Linguistics – KSOU MA FAQs – Harini (Video)

Essay questions

  1. अर्थपरिणतिभेदान् सोदाहरणं निरूपय
  2. अर्थपरिवर्तनस्य कारणानि कानि सोदाहरणं विवृणुत
  3. वर्णानां स्थान प्रयत्न विवेकमधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं लिखत
  4. भाषोत्पत्ति वादान् अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं
  5. वर्णात्मक भाषाशास्त्रस्य स्थूल परिचयं
  6. ध्वनिविज्ञानं अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं
  7. भारोपीयम् भाषापरिवारं अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं
  8. ध्वनिनियमान् सोदाहरणं वर्णयत
  9. भाषाणां वंशाधारित वर्गीकरणम्

Short notes

अर्थपरिणतिभेदान् सोदाहरणं निरूपय

Arthaparinati: The ways in which the meaning changes

The language deals with words and meanings. There are different types of meanings like mukhyaartha, gaunaartha, vyangyaartha, yogikaartha, etc.

A word or sentence could have different meaning for different people. The best example is how Devas, Asuras and the humans were blessed by Brahma with “Da” wherein Devas took it as Dayaa, Asuras took it as Damana, humans took it as Daana.

The meaning changes – Arthaparinati

Arthasankocha” – The meaning becomes narrowed-down. Eg.Modaka refers to sweets. But these days, it refers to a specific dish. Annam refers to any edible item but in particular it is used to refer to rice only. Mruga used to refer to any animal. Now only deer.

Artha-apakarsha – degeneration. In aabaalaviruddaah – “a” refers to the limit. “aasuraparyantamvandaneeyaah” – until suras or the devas are to be worshipped.  But asuras now is being used to refer to only to a specific group.

जुगुप्सा ->to hide [gup dhatu] ->disgust

महाराज ->चक्रवर्ति ->cook

महापात्र ->विध्वाम्स ->dead people

Arthavistruti – Using the word in a different context wherein it conveys a different meaning. “Gavekshana” is “Gavaamikshana” – that is to look out for the cows which have not returned to their cowshed by evening. But now this term is being used in general to refer to the act of searching.

Only the oil that is got out of तिल had the name तैल. But now, it refers to oil in general.

Kaadambari, rather than referring to a specific work indicates novels. Naataka is a specific type of Drama, but is being used to refer to drama in general also

Taalapatra originally meant only the palm leaves. Now Patra refers to letters though it is on paper and not on palm leaves.

Artha-utkarsha – elevated meaning – the meaning changes from an inferior one to a more superior meaning.

गौरव->गुरुत्व heavy ->पूर्णत्व.

साहस ->व्यभिचार / हत्य ->courageous deeds

दृष्ट ->लज्जाहीन ->धैर्यशाली

मुग्ध ->मूर्ख ->सरळ

Arthaantara-praapti – That which results in a different meaning. paashanda, viraagi, bikshu, etc – earlier it referred to the revered ascetics. But in kaavyas, it is used to mean those who are not reliable. Earlier Grantha referred to the collection of palm leaves that are well arranged irrespective of whether it has been used or nothing is written on it. Now it refers to a book especially those which have high ideals of life like Ramayana.

Bhraata – now means Brother. It used to mean the person who does not belong to the group – odd man out.

अर्थपरिवर्तनस्य कारणानि Reasons for the changes in the words

Poetic liberty:Sometimes, the poets could change the word by dropping certain aksharaas to make it suit the chandas.This could result in apakarsha or utkarsha. Eg.Paaramgata – one who crosses the river to reach the other side. But it has a special meaning now to refer to a realized soul. The word madhura-vaani used to refer to only the sound of the birds. But not to anyone who speaks sweetly.

There are other environmental, social and geographical factors. An example for the change in geographical environment is the term ushtra.  Earlier the term meant buffalo and later it acquired the meaning of camel because Aryans migrated to different regions where there were camels and no buffaloes.

Change in social environment can be understood from the kannada example kattemeaning platform. Earlier it meant a raised platform built around a tree where people used to sit and talk. It also meant a bund built to stop the flow of water. Current day scenario it means a kitchen platform in urban homes.

श्वशुरः – used mostly to mean father-in-law. But there are cases where it means enemy.

Side note: जामाता दशमो ग्रहः |JSon-in-law is the 10th planet.

Vinayokti – As a mark of respect, the language is changed when we address elders. Another example – सावकाशेन भुञ्जीत – In Ayurveda, it is suggested that one should eat leaving some empty space in the stomach. But now saavakaasha means leisurely.

Side note: स्निग्धं उष्णं अल्पंच भोजनम् |

Saumyokti – To make it pleasing to the other – calling Differently-abled rather than disabled. Mangalavaara.Example – अमङ्गलस्य वारस्य यथा मङ्गलवारः | Another example – दिवङ्गत: Earlier the literal meaning was there – the rishi could just visit the paraloka and come back. In that case, the disciples could say that the guru has gone to visit the paraloka. But now, it is a decent way of saying that the person is dead. Saying the person passed away or the person is no more is a polished way of saying that the person died.

अधेनुं धेनुम् इति –Rather than saying that the cow has not started milking yet and it does not qualify to be worshipped, it is politely put that it will become dhenu.

Vyangyokti – Bruhaspati or panditaputrah – for example might indicate an idiot. It is conveyed in an indirect way.

Final reason is ignorance. By mistake, wrong words are used. Tikka used to refer only to the critical review of good and bad points. But now, it refers to commentary.


वर्णानां स्थान प्रयत्न विवेकमधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं लिखत

Production of speech sounds takes place by the disturbance of the air column which comes out of the lungs and passes through the gullet, oral cavity and exits through mouth and sometimes nose.

Organs of speech can be broadly divided into 2 as movable and immovable organs.

Immovable organs are upper lip, upper teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate and dome of the mouth [roof].

Movable organs are lower lip, lower teeth, tip of the tongue, blade of the tongue, middle of the tongue, back of the tongue and uvula.

Articulation or movement of these organs results in speech production. There are 3 components in the process of articulation.

  1. Place or point of articulation [immovable part – that which is touched]
  2. The articulator [movable part – that which touches]
  3. The manner of articulation.

Based on the manner of articulation the speech sounds are classified as vowels and consonants.

Vowels: the stream of air passes out without any obstruction or audible friction. Changes in the shape and the size of the resonance chamber causes different vowel sounds..aa – wide open, ee – lips are closer but wider. Etc

Consonants: here the point of articulation, articulator and manner of articulation play an important role.

Manner of articulation: 7 types are mentioned.

  1. Stops स्पर्श – movement of air is stopped and suddenly released.[ ट]
  2. Affricates अनुघर्ष – movement of air is stopped but the release is gradual.[त]
  3. Fricatives घर्ष – the articulator does not touch the point of articulation but goes near it and air passes with great friction. [र]
  4. Nasals अनुनासिक – similar to stop but air passes through the nasal cavity.
  5. Laterals पार्श्विक- midline is closed and air passes through the sides.
  6. Trills ताडित- similar to fricatives but the articulator itself vibrates with the movement of air.[drrrrum]
  7. Flap अनुताडित- fast single sweeping movement of the articulator. [Up]


Voiced घोषित and voiceless अघोष consonants : if the vocal cords vibrate then it is voiced. If the vocal cords are wide open and the air passes through it then it is voiceless as in whispering.

Aspirated consonants महाप्राण: extra puff of air is added to the release.

अकुहविसर्जनीयानां कण्ठ:, इचुयशानां तालु,ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा, लृतुलसानां दन्ताः, उपूपध्मानीयानां ओष्ठौ, ञमङणनानां नासिका च, एदैतोः कण्ठतालु, ओदौतोः कण्ठोष्ठम्, वकारस्य दान्तोष्ठम्


ध्वनि विज्ञानमधिकृत्य प्रबन्धम् essay on phonetics

  1. Organs of speech
  2. Physics of sound

Phonetics is studied under 3 heads.

  1. Articulatory phonetics उच्चारणात्मक ध्वनि विज्ञान: the production of speech sounds in the oral cavity of the speaker.
  2. Auditory phonetics श्रवणात्मक: the perception of the listener.
  3. Acoustic phonetics तरङ्गात्मक: physical properties of sound waves in form of pitch, formants, loudness etc.


भाषोत्पत्ति वादान् अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं

Language may be defined as an arbitrary system of vocal symbols by means of which human beings as members of a social group and participants in culture interact and communicate. Language consists of orally produced meaningful words and sentences.

Words are definitely not inborn, but the capacity to acquire a language and use it creatively seems to be inborn. Noam Chomsky calls this ability the LAD (Language Acquisition Device).  Today we will ask two questions: how did this language instinct in humans originate? And how did the first language come into being?

Concerning the origin of the first language, there are two main hypotheses, or beliefs.  Neither can be proven or disproved given present knowledge.

1) Belief in divine creation.  Many societies throughout history believed that language is the gift of the gods to humans.  The most familiar is found in Genesis 2:20, which tells us that Adam gave names to all living creatures.  [mentionabtshabda and ishvarasanketa] This belief predicates that humans were created from the start with an innate capacity to use language.

It can’t be proven that language is as old as humans, but it is definitely true that language and human society are inseparable.  Wherever humans exist language exists. There are no primitive languages, nor are any known to have existed in the past–even among the most remote tribes of stone age hunter-gatherers.

Nevertheless, it is impossible to prove that the first anatomically modern humans possessed creative language. It is also impossible to disprove the hypothesis that primitive languages might have existed at some point in the distant past of Homo sapiens development.

2) Natural evolution hypothesis. At some point in their evolutionary development humans acquired a more sophisticated brain which made language invention and learning possible.  In other words, at some point in time humans evolved a language acquisition device, whatever this may be in real physical terms.  The simple vocalizations and gestures inherited from our primate ancestors then quickly gave way to a creative system of language–perhaps within a single generation or two. This hypothesis cannot be proven either.

Invention hypotheses. Whether it is divine gift or by evolution, there are various theories to explain how language was invented. Each of it has been criticised and not accepted universally. Most linguists agree that the origin of language is still a mystery.

First, there are four imitation hypotheses that hold that language began through some sort of human mimicry of naturally occurring sounds or movements:

1) The “ding-dong” hypothesis.  Language began when humans started naming objects, actions and phenomena after a recognizable sound associated with it in real life.  This hypothesis holds that the first human words were a type of verbalicona sign whose form is an exact image of its meaningcrash became the word for thunder, boom for explosion.  Some words in language obviously did derive from imitation of natural sounds associated with some object: Chinook Indian word for heart–tun-tun, Basque word for knife: ai-ai (literally ouch-ouch).

The problem with this hypothesis is that onomatopoeia (imitation of sound, auditory iconicity) is a very limited part of the vocabulary of any language; imitative sounds differ from language to language.  Even if onomatopoeia provided the first dozen or so words, then where did names for the thousands of naturally noiseless concepts such as rock, sunsky or love come from?

2) The “pooh-pooh” hypothesis holds that the first words came from involuntary exclamations of dislike, hunger, pain, or pleasure, eventually leading to the expression of more developed ideas and emotions.  In this case the first word would have been an involuntary ha-ha-hawa-wa-wa These began to be used to name the actions which caused these sounds.

The problem with this hypothesis is that, once again, emotional exclamations are a very small part of any language.  They are also highly language specific. For instance, to express sudden pain or discomfort: Eng. ouch; Russ. oi.;  Cherokee eee.  Thus, exclamations are more like other words in that they reflect the phonology of each separate language.  Unlike sneezes, tears, hiccoughs or laughter, which are innate human responses to stimuli, the form of exclamations depends on language.  Also, exclamations, like most other words are symbols, showing at least a partially arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning.

3) The “bow-wow” hypothesis anukaranasiddhanta (the most famous and therefore the most ridiculed hypothesis) holds that vocabulary developed from imitations of animal noises, such as: Moo, bark, hiss, meow, quack-quack.  In other words, the first human words were a type of index, a sign whose form is naturally connected with its meaning.

But, once again, onomatopoeia is a limited part of the vocabulary of any language. The linguistic renditions of animal sounds differ considerably from language to language, although each species of animal everywhere makes essentially the same sound:

  1. a)Dog:bow-wow; Chinese:wu-wu; Jap.wan-wanRuss gaf-gaf, tyaff-tyaff;
  2. b)Cat-meow, Russ.myaoo, Chin–mao, Jap.nya-nya purr in French is ronron.
  3. c)Pig:oink-oink; Russ. hryu-hryu;  Chin.–oh-ee-oh-ee;  Jap. bu-bu.
  4. d)Russian rooster:kukareiku.  Japanese kokekoko
  5. e)Russian owl:ukh; Cherokeegoo-ku  Spanish, Japanese— no special word

Thus, the human interpretation of animal sounds is dependent upon the individual language, and it seems unlikely than entire vocabularies derived from them.

4) A somewhat different hypothesis is the “ta-ta” hypothesis.  Charles Darwin hypothesized (though he himself was sceptical about his own hypothesis) that speech may have developed as a sort of mouth pantomime: the organs of speech were used to imitate the gestures of the hand.  In other words, language developed from gestures that began to be imitated by the organs of speech–the first words were lip icons of hand gestures.

It is very possible that human language, which today is mostly verbal, had its origin in some system of gestures; other primates rely on gesture as an integral part of communication, so it is plausible that human communication began in the same way.  Human gestures, however, just like imitation of sound words, differ from culture to culture.  Cf. English crossing the finger for good luck vs. Russian “fig” gesture; nodding for yes vs. for no in Turkish and Bulgarian; knocking on wood vs. spitting over the left shoulder three times.

