(Video) Vedic Suktas – KSOU MA – Harini

The meanings of the suktas that have been asked until now in the exam and the points for the short notes have been explained by Harini.

Important suktas covered in 2016 contact class. 2

ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं Mantra Rig 01.035.001 Savitr. 2

विष्णो॒र्नु कं॑ Mantra Rig 01.154.001 Vishnu. 3

हिर॑ण्यपाणिः Mantra Rig 01.035.009 – Savitr. 4

यो जा॒त ए॒व प्र॑थ॒मो – rig-02-012-001  – Indra. 5

यस्याश्वा॑सः प्र॒दिशि॒ – rig-02-012-007   – Indra. 6

जन॑स्य गो॒पा – rig-05-011-001   – Agni 7

Other exam questions. 8

आ कृ॒ष्णेन॒ रज॑सा॒  Savitr. 8

ति॒स्रो द्याव॑:  Savitr. 9

वि सु॑प॒र्णो  Savitr. 9

प्र तद्विष्णु॑: स्तवते  – vishnu. 10

प्र विष्ण॑वे शू॒षमे॑तु॒ – vishnu. 10

तद॑स्य प्रि॒यम॒भि पाथो॑  – vishnu. 11

मा त्वा॑ रुद्र चुक्रुधामा॒   – Rudra. 11

स्तु॒हि श्रु॒तं ग॑र्त॒सदं॒  Rudra. 12

कु॒मा॒रश्चि॑त्पि॒तरं॒ वन्द॑मानं॒ – Rudra. 12

ता आ च॑रन्ति सम॒ना  – Ushas. 13

धीरा॒ त्व॑स्य महि॒ना  Varuna. 14

प्रा॒वे॒पा मा॑ बृह॒तो  – Aksha. 15

जा॒या त॑प्यते – Aksha. 15

अ॒क्षैर्मा दी॑व्यः – Aksha. 16

Important suktas covered in 2016 contact class

ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं Mantra Rig 01.035.001 Savitr

ऋषि: (Rishi) :- हिरण्यस्तूप आङ्गिरसः
देवता (Devataa) :- (अग्निर्मित्रावरुणौ, रात्रिः) सविता
छन्द: (Chhand) :- जगती

संहिता

ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं प्र॑थ॒मं स्व॒स्तये॒
ह्वया॑मि मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से ।
ह्वया॑मि॒ रात्रीं॒ जग॑तो नि॒वेश॑नीं॒
ह्वया॑मि दे॒वं स॑वि॒तार॑मू॒तये॑ ॥

पदपाठः

ह्वया॑मि । अ॒ग्निम् । प्र॒थ॒मम् । स्व॒स्तये॑ ।
ह्वया॑मि । मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ । इ॒ह । अव॑से ।
ह्वया॑मि । रात्री॑म् । जग॑तः । नि॒वेश॑नीम् ।
ह्वया॑मि । दे॒वम् । स॒वि॒तार॑म् । ऊ॒तये॑ ॥

मनुष्यैरहर्निशं सुखायाग्निवायुसूर्याणां सकाशादुपयोगं गृहीत्वा सर्वाणि सुखानि प्राप्याणि नैतदादिना विना कदाचित् कस्यचित् सुखं संभवतीति ॥१॥

I call on Agni first for welfare. I call on Mitraa-Varuna for aid; I call on Night that brings the world to rest; I call on God Savitru for help.

Remember

No Avagraha symbol for मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ  — no itikarana as there is no ईकार or एकार |

विष्णो॒र्नु कं॑ Mantra Rig 01.154.001 Vishnu

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- दीर्घतमा औचथ्यः
देवता (Devataa) :- विष्णुः
छन्द: (Chhand) :- त्रिस्टुप्

संहिता

विष्णो॒र्नु कं॑ वी॒र्या॑णि॒ प्र वो॑चं॒
यः पार्थि॑वानि विम॒मे रजां॑सि ।
यो अस्क॑भाय॒दुत्त॑रं स॒धस्थं॑
विचक्रमा॒णस्त्रे॒धोरु॑गा॒यः ॥

पदपाठः
विष्णोः॑ । नु । क॒म् । वी॒र्या॑णि । प्र । वो॒च॒म् ।
यः | पार्थि॑वानि | वि॒ऽम॒मे | रजां॑सि ।
यः । अस्क॑भायत् । उत्ऽत॑रम् ।  स॒धऽस्थ॑म् ।
वि॒ऽच॒क्र॒मा॒णः । त्रे॒धा । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यः ।

यथा सूर्यः स्वाकर्षणेन सर्वान् भूगोलान् धरति तथा सूर्यादींल्लोकान् कारणं जीवांश्च जगदीश्वरो धत्ते य इमानसंख्यलोकान् सद्यो निर्ममे यस्मिन्निमे प्रलीयन्ते च स एव सर्वैरुपास्यः ॥१॥

I would want to declare the mighty deeds of Vishnu,  of him who measured out the earthly regions, who supported the highest place of congregation, thrice setting down his footstep, widely striding, who is excessively praised.

Remember

Avagraha in samasta pada स॒धऽस्थ॑म् , उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यः and in words with prefixes वि॒ऽम॒मे,  वि॒ऽच॒क्र॒मा॒णः , उत्ऽत॑रम्

Split – त्रे॒धोरु॑गा॒यः as त्रे॒धा । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यः ।

नु । क॒म् – very quickly विष्णोः॑ । वी॒र्या॑णि  – vishnu’s valour । प्र । वो॒च॒म्  – I should proclaim यः | पार्थि॑वानि | रजां॑सि । वि॒ऽम॒मे  – measured the terrestrial regions | यः । उत्ऽत॑रम् ।  स॒धऽस्थ॑म् । अस्क॑भायत् has established an upper gathering space named satya loka | वि॒ऽच॒क्र॒मा॒णः Does of heroic acts  त्रे॒धा । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यः – took three huge steps, another defn by saayana is that he has been sung by many in different ways.

