः (**short notes)
Anveekshikee consists of Saankhya (by Kapila Muni), Yoga (Maharshi Patanjali) and Lokayatha (Charvaka/Bruhaspati) –
साङ्ख्यं योगो लोकायतं च इत्यान्वीक्षिकी
It is said to be the ‘taarkika adhyayana of Darshanas’ – समीक्षासाधनातर्कः अन्वीक्षकी
It sheds light on all the shastras and gives guidance to all the work. Therefore it is ashraya for all Dharmas.
प्रदीपः सर्वविद्यानां उपायः सर्वकर्मणाम् |
**आश्रयः सर्वधर्माणां शश्वद् आन्वीक्षिकी मता
- त्रयी स्थापना :
साम.ऋग्यजुर्वेदाः त्रयः त्रयी – Atharva Veda is considered to be included (TODO). The vedangas ‘Shiksha, Kalpa, Vyakarana, Nirukta, Chandas and Jyotishya’ are part of this.
He defines Varnadharma and Ashramadharma.
ब्राह्मण – He has to do yajana, yaajana, daana& pratigraha.
क्षत्रिय – Has to engage in adhyayana, yajana, daana and protection.
वैश्य – Do adhyayana, yajana, daana, agriculture, pashupalana and trade.
शूद्र – Support the other dharmas, vaarta, shilpa and kusheelava karma.
गृहस्थ – Perform the duties, suitable marriage, daana.
ब्रह्मचर्य – Svadhyaya, agnikarya, snana, bhikshe, guru shshrooshaa.
वानप्रस्थ – Brahmacharya, simple life.
परिव्राजक – Life of detachment.
Kautilya says one has to perform duties according to ‘Swadharma’. The king has to encourage his people to follow their Dharma and be in the path of righteousness. If the teachings of Trayee are practiced, the world will be a happy place. There will not be any sorrow.
तस्मात् स्वधर्मं भूतानां राजा न व्यभिचारयेत् |
स्वधर्मं सन्दधानो हि प्रेत्य च इह च नन्दति
व्यवस्थितार्यमर्यादः कृतवर्णाश्रमस्थितिः |
**त्रय्याऽभिरक्षितो लोकः प्रसीदति न सीदति
- वार्त्ता दण्डनीति स्थापना :
Vartaa – is about agriculture, animal husbandry and trade.
Dandaneeti – is instrumental in the protection of ‘anveekshakee, trayee and vartaa’
आन्वीक्षिकी त्रयी वार्त्तानां योगक्षेमसाधनो दण्डः, तस्य नीतिर्दण्ड नीतिः, अलब्धलाभार्था लब्धपरिरक्षणी रक्षितविवर्धनी वृद्धस्य तीर्थे प्रतिपादनी च
Obtaining the alabdha, protection of that is obtained, growing of what is saved, distribution of what is grown to the needy – is what is discussed in this.
About Danda prayoga –
Acharya says Danda is the best way to control the citizens. Kautilya does not accept this.
Too much of dandaprayoga – will make the people scared and in turn disrespect the king.
Too little – King will not gain the deserved respect. People will take advantage of the situation.
Samayochita danda- is the right way according to Kautilya.
Here the word ‘Vruddha’ means knowledgeable . It talks about ‘jnanavruddhatva’ rather than an old person. The king has to strive to acquire knowledge from all sources.
The chapter is the continuation of dandaneeti. It begins with the phrase **तस्माद् दण्डमूलाः तिस्रो विद्याः
For the good governance appropriate dandaneeti is essential. In that situation it is possible for all the Vidyas to flourish. Danda should be based on ‘vinaya’.
Upadesha can make only the smart person to be polite and righteous and not the ‘mandabudhdhi’.
शुश्रूषा (Care)– श्रवण(listening)-ग्रहण(understanding)-धारण(memorizing)-विज्ञान(Vivechana)- ऊहापोह(Imagination and discarding what is not needed )-तत्त्वाभिनिविष्ट(Nirnaya of vastu swabhava)-बुद्धिं विद्या विनयति न इतरम्
Education will lead one to become polite if he has the above qualities. One needs discipline and Acharyas ‘ pramaNya.
How one should be initiated to Vidya is explained here. The rituals from Chaula karma are listed.The routine of the Gruhastha in terms of vidyarjana is given. He has to spend the first half of his morning in the practice of shashtra vidya and caring of elephants, horses etc. The second half has to be spent in listening to itihasa (purana, dharmashastra and arthashastra). The remaining day should be dedicated for study (vyasanga)
श्रुताद्द् हि प्रज्ञा उपजायते प्रज्ञाया योगो योगाद् आत्मवत्ता इति विद्यानां सामर्थ्यम्
By listening to the shastras one will attain prajna , from that yoga (udyoga sheelata) , from yoga one attains ‘atmavatta’ . This is the advantage of Vidya.
**विद्याविनीतो राजा हि प्रजानां विनये रतः |
अनन्यां पृथिवीं भुङ्क्ते सर्वभूतहिते रतः
A well learned king with vinayata is able to provide good governance. This will make him enjoy the kingdom without enemies.
**इन्द्रियजयः (long answer question)
What is indriya jaya ? विद्या विनयहेतुरिन्द्रियजयः
How ? कामक्रोधलोभमानमदहर्षत्यागात् कार्यः
- अरिषड्वर्ग त्याग
The 6 sense organs कर्णत्वग्ऽक्षिजिह्वाघ्राण and their respective activities are to be in control. Kautilya explains the importance by giving examples of kings who failed to comply and got destroyed.
काम – दाण्डक्य भोजः & वैदेह करालः
दाण्डक्य भोजः – Abducted a Bhargava Kanya during his hunting trip. Due to Bhargava’s curse, the country got destroyed by the showers of sand.