A second set of hypotheses on language origin holds that language began as a response to some acute necessity in the community.  Here are several necessity hypotheses of the invention of language:

1) Warning hypothesis.  Language may have evolved from warning signals such as those used by animals.  Perhaps language started with a warning to others, such as Look outRun, or Help to alert members of the tribe when some lumbering beast was approaching.  Other first words could have been hunting instructions or instructions connected with other work. In other words, the first words were indexes used during everyday activities and situations.

2) The “yo-he-ho” hypothesis.  Language developed on the basis of human cooperative efforts.

The earliest language was chanting to simulate collective effort, whether moving great stones to block off cave entrances from roving carnivores or repeating warlike phrases to inflame the fighting spirit.

It is fairly certain that the first poetry and song came from this aspect of beginning speech.  Songs of this type are still with us: Volga boatmen, military marching chants, seven dwarfs working song.

Plato also believed that language developed out of sheer practical necessity.  And Modern English has the saying: Necessity is the mother of invention.

3) A more colorful idea is the lying hypothesis.  E. H. Sturtevant argued that, since all real intentions or emotions get involuntarily expressed by gesture, look or sound, voluntary communication must have been invented for the purpose of lying or deceiving.  He proposed that the need to deceive and lie–to use language in contrast to reality for selfish ends– was the social prompting that got language started.

Each of the imitation hypotheses might explain how certain isolated words of language developed.  Very few words in human language are verbal icons.  Most are symbols, displaying an arbitrary relationship of sound and meaning. (Example: the word tree in several languages: Spanish árbol; French arbre; Slovak strom; Georgian he; Ket oks; Estonianpuu; German Baum; Russian derevo; Latvian koks; Hawaiian lä’au)

The extended use of natural indexes still leaves unexplained the development of grammar–the patterns in language which have definite structural functions but no specific meaning. The creative, generative aspect of human language that we call grammar is language’s most unique feature.  Where did grammar come from? No conclusive theories yet.


भारोपीयम भाषापरिवारं / भाषाणां वंशाधारित वर्गीकरणम्

When the languages across the globe were analysed it was found to consist of many similarities. Eg.Haalu in kannada is paalu in tamil. Similarly Hoovu-poovu etc. This led them to believe that certain languages can be grouped together and presumed to have a common source of origin. These groups were called language families. Linguists have classified all the languages into 7 principal language families: Indo-European, Afro-Asiatic, Sino-Tibetan, Altaic, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Finno-Ugric.

Indo-European is a family of languages that first spread throughout Europe and many parts of South Asia, and later to every corner of the globe as a result of colonization. The term Indo-European refers to the easternmost extension of the family from the Indian subcontinent to its westernmost reach in Europe. The family includes most of the languages of Europe, as well as many languages of Southwest, Central and South Asia. The Indo-European language family has the largest number of speakers of all language families as well as the widest dispersion around the world.

These languages are akin to each other in Linguistic structure and therefore their phonological, morphological, syntactical and semantic equations are possible. It is true that these languages have undergone a change and have developed in their own way, but still they have followed some definite laws in the course of their development and changes.

It would not have been possible to establish the existence of the Indo-European language family if scholars had not compared the systematically recurring resemblances among European languages and Sanskrit, the oldest language of the Indian subcontinent that left many written documents. The common origin of European languages and Sanskrit was first proposed by Sir William Jones(1746-1794). Systematic comparisons between these languages by Franz Bopp supported this theory and laid the foundation for postulating that all Indo-European languages descended from a common ancestor, Proto-Indo-European (PIE), thought to have been spoken before 3,000 B.C. It then split into different branches which, in turn, split into different languages in the subsequent millennia.


Indo-European languages are classified into 11 [10 acc to material] major groups, 2 of which are extinct, comprising 449 languages.


Baltic: It has preserved many archaic features thought to have been present in PIE.


Language Country
Latvian Latvia
Lithuanian Lithuania


Celtic:They were once spread over Europe in the pre-Christian era. The oldest records of these languages date back to the 4th century AD. It includes the following languages


Breton France
Irish Ireland
Scottish Scotland
Welsh Wales


Germanic is divided into West Germanic and North Germanic.

West Germanic includes:

Afrikans South Africa
Dutch Holland
English US UK Australia Canada
German Germany
Yiddish Germany Israel

North Germanic includes:

Danish Denmark
Icelandic Iceland
Norwegian Norway
Swedish Sweden


Romanic [Italic] includes

Catalan Spain
French France
Italian Italy
Portuguese Portugal, Brazil
Romanian Romania
Spanish Spain, Latin America


Slavic is divided into 3 groups:

West Slavic includes:

Czech Czech republic
Polish Poland
Slovak Slovakia
Sorbian Germany

East Slavic includes:

Belarusian Belarus
Russian Russia
Ukranian Ukraine


South Slavic includes

Bosnian Bosnia
Croatian Croatia
Macedonian Macedonia
Serbian Serbia
Slovenian Slovenia


[Indo-Iranian group is divided into Indo-Aryan and Iranian according to course material]

Indo-Aryan [Indic] includes

Balochi Pakistan
Bengali Bangladesh
Bhojpuri India
Gujrathi India
Hindi India
Marathi India
Maithili India
Kashmiri India
Nepali Nepal
Oriya India
Punjabi India
Romani Romania and elsewhere
Sanskrit India
Sindhi Pakistan
Sinhalese Srilanka
Urdu Pakistan


Iranian: Ancient variety of Iranian group is Avesta or Zend Avesta which is the holy language of Zoroastrianism. Another language, Old Persian was the official language of Persia during the kingdom of Doria [522-486 BC]

Dari Afghanistan
Farsi [Persian[ Iran
Kurdish Iraq and elsewhere
Pashto Afghanistan and elsewhere
Tajik Tajikistan


Albanian: Single language spoken in Albania.

Armenian: Single language spoken in Armenia.

Greek: It belongs to the Hellenic group of which Greek is the only surviving member. Spoken in Greece.

Tocharian [1000 AD] and Anatolian [7 cen BC] are both extinct.


ध्वनि नियमान् सोदाहरणं वर्णयत

Dhvani refers to even the pronunciation. Theories that were proposed to explain the differences in pronunciation and syllable changes are covered under Laws of Linguistics or dhvaniniyama.

Grimm’s Law is a about a historical sound change linking Proto-Indo-European with Germanic.Jacob Grimm was one of the great linguists of the 19th century. He found evidence for the unity of all the modern Germanic languages in the phenomenon known as the First Germanic Sound Shift (also known as Grimm’s law ), which set the Germanic branch apart from the other branches of the Indo-European family.

First level of change believed to have occurred in the prehistoric period. Second level of change occurred around the 7thcen possibly due to the influence of Yahudis and Christians.

There are 3 set of shifts that occur according to Grimm.

Voiced Aspirated Stops घोषित महाप्राण Voiced Stops घोषित अल्पप्राण Voiceless stops अघोष अल्पप्राण Voiceless Fricatives अघोष महाप्राण
भ् ब् प् फ्
ध् द् त् थ्
घ् ग् क् ख्


भ् -> ब्  eg: Bhrata ->Brotar

द् -> त्eg: Dve ->two

प् -> फ्eg: Pita ->Father.  Paada ->Fotu

In every case the location remains the same or close to it. The manner or voicing changes.

There are exceptions to Grimm’s Law. We see one in the table above. The middle “t” of Sanskrit “bhratar” correspnds to a “d” in Gothic “brodar”. But wait! “t” is supposed to go to “th”. Exception!

This particular exception is quite systematic and has to do with stress. It later got explained by Karl Verner with a different Law .

Grassmann’s law,[grasamannniyamaha] named after its discoverer Hermann Grassmann, is a dissimilatory phonological process in Ancient Greek and Sanskrit which states that if an aspirated [mahaprana] consonant is followed by another aspirated consonant in the next syllable, the first one loses the aspiration.uOne of the oldest and most established of the ‘laws’ of Indo-European (IE) is Grassmann’s Law (GL), first proposed in Grassmann 1863. This dissimilation process applies to Greek and Sanskrit alone among all IE languages: aspiration on two successive syllables is disallowed. If two aspirated consonants occur in contiguous syllables, sometimes within the same root, the first one loses its aspiration. Thus diaspirate roots turn up in surface form with aspiration only on the second consonant.

bhudh – ‘awaken’: past participle underlying form bhudh +ta ➝buddh a

dh ā- ‘put’: 1 sg. pres. underlying form dh a+dhā+mi➝da+dhā+mi

bh ū- ‘be’: 1 sg. perf. underlying form bha+bhuv+a➝babhuva


वर्णात्मक भाषाशास्त्रस्य स्थूलपरिचयं लिखतDescriptive Linguistics

Linguistics deals with the scientific study of a language. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group co-operates. It consists of orally produced meaningful words and sentences. Language is also said to be a system of 3 distinguishable systems namely – phonological system [sounds], morphological system [words] and syntactic system [sentences].

Linguistics developed in 2 stages. The earlier stage was the Descriptive school of linguistics also called Structural school.  The latter one was the Transformational Generative school of Linguistics.

Descriptive school was pioneered by Bloomfield and his followers. It was popular between 1935 and 1960. The basic theoretical assumptions of this school are as follows:

  • Every language has its own structure unrelated to the structure of any other language.
  • A native speaker who has learnt the language as the mother tongue, from the parents or family, represents the structure.
  • This structure can be studied, analyzed and described based on the specimen provided by the native speaker [informant].
  • Description of the structural grammar of the language is derived at the end of this analysis.
  • The structural grammar would be useful for learning and teaching the language.
  • A language is a learnt behavior, learnt by observation and imitation.

Phonetics ध्वनि विज्ञान: In order to gather the specimen correctly a linguist should be able to identify the sounds uttered by the informant and represent it in an unambiguous and consistent writing system [universal phonetic script]. The branch of linguistics which deals with identifying the speech sounds of any language and representing them in the form of writing is called Phonetics.

Phonemics ध्वनिम विज्ञान: the study of phonemes [ध्वनिम] is called phonemics.

Phonemes are the significant sounds of a language. Sounds whose presence or absence can alter the meaning of the words in a language are called phonemes.

Eg: uri, kuri, guri in kannada. The k and g are phonemes here.

The descriptive school later developed into the Transformational generative school.

Simple and complex sentences.सरल वाक्यानि मिश्र वाक्यानि

Simple sentences are those that have only 2 constituents, a subject and a predicate and the predicate has only one verb.

रामः धावति

मम अनुजः भरतः शीघ्रं धावति

प्रख्याताश्वा रमा अस्यां स्पर्धायां धावति

Complex sentences are those where 2 or more simple sentences are joined together. Here one of it is the main clause and the rest are subordinate clauses.

दशरथपुत्रः रामः रावणं संहरति –रामः दशरथपुत्रः अस्ति , रामः रावणं संहरति इति द्वौ विभागौ स्थः

दशरथपुत्रः रामः लङ्कापतिं रावणं संहरति –रामः रावणं संहरति, रामः दशरथपुत्रः, रावणः लङ्कापतिःइति

Compound sentences: here there are 2 or more independent main clauses with or without sub-clauses.

अहं कदलीफलं खादामि च सः आम्रफलं खादति

अस्वस्थः रामः संस्कारितयूषं पिबति च स्वस्थः कृष्णः परमान्नं खादति

रामः संस्कारितयूषं पिबति, रामःअस्वस्थः, कृष्णः परमान्नं खादति, कृष्णःस्वस्थः


Ekavarnalopa – Haplology (from Greek ἁπλός haplos “simple” and λόγος logos, “speech”) is defined as the elimination of a syllable when two consecutive identical or similar syllables occur. A sound change involving the loss of a syllable when it is next to a phonetically identical (or similar) syllable. The phenomenon was identified by American philologist Maurice Bloomfield in the 20th century.[1] Linguists sometimes jokingly refer to the phenomenon as “haplogy” (subjecting the word haplology to haplology)


  • Engla landEngland [1]
  • morphophonologymorphonology[2]
  • coercitive(obsolete spelling) > coercive[3]
  • mono nomialmonomial
  • saamved for saamaveda – north Indian Sanskrit pronounciation
  • व्याघ्रपाद -> व्याघ्रपात्


Satem – Centum: [shatamkentum]

Indo-European family was linguistically divided into 2 groups named Satem and Centum groups. [Division only for convenience sake]. Geographically they include the eastern [Asia] side and western [Europe] side respectively. The chief criterion for the classification is the treatment of the original Indo-European palatal sounds. It has been postulated that the original Indo-European had 3 series of gutturals.

  • Palatals – K^ Kh^  G^  Gh^
  • Velars – K Kh  G  Gh
  • Labio-velars – Kw KhwGwGhw

In Satemgroup the velars coincide with labio-velars and the palatals have developed into sibilants. It includes Sanskrit, Avestan, Old Persian, Albanian, Armenian, Baltic and Slovenic. The word Satem is derived from the Avestan word meaning hundred.

In Centum  group the velars coincide with the palatals. It includes Greek, Latin, Germanic, Celtic and Tokharian. The word Centum is derived for Latin word meaning hundred.


Aksharapallata: The letter va becoming ba in Bengali [chakravarthy = Chakraborty] and pa in tamil becoming ha in kannada [paalu=haalu, poovu=hoovu] ya becoming ja in certain dialects of hindi and Sanskrit of north India [ Yamuna=jamuna] similarly Vrindavan becoming Brindavan.  These differences are mainly attributed to regional differences and change in dialects.


स्वर भक्ति: in order to make pronunciation simpler and easier, introduction of a letter [usually a swara] in a samyuktakshara is done. This is called swara bhakti

इन्द्र – इन्दिर

पृथ्वी – पृथिवी

चन्द्र – चन्दिर

स्वर्ण – सुवर्ण

Sanskrit to prakrit

श्री – सिरि

स्नेह – सणेह

क्लिष्ट – किल्लिष्ट

प्रसाद – परसाद

Sometimes a vyanjana may come in between.