हिर॑ण्यपाणिः Mantra Rig 01.035.009 – Savitr

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- हिरण्यस्तूप आङ्गिरसः
देवता (Devataa) :- सविता
छन्द: (Chhand) :- निचृज्जगती

संहितापाठः

हिर॑ण्यपाणिः सवि॒ता विच॑र्षणि-
रु॒भे द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी अ॒न्तरी॑यते ।
अपामी॑वां॒ बाध॑ते॒ वेति॒ सूर्य॑-
म॒भि कृ॒ष्णेन॒ रज॑सा॒ द्यामृ॑णोति ॥

पदपाठः

हिर॑ण्यऽपाणिः । स॒वि॒ता । विऽच॑र्षणिः ।
उ॒भे इति॑। द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी इति॑। अ॒न्तः। ई॒य॒ते॒ ।
अप॑ । अमी॑वाम् । बाध॑ते । वेति॑ । सूर्य॑म् ।
अ॒भि । कृ॒ष्णेन॑ । रज॑सा । द्याम् । ऋ॒णो॒ति॒ ॥

अत्र वाचकलुप्तोपमालङ्कारः। हे सभापते यथायं सूर्योबहुभिर्लोकैः सहाकर्षणसंबन्धेन वर्त्तमानः सर्वं वस्तूजातं प्रकाशयन् प्रकाशपृथिव्योरान्तर्यं करोति तथैव त्वया भवितव्यमिति ॥९॥

Meaning:

The golden-handed Savitar, far-seeing, goes on his way between the earth and heaven, drives away sickness, bids the Sun approach us, and spreads the bright sky through the darksome region.

Notes

उ॒भे, द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी – Dvivachanam ending in ए and ई – प्रगृह्यम् – इतिकरणम्

Remember

अपामी॑वां॒ to be split as अप॑ । अमी॑वाम् ।

Split अ॒न्तरी॑यते as अ॒न्तः। ई॒य॒ते॒ ।

Avagraha in samasta pada and in words with prefixes  — हिर॑ण्यऽपाणिः , विऽच॑र्षणिः,

हिर॑ण्यऽपाणिः ।golden hand  स॒वि॒ता । विऽच॑र्षणिः  – far sighted (saayana) or active (Mac donal) उ॒भे  द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी  अ॒न्तः – between the heaven and earth ई॒य॒ते॒ – goes
अमी॑वाम्  diseases। अप॑ बाध॑ते  – drives away   सूर्य॑म्  वेति॑ । Guides the sun. कृ॒ष्णेन॑ । रज॑सा । through the darksome region द्याम् । अ॒भि । ऋ॒णो॒ति॒ spreads the bright sky.

यो जा॒त ए॒व प्र॑थ॒मो – rig-02-012-001  – Indra

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- गृत्समदः शौनकः
देवता (Devataa) :- इन्द्र:
छन्द: (Chhand) :- त्रिष्टुप् संहितापाठः

यो जा॒त ए॒व प्र॑थ॒मो मन॑स्वान्-     दे॒वो दे॒वान्क्रतु॑ना प॒र्यभू॑षत् ।
यस्य॒ शुष्मा॒द्रोद॑सी॒ अभ्य॑सेतां       नृ॒म्णस्य॑ म॒ह्ना स ज॑नास॒ इन्द्र॑: ॥

पदपाठः

यः । जा॒तः । ए॒व । प्र॒थ॒मः । मन॑स्वान् ।
दे॒वः । दे॒वान् । क्रतु॑ना । प॒रि॒ऽअभू॑षत् ।
यस्य॑। शुष्मा॑त् । रोद॑सी॒ इति॑। अभ्य॑सेताम् ।
नृ॒म्णस्य॑ । म॒ह्ना । सः । ज॒ना॒सः॒ । इन्द्रः॑।

येनेश्वरेण सर्वप्रकाशकः सर्वस्य धर्त्ता स्वप्रकाशाकर्षणाद्व्यवस्थापकः सूर्यलोको निर्मितः स सूर्य्यस्य सूर्योऽस्तीति वेद्यम् ॥१॥

Meaning

यः । जा॒तः । ए॒व । He soon after birth  प्र॒थ॒मः । मन॑स्वान् ।  दे॒वः । first and foremost of the wise gods  क्रतु॑ना । by his actions दे॒वान् ।  प॒रि॒ऽअभू॑षत् । dethroned or surpassed the other devas that were in power यस्य॑। नृ॒म्णस्य॑ । शुष्मा॑त् । by the fierceness of the army  रोद॑सी॒ the two worlds अभ्य॑सेताम्  trembled । सः ।  इन्द्रः॑। ज॒ना॒सः॒ ।  – Know him to be Indra.

Notes

रोद॑सी॒ – Dvivachanam ending in ई – प्रगृह्यम् – इतिकरणम्

Remember

No Udaatta in ज॑नास॒

Visarga in जा॒तः ए॒व

यस्याश्वा॑सः प्र॒दिशि॒ – rig-02-012-007   – Indra

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- गृत्समदः शौनकः
देवता (Devataa) :- इन्द्र:
छन्द: (Chhand) :- निचृत्त्रिष्टुप् संहितापाठः

यस्याश्वा॑सः प्र॒दिशि॒ यस्य॒ गावो॒      यस्य॒ ग्रामा॒ यस्य॒ विश्वे॒ रथा॑सः ।

यः सूर्यं॒ य उ॒षसं॑ ज॒जान॒      यो अ॒पां ने॒ता स ज॑नास॒ इन्द्र॑: ॥

पदपाठः

यस्य॑ । अश्वा॑सः । प्र॒ऽदिशि॑। यस्य॑। गावः॑

यस्य॑ । ग्रामाः॑ । यस्य॑ । विश्वे॑ । रथा॑सः ।

यः। सूर्य॑म् । यः । उ॒षस॑म् । ज॒जान॑ ।

यः। अ॒पाम् । ने॒ता। सः। ज॒ना॒सः॒ । इन्द्रः॑ ॥

Meaning

In whose control are the horses, kine, clans, all chariots; who creates the sun, the dawn; who is the guide of the waters; he, O men is Indra

यस्य॑ । अश्वा॑सः । प्र॒ऽदिशि॑।  One who has control over the horses, यस्य॑। गावः॑  cows, यस्य॑ । ग्रामाः॑ । clan or jana padas,  । यस्य॑ । विश्वे॑ । रथा॑सः । chariots, यः। सूर्य॑म् । यः । उ॒षस॑म् । ज॒जान॑ । one who creates the sun and dawn, यः। अ॒पाम् । ने॒ता। one who guides the water, सः। ज॒ना॒सः॒ । इन्द्रः॑  such a  person know him to be Indra

हे मनुष्या यदि भवन्तो वेगाद्यनेगुणयुक्तं सर्वमूर्त्तद्रव्याधारं शीघ्रगामी विमानादियानवर्षानिमित्तं विद्युदग्निं जानीयस्तर्हि किं किमुत्तमं कार्य्यं साधितु न शक्नुयुः ॥७॥

Notes

यस्याश्वा॑सः – यस्य॑ । अश्वा॑सः due to the udaatta in the first letter of the first word and the svaritha in the second word.

