- अर्थपरिणतिभेदान् सोदाहरणं निरूपय
- अर्थपरिवर्तनस्य कारणानि कानि सोदाहरणं विवृणुत
- वर्णानां स्थान प्रयत्न विवेकमधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं लिखत
- भाषोत्पत्ति वादान् अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं
- वर्णात्मक भाषाशास्त्रस्य स्थूल परिचयं
- ध्वनिविज्ञानं अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं
- भारोपीयम् भाषापरिवारं अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं
- ध्वनिनियमान् सोदाहरणं वर्णयत
- भाषाणां वंशाधारित वर्गीकरणम्
अर्थपरिणतिभेदान् सोदाहरणं निरूपय
Arthaparinati: The ways in which the meaning changes
The language deals with words and meanings. There are different types of meanings like mukhyaartha, gaunaartha, vyangyaartha, yogikaartha, etc.
A word or sentence could have different meaning for different people. The best example is how Devas, Asuras and the humans were blessed by Brahma with “Da” wherein Devas took it as Dayaa, Asuras took it as Damana, humans took it as Daana.
The meaning changes – Arthaparinati
“Arthasankocha” – The meaning becomes narrowed-down. Eg.Modaka refers to sweets. But these days, it refers to a specific dish. Annam refers to any edible item but in particular it is used to refer to rice only. Mruga used to refer to any animal. Now only deer.
Artha-apakarsha – degeneration. In aabaalaviruddaah – “a” refers to the limit. “aasuraparyantamvandaneeyaah” – until suras or the devas are to be worshipped. But asuras now is being used to refer to only to a specific group.
जुगुप्सा ->to hide [gup dhatu] ->disgust
महाराज ->चक्रवर्ति ->cook
महापात्र ->विध्वाम्स ->dead people
Arthavistruti – Using the word in a different context wherein it conveys a different meaning. “Gavekshana” is “Gavaamikshana” – that is to look out for the cows which have not returned to their cowshed by evening. But now this term is being used in general to refer to the act of searching.
Only the oil that is got out of तिल had the name तैल. But now, it refers to oil in general.
Kaadambari, rather than referring to a specific work indicates novels. Naataka is a specific type of Drama, but is being used to refer to drama in general also
Taalapatra originally meant only the palm leaves. Now Patra refers to letters though it is on paper and not on palm leaves.
Artha-utkarsha – elevated meaning – the meaning changes from an inferior one to a more superior meaning.
गौरव->गुरुत्व heavy ->पूर्णत्व.
साहस ->व्यभिचार / हत्य ->courageous deeds
दृष्ट ->लज्जाहीन ->धैर्यशाली
मुग्ध ->मूर्ख ->सरळ
Arthaantara-praapti – That which results in a different meaning. paashanda, viraagi, bikshu, etc – earlier it referred to the revered ascetics. But in kaavyas, it is used to mean those who are not reliable. Earlier Grantha referred to the collection of palm leaves that are well arranged irrespective of whether it has been used or nothing is written on it. Now it refers to a book especially those which have high ideals of life like Ramayana.
Bhraata – now means Brother. It used to mean the person who does not belong to the group – odd man out.
अर्थपरिवर्तनस्य कारणानि Reasons for the changes in the words
Poetic liberty:Sometimes, the poets could change the word by dropping certain aksharaas to make it suit the chandas.This could result in apakarsha or utkarsha. Eg.Paaramgata – one who crosses the river to reach the other side. But it has a special meaning now to refer to a realized soul. The word madhura-vaani used to refer to only the sound of the birds. But not to anyone who speaks sweetly.
There are other environmental, social and geographical factors. An example for the change in geographical environment is the term ushtra. Earlier the term meant buffalo and later it acquired the meaning of camel because Aryans migrated to different regions where there were camels and no buffaloes.
Change in social environment can be understood from the kannada example kattemeaning platform. Earlier it meant a raised platform built around a tree where people used to sit and talk. It also meant a bund built to stop the flow of water. Current day scenario it means a kitchen platform in urban homes.
श्वशुरः – used mostly to mean father-in-law. But there are cases where it means enemy.