सूनर – सुन्दर

वानर – बन्दर [वन्दर]

(Video) Sankshepa Ramayanam – 8 – Anand

गुहेन सहितो रामो लक्ष्मणेन च सीतया । ते वनेन वनं गत्वा नदीस्तीर्त्वा बहूदका:।। 30।। चित्रकूटमनुप्राप्य भरद्वाजस्य शासनात्‌ । रम्यमावसथं कृत्वा रममाणा वने त्रय:।। 31।। देवगन्धर्वसङ्काशास्तत्र ते न्यवसन्‌ सुखम्‌ ।।32।।
श्लोकान्वयः –
गुहेन लक्ष्मणेन सीतया च सहित: राम: वनेन वनं गत्वा बहूदका: नदी: तीर्त्वा भरद्वाजस्य शासनात्‌ चित्रकूटमनुप्राप्य वने रम्यम्‌ आवसथं कृत्वा देवगन्धर्वसङ्काशा: ते त्रय: रममाणा: सुखं न्यवसन्‌।।30-32।।
चित्रकूटं गते रामे पुत्रशोकातुरस्तथा।।32।। राजा दशरथ: स्वर्गं जगाम विलपन्‌ सुतम्‌।। 33।।
श्लोकान्वयः –
रामे चित्रकूटं गते पुत्रशोकातुर: राजा दशरथ: सुतं विलपन्‌ स्वर्गं जगाम।।32-33।।
गते तु तस्मिन्‌ भरतो वसिष्ठप्रमुखैर्द्वजै:।।33।। नियुज्यमानो राज्याय नैच्छद्राज्यं महाबल:। स जगाम वनं वीरो रामपादप्रसादक:।।34।।
श्लोकान्वयः –
तस्मिन्‌ दशरथे गते तु वसिष्ठप्रमुखै: द्विजै: राज्याय नियुज्यमान: महाबल: भरत: राज्यं न ऐच्छत्‌ (किन्तु) रामपादप्रसादक: स: वीर: वनं जगाम।।33-34।।
गत्वा तु स महात्मानं रामं सत्यपराक्रमम्‌। अयाचद् भ्रातरं राममार्यभावपुरस्कृत:।। 35।। त्वमेव राजा धर्मज्ञ इति रामं वचोऽब्रवीत्‌।। 36।।
श्लोकान्वयः –
आर्यभावपुरस्कृत: स: (भरत:) गत्वा महात्मानं सत्यपराक्रमं भ्रातरं रामम्‌ अयाचत्‌। त्वम्‌ एव राजा धर्मज्ञ: इति वच: रामम्‌ अब्रवीत्‌।।35-36।।

KSOU MA First Year Sample Paper

MA paper I

Paper II

Paper III

Paper IV

Paper V

Here are the probable questions prepared in 2015 by Sri Penukonda Vijayadhwaja <> pertaining to MA (Sanskrit) previous-First Year. These are all probables and most of the questions appear every year in one form or the other, just like “उक्तं हि वक्ति भूयः”. Thanks to Sri Vijayadhwaja for sharing these papers that will help the candidates to prepare for the examination. Kindly reach out directly to him with your feedback.

History of Sanskrit Poetics – 2016 – Dr. Shivakumaraswamy

History of Sanskrit Poetics – Short Notes

Consolidated documents — history-of-sanskrit-poetics-harini  history-of-sanskrit-poetics-2016-dr-shivakumaraswamy

Two important works on this topic have been written by P.V. Kane and S.K. De.

Bharata or NaatyaShaastra

Bharata Muni wrote the NaatyaShaastra. It mainly deals with Drama though it is the earliest text on Poetics. It consists of 36 chapters. Its commentary is called AbhinavaBharati, which is written by Abhinava Gupta. This Naatyashaashtra describes all aspects of Drama and these performing arts. Bharata has mentioned about the four alamkaaras, 10 gunas and 36 lakshanas. He describes 10 types of Dramas or Rupakas namely, Nataka, Prakarana, Samavakara, Ihamrga, Dima, Vyayoga, Anka, Prahasana, Bhana and Vithi. During his time, the art of Drama had developed very well.  In naatyashaastra, the four alamkaaras mentioned are उपमा, दीपक, रूपक and यमक. Yamaka is a shabdaalamkaara having 10 forms. The others are arthaalamkaaras. The concept of Rasa applicable for Dramas is explained by Bharata in NaatyaShashtra. The causes of rasa are Vibhaava, Anubhaava and Vyabhichaaribhaava. The ingredients of Rasa are Vibhaavas (AalambanaVibhaava, UdveepanaVibhaava), Anubhaava (which includes Saatvikabhaavas) and vyabhichaaribhaava (which are the Sahakaarikaaranas). From the संयोग union of these components, रसनिष्पत्तिः – the realization of the Rasa is achieved. When the sahrudayas watch the vibhaavas, anubhaavas and vyabhichaaribhaavas, the staayibhaavaa in their hearts is kindled. It is nourished by these components and it transforms itself into Rasaa or the aesthetic sentiment.

Bhaamaha or Kaavyaalamkaara

Bhaamaha wrote Kaavyaalamkaara.  He is considered to have lived during 700 AD. Bhaamaha proved that Kavya is accepted by the Vedas.  According to the earlier Alamkaara-praadaanya-vaadis like Bhaama, Dhandi, Udbhatta, and Rudratta, Alamkaara is the most important aspect of Poetry.  He mentioned up to 30 alamkaaras. Bhaamaha and Dhandi mention about the earlier Alamkaarikas. But their works are not available to us. From Bharata’s 4 alamkaaras, we notice that the evolution of 36alamaarakas have happened by the collaboration of the 4 alamkaaras with the 36 lakshanas.

Bhaamaha states in काव्यालंकार that Kavya comprises of words and their meanings – शब्दार्थौ सहितौ काव्यम् | Stressing on the importance of Alamkaara, it has been mentioned,न कान्तमपि निर्भूषं विभाति वनिताननम् – the beautiful face of the wife does not shine with radiance without proper ornaments – says Bhaamaha.

नाकवित्वमधर्माय व्याधये दण्डनाय वा ।कुकवित्वं पुनः साक्षान्मृतिमाहुर्मनीषिणः ।। १.१२ ।। (kaavyaalamkaara)
न+अकवित्वम्+अधर्माय व्याधये दण्डनाय वा ।कुकवित्वं पुनः साक्षात् मृतिम् आहुः मनीषिणः ।।

“Not writing poetry is no crime; it won’t cause illness or lead to punishment; but writing bad poetry is a living death”, says Bhaamahin Kaavyaalamkaara.

Dhandin and hisKaavyaadharsha

Kaavyaadharsha is a work by Dhandi. He is believed to have lived in the 7th century AD. He lived near Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu. His other works are DashakumaaraCharita and Avanti SundariKathaa. In Avanti SundariKathaa, he has mentioned about his own life – how his ancestors came from North India, one of them named Dhamodaraa was his forefather, and states his own experiences. Kaavyaadharsha was a very popular text on Sanskrit Poetics. It had been translated into various languages more than 1000 years ago. It was translated into Tibetan language. This work is also the source for one of the earliest Kannada work – KaviRaajaMaarga. Even later writers have also referred to this work. Many verses of Kaavyaadharsha reflect what is said by Bhaamaha in Kaavyaalamkaara. They appear to be similar to Bhaamaha’s work, (probably Dhandhi had borrowed from Bhaama) along with Dhandi’s own opinions. There are many Sanskrit commentaries on Kaavyaadharsa like those by VaaliJangaala, Ratna Sri Jnaana and TarunaVaachaspati. It continues to be a very popular work across the world.

Udbhataand his KaavyaalankaaraSaaraSangraha

Udbhata hails from Kashmir as the very name indicates. His name has been mentioned in the Raajatarangini of Kalhana as a poet adorning the court of Jayaapida. His period is after Bhaamaha (750 AD) and before Anandavardhana (850 AD). His work on poetics is KaavyaalankaaraSaaraSangraha. He is always quoted with respect by his successors even when they differed from his views. He differs from Bhaama and Dhandin in defining certain Alamkaaras having Rasa such as, Preyas, Rasavad and Urjasvin. Preyas according to him, comes only when there is a developed emotion such as Srngaara to that extent only when it could remain a Bhaava and is not developed into Rasa.  ऊर्जस्वि according to him is the development of indecorous or misplaced Rasa and Bhaava as for  example the attitude of Raavana towards Sita.  He also declares that Shanta Rasa could be developed possibly through action on the stage.

Vaamana, propounder of RitiSiddhantaand his KavyalankaraSutra Vritti

Vaamana who lived during the 8th century AD, in Kashmir was a contemporary of Udbhata. Vamana was the pioneer of RitiSiddhanta. He accorded the highest place for Riti or the style of composition as the soul of poetry.

The Aatma or the soul is that core or fundamental element or the principle which defines the very essence of Kaavya.

Bhaamaha defined Kavya as shabdaarthasahitauKavyam. Kavya is the combination or the complex of words and their meanings. It also implies blemish-free or nirdosha. He later extended it to include the element of alamkara in the definition. Dandin also went with this view. But the later schools felt that this definition of Kavya was centered on the external element or the body of the Kavya and not the spirit or the soul of Kavya. Thus began the quest for the soul of Kavya.

Vamana the author of KavyalankaraSutra Vritti declared RitihaatmaKavyasya – रीतिरात्मा काव्यस्य | ThoughVamana advocates Riti, he also states that Alamkara enhances the beauty of Kavya. Vamana says Kavya is the union of sound and sense which is free from poetic flaws [nirdosha] and is adorned with excellences [gunas] and ornamentation or figures of speech [alamkaras].  To him Riti is a beautiful collocation endowed with excellences – “विशिष्ट पदरचना रीतिः” “विशेषो गुणात्मा”.Riti represents for Vamana the particular structure of sounds combined with poetic excellence. Riti is the going or the flowing together of the elements of a poem.

Vamana expanded on the concept of Gunas dealt by Dandin. Kavyalamkarasutravrittiis divided into 5 adhikaranas each consisting of 2 or 3 adhyayas.

Though Vamana retained the 10 gunas enumerated by Dandin [Ojas, Prasada, Shlesha, Samata, Samadhi, Madhurya, Sukumarata, Udavarta, Arthavyakti and Kanti], he modified their names and increased the number of gunas to 20. He created 2 sets of the same 10 Gunas under 2 headings namely Shabdaguna and Arthaguna.

He attempts to explain each guna in terms of both Shabda and Artha. For eg, Prasada [clarity] means shaithilya [readability] under shabdaguna while it means Auchitya [propriety] under arthaguna.

He abandoned the approach of Bhamaha and Dandin who treated Rasa as a subsidiary element of the verse.

Although he did not accord rasa an independent status, he treated rasa as an aspect of arthaguna.

Riti, according to Vamana, is a particular mode or organisation of verbal structure that is different from common usage and also has excellence of gunas.

Dandin had named literary styles as Margaमार्गः and mentioned Vaidarbhiवैदर्भिः and Gaudiyaगौडीय margas. Vamana not only modified this concept of style, he also renamed Marga as Riti and included Panchali पाञ्चाली to the above list.

Panchali has Madhurya and Saukumaryagunas while Gaudiya has Ojas and Kanti. It is however Vaidarbhi that has all 10 gunas and is the most preferred style. He terminates the view that the practice of Gaudi and Panchali would help a poet gain experience to adopt Vaidarbhi. The interesting example given by him is:

How can anyone trained in weaving jute cloth ever hope to weave silk cloth?

Vamana treats alamkaras as a subsidiary significance. Guna and Kavya have asamavayasambandha (inseparable concomitance) while Alamkara and Kavya are said to be in samyogasambandha(Relation by contact). Guna is related to the soul of the poetry while Alamkara is related to the body of the poetry. He has considered only 2 shabdalankaras namely, Yamaka(rhyme) and Anuprasa (Alliteration). With regard to Arthalankaras, he opines that most of all Alamkaras lies only in comparison. His collective name for all figures is Upamaaprapancha.

Vamana’s conception of rasa corresponds to that of Dandin as far as status allotted to it is concerned. But while Dandin brings Rasa under Alamkaras, Vamana treats it as belonging to Gunas.

Vamana laid the foundation to the theory of Vichchithi which was later developed by Kuntaka. However the Riti school of Vamana did not have followers in the same way as Rasa, Alamkara and Dhvani schools had. The general conception of Riti was severely criticised by Mammata. Inspite of all this, Vamana was the ablest writer to formulate a definite theory so as to determine the soul of poetry.

Kuntaka,propounder of VakroktiSiddhantaand hisVakrokti-jivita

The term Vakroktiवक्रोक्तिः has been used to mean different things by Sanskrit poetics.

  • Bana has used the term in Kadambari.
  • Dandin uses vakrokti to mean something that is contradictory to svabhavokti. Svabhavokti is a plain statement or fact, while vakrokti is striking or oblique speech.
  • Bhamaha thinks atishayokti is vakrokti and it brings beauty to all Alankaras and it converts ordinary things into vibhavas.
  • Vamana thinks that Saadrushyalakshana [similitude] is vakrokti.

Kuntaka entered the scene after Anandavardhana, probably a contemporary of Abhinavagupta. He was a unique and original thinker who did not approve the dhvani doctrine whole-heartedly. He revived the concept of Vakrokti giving it a new twist and meaning. His work is called Vakrokti-jivita.

To him Kavyavyaapaara is the crucial factor in Kavya. Hence he is called vyaapaarapraadhaanyavaadi. He defines Kavya as follows

शब्दार्थौ सहितौ वक्रकविव्यापारशालिनी। बन्धे व्यवस्थितौ काव्यं तद्विदाह्लादकारिणि।। (वक्रोक्तिजीवितम्-१.७)  Shabdaarthausahitauvakrakavivyaapaarashaalini

Shabda and artha are the objects to be adorned and vakrokti is the adornment.  He has described many types of vakrata and has included all types of gunas and types of dhvani under them.