वैदेह करालः – Abducted a Brahmana’s wife. The King and the ministers died because of the curse.
क्रोध – जनमेजय, तालजङ्घः
जनमेजय – During the Ashwamedha Yaga, Indra was attracted to his queen. But the enraged king suspected the Ruthvijas and punished them. Due to their curse his head got blasted into thousand pieces.
तालजङ्घः – Someone had placed a golden box in sage Brigu’s ashram. The Hehaya King who had poverty went to grab the box. When the sage stopped him, the King Talajangha was about to kill Bhrigu. He got destroyed in the fire along with his family.
लोभ – ऐल पुरूरवः , सौवीर अजबिन्दुः
ऐल पुरूरवः – During his visit to Swargaloka, he offered pranams to only Dharma and ignored Artha & Kama. So they cursed him. Due to Kama-shapa, he got attracted to Oorvashi. Then due to Artha-shapa, he became a lobhi. He collected excess tax from his citizens. Perished due to the curse of Brahmins.
सौवीर अजबिन्दुः – He wanted to see all the wealth in one place and forced his citizens to put all their wealth. They got frustrated by his strange ways and killed him by pelting stones.
मान – रावणः , दुर्योधनः
Here mana means durabhimana. Ravana and duryodhana’s stories are well known.
मद – दम्भोद्भवः, कार्तवीर्य अर्जुनः
दम्भोद्भवः – He was very brave and was proud of his valour. He reached a point where he had no opponent to fight with & got desperate. Narada suggested him to see Nara-Narayana of Badrikashram. He got killed by Nara.
कार्तवीर्य अर्जुनः – He thought there was none like him in the world. Narada tells about Parashurama. So Arjuna comes to Sage Jamadagni’s ashram. He takes a calf and drags Parashurama into a fight. His thousand arms were chopped.
हर्ष – वृष्णि संघ, इल्वल वातापि
वृष्णि संघ- This is Yadava clan. They dress up Samba as a woman and ask Dvaipayana Durvasa ‘what baby will she deliver?’ for fun. Understanding their intention, furious sage says ‘ an iron rod that will destroy your clan’. They powder the iron rod and throw in the sea. But later they fight with the weed grown there and die. The same iron will be instrumental in Krishna’s dehatyaga as well.
इल्वल वातापि- With his Magical power, Vatapi would become goat and be cooked by Ilwala. The dish would be served to an innocent guest. During the lunch, Ilwala would call out for Vatapi, who would break open the guest’s stomach and come out. This was the wicked game they played on many. But sage Agasthya says ‘Vatapi jeerno bhava!’
Kings who achieved इन्द्रियजय are – Jamadagnya and Naabaaga Ambareesha.
- राजर्षि वृत्तिः
What is expected of a good king – Rajarshi?
- He should have the 6 enemies in control – indriyajaya
- Acquire adequate knowledge from Vruddha samyoga
- Should be aware of all the happenings with able spy network – charachakshu
- Should work relentlessly for the welfare of the country
- Establish swadharma
- Vinaya –anushasana should be done according to the shastras
- Appropriate usage of wealth and gain popularity
- Favourable mannerism
What should be relinquished by a Rajarshi?
- Should not be fickle minded
- Should give up telling lies, inappropriate dressing, sahavasa that leads to downfall
- Should give up adharmika and anartha vyavaharas
What are the roles of dharma – artha – kama for a Rajarshi?
Kautilya promotes balance. He does not say Dharma alone is great. Dharma should guide the path of Artha and Kama. He emphasizes that Kama should be given importance in such a way that it does not hinder the path of Dharma and Artha. Kama should never be relinquished.
Kautilya again emphasizes on the importance of Artha – **अर्थमूलौ हि धर्मकामाविति
Protocol to be followed by the King :
King may falter at times. So Mantri, amatya and purohits should be appointed to alert him. They should be given sufficient importance to advice the king. The king should take their suggestions. A cart will not move with one wheel. In the same manner, King alone can’t run the whole system.
**सहायसाध्यं राजत्वं चक्रं एकं न वर्तते
कुर्वीत सचिवां तस्मात् तेषां च शृणुयान् मतम्
**अमात्य उत्पत्तिः (long answer question)
Kautilya says’ पूर्वाचार्यैः प्रस्थापितानि प्रायशस्तानि संह्रुत्यैकमिदमर्थशास्त्रं कृतं ‘ in the beginning of the book. This adhyaya is a good example for that. In this he consolidates the opinion of previous Artha shastrajnas and finally states his opinion.
भारध्वाजमतम् – Saha-adhyaayis should be made as Amatyas. The king knows them since childhood and both would have developed the trust.
विशालाक्षमतम् – Does not agree with the above opinion. He thinks such Amatyas may not give due respect to the king. They may ignore the king. He says if the king has engaged in some rahasya activity with him, he should be made as amatya.
पराशरमतम् – If both have some secrets known by each other, there are chances of revealing them (blackmailing the king?). Therefore King may have to compromise on policies. One who can protect the king at any time should be appointed as Amatya.
नारदमतम् – (Also known as Pishuna) – Just protecting of king all the time shows one’s bhakti to the king. But a minister should be able to give advice and guide the king too. King should assign some work and observe. The person who performs the work to perfection and does more than what is told should be the right candidate.
कौणपदन्तमतम् – Such people are not experienced. A person who hails from the family of ministers should be appointed. He knows the right protocols since he has been observing his father, grandfathers since young. Such a person will have natural loyalty to the throne.