Remember

Avagraha – प्र॒ऽदिशि॑

जन॑स्य गो॒पा – rig-05-011-001   – Agni

संहितापाठः

जन॑स्य गो॒पा अ॑जनिष्ट॒ जागृ॑वि-    र॒ग्निः सु॒दक्ष॑: सुवि॒ताय॒ नव्य॑से ।
घृ॒तप्र॑तीको बृह॒ता दि॑वि॒स्पृशा॑     द्यु॒मद्वि भा॑ति भर॒तेभ्य॒: शुचि॑: ॥

पदपाठः

जन॑स्य । गो॒पाः । अ॒ज॒नि॒ष्ट॒ । जागृ॑विः ।
अ॒ग्निः । सु॒ऽदक्षः॑ । सु॒वि॒ताय॑ । नव्य॑से ।
घृ॒तऽप्र॑तीकः । बृ॒ह॒ता । दि॒वि॒ऽस्पृशा॑ ।
द्यु॒ऽमत् । वि । भा॒ति॒ । भ॒र॒तेभ्यः॑ । शुचिः॑॥

Meaning

जन॑स्य । गो॒पाः । Protector of the people;  जागृ॑विः । watchful person; सु॒ऽदक्षः॑ ।  a skillful person ;  अ॒ग्निः Agni ;  अ॒ज॒नि॒ष्ट॒ ।  नव्य॑से । for the fresh ;  सु॒वि॒ताय॑ । For the welfare of the people;   घृ॒तऽप्र॑तीकः । He has the face of ghee or butter; शुचिः॑  – agni ; द्यु॒ऽमत् । वि भा॒ति॒ । shines brilliantly | बृ॒ह॒ता । दि॒वि॒ऽस्पृशा॑ । with the lofty flames touch the heaven; भ॒र॒तेभ्यः॑ for the family of rishis that praise him.

The watchful Guardian of the people hath been born, Agni, the very strong, for fresh prosperity. With oil upon his face, with high heaven touching flame, he shines splendidly, pure, for the Bharatas.

Remember

Visarga – गो॒पाः

Avagraha  – सु॒ऽदक्षः॑ | घृ॒तऽप्र॑तीकः । दि॒वि॒ऽस्पृशा॑ । द्यु॒ऽमत् ।

Split – द्यु॒मद्वि  as द्यु॒ऽमत् । वि ।

Other exam questions

आ कृ॒ष्णेन॒ रज॑सा॒  Savitr

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- हिरण्यस्तूप आङ्गिरसः
देवता (Devataa) :- सविता
छन्द: (Chhand) :- विराट्त्रिस्टुप्

 कृ॒ष्णेन॒ रज॑सा॒ वर्त॑मानो निवे॒शय॑न्न॒मृतं॒ मर्त्यं॑   हि॒र॒ण्यये॑न सवि॒ता रथे॒ना दे॒वो या॑ति॒ भुव॑नानि॒ पश्य॑न् 

आ । कृ॒ष्णेन॑ । रज॑सा । वर्त॑मानः । नि॒ऽवे॒शय॑न् । अ॒मृत॑म् । मर्त्य॑म् । च॒ । हि॒र॒ण्यये॑न । स॒वि॒ता रथे॑न । आ । दे॒वः । या॒ति॒ । भुव॑नानि । पश्य॑न् ॥

Rolling through the dark spaces, laying the dead and living souls to rest,  travels on a golden chariot, seeing all the creatures.

Remember

निवे॒शय॑न्न॒मृतं॒ à नि॒ऽवे॒शय॑न् । अ॒मृत॑म्

रथे॒ना à रथे॒न॑ । आ

Avagraha नि॒ऽवे॒शय॑न् ।

ति॒स्रो द्याव॑:  Savitr

ति॒स्रो द्याव॑सवि॒तुर्द्वा उ॒पस्थाँ॒ एका॑ य॒मस्य॒ भुव॑ने विरा॒षाट्  आ॒णिं  रथ्य॑म॒मृताधि॑ तस्थुरि॒ह ब्र॑वीतु॒  उ॒ तच्चिके॑तत् 

ति॒स्रः । द्यावः॑ । स॒वि॒तुः । द्वौ / द्यौ  । उ॒पऽस्था॑ ।  एका॑ ।  य॒मस्य॑  ।  भुव॑ने ।  वि॒रा॒षाट् ।  आ॒णिम् । न । रथ्य॑म् । अ॒मृता॑ । अधि॑ । त॒स्थुः॒ । इ॒ह । ब्र॒वी॒तु॒ । यः । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । तत् । चिके॑तत् ॥

Note:

May be दिव् gets द्यावादेश | द्वा changes to द्वौ / द्यौ |

उ॒ ऊँ॒ इति॑

Remember:

Of the the three world – dau, antariksha and bhooloka, Dau and Bhooloka are near to Savitru deva. They are illumined by Surya. He harbours (viraashat) the immortal souls in Yama’s place like (न)  like the axle of a ratha. Let the one who knows this, can tell it here.
तस्थुरि॒ह
  à त॒स्थुः॒ । इ॒ह

Avagraha उ॒पऽस्था॑  (sthaa is always Anudaatta – sarvaanudaatta)

वि सु॑प॒र्णो  Savitr

मन्त्र

वि सु॑प॒र्णो अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाण्यख्यद्गभी॒रवे॑पा॒ असु॑रः सुनी॒थः । क्वे॒३॒॑दानीं॒ सूर्य॒: कश्चि॑केत कत॒मां द्यां र॒श्मिर॒स्या त॑तान ॥

पदपाठः

वि । सु॒ऽप॒र्णः । अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि । अ॒ख्य॒त् । ग॒भी॒रऽवे॑पाः । असु॑रः। सु॒ऽनी॒थः । क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॑म् । सूर्यः॑ । कः । चि॒के॒त॒ । क॒त॒माम् । द्याम् । र॒श्मिः । अ॒स्य॒ । आ । त॒ता॒न॒ ॥