Vakrokti-jivita denied the independent existence of dhvani or vyangya as the soul of poetry and tries to include it under the all-pervading vakrokti. Since he defends vakrokti, he does not accept svabhavokti as an alankara. Although he widened the scope of vakrokti, not many followers are found.

MahimabhattacriticisesKuntaka vehemently. He states that vakrokti is also inference mainly. It is just a new name because he has used the same examples which were given by Anandavardhana for Dhvani. Bhojaraja says that literature has 3 divisions namely, svabhavokti, vakrokti and rasokti. AppayaDikshita considers vakrokti as alankara only. He follows Rudrata who classifies vakrokti as Sleshavakroti and Kakuvakroti and placed them under alankara.

Kshemendraor doctrine of Auchitya or Auchityavichaaracharcha

Kshemendra was the son of Prakashendra and the student of Abhinavagupta. He lived during the reign of King Ananta and later King Kalasha in the 11century AD. He was a prolific writer with many works to his credit. Of which Kavikantaabharanam, auchityavichaaracharcha and suvruttatilakam pertain to poetics. He calls himself “vyasadasa”.

Anauchitya is the root of all doshas. Bharata enumerates 10 doshas and says that wrongly placed ornament only causes laughter. Bhamaha has also detailed about doshas. Dandin however shifts the perspective to the sahrdayas. If the discerning scholar has no irritation while reading a piece of literature then doshas are not blemished. So auchityaऔचित्य indicates what is right or wrong and this is very subjective. Anandavardhana has employed the term anauchitya on more than one occasion. He says auchitya decides the type of sanghatana in a Kavya. Also says that anauchitya is the greatest hindrance for the relishment of rasa. Abhinava says that auchitya means harmony of all elements of Kavya with rasa as the main element. Kuntaka considers auchitya as a guna. Mahimabhatta says anauchitya is of 2 kinds. Antaranga and bahiranga.

According to Kshemendra, auchitya is the jivita of rasa. If rasa is the essence of a Kavya, Auchitya is the quintessence of Rasa. He says that alankara, guna, dosha, etc., are all meaningless without auchitya.

An item which is suited to another is called uchita [proper]. The state of being proper is auchitya [propriety].

27 types of auchitya have been mentioned by Kshemendra. Propriety should be present in  pada, artha, prabhandaartha, guna, alankara, rasa, kriya, karaka, linga, vachaa, visheshana, upasarga, nipata, kala, desha, kula, vrata [vow], tattva[reality], abhipraya, svabhava, saarasangraha, pratibha, avastha[state or condition], vichara, aashishinaamnyata[benediction], Kavyaanga.

Auchitya with reference to rasa has been dealt with in detail by him. He says that if different rasas are mixed properly, they enhance the relish.

JagannathaPandita and hisRasagangadhara

Jagannathaजगन्नाथःwas the author of Rasagangadhara He was a Telugu Brahmin who lived during 1620-1665 near Rajahmundry. He was patronised by Moghul emperor Shahjahan and he received the title “Panditaraja” from the emperor of Delhi. He defines Kavya as  रमणीयार्थ प्रतिपादकः शब्दः काव्यम् He considers rasadhvani as paramaramaniya.  He describes rasa sutra according to various authors. He tries to improve upon Abhinavagupta’s view. According to Jagannatha there is not much difference between the views of Abhinavagupta and Bhattanayaka.

He has presented a new view of the Navyas. Rasa is said to occur on account of contemplation. It is compared to silver seen in seashell. It is a kind of illusion and indescribable. He is a traditionalist and accepts 9 rasas and rejects the arguments of those who want rasatva for bhakti. He says bharata’s words are the final in this regard. He also opines that Pratibha is the only cause for Kavya and not the combination of pratibha, nipunata and abhyasa. He is a follower of dhvani school. He however says that it is wrong to classify shabdachitra and arthachitra together and so has 4 categories of Kavya.

He was a great critic as well as a great writer. NageshaBhatta the famous grammarian of 18th century has written a commentary on Rasagangadhara,namedMarmaprakasha. Some of his other works include Gangalahari, Lakshmilahari, Karunalahari, Sudhalahari, Jagadaabharana, Praanabharana, etc. He has choicest abuse for AppayaDikshita in his workChitramimamsakhandanaManoramakuchamardini is a criticism of BhattojiDikshita’sPraudamanorama. All illustrative stanzas in it are Jagannatha’sown. The important illustrations in the Rasagangadhara and some other charming stanzas of Jagannatha have been collected in the work named Bhaminivilasa.

Rajashekaraand his Kavyamimamsa

Rajashekara is the author of Kavyamimamsa. He has referred to Anandhavardhana, Vakpatiraja and Bhavabhuti. He is believed to have lived under the patronage of King Mahipala, during the later part of 9th and first part of 10th century AD. He was the son of Silavati and Durduka. He was proficient in Sanskrit and many dialects of Prakrit. He is believed to have composed 6 works.

  • Karpuramanjari
  • Viddhashaalabhanjika
  • Balaramayana
  • Balabharata
  • Kavyamimamsa
  • Bhuvanakosha

There is no discussion or exposition of rasas, gunas and alankaras in Kavyamimamsa (Investigation of Poetics). It belongs to kavishiksha or training of poets.Various chapters in the book describe the daily routine of the poet, the systematic rigor that goes into the making of a poet and the discipline that is to be inculcated in their lifestyle, amongst other things.

Dhananjaya and Dhanika and their Dasharupaka and Avaloka

Dhananjaya wrote Dasharupaka and Dhanika wrote Avaloka, a commentary on it. Dhananjaya is believed to have lived in 9th century AD under the patronage of Vakpatiraja. Dhanika probably belonged to 11th century AD.  (They are considered to be brothers – so they cannot be belonging to different centuries. To be verified). They both vehemently opposed the vyanjanavyapara. They also do not accept shanta rasa as fit to be depicted in drama. They say that it is impossible to enact shama which is complete stoppage of all action. Dhanika says that Tatparya is the main function in ordinary language and poetry as well. Tatparya cannot be restricted and conveys suggested meaning too. Hence a separate vritti called vyanjana is not required.

Dhananjaya refers to sthayibhaava as the ocean which may get disturbed now and then but always retains its original position. The basic mental state lies in the dominant mood and cannot be upset by other Bhaavas but renders the bhaavas to remain subordinate to itself.

Viswanatha and hisSaahityadarpana

Viswanathawas born in the 14th century AD at Orissa as the son of Chandrasekhara. He had the titleSaandhivigrahikaMahapatra. His most important work is Saahityadarpana.

Other works include Raghavavilasa-mahakavya, Kuvalayashvacharita, Prabhavatiparinaya, Chandrakala, Prashastiratnavali and Kavyaprakashadarpana[commentary on Mammata’s work]. Saahityadarpana combines both poetics and dramaturgy. His style is simple and elegant and his expressions are also clear. However he lacks originality. VakyamrasatmakamKavyam is his theory.

Mahimabhattaand his Vyaktiviveka

Mahimabhatta was an opponent of dhvani theory. He was a follower of Srishankuka’s theory of anumana. He is believed to have lived in Kashmir in 11th century AD. He was a good scholar endowed with acumen. Vyaktiviveka has 3 chapters called vimarshas.

1st vimarsha severely examines Anandhavardhana’sDhvani concept and points out 10 defects. 2nd vimarsha deals with anauchitya. 5 types of anauchitya [vidheaavimarsha, prakramabheda, kramabheda, paunaruktya and vachyaavachana] are discussed. 3rd vimarsha takes up shlokas of Anandhavardhana from Dhvanyaloka and shows how each of them can be an instance of anumana. An incomplete commentary on vyaktiviveka is available and it is believed to have been written by Ruyyaka.

Rupagoswami and his Bhaktirasaamritasindhu

Rupagoswami lived during last part of 15th and first part of 16th century. He promoted the Bhakthi concept. He was a disciple of Chaitanyamahaprabhu and wrote 2 works namely Ujjvalanilamani and Bhaktirasaamritasindhu.Religious teachings of Bhakti school are presented here. Love of Krishna is the sole object and 360 types of nayikasare described. His other works include Natakachandrika[on dramaturgy], PadyavaliandDanakelikaumudi.Like MadhusoodhanaSaraswati, he also considered Bhakti to be a rasa.

Sharadatanayaand his BhavaPrakashana

12th century. Scholar of Sanskrit poetics; author of Bhava-prakashana which compiles the whole range of views on literature from Barata 2nd century to Kshemendra 11th century. The author also incorporated views on music and dance, especially about the origin and development of these forms. It has not yet been possible to establish firmly his dates or the places where he was born and lived.

Bhava-prakasha (12th or 14th) by Sharadatanaya. A work on dramaturgy in ten chapters called “Adhikara”. It is particularly valuable for the indication it gives of the opinions of other scholars whose works have not survived. The author, son of BhattaGopala and grandson of Krishna, was a native of North India. This work is also known as Bhava-prakashika and Bhava-prakashana.

AppayyaDheekshitar and his ChitraMimamsa

This is an elaborate descriptive work with full examples of the Lakshana of the more important Arthalankaras. Following this pattern, Sri JagannadhaPandita wrote his famous Rasagangadhara. The ChitraMimamsa has been written in the traditional sastraic manner.Chitramimamsa-khandana was a work by JagannathaPanditathat includes his uncompromising and abusive criticisms of Appaya.

Mammata In the history of Kavyasastra, Mammata is a luminous star, remembered with respect and adoration. Mammata lived in Kashmir, known as Shaaradadesha, during the latter half of 11th century and first half of 12th century (1090 – 1160 AD). Mammata was a Kashmiri Shaivite.  He had the title Raajaanaka which was generally conferred on poets particularly in Kashmir. He was also called Saraswathiavatara or Vaakdevataavataara by his admirers.

Mammata’s two works are Kaavyapraakasa and Sabda-vyaapara-vicaara. Mammatta’sKaavyaPrakaasha is based on DhvaniSiddhanta. He consolidated the earlier concepts and created a work (प्रकरण-ग्रन्थ) as a textbook. He is a SamanvayaAacharya or Samanvayakaarah as he consolidated all the aspects like Alankaara, Guna, Reeti, Dhvani, Auchityam, Rasa, etc. He accepted the earlier concepts. He agreed that Alamkara could enhance the poetry in certain cases. He agreed that Reeti could also enhance poetry when these concepts come to support Dhvani.

The study of Kavyasasthra is considered incomplete without the study of KavyaPrakasa. The studies on Kavyasastra from Bharatha to Bhoja are beautifully explained in KavyaPrakasa. The popularity of the text can be known by its numerous commentaries.  There are more than 50 commentaries.

AppayyaDikshita lived in Tamil Nadu in the 16th century (1520-1593). Shaiva Philosopher and Major contributer to alankarashastra.Author of Kuvalayanda, chitra-mimamsa and vrittivartika. A lost work named Lakshana-ratnavali is ascribed to him that probably dealt with dramaturgy. He was influenced by Jayadeva’sChandraloka. So he named his work Kuvalayananda as kuvalaya or lily looks upon the Chandra or moon for Ananda. Kuvalayananda is a lakshanagrantha on alankarashastra which mentions about 120 alankaras with examples from chitrameemaamsa. Chitrameemaamsa contains examples for various alankaras. This is an elaborate descriptive work with full examples of the Lakshana of the more important Arthalankaras. Following this pattern, Sri JagannadhaPandita wrote his famousRasagangadhara. The ChitraMimamsa has been written in the traditional sastraic manner.Jagannata was the biggest critic of chitrameemaamsa and he wrote chitrameemaamsakhandana.VrittiVartikadeals with the Vrittis which are described in the AlankaraSastras as Abidha, Lakshana and Vyanjana. This is a small work. He has written 104 works including many devotional and philosophical texts.

Dhananjaya and Dhanika:Dhananjaya (late 10th century) wrote Dasharupaka and Dhanika wrote Avaloka, a commentary on it. Dhananjaya is believed to have lived in the 10th century enjoying the patronage of Munja, Paramar king of Malwa. Dhanika is considered to be his brother by some scholars. Dhanika’s other work is KaavyaNirnaya. Their father’s name is Vishnu, who was a minister to the Paramar King, Utpaladeva.  (1) They both vehemently opposed the vyanjanavyapara. (2) They claim that shanta rasa is not fit to be depicted in drama. They say that it is impossible to enact shama which is complete stoppage of all action. (3) Dhanika says that Tatparya is the main function in ordinary language and poetry as well. Tatparya cannot be restricted and conveys suggested meaning too. Hence a separate vritti called vyanjana is not required. (4) Dhananjaya refers to sthayibhaava as the ocean which may get disturbed now and then but always retains its original position. The basic mental state lies in the dominant mood and cannot be upset by other Bhaavas but renders the bhaavas to remain subordinate to itself.

Jagannathaजगन्नाथः was the author of Rasagangadhara.  He was a Telugu Brahmin who lived during 1620-1665 near Rajahmundry. He was patronised by Moghul emperor Shahjahan and he received the title “Panditaraja” from the emperor of Delhi. He defines Kavya as  रमणीयार्थ प्रतिपादकः शब्दः काव्यम् He considers rasadhvani as paramaramaniya.  He describes rasa sutra according to various authors. He tries to improve upon Abhinavagupta’s view. According to Jagannatha there is not much difference between the views of Abhinavagupta and Bhattanayaka. Rasa is said to occur on account of contemplation. It is compared to silver seen in seashell. It is a kind of illusion and indescribable. He is a traditionalist and accepts 9 rasas and rejects the arguments of those who want rasatva for bhakti. He says bharata’s words are the final in this regard. He also opines that Pratibha is the only cause for Kavya and not the combination of pratibha, nipunata and abhyasa. He is a follower of dhvani school. He however says that it is wrong to classify shabdachitra and arthachitra together and so has 4 categories of Kavya. He was a great critic as well as a great writer. NageshaBhatta the famous grammarian of 18th century has written a commentary on Rasagangadhara, named Marmaprakasha. Some of his other works include Gangalahari, Lakshmilahari, Karunalahari, Sudhalahari, Jagadaabharana, Praanabharana, etc. He has choicest abuse for AppayaDikshita in his work Chitramimamsakhandana. Manoramakuchamardini is a criticism of BhattojiDikshita’sPraudamanorama which was a commentary on SiddhantaKaumudi. All illustrative stanzas in it are Jagannatha’s own. The important illustrations in the Rasagangadhara and some other charming stanzas of Jagannatha have been collected in the work named Bhaminivilasa which was prepared with didactic intentions (intention to teach).