अमानुषेष्वपि च एतद् दृश्यते गावो ह्यसगन्धं गोगणं अतिक्रम्य सगन्धेष्वेवावतिष्ठन्ते
Even the cows will not go with a different herd.
उद्धवमतम् – Doesn’t approve of this. He says such a system will give undue control with one family. Such a minister will behave like a superior. Therefore a new candidate with suitable moral values should be appointed. Those new to the system will have fearful respect towards the king.
बाहुदन्तीपुत्रमतम् – A person totally new to the system, however good he may be will not perform well. He may make mistakes that may be costly. So, his qualities should be well known – अभिजन-प्रज्ञा-शौच-शौर्यानुरागयुक्तान् अमात्यान् कुर्वीत
Kautilya – He says all the opinions are valid. Depending on one’s ability the job has to assigned. One has to observe his gunas, desha-kala and appoint him.
Qualities expected from Amatya –
जानपदो अभिजातः स्ववग्रहः कृतशिल्पश्चक्षुष्मान् प्राज्ञो धारयिष्णुर्दक्षो वाग्मी प्रगल्भः प्रतिपत्तिमान् उत्साहप्रभावयुक्तः क्लेशसहः शुचिर्मैत्रो दृढभक्तिः शीलबलारोग्यसत्त्वयुक्तः स्तम्भचापलहीनः सम्प्रियो वैराणां अकर्ता इत्यमात्यसम्पत्
- Brought up in a good surrounding
- From a good family
- Has good control (over himself and can take control)
- Knowledgeable in finearts
- Having knowledge of Shastras
- Excellent memory skills
- Daksha – skillful
- pragalbha – chatura
- With presence of mind
- Having the ability tolerate difficulties
- Clean – Shuchi – shudhdha chitta
- Having faith
- Devoid of egoistic and fickle-minded nature
- Liked by all
- Without enemies
Classifications of Amatya – One who has most of the qualities is the best. One who has atleast 3/4th of the qualities listed here is ‘Madhyama’ and having half the qualities is ‘adhama’.
Ways to check the qualities –
- To know about the person’s nature and interaction with people, enquire with those who closely interact with him.
- To know about his education and knowledge, enquire with his peers
- Observe his work to know about his knowledge, memory and skill
- Observe the conversation to understand his oratory skills, presence of mind
- During the times of difficulty assess his enthusiasm and kashtasahishnuta
- Enquire about sheela-bala-arogya-sattva with neighbours
- Remaining with observation.
**प्रत्यक्षपरोक्षानुमेया हि राजवृत्तिः
There are three ways of knowing. Pratyaksha is when we directly see something. Paroksha is when we hear about it from someone. Anumeya is by observing what the person has done and what he has not done. A King can’t be everywhere and do all the tasks. So he needs able amatyas to get the work done.
About Able purohithas –
Purohitha should be from the family of the learned , with knowledge of Veda- Vedangas, having religious, spiritual knowledge, Shakuna – knowledge of omens , knowledge of dandaneeti, should be able to practice techniques of Atharva veda to ward away Daiva Amanusha disturbances. Such a purohitha should be respected by the king.
Purohita should be respected in these manner – the king should treat the purohita like an acharya, a father and a master.
**उपधाभिः शौचाशौचज्ञानं अमात्यानां (long answer question)
King should appoint jobs to the Amatyas and with the help of purohitha and mantri test their abilities , weakness and loyalty. Such a test is called ‘Upadha’. After the quality is known, suitable duties will be assigned to the amatyas.
This is to observe how the amatya follows ‘Dharma’. The situation should be especially created for this. A yaga should be organized with a person who doesn’t know to perform it properly. King has to fire him for his inability to perform his duty. The purohith (who is part of the plan/upadha) should approach the amatya and say that “This king is not a Dharmika. Let us all conspire against him and choose someone appropriate to be our king”. He could be someone from the same vamsha, a prince, a Samantha or someone from the kshatriya clan who is able.
If the Amatya disagrees to this , he is known to be clean/shuchi.
This is to test the political aspect and loyalty of the newly appointed amatya. An army general has to be fired (part of the plan/upadha). He should approach the amatya to conspire a coup. He should also mention that all the other amatyas are with us. And the opinion of the amatya should be asked. If Amatya does not agree he is shuchi.
A maid of the anthah-pura tries to lure the amatya to meet the queen, who is said to be attracted to him. If he denies, he is Shuchi.
One amatya (part of the plan) should invite all the other amatyas for a fun event. The king comes to know of this and (pretends to) suspects they are united for a wicked cause. All are dismissed and put in house arrest. A Kapatika (A student who is a spy) meets the amatyas one by one to plan a coup against the king. Now all the amatyas are unsure of King’s next action. The one who doesn’t fall for the words of the spy is shuddha.
Assignment of duties according to the outcome of upadha –
Shuddha in Dharmopada – To be appointed in Dharmastheeya kantakashodhana
Shuddha in Arthopada – In samahartr karma and Sannidhatr karma (Dhanasangraha and Dhana rakshana)
Shuddha in Kamopada – In security of the anthahpura and royal gardens.
Shuddha in Bhayopada – To be appointed close to the king in his security department.
One who is shuddha in all the upadhas is eligible to become a mantri.
One who fails in all the tests should be appointed in the departments of mines, timber , forestry etc where the work is more labour intensive.
Kautilya’s opinion on Upadha –
The king and the queen should not be part of the Upadha.
कृता च कलुषाबुद्धिरुपधाभिश्चतुर्विधा
One should not poison the pure water. In the same way a noble person should not feel cheated in the name of Upadha. Once the process of Upadha has begun, it has to reach completion with a clear result.It should never be left half way.
Kautilya says king and the anthah-pura should be left in the process. Keeping other aspects in mind, with the help of spies Upadha has to be carried out.