(Note: Online sites including Vedakosh have a different version which seems to be incorrect to me).
वि । सु॒ऽप॒र्णः । अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि । अ॒ख्य॒त् । ग॒भी॒रऽवे॑पाः । असु॒रः। सु॒ऽनी॒थः । क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॒म् । सूर्यः॑ । कः । चि॒के॒त॒ । क॒त॒माम् । द्याम् । र॒श्मिः । अ॒स्य॒ । आ । त॒ता॒न॒ ॥

Note:

Kva – always Svaritha

 

Remember:

Avagraha –  सु॒ऽप॒र्णः   ग॒भी॒रऽवे॑पाः ।  सु॒ऽनी॒थः ।

ग॒भी॒र – deep वे॑पाः  – quivering sound  | सु॒ऽनी॒थः – guides well । असु॑रः – one who throws away the enemies – the divine being ।  त॒ता॒न॒  – to continue or spread | सु॒ऽप॒र्णः  – the rays of the sun diffused all over – compared to a bird with charming features | अ॒ख्य॒त् – surveyed |  अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि  – all the worlds of atmospheric regions  क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॑म् । सूर्यः॑  – where is that sun now? ।  क॒त॒माम्  द्याम् ।  अ॒स्य॒ । र॒श्मिः ।  आ । त॒ता॒न॒ – till which region has his rays extended? कः । चि॒के॒त॒ । – who has understood this?

प्र तद्विष्णु॑: स्तवते  – vishnu

मन्त्र

प्र तद्विष्णु॑स्तवते वी॒र्ये॑ण मृ॒गो  भी॒मः कु॑च॒रो गि॑रि॒ष्ठाः  यस्यो॒रुषु॑ त्रि॒षु वि॒क्रम॑णेष्वधिक्षि॒यन्ति॒  भुव॑नानि॒ विश्वा॑ 

पदपाठः प्र । तत् । विष्णुः॑ । स्त॒व॒ते॒ । वी॒र्ये॑ण । मृ॒गः । न । भी॒मः । कु॒च॒रः । गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः । यस्य॑ । उ॒रुषु॑ । त्रि॒षु । वि॒ऽक्रम॑णेषु । अ॒धि॒ऽक्षि॒यन्ति॑ । भुव॑नानि । विश्वा॑ ॥

Notes:

वी॒र्ये॑ण – anuswara is followed by a Svaritha as it is a Jaateeyasvarita. By the sutra तित् स्वरितम्, तित् are svarithas. Here we have वीर् + यत् where यत् is a तित् |

Remember:

गि॑रि॒ष्ठाः  à गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः   shthaa becomes sthaa

Avagraha — गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः , वि॒ऽक्रम॑णेषु  , अ॒धि॒ऽक्षि॒यन्ति॑

प्र । तत् । विष्णुः॑  – that vishnu वी॒र्ये॑ण । स्त॒व॒ते॒ । – being praised for heroism | न like  भी॒मः । मृ॒गः ।  terrific beast | कु॒च॒रः – wanders at will ।  यस्य॑ ।  त्रि॒षु । वि॒ऽक्रम॑णेषु । उ॒रुषु॑ ।  – in whose 3 steps विश्वा॑ | भुव॑नानि । अ॒धि॒ऽक्षि॒यन्ति॑ ।  – the three worlds dwell | गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः । stays in mountain

प्र विष्ण॑वे शू॒षमे॑तु॒ – vishnu

प्र विष्ण॑वे शू॒षमे॑तु॒ मन्म॑ गिरि॒क्षित॑ उरुगा॒याय॒ वृष्णे॑   इ॒दं दी॒र्घं प्रय॑तं स॒धस्थ॒मेको॑ विम॒मे त्रि॒भिरित्प॒देभि॑

प्र । विष्ण॑वे । शू॒षम् । ए॒तु॒ । मन्म॑ । गि॒रि॒ऽक्षिते॑ । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒याय॑ । वृष्णे॑ । यः । इ॒दम् । दी॒र्घम् । प्रऽय॑तम् । स॒धऽस्थ॑म् । एकः॑ । वि॒ऽम॒मे । त्रि॒ऽभिः । इत् । प॒देभिः॑ ॥

Note:

No avagraha for प॒देभिः॑ as it has undergone changes

Remember:

Avagraha – गि॒रि॒ऽक्षिते॑ । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒याय॑ ।  प्रऽय॑तम् । स॒धऽस्थ॑म् ।  वि॒ऽम॒मे । त्रि॒ऽभिः ।

प्र ।  ए॒तु॒ । मन्म॑ – my prayer | शू॒षम् – born out of my deeds (Sayana) or inspiring (Mac Donald) विष्ण॑वे ।  let it go to Vishnu  गि॒रि॒ऽक्षिते॑ । to one who resides in mountain उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒याय॑ । to one who has wide steps वृष्णे॑  – to one who showers desires (Sayana) or to the bull (Mac D),  Donald) यः । एकः॑ ।इ॒दम् । दी॒र्घम् । प्रऽय॑तम् । स॒धऽस्थ॑म् ।  वि॒ऽम॒मे । One who had measured the long far extending dwelling space त्रि॒ऽभिः प॒देभिः॑   by three steps। इत् ।  ॥

तद॑स्य प्रि॒यम॒भि पाथो॑  – vishnu तद॑स्य प्रि॒यम॒भि पाथो॑ अश्यां॒ नरो॒ यत्र॑ देव॒यवो॒ मद॑न्ति  उ॒रु॒क्र॒मस्य॒  हि बन्धु॑रि॒त्था विष्णो॑प॒दे प॑र॒मे मध्व॒ उत्स॑

तत् । अ॒स्य॒ । प्रि॒यम् । अ॒भि । पाथः॑ । अ॒श्या॒म् । नरः॑ । यत्र॑ । दे॒व॒यवः॑ । मद॑न्ति । उ॒रु॒ऽक्र॒मस्य॑ । सः । हि । बन्धुः॑ । इ॒त्था । विष्णोः॑ । प॒दे । प॒र॒मे । मध्वः॑ । उत्सः॑ ॥

Avagraha –  उ॒रु॒ऽक्र॒मस्य॑  |

अ॒भि अ॒श्या॒म् । I shall attain तत् । अ॒स्य॒ । प्रि॒यम् । पाथः॑ । that dear domain यत्र॑ । दे॒व॒यवः॑ । where the people who desire the divine or devoted to Vishnu मद॑न्ति । rejoice |  सः । हि । बन्धुः॑ । He is the relative  विष्णोः॑ । प॒र॒मे । प॒दे ।  in that highest step of Vishnu मध्वः॑ । उत्सः॑  – fountain of nectar | It is a point of no return.