  • Shaantha rasa
  • Veera
  • Srngara
  • haasya

 Reference :A Dictionary of Indian Literature, Volume 1 By Sujit Mukherjee

History of Sanskrit Poetics – Quick Reference List

Some of the important Alamkaarikas in the History of Sanskrit Poetics have been listed here. Please leave a comment for any corrections or additions.

Author Lakshana Grantha Soul Highlight Time
Bharata Muni Naatya Shaastra Rasa काव्यस्य आत्मा रस: |
इति वृत्तम् तु काव्यस्य शरीरम् |
रसात्मकं काव्यम् |
500 BC
Bhaamaha Kaavyaalamkaara Alamkara काव्यस्य आत्मा अलंकार: | 700 AD (P.V. Kane – 8th)
Dhandi Kaavyaadharsha 10 Gunas, दश गुणा: (Alamkara Lakshanamand kaavya lakshanam, चम्पु) काव्यशोभाकरान् धर्मान् अलङ्कारान् प्रचक्ष्यते|.. शरीरं तावदिष्टार्थव्यवच्छिन्ना पदावली| 7th

Kanchi, great grandson of Bhaaravi

Vaamana Kaavyaalankaara Sutra and its Vrutti Reeti (way of expression) रीतिरात्मा काव्यस्य | First to think of soul

काव्यशोभायाः कर्तारो धर्मा गुणाः । तदतिशय-हेतवस्त्वलङ्कारः | पूर्वे नित्यः |

Alamkara enhance the beauty. Guna cause them and are essential.3 kinds of reetis.

8th Jayapida’s court, Kashmir
Udbatta Kaavyalamkara Sara Sangraha 9th Shantha Rasa Also commentaries on Bhaamaha’s work 8th Jayapida’s court, Kashmir
Rudrata Kaavyalamkaara 10th Preyas Rasa Staayibhaava preethi or vaatsalya 9th


Anandavardhana Dhvanyaaloka Dhvani काव्यस्य आत्मा ध्वनि: | 9th  AD


Kavyamimamsa Investigation of Poetics (Kaavya Lakshanam) कवेः कर्म काव्यम् | kavishiksha or training of poets 9th-10th
Abhinava Gupta Commentaries Lochana on dhvanyaaloka, Abhinava Bhaarati on Naatya Shaastra Rasaanubhava Process of realization of Rasa 980 to 1020
Kuntaka Vakrookti Jivitam Vakrotti
(crooked speech)
काव्यस्य आत्मावक्रोत्ति: | 10th


Dhananjaya (and Dhanika) Dasharoopaka (and commentary Avaloka) Taatparya (opposed Dhvani) 10th
Bhoja Deva / Bhoja Raja Srngaaraprakaasha and सरस्वतीकण्ठाभरण Srngaara and Sanskrit Grammar Srngaara is the only rasa; Revised edition of Sanskrit Grammar 10th  AD Malwa

(till 1055)

Mahima Batta Vyaktiviveka Anumaana

(opposed Dhvani)

Defects in Dhvani and showed that anumaana is present in Dhvani examples. Elaborated on Anauchitya 11th Kashmir
Kshemendra Auchitya Vichaara Charcha Auchitya auchitya is the jivita of rasa. 27 types of auchitya. 11th AD

student of Abhinavagupta



Kaavya Prakaasha (Kaavya Lakshanam) तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ सगुणावनलंकृती पुनः क्वापि 12th


Saahitya Dharpana Ukti


उक्तिविषेशः काव्यम् |

वाक्यं रसात्मकं काव्यम् |

14th Orissa
Rupagoswami Bhaktirasaamritasindhu Bhakti Rasa Like Madhusoodhana Saraswati, Bhakti rasa 15th – 16th
Appayya Dikshita Kuvalayaananda 100 alamkaaras 100 works on various subjects 16th  Tamil Nadu
जगन्नाथः Jagannatha Pandita Raja title given by Shah Jahan Rasa Gangadhaaraa (Kaavya Lakshanam) Rasa Sutra explanation रमनीयार्थ-प्रतिपादक-शब्दं काव्यम् | Only 9 rasas. Only prathibha is the cause of kavya (no nipunata and abhyaasa). Dhvani follower but splits shabda chitra and artha chitra into two separate levels. Rasa – indescribable illusion. Critic – Appaiya and Bhattoji Dikshita 17th Telugu Brahmin 1620-1665

There were other aalamkaarikaas –Lolata, Kaiyatta, and (the Jaina poet) Hemachandra (Kaavyaanushaashana).

(Video) Vedic Suktas – KSOU MA – Harini

The meanings of the suktas that have been asked until now in the exam and the points for the short notes have been explained by Harini.

Important suktas covered in 2016 contact class. 2

ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं Mantra Rig 01.035.001 Savitr. 2

विष्णो॒र्नु कं॑ Mantra Rig 01.154.001 Vishnu. 3

हिर॑ण्यपाणिः Mantra Rig 01.035.009 – Savitr. 4

यो जा॒त ए॒व प्र॑थ॒मो – rig-02-012-001  – Indra. 5

यस्याश्वा॑सः प्र॒दिशि॒ – rig-02-012-007   – Indra. 6

जन॑स्य गो॒पा – rig-05-011-001   – Agni 7

Other exam questions. 8

आ कृ॒ष्णेन॒ रज॑सा॒  Savitr. 8

ति॒स्रो द्याव॑:  Savitr. 9

वि सु॑प॒र्णो  Savitr. 9

प्र तद्विष्णु॑: स्तवते  – vishnu. 10

प्र विष्ण॑वे शू॒षमे॑तु॒ – vishnu. 10

तद॑स्य प्रि॒यम॒भि पाथो॑  – vishnu. 11

मा त्वा॑ रुद्र चुक्रुधामा॒   – Rudra. 11

स्तु॒हि श्रु॒तं ग॑र्त॒सदं॒  Rudra. 12

कु॒मा॒रश्चि॑त्पि॒तरं॒ वन्द॑मानं॒ – Rudra. 12

ता आ च॑रन्ति सम॒ना  – Ushas. 13

धीरा॒ त्व॑स्य महि॒ना  Varuna. 14

प्रा॒वे॒पा मा॑ बृह॒तो  – Aksha. 15

जा॒या त॑प्यते – Aksha. 15

अ॒क्षैर्मा दी॑व्यः – Aksha. 16

Important suktas covered in 2016 contact class

ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं Mantra Rig 01.035.001 Savitr

ऋषि: (Rishi) :- हिरण्यस्तूप आङ्गिरसः
देवता (Devataa) :- (अग्निर्मित्रावरुणौ, रात्रिः) सविता
छन्द: (Chhand) :- जगती


ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं प्र॑थ॒मं स्व॒स्तये॒
ह्वया॑मि मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से ।
ह्वया॑मि॒ रात्रीं॒ जग॑तो नि॒वेश॑नीं॒
ह्वया॑मि दे॒वं स॑वि॒तार॑मू॒तये॑ ॥


ह्वया॑मि । अ॒ग्निम् । प्र॒थ॒मम् । स्व॒स्तये॑ ।
ह्वया॑मि । मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ । इ॒ह । अव॑से ।
ह्वया॑मि । रात्री॑म् । जग॑तः । नि॒वेश॑नीम् ।
ह्वया॑मि । दे॒वम् । स॒वि॒तार॑म् । ऊ॒तये॑ ॥

मनुष्यैरहर्निशं सुखायाग्निवायुसूर्याणां सकाशादुपयोगं गृहीत्वा सर्वाणि सुखानि प्राप्याणि नैतदादिना विना कदाचित् कस्यचित् सुखं संभवतीति ॥१॥

I call on Agni first for welfare. I call on Mitraa-Varuna for aid; I call on Night that brings the world to rest; I call on God Savitru for help.


No Avagraha symbol for मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ  — no itikarana as there is no ईकार or एकार |

विष्णो॒र्नु कं॑ Mantra Rig 01.154.001 Vishnu

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- दीर्घतमा औचथ्यः
देवता (Devataa) :- विष्णुः
छन्द: (Chhand) :- त्रिस्टुप्


विष्णो॒र्नु कं॑ वी॒र्या॑णि॒ प्र वो॑चं॒
यः पार्थि॑वानि विम॒मे रजां॑सि ।
यो अस्क॑भाय॒दुत्त॑रं स॒धस्थं॑
विचक्रमा॒णस्त्रे॒धोरु॑गा॒यः ॥

विष्णोः॑ । नु । क॒म् । वी॒र्या॑णि । प्र । वो॒च॒म् ।
यः | पार्थि॑वानि | वि॒ऽम॒मे | रजां॑सि ।
यः । अस्क॑भायत् । उत्ऽत॑रम् ।  स॒धऽस्थ॑म् ।
वि॒ऽच॒क्र॒मा॒णः । त्रे॒धा । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यः ।

यथा सूर्यः स्वाकर्षणेन सर्वान् भूगोलान् धरति तथा सूर्यादींल्लोकान् कारणं जीवांश्च जगदीश्वरो धत्ते य इमानसंख्यलोकान् सद्यो निर्ममे यस्मिन्निमे प्रलीयन्ते च स एव सर्वैरुपास्यः ॥१॥

I would want to declare the mighty deeds of Vishnu,  of him who measured out the earthly regions, who supported the highest place of congregation, thrice setting down his footstep, widely striding, who is excessively praised.


Avagraha in samasta pada स॒धऽस्थ॑म् , उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यः and in words with prefixes वि॒ऽम॒मे,  वि॒ऽच॒क्र॒मा॒णः , उत्ऽत॑रम्

Split – त्रे॒धोरु॑गा॒यः as त्रे॒धा । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यः ।

नु । क॒म् – very quickly विष्णोः॑ । वी॒र्या॑णि  – vishnu’s valour । प्र । वो॒च॒म्  – I should proclaim यः | पार्थि॑वानि | रजां॑सि । वि॒ऽम॒मे  – measured the terrestrial regions | यः । उत्ऽत॑रम् ।  स॒धऽस्थ॑म् । अस्क॑भायत् has established an upper gathering space named satya loka | वि॒ऽच॒क्र॒मा॒णः Does of heroic acts  त्रे॒धा । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यः – took three huge steps, another defn by saayana is that he has been sung by many in different ways.

हिर॑ण्यपाणिः Mantra Rig 01.035.009 – Savitr

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- हिरण्यस्तूप आङ्गिरसः
देवता (Devataa) :- सविता
छन्द: (Chhand) :- निचृज्जगती


हिर॑ण्यपाणिः सवि॒ता विच॑र्षणि-
रु॒भे द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी अ॒न्तरी॑यते ।
अपामी॑वां॒ बाध॑ते॒ वेति॒ सूर्य॑-
म॒भि कृ॒ष्णेन॒ रज॑सा॒ द्यामृ॑णोति ॥


हिर॑ण्यऽपाणिः । स॒वि॒ता । विऽच॑र्षणिः ।
उ॒भे इति॑। द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी इति॑। अ॒न्तः। ई॒य॒ते॒ ।
अप॑ । अमी॑वाम् । बाध॑ते । वेति॑ । सूर्य॑म् ।
अ॒भि । कृ॒ष्णेन॑ । रज॑सा । द्याम् । ऋ॒णो॒ति॒ ॥

अत्र वाचकलुप्तोपमालङ्कारः। हे सभापते यथायं सूर्योबहुभिर्लोकैः सहाकर्षणसंबन्धेन वर्त्तमानः सर्वं वस्तूजातं प्रकाशयन् प्रकाशपृथिव्योरान्तर्यं करोति तथैव त्वया भवितव्यमिति ॥९॥


The golden-handed Savitar, far-seeing, goes on his way between the earth and heaven, drives away sickness, bids the Sun approach us, and spreads the bright sky through the darksome region.


उ॒भे, द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी – Dvivachanam ending in ए and ई – प्रगृह्यम् – इतिकरणम्


अपामी॑वां॒ to be split as अप॑ । अमी॑वाम् ।

Split अ॒न्तरी॑यते as अ॒न्तः। ई॒य॒ते॒ ।

Avagraha in samasta pada and in words with prefixes  — हिर॑ण्यऽपाणिः , विऽच॑र्षणिः,

हिर॑ण्यऽपाणिः ।golden hand  स॒वि॒ता । विऽच॑र्षणिः  – far sighted (saayana) or active (Mac donal) उ॒भे  द्यावा॑पृथि॒वी  अ॒न्तः – between the heaven and earth ई॒य॒ते॒ – goes
अमी॑वाम्  diseases। अप॑ बाध॑ते  – drives away   सूर्य॑म्  वेति॑ । Guides the sun. कृ॒ष्णेन॑ । रज॑सा । through the darksome region द्याम् । अ॒भि । ऋ॒णो॒ति॒ spreads the bright sky.