<End of Part 1>
<Start of Part 2>
**गूढ पुरुषोत्पत्तिः (**short notes question)
This chapter and the next are about the ‘goodha purusha’ as Kautilya has already said the king should be ‘ चारेण चक्षुः’.
There are mainly two types – संस्थाः (discussed in this chapter) & सञ्चाराः (discussed in the next chapter)
These group of spies are stationed at one place. The place can also be called as a ‘Samstha’ . They are spies by profession. (compare with sancharas) They are appointed by the ministers and the king.
परमर्मज्ञः प्रगल्भश्छात्रः कापटिकः
Kaapatika is a smart student having the ability to secretly observe the others’ intentions.
प्रव्रज्या प्रत्यवसितः प्रज्ञाशौचयुक्त उदास्थितः
He is a person who had a stint as a sannyasi, but returned because of his inability to stick to the rules of the ashram. He is appointed as a spy with the condition that he has to maintain the appearance of a sannyasi. He is given sufficient funds and students to run an ashram (basically a samstha) to run the activities of goodaacharya.
कर्षको वृत्तिक्षीणः प्रज्ञाशौचयुक्तो गृहपतिकव्यञ्जनः
An agriculturist who lost his job but with his prajna-shaucha intact. He is given a land to work but is expected to serve the ruler in information gathering.
वाणिजको वृत्तिक्षीणः प्रज्ञाशौचयुक्तो वैदेहकव्यञ्जनः
Similar to gruhapatika, but was involved in trade or business.
मुण्डो जटिलो वा वृत्तिकामः तापसव्यञ्जनः
People living as Bhikshus but wanting aid from the king come under this category. They have to maintain external appearance and lifestyle of ascetics. They need to interact with people. Kapatikas should behave like their shishyavarga and publicize their supernatural abilities. These group of spies should understand the general opinion of the public about the king.
If people are genuinely unhappy, they should be pleased by appropriate monetary benefits or with due respect given. The citizens who disrespect the king without valid reason should be appropriately punished.
गूढपुरुषप्रणिधिः (short notes question)
This chapter speaks about the ‘Sanchara’s and the duties of the spies.
The spies in this category move about individually. They take up different jobs and gather information. These are not spies by profession (it is like a part time duty !) They are appointed by the king himself (without the involvement of the ministers)
सत्त्रि – These are dependants. For example -children, aged, orphans or who are sad or are in difficulty. If these people know shakuna shastra, magic, palm reading etc, they are selected for the job. They are not employed by anyone else.
तीक्ष्ण– These are capable of doing anything – even to fight with a tiger – for the sake of money. They may be in different occupations.
रसद – Rough natured and cruel people.
भिक्षुकी – A female spy who is independent. She may be poor, a widow or respected in the queen’s residence, or who has access to Amatya’s household.
How they work –
Depending on the ability of the sancharas, the king appoints them with any of the 18 senior officials.
मन्त्रि, पुरोहित, सेनापति, युवराज, दौवारिक, अन्तर्वंशिक, प्रशास्तृ,
समाहर्तृ, सम्निधातृ, प्रदेष्टृ, नायक, पौरव्यावहारिक, कार्मान्तिक, मन्त्रि, परिषद्ऽध्यक्ष, दण्डपाल, दुर्गान्तपाल, आटविक
Theekshnas will be appointed to hold chatra, chamara or any other duties to the above officials. They gather information about the officials (external behaviours, mannerism etc) and pass them to the Samstha.
The people employed in the households like cook, barber, musicians, female employees gather the personal information of the above said 18 types of officials. They update the information to Samstha as well.
The heads of the Samstha arrange their own personnel to inform the king about their observation. However, no two samsthas should be in contact. The sancharas who worked as informants should not know who are there in the samstha. Else, they would form their own group and give a distorted information to the king.
If any spy is stopped from entering the workplace, if they are suspected for their role in spying, they should send secret code messages to the samstha. The people involved should discretely quit the job in that place. (without being caught)
The king should verify the validity of information by checking three sources of information. If one repeatedly reports distorted information he should be punished or prevented from the work.
**उभयवेतनाः – This is regarding those who are stationed in other states as part of their duty. They are expected to work as informants of that country. So, they should work in that place (obviously to avoid detection). Such spies are called Ubhayavetanas.
**गृहीतपुत्रदारांश्च कुर्याद् उभयवेतनान्
Their spouse and families should to be kept respectfully in the custody of the king. (This is to ensure that there are loyal). Such ubhayavethanas should be checked on often.
Thus the chaaras should keep an eye on the friends, foes, neutral parties as well as the 18 types of officias.
Different occupation of people should be appointed at different places –
- Residences – dwarves, artisans, deaf people , florists etc
- Forts – traders
- Outside the fort – tapasa/sanyasi
- Village – agriculturists, udasthitas
- Countryside – Gopalakas
- Forests – vanacharas , forest guards
An appropriate system should be followed to relay the information quickly to the king. They should be able to identify the spies from the other countries too.
The officials who are loyal and will not yield to external pressure are ‘akrutya’s. After enacting a ‘rajadroha’ they should be sent out. In reality they are appointed in disguise at different parts of the country to oversee the spy network, to know about foreign spies. They are appointed at the borders as well.
कृत्या – क्रुद्धलुब्धभीतमानिनः तु परेषां कृत्याः
Those who are angry with the king, those who are ambitious for power or money, those who are afraid of the severe punishment and those who felt insulted by the king are called Krutyaah. They have some negative opinion about the king and are easy targets for the enemies
This chapter describes how to identify ‘Krutya’s in the country with the help of ‘sathri’s. Two groups of sathris should get into an argument about the king/governance in a crowded place. One group has to criticize the king about the hefty tax collection while the other should defend him by giving reasons.