मा त्वा॑ रुद्र चुक्रुधामा॒   – Rudra

मन्त्र

मा त्वा॑ रुद्र चुक्रुधामा॒ नमो॑भि॒र्मा दुःष्टु॑ती वृषभ॒ मा सहू॑ती । उन्नो॑ वी॒राँ अ॑र्पय भेष॒जेभि॑र्भि॒षक्त॑मं त्वा भि॒षजां॑ शृणोमि ॥

पदपाठः

मा । त्वा॒ । रु॒द्र॒ । चु॒क्रु॒धा॒म॒ । नमः॑ऽभिः । मा । दुःऽस्तु॑ती । वृ॒ष॒भ॒ । मा । सऽहू॑ती । उत् । नः॒ । वी॒रान् । अ॒र्प॒य॒ । भे॒ष॒जेभिः॑ । भि॒षक्ऽत॑मम् । त्वा॒ । भि॒षजा॑म् । शृ॒णो॒मि॒ ॥

मा । त्वा॒ । रु॒द्र॒ । चु॒क्रु॒धा॒म॒ । नमः॑ऽभिः । मा । दुःऽस्तु॑ती । वृ॒ष॒भ॒ । मा । सऽहू॑ती । उत् । नः॒ । वी॒रान् । अ॒र्प॒य॒ । भे॒ष॒जेभिः॑ । भि॒षक्ऽत॑मम् । त्वा॒ । भि॒षजा॑म् । शृ॒णो॒मि॒ ॥

Rudra is known for his anger (क्रु॒ध्). The hymns will be to pacify him in the Rudra suktas. He is the physician having the medicines.

मा । त्वा॒ । रु॒द्र॒ । चु॒क्रु॒धा॒म॒ May we not anger you, नमः॑ऽभिः । by the improper salutations, । मा । दुःऽस्तु॑ती । by ill-praises, मा । सऽहू॑ती ।  by joint invocation along with some other deity, वृ॒ष॒भ॒ One who is on the bull, उत् । नः॒ । वी॒रान् ।  elavate our heros भे॒ष॒जेभिः॑ ।  अ॒र्प॒य॒ । bestow us with the remedies. त्वा॒ । भि॒षजा॑म् भि॒षक्ऽत॑मम् । शृ॒णो॒मि॒ ॥ you are the best of the physician is what I hear.

नमो॑भि॒र्मा  à नमः॑ऽभिः । मा

उन्नो॑ à उत् । नः॒ ।

वी॒राँ à वी॒रान्

स्तु॒हि श्रु॒तं ग॑र्त॒सदं॒  Rudra

मन्त्र

स्तु॒हि श्रु॒तं ग॑र्त॒सदं॒ युवा॑नं मृ॒गं  भी॒ममु॑पह॒त्नुमु॒ग्रम्  मृ॒ळा ज॑रि॒त्रे रु॑द्र॒ स्तवा॑नो॒ऽन्यं ते॑ अ॒स्मन्नि व॑पन्तु॒ सेना॑

पदपाठः

स्तु॒हि । श्रु॒तम् । ग॒र्त॒ऽसद॑म् । युवा॑नम् । मृ॒गम् । न । भी॒मम् । उ॒प॒ऽह॒त्नुम् । उ॒ग्रम् । मृ॒ळ । ज॒रि॒त्रे । रु॒द्र॒ । स्तवा॑नः । अ॒न्यम् । ते॒ । अ॒स्मत् । नि । व॒प॒न्तु॒ । सेनाः॑ ॥

 

स्तु॒हि praise him, श्रु॒तम् । one who is famous, ग॒र्त॒ऽसद॑म् । gartha is the seat of a war chariot, one who sits on that sit, युवा॑नम् । he is young,  उ॒प॒ऽह॒त्नुम् one who slays भी॒मम् । मृ॒गम् । न । like a fearful beast, उ॒ग्रम् । fierce and mighty. स्तवा॑नः । Having been praised, मृ॒ळ । please show mercy, ज॒रि॒त्रे । to the invoker,रु॒द्र॒ ।  O Rudra, ते॒ । सेनाः॑ let your army अ॒स्मत् । अ॒न्यम् । नि । व॒प॒न्तु॒ । harm someone else other than us.

Remember

अ॒स्मन्नि – अ॒स्मत् । नि

Avagraha – ग॒र्त॒ऽसद॑म्  , उ॒प॒ऽह॒त्नुम्

कु॒मा॒रश्चि॑त्पि॒तरं॒ वन्द॑मानं॒ – Rudra

मन्त्र

कु॒मा॒रश्चि॑त्पि॒तरं॒ वन्द॑मानं॒ प्रति॑ नानाम रुद्रोप॒यन्त॑म् । भूरे॑र्दा॒तारं॒ सत्प॑तिं गृणीषे स्तु॒तस्त्वं भे॑ष॒जा रा॑स्य॒स्मे ॥

पदपाठः

कु॒मा॒रः । चि॒त् । पि॒तर॒म् । वन्द॑मानम् । प्रति॑ । न॒ना॒म॒ । रु॒द्र॒ । उ॒प॒ऽयन्त॑म् । भूरेः॑ । दा॒तार॑म् । सत्ऽप॑तिम् । गृ॒णी॒षे॒ । स्तु॒तः । त्वम् । भे॒ष॒जा । रा॒सि॒ । अ॒स्मे इति॑ ॥

वन्द॑मानम् । पि॒तर॒म् । प्रति॑ । उ॒प॒ऽयन्त॑म् । कु॒मा॒रः । Like the son who is moving towards the father who is blessing, न॒ना॒म॒ । रु॒द्र॒  I turn towards Rudra, भूरेः॑ । दा॒तार॑म् । Giver of much, गृ॒णी॒षे॒ I praise  सत्ऽप॑तिम् । the true lord. स्तु॒तः त्वम् ।  You being thus praised, भे॒ष॒जा ।  अ॒स्मे । रा॒सि॒ । give us the medicines.