यो जा॒त ए॒व प्र॑थ॒मो – rig-02-012-001  – Indra

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- गृत्समदः शौनकः
देवता (Devataa) :- इन्द्र:
छन्द: (Chhand) :- त्रिष्टुप् संहितापाठः

यो जा॒त ए॒व प्र॑थ॒मो मन॑स्वान्-     दे॒वो दे॒वान्क्रतु॑ना प॒र्यभू॑षत् ।
यस्य॒ शुष्मा॒द्रोद॑सी॒ अभ्य॑सेतां       नृ॒म्णस्य॑ म॒ह्ना स ज॑नास॒ इन्द्र॑: ॥


यः । जा॒तः । ए॒व । प्र॒थ॒मः । मन॑स्वान् ।
दे॒वः । दे॒वान् । क्रतु॑ना । प॒रि॒ऽअभू॑षत् ।
यस्य॑। शुष्मा॑त् । रोद॑सी॒ इति॑। अभ्य॑सेताम् ।
नृ॒म्णस्य॑ । म॒ह्ना । सः । ज॒ना॒सः॒ । इन्द्रः॑।

येनेश्वरेण सर्वप्रकाशकः सर्वस्य धर्त्ता स्वप्रकाशाकर्षणाद्व्यवस्थापकः सूर्यलोको निर्मितः स सूर्य्यस्य सूर्योऽस्तीति वेद्यम् ॥१॥


यः । जा॒तः । ए॒व । He soon after birth  प्र॒थ॒मः । मन॑स्वान् ।  दे॒वः । first and foremost of the wise gods  क्रतु॑ना । by his actions दे॒वान् ।  प॒रि॒ऽअभू॑षत् । dethroned or surpassed the other devas that were in power यस्य॑। नृ॒म्णस्य॑ । शुष्मा॑त् । by the fierceness of the army  रोद॑सी॒ the two worlds अभ्य॑सेताम्  trembled । सः ।  इन्द्रः॑। ज॒ना॒सः॒ ।  – Know him to be Indra.


रोद॑सी॒ – Dvivachanam ending in ई – प्रगृह्यम् – इतिकरणम्


No Udaatta in ज॑नास॒

Visarga in जा॒तः ए॒व

यस्याश्वा॑सः प्र॒दिशि॒ – rig-02-012-007   – Indra

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- गृत्समदः शौनकः
देवता (Devataa) :- इन्द्र:
छन्द: (Chhand) :- निचृत्त्रिष्टुप् संहितापाठः

यस्याश्वा॑सः प्र॒दिशि॒ यस्य॒ गावो॒      यस्य॒ ग्रामा॒ यस्य॒ विश्वे॒ रथा॑सः ।

यः सूर्यं॒ य उ॒षसं॑ ज॒जान॒      यो अ॒पां ने॒ता स ज॑नास॒ इन्द्र॑: ॥


यस्य॑ । अश्वा॑सः । प्र॒ऽदिशि॑। यस्य॑। गावः॑

यस्य॑ । ग्रामाः॑ । यस्य॑ । विश्वे॑ । रथा॑सः ।

यः। सूर्य॑म् । यः । उ॒षस॑म् । ज॒जान॑ ।

यः। अ॒पाम् । ने॒ता। सः। ज॒ना॒सः॒ । इन्द्रः॑ ॥


In whose control are the horses, kine, clans, all chariots; who creates the sun, the dawn; who is the guide of the waters; he, O men is Indra

यस्य॑ । अश्वा॑सः । प्र॒ऽदिशि॑।  One who has control over the horses, यस्य॑। गावः॑  cows, यस्य॑ । ग्रामाः॑ । clan or jana padas,  । यस्य॑ । विश्वे॑ । रथा॑सः । chariots, यः। सूर्य॑म् । यः । उ॒षस॑म् । ज॒जान॑ । one who creates the sun and dawn, यः। अ॒पाम् । ने॒ता। one who guides the water, सः। ज॒ना॒सः॒ । इन्द्रः॑  such a  person know him to be Indra

हे मनुष्या यदि भवन्तो वेगाद्यनेगुणयुक्तं सर्वमूर्त्तद्रव्याधारं शीघ्रगामी विमानादियानवर्षानिमित्तं विद्युदग्निं जानीयस्तर्हि किं किमुत्तमं कार्य्यं साधितु न शक्नुयुः ॥७॥


यस्याश्वा॑सः – यस्य॑ । अश्वा॑सः due to the udaatta in the first letter of the first word and the svaritha in the second word.


Avagraha – प्र॒ऽदिशि॑

जन॑स्य गो॒पा – rig-05-011-001   – Agni


जन॑स्य गो॒पा अ॑जनिष्ट॒ जागृ॑वि-    र॒ग्निः सु॒दक्ष॑: सुवि॒ताय॒ नव्य॑से ।
घृ॒तप्र॑तीको बृह॒ता दि॑वि॒स्पृशा॑     द्यु॒मद्वि भा॑ति भर॒तेभ्य॒: शुचि॑: ॥


जन॑स्य । गो॒पाः । अ॒ज॒नि॒ष्ट॒ । जागृ॑विः ।
अ॒ग्निः । सु॒ऽदक्षः॑ । सु॒वि॒ताय॑ । नव्य॑से ।
घृ॒तऽप्र॑तीकः । बृ॒ह॒ता । दि॒वि॒ऽस्पृशा॑ ।
द्यु॒ऽमत् । वि । भा॒ति॒ । भ॒र॒तेभ्यः॑ । शुचिः॑॥


जन॑स्य । गो॒पाः । Protector of the people;  जागृ॑विः । watchful person; सु॒ऽदक्षः॑ ।  a skillful person ;  अ॒ग्निः Agni ;  अ॒ज॒नि॒ष्ट॒ ।  नव्य॑से । for the fresh ;  सु॒वि॒ताय॑ । For the welfare of the people;   घृ॒तऽप्र॑तीकः । He has the face of ghee or butter; शुचिः॑  – agni ; द्यु॒ऽमत् । वि भा॒ति॒ । shines brilliantly | बृ॒ह॒ता । दि॒वि॒ऽस्पृशा॑ । with the lofty flames touch the heaven; भ॒र॒तेभ्यः॑ for the family of rishis that praise him.

The watchful Guardian of the people hath been born, Agni, the very strong, for fresh prosperity. With oil upon his face, with high heaven touching flame, he shines splendidly, pure, for the Bharatas.


Visarga – गो॒पाः

Avagraha  – सु॒ऽदक्षः॑ | घृ॒तऽप्र॑तीकः । दि॒वि॒ऽस्पृशा॑ । द्यु॒ऽमत् ।

Split – द्यु॒मद्वि  as द्यु॒ऽमत् । वि ।

Other exam questions

आ कृ॒ष्णेन॒ रज॑सा॒  Savitr

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- हिरण्यस्तूप आङ्गिरसः
देवता (Devataa) :- सविता
छन्द: (Chhand) :- विराट्त्रिस्टुप्

 कृ॒ष्णेन॒ रज॑सा॒ वर्त॑मानो निवे॒शय॑न्न॒मृतं॒ मर्त्यं॑   हि॒र॒ण्यये॑न सवि॒ता रथे॒ना दे॒वो या॑ति॒ भुव॑नानि॒ पश्य॑न् 

आ । कृ॒ष्णेन॑ । रज॑सा । वर्त॑मानः । नि॒ऽवे॒शय॑न् । अ॒मृत॑म् । मर्त्य॑म् । च॒ । हि॒र॒ण्यये॑न । स॒वि॒ता रथे॑न । आ । दे॒वः । या॒ति॒ । भुव॑नानि । पश्य॑न् ॥

Rolling through the dark spaces, laying the dead and living souls to rest,  travels on a golden chariot, seeing all the creatures.


निवे॒शय॑न्न॒मृतं॒ à नि॒ऽवे॒शय॑न् । अ॒मृत॑म्

रथे॒ना à रथे॒न॑ । आ

Avagraha नि॒ऽवे॒शय॑न् ।

ति॒स्रो द्याव॑:  Savitr

ति॒स्रो द्याव॑सवि॒तुर्द्वा उ॒पस्थाँ॒ एका॑ य॒मस्य॒ भुव॑ने विरा॒षाट्  आ॒णिं  रथ्य॑म॒मृताधि॑ तस्थुरि॒ह ब्र॑वीतु॒  उ॒ तच्चिके॑तत् 

ति॒स्रः । द्यावः॑ । स॒वि॒तुः । द्वौ / द्यौ  । उ॒पऽस्था॑ ।  एका॑ ।  य॒मस्य॑  ।  भुव॑ने ।  वि॒रा॒षाट् ।  आ॒णिम् । न । रथ्य॑म् । अ॒मृता॑ । अधि॑ । त॒स्थुः॒ । इ॒ह । ब्र॒वी॒तु॒ । यः । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । तत् । चिके॑तत् ॥


May be दिव् gets द्यावादेश | द्वा changes to द्वौ / द्यौ |

उ॒ ऊँ॒ इति॑


Of the the three world – dau, antariksha and bhooloka, Dau and Bhooloka are near to Savitru deva. They are illumined by Surya. He harbours (viraashat) the immortal souls in Yama’s place like (न)  like the axle of a ratha. Let the one who knows this, can tell it here.
  à त॒स्थुः॒ । इ॒ह

Avagraha उ॒पऽस्था॑  (sthaa is always Anudaatta – sarvaanudaatta)

वि सु॑प॒र्णो  Savitr


वि सु॑प॒र्णो अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाण्यख्यद्गभी॒रवे॑पा॒ असु॑रः सुनी॒थः । क्वे॒३॒॑दानीं॒ सूर्य॒: कश्चि॑केत कत॒मां द्यां र॒श्मिर॒स्या त॑तान ॥


वि । सु॒ऽप॒र्णः । अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि । अ॒ख्य॒त् । ग॒भी॒रऽवे॑पाः । असु॑रः। सु॒ऽनी॒थः । क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॑म् । सूर्यः॑ । कः । चि॒के॒त॒ । क॒त॒माम् । द्याम् । र॒श्मिः । अ॒स्य॒ । आ । त॒ता॒न॒ ॥

(Note: Online sites including Vedakosh have a different version which seems to be incorrect to me).
वि । सु॒ऽप॒र्णः । अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि । अ॒ख्य॒त् । ग॒भी॒रऽवे॑पाः । असु॒रः। सु॒ऽनी॒थः । क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॒म् । सूर्यः॑ । कः । चि॒के॒त॒ । क॒त॒माम् । द्याम् । र॒श्मिः । अ॒स्य॒ । आ । त॒ता॒न॒ ॥


Kva – always Svaritha



Avagraha –  सु॒ऽप॒र्णः   ग॒भी॒रऽवे॑पाः ।  सु॒ऽनी॒थः ।

ग॒भी॒र – deep वे॑पाः  – quivering sound  | सु॒ऽनी॒थः – guides well । असु॑रः – one who throws away the enemies – the divine being ।  त॒ता॒न॒  – to continue or spread | सु॒ऽप॒र्णः  – the rays of the sun diffused all over – compared to a bird with charming features | अ॒ख्य॒त् – surveyed |  अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि  – all the worlds of atmospheric regions  क्व॑ । इ॒दानी॑म् । सूर्यः॑  – where is that sun now? ।  क॒त॒माम्  द्याम् ।  अ॒स्य॒ । र॒श्मिः ।  आ । त॒ता॒न॒ – till which region has his rays extended? कः । चि॒के॒त॒ । – who has understood this?

प्र तद्विष्णु॑: स्तवते  – vishnu


प्र तद्विष्णु॑स्तवते वी॒र्ये॑ण मृ॒गो  भी॒मः कु॑च॒रो गि॑रि॒ष्ठाः  यस्यो॒रुषु॑ त्रि॒षु वि॒क्रम॑णेष्वधिक्षि॒यन्ति॒  भुव॑नानि॒ विश्वा॑ 

पदपाठः प्र । तत् । विष्णुः॑ । स्त॒व॒ते॒ । वी॒र्ये॑ण । मृ॒गः । न । भी॒मः । कु॒च॒रः । गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः । यस्य॑ । उ॒रुषु॑ । त्रि॒षु । वि॒ऽक्रम॑णेषु । अ॒धि॒ऽक्षि॒यन्ति॑ । भुव॑नानि । विश्वा॑ ॥


वी॒र्ये॑ण – anuswara is followed by a Svaritha as it is a Jaateeyasvarita. By the sutra तित् स्वरितम्, तित् are svarithas. Here we have वीर् + यत् where यत् is a तित् |


गि॑रि॒ष्ठाः  à गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः   shthaa becomes sthaa

Avagraha — गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः , वि॒ऽक्रम॑णेषु  , अ॒धि॒ऽक्षि॒यन्ति॑

प्र । तत् । विष्णुः॑  – that vishnu वी॒र्ये॑ण । स्त॒व॒ते॒ । – being praised for heroism | न like  भी॒मः । मृ॒गः ।  terrific beast | कु॒च॒रः – wanders at will ।  यस्य॑ ।  त्रि॒षु । वि॒ऽक्रम॑णेषु । उ॒रुषु॑ ।  – in whose 3 steps विश्वा॑ | भुव॑नानि । अ॒धि॒ऽक्षि॒यन्ति॑ ।  – the three worlds dwell | गि॒रि॒ऽस्थाः । stays in mountain

प्र विष्ण॑वे शू॒षमे॑तु॒ – vishnu

प्र विष्ण॑वे शू॒षमे॑तु॒ मन्म॑ गिरि॒क्षित॑ उरुगा॒याय॒ वृष्णे॑   इ॒दं दी॒र्घं प्रय॑तं स॒धस्थ॒मेको॑ विम॒मे त्रि॒भिरित्प॒देभि॑

प्र । विष्ण॑वे । शू॒षम् । ए॒तु॒ । मन्म॑ । गि॒रि॒ऽक्षिते॑ । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒याय॑ । वृष्णे॑ । यः । इ॒दम् । दी॒र्घम् । प्रऽय॑तम् । स॒धऽस्थ॑म् । एकः॑ । वि॒ऽम॒मे । त्रि॒ऽभिः । इत् । प॒देभिः॑ ॥