These spies will observe people and gather information about the loyal citizens and about those who are unhappy. The happy and content citizens should be respected. The disgruntled people should be given some jobs like collection of tax. This will make them interact with common people and face their ire. This is an indirect punishment for them.
The ‘Krutya’s are vulnerable to be lured by the enemies. Therefore their family has to be house arrested and kept in a secret place.
परविषये कृत्याकृत्यपक्ष उपग्रहः
This chapter talks about observing the krutya – akrutyas of the enemy kingdom and luring the people to own side.
Kautilya says 4 classifications – क्रुद्धवर्गः (angry citizens), भीतवर्गः (in fear), लुब्धवर्गः (bankrupt), मानिवर्गः (egoistic)
उपजपावृत्तिः (short notes)
Vasheekarana vidhana is explained to lure each of the mentioned category.
क्रुद्धवर्गः – If the angry citizen of the enemy side has faith in saints, a spy dressed up like a saint should approach him and advice him – ‘this King is Adharmi. The situation of the country in his control will be like of a place destroyed by a tusker’.
Example of a tusker is given.
भीतवर्गः – Fear about the king should be instilled in these people. ‘This king may find fault in you anytime. Therefore it is better you go to another place.’
Example of a poisonous snake .
लुब्धवर्गः – This king favours only those people whom he likes. He is not able enough to identify the good qualities and reward.
Example is of a dog owner’s cow giving milk only to the dogs and not to a Brahmana.
मानिवर्गः – This king is a neecha. He is dependable only to other neechas. Such a king does not deserve the service of a noble person like you.
Example of a water well specifically meant for chandalas and none other than them are allowed to use it.
मन्त्राधिकारः (The topic of Counsel)
Any work has to be initiated only after ‘mantralochana’. Since important issues are discussed, decisions taken during this, utmost secrecy has to be maintained.
- The place chosen should be quiet and deserted.
- What is spoken inside should not be heard outside.
- Even the birds should not be able to see the place. There were instances of parrots , dogs and other animals working as spies.
- One who is not authorized should be seen in the area.
- One who does ‘mantra bheda’ should be punished.
Instances of मन्त्रभेद –
The secret could be revealed by doota-amatya-swami – by their ‘ingita’ or ‘akruti’.
इङ्गितं अन्यथावृत्तिः – Change of opinion.
आकृतिग्रहणं आकारः – Change of appearance/expression.
A person involved with Mantralochana knows about the decision being taken or about some important work that is going to happen. From the period of counsel to the commencement of the work, one should be careful to maintain the secrecy. He should not disclose it during the sleep or when he is drunk.
Ways to protect the mantra :
भारद्वाजः – King should arrive at a conclusion alone.
विशालाक्षः – Does not agree with it. He says the king’s dealings have to be ‘pratyaksha, paroksha and anumeya’. The king has to take the opinion of others.
पाराशराः – This is just collection of opinions. He says King should put forth similar situation (not the one currently in his mind) and ask for the opinions. By knowing their views, he should take appropriate decisions.
पिशुनः – The ministers will not be interested to get involved in non-existing issues. He says king should selectively approach the ministers for advice depending on their expertise.
कौटिल्यः – does not agree with this. He says a king should consult 3 or 4 ministers. If he depends on only one Mantri, the mantra may take the upper hand in governance. If the number is more it is difficult to arrive at a conclusion.
How to do mantralochana :
पुरुष-द्रव्यसम्पद्- देशकालविभागो- विनिपातप्रतीकारः- कार्यसिद्धिरिति पञ्चाङ्गो मन्त्रः
Preparation, Assembly of required men, collection of items needed, place & time, plan to avoid obstacles and karyasiddhi – These 5 are important in mantralochana.
About Mantri Parishat :
How many should be present ?
मानवाः – 12 amaatyas
बार्हस्पत्याः – 16
इत्यौशनसाः – 20
कौटिल्यः – यथासामर्थ्यं
The Mantri parishat should think from the point of view of the King and the other party as well.
They have to oversee – initiation of the work that needs to be done – anushtaana of what has been begun – enforce obedience to orders.
अकृतारम्भं आरब्धानुष्ठानं अनुष्ठितविशेषं नियोगसम्पदं च कर्मणां कुर्युः
Supervision of work is to be done by observation. If the party is far away, the updates have to be gathered through mail.
Mantri Parishath is like ‘eyes’ to the king. Comparison of Indra’s counsel consisting of 1000 rishis. “सहस्राक्षं आहुः” | During emergency situation, after consulting ministers and mantra parishat, the majority opinion has to be implemented.
The secrecy of the meeting has to be maintained. Efforts should be made to know the proceedings of the enemy’s meetings.
गूहेत् कूर्म इवाङ्गानि यत् स्याद् विवृतं आत्मनः
The ministers who are competent should be part of the counsel.
**दूतप्रणिधिः (long answer question)
Categories of दूत / envoy depending on the ability –
निसृष्टार्थः – One with all the twenty expected qualities of ‘Amatya’. He is able to take up responsibilities independently.
परिमितार्थः – Having 3/4th (In the text they say one who has all the qualities but less by a quarter). He will be given a specific task.
शासनहरः – Having half the qualities. He will be appointed as a messenger carrying a written message.
Responsibilities of the envoy –
- Proper preparation of the vehicles, people and clear idea of the mission – before starting.
- During the travel he has to make friends with the officials.
- Observe the placement of military stations , army strong holds (of enemy as well)
- Identify the short cut and escape routes on his way
- Assess the enemies’ fort, size of the country, strengths and weaknesses.