Side note: जामाता दशमो ग्रहः |JSon-in-law is the 10th planet.
Vinayokti – As a mark of respect, the language is changed when we address elders. Another example – सावकाशेन भुञ्जीत – In Ayurveda, it is suggested that one should eat leaving some empty space in the stomach. But now saavakaasha means leisurely.
Side note: स्निग्धं उष्णं अल्पंच भोजनम् |
Saumyokti – To make it pleasing to the other – calling Differently-abled rather than disabled. Mangalavaara.Example – अमङ्गलस्य वारस्य यथा मङ्गलवारः | Another example – दिवङ्गत: Earlier the literal meaning was there – the rishi could just visit the paraloka and come back. In that case, the disciples could say that the guru has gone to visit the paraloka. But now, it is a decent way of saying that the person is dead. Saying the person passed away or the person is no more is a polished way of saying that the person died.
अधेनुं धेनुम् इति –Rather than saying that the cow has not started milking yet and it does not qualify to be worshipped, it is politely put that it will become dhenu.
Vyangyokti – Bruhaspati or panditaputrah – for example might indicate an idiot. It is conveyed in an indirect way.
Final reason is ignorance. By mistake, wrong words are used. Tikka used to refer only to the critical review of good and bad points. But now, it refers to commentary.
वर्णानां स्थान प्रयत्न विवेकमधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं लिखत
Production of speech sounds takes place by the disturbance of the air column which comes out of the lungs and passes through the gullet, oral cavity and exits through mouth and sometimes nose.
Organs of speech can be broadly divided into 2 as movable and immovable organs.
Immovable organs are upper lip, upper teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate and dome of the mouth [roof].
Movable organs are lower lip, lower teeth, tip of the tongue, blade of the tongue, middle of the tongue, back of the tongue and uvula.
Articulation or movement of these organs results in speech production. There are 3 components in the process of articulation.
- Place or point of articulation [immovable part – that which is touched]
- The articulator [movable part – that which touches]
- The manner of articulation.
Based on the manner of articulation the speech sounds are classified as vowels and consonants.
Vowels: the stream of air passes out without any obstruction or audible friction. Changes in the shape and the size of the resonance chamber causes different vowel sounds..aa – wide open, ee – lips are closer but wider. Etc
Consonants: here the point of articulation, articulator and manner of articulation play an important role.
Manner of articulation: 7 types are mentioned.
- Stops स्पर्श – movement of air is stopped and suddenly released.[ ट]
- Affricates अनुघर्ष – movement of air is stopped but the release is gradual.[त]
- Fricatives घर्ष – the articulator does not touch the point of articulation but goes near it and air passes with great friction. [र]
- Nasals अनुनासिक – similar to stop but air passes through the nasal cavity.
- Laterals पार्श्विक- midline is closed and air passes through the sides.
- Trills ताडित- similar to fricatives but the articulator itself vibrates with the movement of air.[drrrrum]
- Flap अनुताडित- fast single sweeping movement of the articulator. [Up]
Voiced घोषित and voiceless अघोष consonants : if the vocal cords vibrate then it is voiced. If the vocal cords are wide open and the air passes through it then it is voiceless as in whispering.
Aspirated consonants महाप्राण: extra puff of air is added to the release.
अकुहविसर्जनीयानां कण्ठ:, इचुयशानां तालु,ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा, लृतुलसानां दन्ताः, उपूपध्मानीयानां ओष्ठौ, ञमङणनानां नासिका च, एदैतोः कण्ठतालु, ओदौतोः कण्ठोष्ठम्, वकारस्य दान्तोष्ठम्
ध्वनि विज्ञानमधिकृत्य प्रबन्धम् essay on phonetics
- Organs of speech
- Physics of sound
Phonetics is studied under 3 heads.
- Articulatory phonetics उच्चारणात्मक ध्वनि विज्ञान: the production of speech sounds in the oral cavity of the speaker.
- Auditory phonetics श्रवणात्मक: the perception of the listener.
- Acoustic phonetics तरङ्गात्मक: physical properties of sound waves in form of pitch, formants, loudness etc.