No avagraha for प॒देभिः॑ as it has undergone changes


Avagraha – गि॒रि॒ऽक्षिते॑ । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒याय॑ ।  प्रऽय॑तम् । स॒धऽस्थ॑म् ।  वि॒ऽम॒मे । त्रि॒ऽभिः ।

प्र ।  ए॒तु॒ । मन्म॑ – my prayer | शू॒षम् – born out of my deeds (Sayana) or inspiring (Mac Donald) विष्ण॑वे ।  let it go to Vishnu  गि॒रि॒ऽक्षिते॑ । to one who resides in mountain उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒याय॑ । to one who has wide steps वृष्णे॑  – to one who showers desires (Sayana) or to the bull (Mac D),  Donald) यः । एकः॑ ।इ॒दम् । दी॒र्घम् । प्रऽय॑तम् । स॒धऽस्थ॑म् ।  वि॒ऽम॒मे । One who had measured the long far extending dwelling space त्रि॒ऽभिः प॒देभिः॑   by three steps। इत् ।  ॥

तद॑स्य प्रि॒यम॒भि पाथो॑  – vishnu तद॑स्य प्रि॒यम॒भि पाथो॑ अश्यां॒ नरो॒ यत्र॑ देव॒यवो॒ मद॑न्ति  उ॒रु॒क्र॒मस्य॒  हि बन्धु॑रि॒त्था विष्णो॑प॒दे प॑र॒मे मध्व॒ उत्स॑

तत् । अ॒स्य॒ । प्रि॒यम् । अ॒भि । पाथः॑ । अ॒श्या॒म् । नरः॑ । यत्र॑ । दे॒व॒यवः॑ । मद॑न्ति । उ॒रु॒ऽक्र॒मस्य॑ । सः । हि । बन्धुः॑ । इ॒त्था । विष्णोः॑ । प॒दे । प॒र॒मे । मध्वः॑ । उत्सः॑ ॥

Avagraha –  उ॒रु॒ऽक्र॒मस्य॑  |

अ॒भि अ॒श्या॒म् । I shall attain तत् । अ॒स्य॒ । प्रि॒यम् । पाथः॑ । that dear domain यत्र॑ । दे॒व॒यवः॑ । where the people who desire the divine or devoted to Vishnu मद॑न्ति । rejoice |  सः । हि । बन्धुः॑ । He is the relative  विष्णोः॑ । प॒र॒मे । प॒दे ।  in that highest step of Vishnu मध्वः॑ । उत्सः॑  – fountain of nectar | It is a point of no return.

मा त्वा॑ रुद्र चुक्रुधामा॒   – Rudra


मा त्वा॑ रुद्र चुक्रुधामा॒ नमो॑भि॒र्मा दुःष्टु॑ती वृषभ॒ मा सहू॑ती । उन्नो॑ वी॒राँ अ॑र्पय भेष॒जेभि॑र्भि॒षक्त॑मं त्वा भि॒षजां॑ शृणोमि ॥


मा । त्वा॒ । रु॒द्र॒ । चु॒क्रु॒धा॒म॒ । नमः॑ऽभिः । मा । दुःऽस्तु॑ती । वृ॒ष॒भ॒ । मा । सऽहू॑ती । उत् । नः॒ । वी॒रान् । अ॒र्प॒य॒ । भे॒ष॒जेभिः॑ । भि॒षक्ऽत॑मम् । त्वा॒ । भि॒षजा॑म् । शृ॒णो॒मि॒ ॥

मा । त्वा॒ । रु॒द्र॒ । चु॒क्रु॒धा॒म॒ । नमः॑ऽभिः । मा । दुःऽस्तु॑ती । वृ॒ष॒भ॒ । मा । सऽहू॑ती । उत् । नः॒ । वी॒रान् । अ॒र्प॒य॒ । भे॒ष॒जेभिः॑ । भि॒षक्ऽत॑मम् । त्वा॒ । भि॒षजा॑म् । शृ॒णो॒मि॒ ॥

Rudra is known for his anger (क्रु॒ध्). The hymns will be to pacify him in the Rudra suktas. He is the physician having the medicines.

मा । त्वा॒ । रु॒द्र॒ । चु॒क्रु॒धा॒म॒ May we not anger you, नमः॑ऽभिः । by the improper salutations, । मा । दुःऽस्तु॑ती । by ill-praises, मा । सऽहू॑ती ।  by joint invocation along with some other deity, वृ॒ष॒भ॒ One who is on the bull, उत् । नः॒ । वी॒रान् ।  elavate our heros भे॒ष॒जेभिः॑ ।  अ॒र्प॒य॒ । bestow us with the remedies. त्वा॒ । भि॒षजा॑म् भि॒षक्ऽत॑मम् । शृ॒णो॒मि॒ ॥ you are the best of the physician is what I hear.

नमो॑भि॒र्मा  à नमः॑ऽभिः । मा

उन्नो॑ à उत् । नः॒ ।

वी॒राँ à वी॒रान्

स्तु॒हि श्रु॒तं ग॑र्त॒सदं॒  Rudra


स्तु॒हि श्रु॒तं ग॑र्त॒सदं॒ युवा॑नं मृ॒गं  भी॒ममु॑पह॒त्नुमु॒ग्रम्  मृ॒ळा ज॑रि॒त्रे रु॑द्र॒ स्तवा॑नो॒ऽन्यं ते॑ अ॒स्मन्नि व॑पन्तु॒ सेना॑


स्तु॒हि । श्रु॒तम् । ग॒र्त॒ऽसद॑म् । युवा॑नम् । मृ॒गम् । न । भी॒मम् । उ॒प॒ऽह॒त्नुम् । उ॒ग्रम् । मृ॒ळ । ज॒रि॒त्रे । रु॒द्र॒ । स्तवा॑नः । अ॒न्यम् । ते॒ । अ॒स्मत् । नि । व॒प॒न्तु॒ । सेनाः॑ ॥


स्तु॒हि praise him, श्रु॒तम् । one who is famous, ग॒र्त॒ऽसद॑म् । gartha is the seat of a war chariot, one who sits on that sit, युवा॑नम् । he is young,  उ॒प॒ऽह॒त्नुम् one who slays भी॒मम् । मृ॒गम् । न । like a fearful beast, उ॒ग्रम् । fierce and mighty. स्तवा॑नः । Having been praised, मृ॒ळ । please show mercy, ज॒रि॒त्रे । to the invoker,रु॒द्र॒ ।  O Rudra, ते॒ । सेनाः॑ let your army अ॒स्मत् । अ॒न्यम् । नि । व॒प॒न्तु॒ । harm someone else other than us.


अ॒स्मन्नि – अ॒स्मत् । नि

Avagraha – ग॒र्त॒ऽसद॑म्  , उ॒प॒ऽह॒त्नुम्

कु॒मा॒रश्चि॑त्पि॒तरं॒ वन्द॑मानं॒ – Rudra


कु॒मा॒रश्चि॑त्पि॒तरं॒ वन्द॑मानं॒ प्रति॑ नानाम रुद्रोप॒यन्त॑म् । भूरे॑र्दा॒तारं॒ सत्प॑तिं गृणीषे स्तु॒तस्त्वं भे॑ष॒जा रा॑स्य॒स्मे ॥


कु॒मा॒रः । चि॒त् । पि॒तर॒म् । वन्द॑मानम् । प्रति॑ । न॒ना॒म॒ । रु॒द्र॒ । उ॒प॒ऽयन्त॑म् । भूरेः॑ । दा॒तार॑म् । सत्ऽप॑तिम् । गृ॒णी॒षे॒ । स्तु॒तः । त्वम् । भे॒ष॒जा । रा॒सि॒ । अ॒स्मे इति॑ ॥

वन्द॑मानम् । पि॒तर॒म् । प्रति॑ । उ॒प॒ऽयन्त॑म् । कु॒मा॒रः । Like the son who is moving towards the father who is blessing, न॒ना॒म॒ । रु॒द्र॒  I turn towards Rudra, भूरेः॑ । दा॒तार॑म् । Giver of much, गृ॒णी॒षे॒ I praise  सत्ऽप॑तिम् । the true lord. स्तु॒तः त्वम् ।  You being thus praised, भे॒ष॒जा ।  अ॒स्मे । रा॒सि॒ । give us the medicines.


रा॑स्य॒स्मे à रा॒सि॒ । अ॒स्मे इति॑ ॥


रुद्रोप॒यन्त॑म् à । रु॒द्र॒  | उ॒प॒ऽयन्त॑म्

भूरे॑र्दा॒तारं॒ à भूरेः॑ । दा॒तार॑म् ।

Avagraha – सत्ऽप॑तिम्  उ॒प॒ऽयन्त॑म्

कु॒मा॒रश्चि॑त्पि॒तरं॒ à कु॒मा॒रः । चि॒त् । पि॒तर॒म् ।

ता आ च॑रन्ति सम॒ना  – Ushas


ता आ च॑रन्ति सम॒ना पु॒रस्ता॑त्समा॒नत॑: सम॒ना प॑प्रथा॒नाः । ऋ॒तस्य॑ दे॒वीः सद॑सो बुधा॒ना गवां॒ न  सर्गा॑ उ॒षसो॑ जरन्ते ॥


ताः । आ । च॒र॒न्ति॒ । स॒म॒ना । पु॒रस्ता॑त् । स॒मा॒नतः॑ । स॒म॒ना । प॒प्र॒था॒नाः । ऋ॒तस्य॑ । दे॒वीः । सद॑सः । बु॒धा॒नाः । गवा॑म् । न । सर्गाः॑ । उ॒षसः॑ । ज॒र॒न्ते॒ ॥

स॒म॒ना – two meanings – uniformly or something that is there together .
स॒म॒ना । आ च॒र॒न्ति॒ । approaches or moves everywhere uniformly ; ताः  The rays of dawn ; पु॒रस्ता॑त्  from the eastern end; स॒मा॒नतः॑   स॒म॒ना ।  Uniformly, altogether from one point ; प॒प्र॒था॒नाः । they spread ; दे॒वीः । the goddesses ऋ॒तस्य॑ ।  सद॑सः ।  from the seat of yagna or cosmic order बु॒धा॒नाः । arousing or originating.  गवा॑म् ।  सर्गाः॑ । न । It is like the water that is being released (sayana) or the herd of cows that are let loose (Mac D) उ॒षसः॑ । ज॒र॒न्ते॒  They make noise.


ता आ à ताः । आ ।

सर्गा॑ उ॒षसो॑ à  सर्गाः॑ । उ॒षसः॑ ।

धीरा॒ त्व॑स्य महि॒ना  Varuna

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- वसिष्ठः
देवता (Devataa) :- वरुणः
छन्द: (Chhand) :- निचृत्त्रिष्टुप्


धीरा॒ त्व॑स्य महि॒ना ज॒नूंषि॒ वि यस्त॒स्तम्भ॒ रोद॑सी चिदु॒र्वी । प्र नाक॑मृ॒ष्वं नु॑नुदे बृ॒हन्तं॑ द्वि॒ता नक्ष॑त्रं प॒प्रथ॑च्च॒ भूम॑ ॥


धीरा॑ । तु । अ॒स्य॒ । म॒हि॒ना । ज॒नूंषि॑ । वि । यः । त॒स्तम्भ॑ । रोद॑सी॒ इति॑ । चि॒त् । उ॒र्वी इति॑ । प्र । नाक॑म् । ऋ॒ष्वम् । नु॒नु॒दे॒ । बृ॒हन्त॑म् । द्वि॒ता । नक्ष॑त्रम् । प॒प्रथ॑त् । च॒ । भूम॑ ॥

धीरा॑  The intelligent or the courageous ones;  ज॒नूंषि॑   The generations ; अ॒स्य॒ । म॒हि॒ना ।  by his might; यः । वि ।  त॒स्तम्भ॑ ।  one who supported or sustained रोद॑सी॒  – two wide worlds – heaven and earth. ऋ॒ष्वम् darshaneeyam (saayana) or high (Mac D) द्वि॒ता  – dual;  बृ॒हन्त॑म् । नाक॑म् । lofty sky and नक्ष॑त्रम् । day star (Sun) , प्र । नु॒नु॒दे॒ । pushed;


धीरा॒ त्व॑स्य  — Anudaatta followed by Svaritha

Notes Reproduced From #SanskritAppreciationHour

Varuna is unique among early Vedic gods in that you cannot just praise him, sacrifice to him and appease him. He is the keeper of ऋत and will tolerate no transgression of his law. There are minor and major transgressions as we will see and for Varuna, things like gambling, drinking and so on are minor misdeeds – the worst most unacceptable sin of all is un-truth. To lie. His eye is the Sun with which he watches all our actions. He has spies everywhere. He is ruthless with transgressors but is also kind to those who are truly repentant and seek expiation for their misdeeds. In this hymn, poet Vasishtha knows not what he has done, but he knows he has angered Varuna. Let us see what he has to say to the god.

धीरा (धीराणि) intelligent तु indeed जनूंषि [are] generations (जनुस्) अस्य महिना by the greatness/might यः [of] him who वि- तस्तम्भ held, propped as under, apart उर्वी wide रोदसी worlds चिद् indeed प्र-नुनुदे he pushed [the] ऋष्वं high बृहन्तं vast, great नाकम् the vault of heaven, firmament द्विता doubly/also नक्षत्रं day star (sun)पप्रथत् च and spread out भूम the earth ॥ RV 7.86.1

प्रा॒वे॒पा मा॑ बृह॒तो  – Aksha


प्रा॒वे॒पा मा॑ बृह॒तो मा॑दयन्ति प्रवाते॒जा इरि॑णे॒ वर्वृ॑तानाः । सोम॑स्येव मौजव॒तस्य॑ भ॒क्षो वि॒भीद॑को॒ जागृ॑वि॒र्मह्य॑मछान् ॥


प्रा॒वे॒पाः । मा॒ । बृ॒ह॒तः । मा॒द॒य॒न्ति॒ । प्र॒वा॒ते॒ऽजाः । इरि॑णे । वर्वृ॑तानाः । सोम॑स्यऽइव । मौ॒ज॒ऽव॒तस्य॑ । भ॒क्षः । वि॒ऽभीद॑कः । जागृ॑विः । मह्य॑म् । अ॒छा॒न् ॥

प्रा॒वे॒पाः । The dangling ones – trembling ones – the dice; प्र॒वा॒ते॒ऽजाः । born in a windy place ; वि॒ऽभीद॑कः । the tree which grows in such a place whose nut is used to make the dice;   इरि॑णे On the board, वर्वृ॑तानाः when it rolls,  । मा॒द॒य॒न्ति॒ it gladdens मा॒ me ;  मह्य॑म् अ॒छा॒न् has pleased me ; मौ॒ज॒ऽव॒तस्य॑ । सोम॑स्यऽइव भ॒क्षः like the drink of soma which is obtained from the mujavathi mountain.