- Enter the country with the consent. Even when there is danger to his life, he has to relay the message as is.
- After relaying the message to the king, he has to observe the expressions of the king to understand if the reaction is favourable or not.
- If he is asked to remain in the country, he should not be flattered by the hospitality extended. He has to abstain himself from women and liquor.
- He has to obtain information about the enemy country through the spies or ‘ubhayavetana’. If this is not possible he has to gather information by observing the words of the beggar and common people. He should try to understand the situation at temples, from paintings and secret writings /‘sanjna’s.
- If he is asked to remain the enemy’s country even after his job is done, he has to understand the purpose of the same. Kautilya lists many possibilities regarding this. Is the enemy king planning something against our king? Is he buying time (to strengthen his army, fort etc) by delaying the reply to my message? Are there any threats to enemy from other parts? Is the enemy contemplating a friendly relationship with our king through marriage?
- When not immediately sent, the envoy can choose to stay for as long as he wishes or decide to return. He can request the enemy king to speed up the process and arrange his return. If the consequence message is dangerous (punishment or threat to his life), he is allowed to return without the consent.
Duties of the envoy –
- Carrying of messages, sandhi-palana, build friendship, mitra-bhedha, fetching secret force, stealth of relatives or precious stones, information gathering, winning over the officials of the enemy.
The king has to ensure the envoy performs the duties and make sure the information, secrets of his country is not accessible to the envoy of the enemy.
**राजपुत्ररक्षणं (long answer question)
After King’s personal safety from the queen and sons is ensured, he is able to maintain the safety of the kingdom. रक्षितो राजा राज्यं रक्षत्यासन्नेभ्यः परेभ्यश्च, पूर्वं दारेभ्यः पुत्रेभ्यश्च
This chapter deals with the safety of the king from the princes. Though the prince is going to be the next king, it is observed that he has to be dealt with cautiously. Some princes may be a threat to the king – कर्कटकसधर्माणो हि जनकभक्षा राजपुत्राः.
भारद्वाजः – Says such princes should be punished in childhood before they develop affection with their father.
विशालाक्षः – It is adharma to kill an innocent. And the heir apparent would be killed. Therefore instead of getting him killed, he has to be put under guard in a safe place.
पाराशराः – It is compared to the fear of a snake. The son may think that the king is afraid of his strength and abilities. He might start controlling the father. Therefore the prince must be kept under the custody of guards (anthapaala) in a fort.
पिशुनः –The above is compared to the fear of the sheep. The prince may develop friendship with the anthapaala and conspire against the king. Therefore he has to be kept in the custody of a ‘Saamantha’.
कौणपदन्तः – वत्सस्थानं एतद् – It is like keeping the calf. The Samantha may start taking advantage of the situation and keep on demanding. Therefore the child has to be with his maternal relatives.
वातव्याधिः – Bringing up the prince in maternal relatives’ place will be like ध्वजस्थानं. They may use him and start demanding as well. Instead, the prince should be left to enjoy life. Then he may not be interested to uproot the throne.
कौटिल्यः – Does not agree with this opinion. A country with weak prince will perish like a wood attacked by termites. Instead, the prince should be brought up with good education. When the queen conceives appropriate offerings and havanas are to be performed. After the birth of the child, putrasanskara followed by good education should be given.
आम्भीयाः – They say two groups of sathris should lure the prince with hunting, gambling, women or drinking. Then they should talk ill of the king and observe the reaction of the prince.
Kautilya does not agree with the above idea. Teaching the vices to an innocent person is mahadosha. Only appropriate Dharma has to be taught to the young mind. Adharma and Anartha should never be taught.
तस्माद् धर्म्यं अर्थ्यं चास्य उपदिशेन्नाधर्म्यं अनर्थ्यं च
With the help of the sathris – any vices that the prince has should be removed.
Even after dharmika upbringing, if the prince develops displeasure with the king or has negative qualities, Kautilya suggests the following actions –
- After the efforts by the sathris, if the prince has not changed his ways, he should be imprisoned even though he is the only and favourite son.
- If there are many (other) princes, the one with wrong ways to a different location.
- The prince with noble qualities should be appointed as senapati or yuvaraja.
Three types of the princes :
Buddhiman – One who learns and implements the dharma-artha theories learnt from the Guru.
Aaharyabuddhi – One who has learnt from the Guru, but does not practice.
Durbuddhi – One has durbuddhi. He hates Dharma-Artha.
- If the king has only one son who is of the third category, efforts should be made to get putrasantana.
- Or the daughter’s son can be made as heir.
- If the king is old or disabled, he should get a Santana in his ‘kshetra’ – either from a maternal relative or from a person of the same kula or a noble king from the neighbouring country.
- A disobedient son should never be installed on the throne.
- The king has to be polite/favourable to the sons (‘hitha’)
- If there are many sons, the eldest should be the heir.
अवरुद्धवृत्तं & अवरुद्धे वृत्तिः
This is about the prince who is kept under restraint by the king. A prince may be sent away by the king for several reasons. This chapter speaks from both the king’s and the prince’s perspective.
The prince having noble qualities should be appointed as senadhipathi or heir apparent. But the other princes will be ‘vijigeeshu’s. Such a prince who has been sent or restrained has to faithfully follow the king and his orders. He has to request the king to appoint a ‘veekshaka purusha’. The prince will engage in noble activities and he should give the profit gained to the king.
- Even after this if the king does not show appreciation, or if he is partial to other princes or the sons of other queens, this prince should request permission to go to the forest.
- If there is any threat to his life or safety, he has to approach a good natured Samantha and take shelter.