Note:

रा॑स्य॒स्मे à रा॒सि॒ । अ॒स्मे इति॑ ॥

Remember

रुद्रोप॒यन्त॑म् à । रु॒द्र॒  | उ॒प॒ऽयन्त॑म्

भूरे॑र्दा॒तारं॒ à भूरेः॑ । दा॒तार॑म् ।

Avagraha – सत्ऽप॑तिम्  उ॒प॒ऽयन्त॑म्

कु॒मा॒रश्चि॑त्पि॒तरं॒ à कु॒मा॒रः । चि॒त् । पि॒तर॒म् ।

ता आ च॑रन्ति सम॒ना  – Ushas

मन्त्र

ता आ च॑रन्ति सम॒ना पु॒रस्ता॑त्समा॒नत॑: सम॒ना प॑प्रथा॒नाः । ऋ॒तस्य॑ दे॒वीः सद॑सो बुधा॒ना गवां॒ न  सर्गा॑ उ॒षसो॑ जरन्ते ॥

पदपाठः

ताः । आ । च॒र॒न्ति॒ । स॒म॒ना । पु॒रस्ता॑त् । स॒मा॒नतः॑ । स॒म॒ना । प॒प्र॒था॒नाः । ऋ॒तस्य॑ । दे॒वीः । सद॑सः । बु॒धा॒नाः । गवा॑म् । न । सर्गाः॑ । उ॒षसः॑ । ज॒र॒न्ते॒ ॥

स॒म॒ना – two meanings – uniformly or something that is there together .
स॒म॒ना । आ च॒र॒न्ति॒ । approaches or moves everywhere uniformly ; ताः  The rays of dawn ; पु॒रस्ता॑त्  from the eastern end; स॒मा॒नतः॑   स॒म॒ना ।  Uniformly, altogether from one point ; प॒प्र॒था॒नाः । they spread ; दे॒वीः । the goddesses ऋ॒तस्य॑ ।  सद॑सः ।  from the seat of yagna or cosmic order बु॒धा॒नाः । arousing or originating.  गवा॑म् ।  सर्गाः॑ । न । It is like the water that is being released (sayana) or the herd of cows that are let loose (Mac D) उ॒षसः॑ । ज॒र॒न्ते॒  They make noise.

Remember

ता आ à ताः । आ ।

सर्गा॑ उ॒षसो॑ à  सर्गाः॑ । उ॒षसः॑ ।

धीरा॒ त्व॑स्य महि॒ना  Varuna

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- वसिष्ठः
देवता (Devataa) :- वरुणः
छन्द: (Chhand) :- निचृत्त्रिष्टुप्

संहिता

धीरा॒ त्व॑स्य महि॒ना ज॒नूंषि॒ वि यस्त॒स्तम्भ॒ रोद॑सी चिदु॒र्वी । प्र नाक॑मृ॒ष्वं नु॑नुदे बृ॒हन्तं॑ द्वि॒ता नक्ष॑त्रं प॒प्रथ॑च्च॒ भूम॑ ॥

पदपाठः

धीरा॑ । तु । अ॒स्य॒ । म॒हि॒ना । ज॒नूंषि॑ । वि । यः । त॒स्तम्भ॑ । रोद॑सी॒ इति॑ । चि॒त् । उ॒र्वी इति॑ । प्र । नाक॑म् । ऋ॒ष्वम् । नु॒नु॒दे॒ । बृ॒हन्त॑म् । द्वि॒ता । नक्ष॑त्रम् । प॒प्रथ॑त् । च॒ । भूम॑ ॥

धीरा॑  The intelligent or the courageous ones;  ज॒नूंषि॑   The generations ; अ॒स्य॒ । म॒हि॒ना ।  by his might; यः । वि ।  त॒स्तम्भ॑ ।  one who supported or sustained रोद॑सी॒  – two wide worlds – heaven and earth. ऋ॒ष्वम् darshaneeyam (saayana) or high (Mac D) द्वि॒ता  – dual;  बृ॒हन्त॑म् । नाक॑म् । lofty sky and नक्ष॑त्रम् । day star (Sun) , प्र । नु॒नु॒दे॒ । pushed;

Note:

धीरा॒ त्व॑स्य  — Anudaatta followed by Svaritha

Notes Reproduced From #SanskritAppreciationHour

Varuna is unique among early Vedic gods in that you cannot just praise him, sacrifice to him and appease him. He is the keeper of ऋत and will tolerate no transgression of his law. There are minor and major transgressions as we will see and for Varuna, things like gambling, drinking and so on are minor misdeeds – the worst most unacceptable sin of all is un-truth. To lie. His eye is the Sun with which he watches all our actions. He has spies everywhere. He is ruthless with transgressors but is also kind to those who are truly repentant and seek expiation for their misdeeds. In this hymn, poet Vasishtha knows not what he has done, but he knows he has angered Varuna. Let us see what he has to say to the god.

धीरा (धीराणि) intelligent तु indeed जनूंषि [are] generations (जनुस्) अस्य महिना by the greatness/might यः [of] him who वि- तस्तम्भ held, propped as under, apart उर्वी wide रोदसी worlds चिद् indeed प्र-नुनुदे he pushed [the] ऋष्वं high बृहन्तं vast, great नाकम् the vault of heaven, firmament द्विता doubly/also नक्षत्रं day star (sun)पप्रथत् च and spread out भूम the earth ॥ RV 7.86.1

प्रा॒वे॒पा मा॑ बृह॒तो  – Aksha

मन्त्र

प्रा॒वे॒पा मा॑ बृह॒तो मा॑दयन्ति प्रवाते॒जा इरि॑णे॒ वर्वृ॑तानाः । सोम॑स्येव मौजव॒तस्य॑ भ॒क्षो वि॒भीद॑को॒ जागृ॑वि॒र्मह्य॑मछान् ॥

पदपाठः

प्रा॒वे॒पाः । मा॒ । बृ॒ह॒तः । मा॒द॒य॒न्ति॒ । प्र॒वा॒ते॒ऽजाः । इरि॑णे । वर्वृ॑तानाः । सोम॑स्यऽइव । मौ॒ज॒ऽव॒तस्य॑ । भ॒क्षः । वि॒ऽभीद॑कः । जागृ॑विः । मह्य॑म् । अ॒छा॒न् ॥

प्रा॒वे॒पाः । The dangling ones – trembling ones – the dice; प्र॒वा॒ते॒ऽजाः । born in a windy place ; वि॒ऽभीद॑कः । the tree which grows in such a place whose nut is used to make the dice;   इरि॑णे On the board, वर्वृ॑तानाः when it rolls,  । मा॒द॒य॒न्ति॒ it gladdens मा॒ me ;  मह्य॑म् अ॒छा॒न् has pleased me ; मौ॒ज॒ऽव॒तस्य॑ । सोम॑स्यऽइव भ॒क्षः like the drink of soma which is obtained from the mujavathi mountain.