भाषोत्पत्ति वादान् अधिकृत्य प्रबन्धं
Language may be defined as an arbitrary system of vocal symbols by means of which human beings as members of a social group and participants in culture interact and communicate. Language consists of orally produced meaningful words and sentences.
Words are definitely not inborn, but the capacity to acquire a language and use it creatively seems to be inborn. Noam Chomsky calls this ability the LAD (Language Acquisition Device). Today we will ask two questions: how did this language instinct in humans originate? And how did the first language come into being?
Concerning the origin of the first language, there are two main hypotheses, or beliefs. Neither can be proven or disproved given present knowledge.
1) Belief in divine creation. Many societies throughout history believed that language is the gift of the gods to humans. The most familiar is found in Genesis 2:20, which tells us that Adam gave names to all living creatures. [mentionabtshabda and ishvarasanketa] This belief predicates that humans were created from the start with an innate capacity to use language.
It can’t be proven that language is as old as humans, but it is definitely true that language and human society are inseparable. Wherever humans exist language exists. There are no primitive languages, nor are any known to have existed in the past–even among the most remote tribes of stone age hunter-gatherers.
Nevertheless, it is impossible to prove that the first anatomically modern humans possessed creative language. It is also impossible to disprove the hypothesis that primitive languages might have existed at some point in the distant past of Homo sapiens development.
2) Natural evolution hypothesis. At some point in their evolutionary development humans acquired a more sophisticated brain which made language invention and learning possible. In other words, at some point in time humans evolved a language acquisition device, whatever this may be in real physical terms. The simple vocalizations and gestures inherited from our primate ancestors then quickly gave way to a creative system of language–perhaps within a single generation or two. This hypothesis cannot be proven either.
Invention hypotheses. Whether it is divine gift or by evolution, there are various theories to explain how language was invented. Each of it has been criticised and not accepted universally. Most linguists agree that the origin of language is still a mystery.
First, there are four imitation hypotheses that hold that language began through some sort of human mimicry of naturally occurring sounds or movements:
1) The “ding-dong” hypothesis. Language began when humans started naming objects, actions and phenomena after a recognizable sound associated with it in real life. This hypothesis holds that the first human words were a type of verbalicon, a sign whose form is an exact image of its meaning: crash became the word for thunder, boom for explosion. Some words in language obviously did derive from imitation of natural sounds associated with some object: Chinook Indian word for heart–tun-tun, Basque word for knife: ai-ai (literally ouch-ouch).
The problem with this hypothesis is that onomatopoeia (imitation of sound, auditory iconicity) is a very limited part of the vocabulary of any language; imitative sounds differ from language to language. Even if onomatopoeia provided the first dozen or so words, then where did names for the thousands of naturally noiseless concepts such as rock, sun, sky or love come from?
2) The “pooh-pooh” hypothesis holds that the first words came from involuntary exclamations of dislike, hunger, pain, or pleasure, eventually leading to the expression of more developed ideas and emotions. In this case the first word would have been an involuntary ha-ha-ha, wa-wa-wa These began to be used to name the actions which caused these sounds.
The problem with this hypothesis is that, once again, emotional exclamations are a very small part of any language. They are also highly language specific. For instance, to express sudden pain or discomfort: Eng. ouch; Russ. oi.; Cherokee eee. Thus, exclamations are more like other words in that they reflect the phonology of each separate language. Unlike sneezes, tears, hiccoughs or laughter, which are innate human responses to stimuli, the form of exclamations depends on language. Also, exclamations, like most other words are symbols, showing at least a partially arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning.
3) The “bow-wow” hypothesis anukaranasiddhanta (the most famous and therefore the most ridiculed hypothesis) holds that vocabulary developed from imitations of animal noises, such as: Moo, bark, hiss, meow, quack-quack. In other words, the first human words were a type of index, a sign whose form is naturally connected with its meaning.
But, once again, onomatopoeia is a limited part of the vocabulary of any language. The linguistic renditions of animal sounds differ considerably from language to language, although each species of animal everywhere makes essentially the same sound:
- a)Dog:bow-wow; Chinese:wu-wu; Jap.wan-wanRuss gaf-gaf, tyaff-tyaff;
- b)Cat-meow, Russ.myaoo, Chin–mao, Jap.nya-nya purr in French is ronron.