- There he will develop connections with able men , acquire wealth and relationships (marriage with the princess of a strong country) , build an army with the help of tribal people
- Try to win over the citizens of his father’s state
- If he is alone without the support of a Samantha, he should acquire wealth by trading of precious stones and jewels, work in mines etc.
- Once he has gained sufficient wealth, army and support from various parties, he should approach the king and declare that he is the heir-apparent. It is not appropriate that the king alone enjoys the luxuries. Else he should threaten the king that he will employ those who come to his side with double the salary.
The role of the King –
There are three types of unfavourable princes. According to their category, the king has to take appropriate actions.
अवरुद्धः – The prince who is a heir apparent but was sent by the king. He has to be called back with the help of spies or his mother.
त्यक्तः – The prince with wicked qualities and sent by the king. He may be killed by the spies with the help of weapons or poison.
अत्यक्तः – He is the prince who has left on his own, fearing punishment or threat to his life. He will be brought back with the help of women or spies. He should be assured of the throne -‘after the death of the king’. If there are other able princes, he should be banished.
If the king is disciplined, the employees will be disciplined as well. Else, the entire system becomes weak and susceptible to attack by enemies.
Division of the Day –
Day is divided into 8 parts. Night is divided into 8 parts.
|Attend to Rakshaavidhana & Expenditure
|Meet the citizens||Snana,
| 1.Collection of taxes
2.Appointment of Adhyakshas
|1.Meet mantra parishad –patra
|Oversee elephants, horses, chariots, soldiers||Meet the Senapati
|Proceed to the sleeping chamber
|1.Wake with ghosha
2.Think about shastras
3.Overview of the day’s work
2.assign work to goodapurusha
|1.Get the blessings of acharyas
2.Meet the doctor, cook and jyothishka
3.Worship the family of a cow
4.Proceed to the Asthana mantapa
More information on the routine of the king-
- King should always be accessible for the people concerned with the work. If not the situation will lead displeasure of the citizens. This in turn will make the country weak and easy target for enemies.
- Therefore he has to personally attend to the work related to देवताऽऽश्रमपाषण्डश्रोत्रियपशुपुण्यस्थाना, बालवृद्धव्याधितव्यसन्य्ऽनाथानां स्त्रीणां कार्याणि पश्येत्, कार्यगौरवाद् आत्ययिकवशेन वा
- The important work that has to be done should be done without delay. If it is postponed it may be difficult or impossible to complete the task.
- At the yagashaala, the saints and vaidyas should be respectfully welcomed by the king along with his purohitha & acharyas.
- The business related to the saints should be done with the ‘thraividya’s , else he will have to face their anger.
- For the king , readiness of action is vratam. Duty is yajna – राज्ञो हि व्रतं उत्थानं यज्ञः कार्यानुशासनम् .
- Being impartial is Dakshina. Abhisheka is deeksha. दक्षिणा वृत्तिसाम्यं तु दीक्षा तस्याभिशेचनम्
- In the happiness of his subjects lies his happiness. In their welfare his welfare. **प्रजासुखे सुखं राज्ञः प्रजानां च हिते हितम् .
- He does not consider his personal likings to be good unless it is good for the country and people. नात्मप्रियं हितं राज्ञः प्रजानां तु प्रियं हितम्
- Therefore the king should always be alert and be engaged in performing his duties.
- His appropriate actions are the basis for the wealth of the country.
- If the king becomes lazy it will lead to the country to destruction.
**निशान्तप्रणिधिः (long answer question)
The residence of the king and queen is mentioned as अन्तःपुरम्
Location & Construction – The royal residence complex should be built in a safe and suitable location. The anthah-pura should surrounded by several rooms and with a parapet & ditch provided with a door.
The house(mohanagruha) should have secret pathways hidden by the walls. The house can be underground as well. The doors should be adorned with divine figurines or carvings. The underground should have convenient stairs, hidden from the view. The system can be made collapsible as a protection during emergency from sahadhyayis.
Safety from Fire –
- If 3 times ‘apradakshina’ is done with a man made fire to the harem, it will be protected from any fire.
- Even the fire created from the lightening will not affect it.
- If the walls are built with the ash from lightening, soil and the water from hailstorms, the walls will be protected from fire as well.
Safety from Poison –
- जीवन्ती-श्वेता-मुष्ककपुष्प-वन्दाका-अश्वत्थस्य पत्र – By keeping the flowers and the said leaves, snakes and other poisonous creatures can be avoided.
- Freely roaming birds and animals will eat the snakes or keep them away. They are – cats, peacocks, mongooses and spotted deer.
- Birds like parrots, myna, bhringa raja birds scream if they smell poison. This will be an indication if any poisoning effort is done.
- Heron faints, जीवञ्जीवकः will be distressed and cuckoo dies in the presence of poison. चकोर bird’s eyes will change colour.
Royal compound –
- The complex should have rooms for the women, pregnant ladies, for the doctors and servants – behind the main residence. Park and a water body should be present.
- The residences for the prince and princes are outside these .
- In front of these, toilet ground (अलङ्कारभूमि), council ground, the offices of the yuvaraja and other officials are located.
- Security troupes in charge of the harem should be stationed near all the above places.
Safety of the king in the queen’s chamber –
The king has to be protected in the queen’s chamber. King has to meet the queen only after she has been thoroughly checked for purity by a trusted attendant. The king should not interact with any women who are not tested for purity. Kautilya gives several instances where the king was harmed in the harem –
भद्रसेन – was killed by his brother in hidden queen’s chamber.
कारूषम् – was killed by his son who was hiding in his mother’s bed.
काशिराजं – was killed by his queen who offered puffed rice. She added poison instead of honey.