प्रा॒वे॒पाः visarga

Avagraha – प्र॒वा॒ते॒ऽजाः , सोम॑स्यऽइव  मौ॒ज॒ऽव॒तस्य॑   वि॒ऽभीद॑कः

जा॒या त॑प्यते – Aksha

ऋषि:   (Rishi) :- कवष ऐलूष अक्षो वा मौजवान्
देवता (Devataa) :- अक्षकितवनिन्दा
छन्द: (Chhand) :- विराट्त्रिस्टुप्


जा॒या त॑प्यते कित॒वस्य॑ ही॒ना मा॒ता पु॒त्रस्य॒ चर॑त॒: क्व॑ स्वित् । ऋ॒णा॒वा बिभ्य॒द्धन॑मि॒च्छमा॑नो॒ऽन्येषा॒मस्त॒मुप॒ नक्त॑मेति ॥


जा॒या । त॒प्य॒ते॒ । कित॒वस्य॑ । ही॒ना । मा॒ता । पु॒त्रस्य॑ । चर॑तः । क्व॑ । स्वि॒त् । ऋ॒ण॒ऽवा । बि॒भ्य॒त् । धन॑म् । इ॒च्छमा॑नः । अ॒न्येषा॑म् । अस्त॑म् । उप॑ । नक्त॑म् । ए॒ति॒ ॥

कित॒वस्य॑ । ही॒ना । जा॒या । त॒प्य॒ते॒ । — The forsaken wife of the gambler grieves; क्व॑ । स्वि॒त् । चर॑तः । पु॒त्रस्य॑ । मा॒ता । — The  mother also grieves not knowing the whereabouts of the son; बि॒भ्य॒त् । being scared ऋ॒ण॒ऽवा । like a thief  धन॑म् । इ॒च्छमा॑नः । desiring money; उप॑ । ए॒ति॒  – He goes; अ॒न्येषा॑म् । नक्त॑म् – other’s house ; अस्त॑म् । at night  ;

अ॒क्षैर्मा दी॑व्यः – Aksha

अ॒क्षैर्मा दी॑व्यः कृ॒षिमित्कृ॑षस्व वि॒त्ते र॑मस्व ब॒हु मन्य॑मानः । तत्र॒ गाव॑: कितव॒ तत्र॑ जा॒या तन्मे॒ वि च॑ष्टे सवि॒तायम॒र्यः ॥

अ॒क्षैः । मा । दी॒व्यः॒ । कृ॒षिम् । इत् । कृ॒ष॒स्व॒ । वि॒त्ते । र॒म॒स्व॒ । ब॒हु । मन्य॑मानः ।  तत्र॑ । गावः॑ । कि॒त॒व॒ । तत्र॑ । जा॒या । तत् । मे॒ । वि । च॒ष्टे॒ । स॒वि॒ता । अ॒यम् । अ॒र्यः ॥

अ॒क्षैः । मा । दी॒व्यः॒ । – Don’t play the dice; कृ॒षिम् । इत् । कृ॒ष॒स्व॒ । Plough your lands ब॒हु । मन्य॑मानः । — considering it to be more; वि॒त्ते । र॒म॒स्व॒ । — enjoy your limited wealth तत्र॑ । गावः॑ । – your cattle is here  कि॒त॒व॒ । O gambler ; तत्र॑ । जा॒या । there is your wife; स॒वि॒ता । अ॒यम् । अ॒र्यः – This noble savitr तत् । वि । च॒ष्टे॒ । this revealed this मे॒ । to me.



In तत्र॑ ta is not Ekashruti as it is in a new line separate from the earlier line.

तन्मे॒ = तत् । मे॒

कृ॒षिमित्कृ॑षस्व = कृ॒षिम् । इत् । कृ॒ष॒स्व॒ ।




Savitr Sukta

  • हिरण्यस्तूपआङ्गिरसः is the rishi
  • Stimulator of solar power – Deity of day and night
  • Often identified with Sun
  • 11 suktas
  • Hiranyattva – hands, body, chariot, are all made of gold
  • His path is without dust – goes both upwards and downwards
  • Transports the departed souls to the appropriate loka
  • Protects men from evil dreams and takes out the papa
  • Drives out the demons
  • Controls water and wind
  • Bringer of happiness after death

Vishnu Sukta

  • Three wide strides – उरुगाय उरुक्रमा
  • Friendship with Indra in killing Vruta
  • One opinion by Shaakapuni – that the three steps represent the three forms – Agni on Earth, thunder in atmospheric region, Surya in heaven.

Rig veda

  • Veda means knowledge. Vidyateanenaitivedaha. It is that literature which sheds light on the transcendental means of achieving what is desirable and avoiding what is not.
  • It is alaukika – beyond the scope of perception and inference. Apaurusheya – not composed by humans.
  • Mantras and brahmanas put together constitute veda.
  • Veda classified into para and apara.
  • Jnanakanda [upanishadic lore] and karmakanda [religious lore].
  • Rig Yajus, Sama and Atharva.
  • Samhitas, brahmanas, aranyakas and Upanishads are 4 parts of a veda.
  • Samhita has suktas. Brahmanas have theological treatises in prose form dealing with sacrificial ceremonies. Aranyakas are concluding part of brahmanas, theosophical contents for pious men who have retired to forests [vanaprastha]. Upanishads deal with the highest philosophical thought.
  • All branches of Indian literature and systems of thought find their root in the Rigveda.
  • RV is the earliest available record. It is the only source of information regarding the early history of Indian people and their society.


Arrangement of Rigveda

  • RV has 1028 hymns and 10, 552 mantras.
  • It is arranged in 2 methods.
  • First method – it is divided into 8 Astakas each containing 8 aadhyayas. The 64 Adhyayas are divided into vargas which is a collection of 5-6 mantras. [ 5-6 mantras àvarga, gp of vargasàadhyaya, 8 adhyayasàashtaka, 8 ashtakaà complete RV]
  • This method is for vedic students to learn each varga by heart each day.
  • The second method classifies Rv into Mandalas and Suktas.
  • There are a total of 10 mandalas of varying length.
  • Suktas are groups of mantras on a particular deity and the number of mantras in each sukta is
  • Mandals 2 to 7 are similar. Homogenous in the nature of arrangement of the suktas.
  • These mandalas 2-7 are called Vamshiyamandals because each of them contains hymns belonging to a single family of seers.
  • The families of seers are Grtsamada [2], Visvamitra [3], Vamadeva [4], Atri [5], Bharadvaja [6] andVasista [7] { Great VisvamitraVanted A Bhramarishi title but Vasista declined }
  • All these mandalas start with Agni sukta, then Indrasukta and then the rest. Also the number of mantras in each sukta is in descending order.
  • The mandalas are themselves arranged in ascending order of the number of suktas. Second mandala has 43, third 62, sixth has 75 and seventh has 104.
  • Manadalas 1, 8 and 10 are called heterogenous because they don’t belong to any particular family of seers.
  • They contain hymns belonging to individual seers.
  • The first and the 10th mandala have 191 suktas each.
  • 8thmanadala has majority of suktas belonging to Kanva rishi family, but unlike the other mandalas, the first sukta is not of agni.
  • 9th mandala is very different from the rest. All suktas addressed to Pavamanasoma .


Contents of RV: Religious hymns, secular hymns and cosmogenic hymns.

  • Religious hymns form the majority. In vocation to Gods accompanied by oblation of ghee and soma rasa. All these end with a prayer to gods to grant wealth, cows, material prosperity, heroic sons and longevity. [dhanyam, dhanam, bahuputralabham, shatasamvatsaram.. ]
  • Secular hymns are only about 35. They deal with marriage, funeral practices, literary pursuits, sport and pastime of that period. Funeral hymns are addressed to deities concerned with future life. There is information about burial and cremation that was in vogue. Also a reference about widow remarriage can be found. Dialogue hymns such as ones between Yama – yami, Urvashi – Pururavaareconsidred as precursors of Sanskrit drama. Akshasukta, Asyaavaamiyasukta [riddles] and Danastutis[ about liberal patrons] are all seen in Rv.
  • Cosmogonic and philosophical hymns areabout 6 in number. They speculate about the origin of the world and provide a pantheistic idea of the Universal soul. The creator is called Purusha, Vishwakarman, Hiranyagarbha or Prajapathi.
  • Nasadiyasukta is an important example in this category. It says, neither sat nor asat existed before the creation. It also speaks of the “one” [tad ekam], which was breathing with its own Shakti [svadhe] when there was no wind. Then desire to create [sisrksha] arose. [kaamastadagresamavartataadhi] then there was creation. This conception ofekam has close affinity to the Brahman of the Upanishads.


Religion of the Rigveda:

  • Deities largely the personifications of the powers of nature.
  • Agni, Indra, Varuna etc.
  • It was essentially polytheistic but later hymns assumed a monotheistic or pantheistic idea.
  • Ekamsadvipraahabahudhavadanti – from Asyavamiyasukta speaks of sat as one but called by different names. This links RV and the Upanishadic philosophy.
  • Gods can be classified as Prithvisthaanah – terrestrial, Antarikshasthanah – atmospheric and Dyusthanah – celestial.
  • Terrestrial deities are Agni, Soma and Prithvi. [Afghan, Pak and SL are our neighbours]
  • Atmospheric deities are Indra, Apam-Napaat, Rudra, Maruts, Vayu, Parjanya and Aapas [Indra under the guidance of Rudra, directs the Vayu who with the help of the Maruts produces Apam-Napaatand then Parjanya flows as rain and becomes Aapas]
  • Celestial deities are Dyaus, Ratri, Usas, Mitra, Surya, Savitr, Varuna, Pusan andAsvins [DRUMStick Very Potent And Savoury]


Age of Rigveda:

  • 2 theories are there. One based on the literary or linguistic considerations and the other on astronomical calculations.
  • Max Muller has divided the Vedic literature into 4 parts, Chandas, Mantras, Brahmanas and Sutra. It has been presumed that one was followed by the other in the same order.
  • Katyayana who is a prominent writer on Anukramani is believed to be Vararuchi who lived in 355BC.
  • So Max Muller says that sutra period was from 200BC to 600 BC backwards.
  • Brahmanas from 600 – 800 BC.
  • Mantra from 800 – 1000BC.
  • Chandas from 1000 – 1200 BC.
  • Flaws: identity of Katyana as Vararuchi not established. Secondly why only 200 years gap between each period. It can be even more.
  • Astronomically, Haug says Samhita period was 2000 – 1400 BC. Oldest hymn was 2400 – 2000BC
  • Bal GangadharTilak takes into account the vernal equinox and comes up with 6000 – 4500 BC
  • Jacobi also 4500 BC.

Sayana: 1315 – 1387 AD.

  • Andhra Brahmin of bharadwajagothra, who served as the PM of Kampana the younger brother of Harihara of Vijayanagar kingdom.
  • Father – Mayana and mother – Srmati. Elder brother –Madhava, younger brother – Bhoganatha.
  • Disciple of Vidyathirtha, Bharatithirta and Srikantacharya.
  • His work is called MadhaveeyavedarthaprakashaRksamhitaabhashya.
  • He is an ardent follower of Yagnika method of interpretation. But has followed Nairukta method also.
  • Relies on Panini’s Ashtadhyayi for explaining the peculiarities of accents and forms.
  • Sayana’sRigbhashya is the only true representative of the traditional interpretation of RV in its entirety and it is an indispensable guide for understanding the RV.
  • Sayana has also written bhashyas on Taittiriyasamhita, Samavedasamhita, Kanvasamhita and Atharvavedasamhita. And also many brahmanas and aranyakas.













Veda Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Rgveda Shakala recension 1028 suktas. 10 mandalas. Aitareya and Kaushitaki Aitareya and Kaushitaki Aitareya and Kaushitaki
Krishna Yajurveda Katha, Maitrayaniya – 4 kandas 54 prapatakas. Taittiriya – 7 Ashtaka 44 prapataka Taittiriya Taittiriya Katha, Svetaasvatara, Maitrayaniya, MahaNarayaniya&Taittiriya
Shukla Yajurveda Vajasaneyi – 40 adhyayas Satapatha Brihadaaranyaka Brihadaaranyaka, Isavasya
Samaveda Archika – 585 mantras Uttararchika – 964 mantras Tandya, Talavakaara, Chandogya, Samavidhaana, Vamsa Chandogya Chandogya, kena
Atharvaveda 20 kandas 731 Suktas Gopatha       ———– Mundaka, Prashna, Mandukya







Sample MA Question Paper 2016 – Vijayadwaja

Here are the sample questions papers for MA Sanskrit Final exam that Sri Vijayadwaja has compiled, from 5 to 6 years question papers of MA Sanskrit (Final). He has prepared probable questions for all the papers starting  from paper VI to X.

Kindly pass on your comments on this preparation directly to Sri Vijayadhwaja.P.V —
Thank you, Vijayadwaja Sir,  for preparing this sample paper!