Note:

प्रा॒वे॒पाः visarga

Avagraha – प्र॒वा॒ते॒ऽजाः , सोम॑स्यऽइव  मौ॒ज॒ऽव॒तस्य॑   वि॒ऽभीद॑कः

जा॒या त॑प्यते – Aksha

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- कवष ऐलूष अक्षो वा मौजवान्
देवता (Devataa) :- अक्षकितवनिन्दा
छन्द: (Chhand) :- विराट्त्रिस्टुप्

संहिता

जा॒या त॑प्यते कित॒वस्य॑ ही॒ना मा॒ता पु॒त्रस्य॒ चर॑त॒: क्व॑ स्वित् । ऋ॒णा॒वा बिभ्य॒द्धन॑मि॒च्छमा॑नो॒ऽन्येषा॒मस्त॒मुप॒ नक्त॑मेति ॥

पदपाठः

जा॒या । त॒प्य॒ते॒ । कित॒वस्य॑ । ही॒ना । मा॒ता । पु॒त्रस्य॑ । चर॑तः । क्व॑ । स्वि॒त् । ऋ॒ण॒ऽवा । बि॒भ्य॒त् । धन॑म् । इ॒च्छमा॑नः । अ॒न्येषा॑म् । अस्त॑म् । उप॑ । नक्त॑म् । ए॒ति॒ ॥

कित॒वस्य॑ । ही॒ना । जा॒या । त॒प्य॒ते॒ । — The forsaken wife of the gambler grieves; क्व॑ । स्वि॒त् । चर॑तः । पु॒त्रस्य॑ । मा॒ता । — The  mother also grieves not knowing the whereabouts of the son; बि॒भ्य॒त् । being scared ऋ॒ण॒ऽवा । like a thief  धन॑म् । इ॒च्छमा॑नः । desiring money; उप॑ । ए॒ति॒  – He goes; अ॒न्येषा॑म् । नक्त॑म् – other’s house ; अस्त॑म् । at night  ;

अ॒क्षैर्मा दी॑व्यः – Aksha

अ॒क्षैर्मा दी॑व्यः कृ॒षिमित्कृ॑षस्व वि॒त्ते र॑मस्व ब॒हु मन्य॑मानः । तत्र॒ गाव॑: कितव॒ तत्र॑ जा॒या तन्मे॒ वि च॑ष्टे सवि॒तायम॒र्यः ॥

अ॒क्षैः । मा । दी॒व्यः॒ । कृ॒षिम् । इत् । कृ॒ष॒स्व॒ । वि॒त्ते । र॒म॒स्व॒ । ब॒हु । मन्य॑मानः ।  तत्र॑ । गावः॑ । कि॒त॒व॒ । तत्र॑ । जा॒या । तत् । मे॒ । वि । च॒ष्टे॒ । स॒वि॒ता । अ॒यम् । अ॒र्यः ॥

अ॒क्षैः । मा । दी॒व्यः॒ । – Don’t play the dice; कृ॒षिम् । इत् । कृ॒ष॒स्व॒ । Plough your lands ब॒हु । मन्य॑मानः । — considering it to be more; वि॒त्ते । र॒म॒स्व॒ । — enjoy your limited wealth तत्र॑ । गावः॑ । – your cattle is here  कि॒त॒व॒ । O gambler ; तत्र॑ । जा॒या । there is your wife; स॒वि॒ता । अ॒यम् । अ॒र्यः – This noble savitr तत् । वि । च॒ष्टे॒ । this revealed this मे॒ । to me.

 

Note:

In तत्र॑ ta is not Ekashruti as it is in a new line separate from the earlier line.

तन्मे॒ = तत् । मे॒

कृ॒षिमित्कृ॑षस्व = कृ॒षिम् । इत् । कृ॒ष॒स्व॒ ।

 

Reference

http://www.vedakosh.com/rig-veda/

http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rigveda/rv02012.htm

 

Savitr Sukta

  • हिरण्यस्तूपआङ्गिरसः is the rishi
  • Stimulator of solar power – Deity of day and night
  • Often identified with Sun
  • 11 suktas
  • Hiranyattva – hands, body, chariot, are all made of gold
  • His path is without dust – goes both upwards and downwards
  • Transports the departed souls to the appropriate loka
  • Protects men from evil dreams and takes out the papa
  • Drives out the demons
  • Controls water and wind
  • Bringer of happiness after death

Vishnu Sukta

  • Three wide strides – उरुगाय उरुक्रमा
  • Friendship with Indra in killing Vruta
  • One opinion by Shaakapuni – that the three steps represent the three forms – Agni on Earth, thunder in atmospheric region, Surya in heaven.

Rig veda

  • Veda means knowledge. Vidyateanenaitivedaha. It is that literature which sheds light on the transcendental means of achieving what is desirable and avoiding what is not.
  • It is alaukika – beyond the scope of perception and inference. Apaurusheya – not composed by humans.
  • Mantras and brahmanas put together constitute veda.
  • Veda classified into para and apara.
  • Jnanakanda [upanishadic lore] and karmakanda [religious lore].
  • Rig Yajus, Sama and Atharva.
  • Samhitas, brahmanas, aranyakas and Upanishads are 4 parts of a veda.
  • Samhita has suktas. Brahmanas have theological treatises in prose form dealing with sacrificial ceremonies. Aranyakas are concluding part of brahmanas, theosophical contents for pious men who have retired to forests [vanaprastha]. Upanishads deal with the highest philosophical thought.
  • All branches of Indian literature and systems of thought find their root in the Rigveda.
  • RV is the earliest available record. It is the only source of information regarding the early history of Indian people and their society.