वैरन्त्य –was killed by his queens with poison painted anklet.
सौवीर- was killed by the queen with poisoned gem.
जालूथ –was killed by the queen with poisoned mirror.
विदूरथ –was killed by the queen with a weapon hidden in her hair.
Rules for the queens –
King should always be alert and assign proper rules .
- The queens should not meet un-authorized womenfolk (like munda, jatila or kuhaka) from outside.
- Even the ladies of the higher society should not be allowed, but outsiders should be allowed only during pregnancy or illness of the queen.
- The Veshyas too should approach the king with personal cleanliness.
- 80 men, 50 women in the guise of fathers, relatives or eunuchs will be in charge of maintaining the royal residence.
- Everyone should live in the place assigned to him/her.
- The residents are not allowed to be in touch with the outsiders.
- All the goods that come to (or go out of) the royal residence should be checked for security (with the ‘mudra’)
**आत्मरक्षितकं (long answer question)
Safety of the King during his routine:
- The team of armed women should receive the King when he gets up.
- At the second row, people holding the coat and head gear should be present.
- Dwarves and crooked people at the third row
- Fourth row will be of ministers, relatives and door keepers
- The staff should be loyal to the king and serving for generations.
- The army of the Royal residence should protect the residence and the king
- The main cook has to test the food several times.
- The food has to be offered to the fire, birds by the king and then consumed.
Characteristics and tests for poisoning :
- A food when put to the fire makes it turn blue or flutter – is poisoned
- If the birds die after eating, the food is poisoned
- If the vapour of the hot rice turns blue, if it cools quickly, if it has unnatural colour,too watery or too hard, uncooked, dries quickly , dark, or with foam – the food that doesn’t have natural taste are all the signs of posion.
- If the liquids have blue lines, red in milk, dark shaded water, grey curds , white in honey – are the signs of poison
- If the ants and insects die after consuming it –
Identifying the culprit –
- The person responsible for poisoning has dry or parched mouth. Perspires a lot, yawns, shivers or stammers.
- If he takes too long to talk, thinks and talks or skips the topics – he is a suspect
- Can’t perform any activity or stay in the designated place
Remedy for poisoning –
Doctors should be with the king. They should treat the king and administer appropriate medicine.
Safety during the bath and dressing up –
- The servants in charge of dressing up the king should have taken bath, should wear clean clothes. They should get the toiletries which bears the seal.
- Bathing, massage, making the bed, washing, etc., — duties are done by Daasis.
- Those responsible should press the royal clothe and jewels to their eyes, fragrant lotions, powders applied on their chest and arms (so as to test it) before presenting to the king.
- The musicians and artists should not make use of weapons, fire or chariots in the display of their talent.
- All the musical instruments, ornaments of elephants and horses should be kept inside.
Safety during the travel –
- King should board the chariot, boat or ship that are driven by an experienced (whose family has been serving the royal family) person.
- Should not board a boat which is tied to another boat and sails depending on the direction of wind.
- Soldiers should be present at both the banks.
- He should travel in the water tested by fishermen, forests checked by snake charmers.
- To practice his aiming skills, he should go to the forest having only deer and devoid of thieves, robbers, enemies or wild animals.
- He should meet ascetics in the presence of armed bodyguard. The envoys should be met in the presence of ministers.
- When he is in military dress and he has to observe his army.
- When he goes out or comes into the capital. Both sides of the road should be protected by guards. The ascetics, dwarves should not be present.
- When the king visits the temple , procession or some ceremony, he should be with the band of ten men (dasha-varnika)
The king has to anticipate the chaaras and ensure his safety.
Short notes on Arthashastrajnas:
|भारद्वाजः||Drona Acharya||Amatya||Classmates should be made as amatyas.|
|Mantra||The king should think alone|
|Rajaputra||The princes are like crabs. They have to be killed before they bond with their father.|
|विशालाक्षः||Maheshwara||Amatya||One has worked in some secret mission with the king should be amatya.|
|Mantra||Pratyaksha-paroksha-anumeya. Ask for everyone’s opinion.|
|Rajaputra||Killing of innocents is not right. Send them to a safe place with guards.|
|पाराशराः||Followers of Parashara||Amatya||One who is ready to give up his life for the king.|
|Mantra||Present a general scenario and ask the opinion of ministers.
Secrecy will be maintained
|पिशुनः||Narada||Amatya||Assign a duty. One who completes the task to perfection and does more than what is required.|
|Mantra||With general queries, ministers will not be keen to say genuine opinion. So, have a specific discussion with only relevant ministers|
|Rajaputra||Keeping with antapala is like a goat. Send him to a Samantha|
|कौणपदन्तः||Bheeshma||Amatya||From a family of amatyas.|
|Rajaputra||Samanta durga is like vatsasthana. They may demand from the king. Prince should be with mothers’ relatives.
|वातव्याधिः||Uddhava||Amatya||If from the family of amatyas, they may control the king.
A new able person is better
|Rajaputra||Mother’s side will use him like dhwaja. Let them have a relaxed life. If they are merrymaking will not be interested in the kingdom.|
|बाहुदन्ती पुत्रः||Indra||Amatya||Not totally new to the field, but with qualities|
|Rajaputra||If he is kept away, may think the king is afraid of him. So keep him with anthapala. (This opinion is the second in the discussion).|
|मानवाः||Followers of Manu||Mantri parishad||12 amatyas|
|बार्हस्पत्याः||Followers of Bruhaspati||Vidya||Trayee is not a vidya.|
|औशनसाः||Followers of Ushanas (Shukra)||Vidya||Dandaneeti is the only vidya|
|आम्भीयाः||Followers of Ambhi||R||R|
<End of Part 2>