 

Arrangement of Rigveda

  • RV has 1028 hymns and 10, 552 mantras.
  • It is arranged in 2 methods.
  • First method – it is divided into 8 Astakas each containing 8 aadhyayas. The 64 Adhyayas are divided into vargas which is a collection of 5-6 mantras. [ 5-6 mantras àvarga, gp of vargasàadhyaya, 8 adhyayasàashtaka, 8 ashtakaà complete RV]
  • This method is for vedic students to learn each varga by heart each day.
  • The second method classifies Rv into Mandalas and Suktas.
  • There are a total of 10 mandalas of varying length.
  • Suktas are groups of mantras on a particular deity and the number of mantras in each sukta is
  • Mandals 2 to 7 are similar. Homogenous in the nature of arrangement of the suktas.
  • These mandalas 2-7 are called Vamshiyamandals because each of them contains hymns belonging to a single family of seers.
  • The families of seers are Grtsamada [2], Visvamitra [3], Vamadeva [4], Atri [5], Bharadvaja [6] andVasista [7] { Great VisvamitraVanted A Bhramarishi title but Vasista declined }
  • All these mandalas start with Agni sukta, then Indrasukta and then the rest. Also the number of mantras in each sukta is in descending order.
  • The mandalas are themselves arranged in ascending order of the number of suktas. Second mandala has 43, third 62, sixth has 75 and seventh has 104.
  • Manadalas 1, 8 and 10 are called heterogenous because they don’t belong to any particular family of seers.
  • They contain hymns belonging to individual seers.
  • The first and the 10th mandala have 191 suktas each.
  • 8thmanadala has majority of suktas belonging to Kanva rishi family, but unlike the other mandalas, the first sukta is not of agni.
  • 9th mandala is very different from the rest. All suktas addressed to Pavamanasoma .

 

Contents of RV: Religious hymns, secular hymns and cosmogenic hymns.

  • Religious hymns form the majority. In vocation to Gods accompanied by oblation of ghee and soma rasa. All these end with a prayer to gods to grant wealth, cows, material prosperity, heroic sons and longevity. [dhanyam, dhanam, bahuputralabham, shatasamvatsaram.. ]
  • Secular hymns are only about 35. They deal with marriage, funeral practices, literary pursuits, sport and pastime of that period. Funeral hymns are addressed to deities concerned with future life. There is information about burial and cremation that was in vogue. Also a reference about widow remarriage can be found. Dialogue hymns such as ones between Yama – yami, Urvashi – Pururavaareconsidred as precursors of Sanskrit drama. Akshasukta, Asyaavaamiyasukta [riddles] and Danastutis[ about liberal patrons] are all seen in Rv.
  • Cosmogonic and philosophical hymns areabout 6 in number. They speculate about the origin of the world and provide a pantheistic idea of the Universal soul. The creator is called Purusha, Vishwakarman, Hiranyagarbha or Prajapathi.
  • Nasadiyasukta is an important example in this category. It says, neither sat nor asat existed before the creation. It also speaks of the “one” [tad ekam], which was breathing with its own Shakti [svadhe] when there was no wind. Then desire to create [sisrksha] arose. [kaamastadagresamavartataadhi] then there was creation. This conception ofekam has close affinity to the Brahman of the Upanishads.

 

Religion of the Rigveda:

  • Deities largely the personifications of the powers of nature.
  • Agni, Indra, Varuna etc.
  • It was essentially polytheistic but later hymns assumed a monotheistic or pantheistic idea.
  • Ekamsadvipraahabahudhavadanti – from Asyavamiyasukta speaks of sat as one but called by different names. This links RV and the Upanishadic philosophy.
  • Gods can be classified as Prithvisthaanah – terrestrial, Antarikshasthanah – atmospheric and Dyusthanah – celestial.
  • Terrestrial deities are Agni, Soma and Prithvi. [Afghan, Pak and SL are our neighbours]
  • Atmospheric deities are Indra, Apam-Napaat, Rudra, Maruts, Vayu, Parjanya and Aapas [Indra under the guidance of Rudra, directs the Vayu who with the help of the Maruts produces Apam-Napaatand then Parjanya flows as rain and becomes Aapas]
  • Celestial deities are Dyaus, Ratri, Usas, Mitra, Surya, Savitr, Varuna, Pusan andAsvins [DRUMStick Very Potent And Savoury]

 

Age of Rigveda:

  • 2 theories are there. One based on the literary or linguistic considerations and the other on astronomical calculations.
  • Max Muller has divided the Vedic literature into 4 parts, Chandas, Mantras, Brahmanas and Sutra. It has been presumed that one was followed by the other in the same order.
  • Katyayana who is a prominent writer on Anukramani is believed to be Vararuchi who lived in 355BC.
  • So Max Muller says that sutra period was from 200BC to 600 BC backwards.
  • Brahmanas from 600 – 800 BC.
  • Mantra from 800 – 1000BC.
  • Chandas from 1000 – 1200 BC.
  • Flaws: identity of Katyana as Vararuchi not established. Secondly why only 200 years gap between each period. It can be even more.
  • Astronomically, Haug says Samhita period was 2000 – 1400 BC. Oldest hymn was 2400 – 2000BC
  • Bal GangadharTilak takes into account the vernal equinox and comes up with 6000 – 4500 BC
  • Jacobi also 4500 BC.

Sayana: 1315 – 1387 AD.

  • Andhra Brahmin of bharadwajagothra, who served as the PM of Kampana the younger brother of Harihara of Vijayanagar kingdom.
  • Father – Mayana and mother – Srmati. Elder brother –Madhava, younger brother – Bhoganatha.
  • Disciple of Vidyathirtha, Bharatithirta and Srikantacharya.
  • His work is called MadhaveeyavedarthaprakashaRksamhitaabhashya.
  • He is an ardent follower of Yagnika method of interpretation. But has followed Nairukta method also.
  • Relies on Panini’s Ashtadhyayi for explaining the peculiarities of accents and forms.
  • Sayana’sRigbhashya is the only true representative of the traditional interpretation of RV in its entirety and it is an indispensable guide for understanding the RV.
  • Sayana has also written bhashyas on Taittiriyasamhita, Samavedasamhita, Kanvasamhita and Atharvavedasamhita. And also many brahmanas and aranyakas.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Veda Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Rgveda Shakala recension 1028 suktas. 10 mandalas. Aitareya and Kaushitaki Aitareya and Kaushitaki Aitareya and Kaushitaki
Krishna Yajurveda Katha, Maitrayaniya – 4 kandas 54 prapatakas. Taittiriya – 7 Ashtaka 44 prapataka Taittiriya Taittiriya Katha, Svetaasvatara, Maitrayaniya, MahaNarayaniya&Taittiriya
Shukla Yajurveda Vajasaneyi – 40 adhyayas Satapatha Brihadaaranyaka Brihadaaranyaka, Isavasya
Samaveda Archika – 585 mantras Uttararchika – 964 mantras Tandya, Talavakaara, Chandogya, Samavidhaana, Vamsa Chandogya Chandogya, kena
Atharvaveda 20 kandas 731 Suktas Gopatha       ———– Mundaka, Prashna, Mandukya

 

 

 

 

 

 

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