- c)Pig:oink-oink; Russ. hryu-hryu; Chin.–oh-ee-oh-ee; Jap. bu-bu.
- d)Russian rooster:kukareiku. Japanese kokekoko
- e)Russian owl:ukh; Cherokeegoo-ku Spanish, Japanese— no special word
Thus, the human interpretation of animal sounds is dependent upon the individual language, and it seems unlikely than entire vocabularies derived from them.
4) A somewhat different hypothesis is the “ta-ta” hypothesis. Charles Darwin hypothesized (though he himself was sceptical about his own hypothesis) that speech may have developed as a sort of mouth pantomime: the organs of speech were used to imitate the gestures of the hand. In other words, language developed from gestures that began to be imitated by the organs of speech–the first words were lip icons of hand gestures.
It is very possible that human language, which today is mostly verbal, had its origin in some system of gestures; other primates rely on gesture as an integral part of communication, so it is plausible that human communication began in the same way. Human gestures, however, just like imitation of sound words, differ from culture to culture. Cf. English crossing the finger for good luck vs. Russian “fig” gesture; nodding for yes vs. for no in Turkish and Bulgarian; knocking on wood vs. spitting over the left shoulder three times.
A second set of hypotheses on language origin holds that language began as a response to some acute necessity in the community. Here are several necessity hypotheses of the invention of language:
1) Warning hypothesis. Language may have evolved from warning signals such as those used by animals. Perhaps language started with a warning to others, such as Look out, Run, or Help to alert members of the tribe when some lumbering beast was approaching. Other first words could have been hunting instructions or instructions connected with other work. In other words, the first words were indexes used during everyday activities and situations.
2) The “yo-he-ho” hypothesis. Language developed on the basis of human cooperative efforts.
The earliest language was chanting to simulate collective effort, whether moving great stones to block off cave entrances from roving carnivores or repeating warlike phrases to inflame the fighting spirit.
It is fairly certain that the first poetry and song came from this aspect of beginning speech. Songs of this type are still with us: Volga boatmen, military marching chants, seven dwarfs working song.
Plato also believed that language developed out of sheer practical necessity. And Modern English has the saying: Necessity is the mother of invention.
3) A more colorful idea is the lying hypothesis. E. H. Sturtevant argued that, since all real intentions or emotions get involuntarily expressed by gesture, look or sound, voluntary communication must have been invented for the purpose of lying or deceiving. He proposed that the need to deceive and lie–to use language in contrast to reality for selfish ends– was the social prompting that got language started.
Each of the imitation hypotheses might explain how certain isolated words of language developed. Very few words in human language are verbal icons. Most are symbols, displaying an arbitrary relationship of sound and meaning. (Example: the word tree in several languages: Spanish árbol; French arbre; Slovak strom; Georgian he; Ket oks; Estonianpuu; German Baum; Russian derevo; Latvian koks; Hawaiian lä’au)
The extended use of natural indexes still leaves unexplained the development of grammar–the patterns in language which have definite structural functions but no specific meaning. The creative, generative aspect of human language that we call grammar is language’s most unique feature. Where did grammar come from? No conclusive theories yet.
भारोपीयम भाषापरिवारं / भाषाणां वंशाधारित वर्गीकरणम्
When the languages across the globe were analysed it was found to consist of many similarities. Eg.Haalu in kannada is paalu in tamil. Similarly Hoovu-poovu etc. This led them to believe that certain languages can be grouped together and presumed to have a common source of origin. These groups were called language families. Linguists have classified all the languages into 7 principal language families: Indo-European, Afro-Asiatic, Sino-Tibetan, Altaic, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Finno-Ugric.
Indo-European is a family of languages that first spread throughout Europe and many parts of South Asia, and later to every corner of the globe as a result of colonization. The term Indo-European refers to the easternmost extension of the family from the Indian subcontinent to its westernmost reach in Europe. The family includes most of the languages of Europe, as well as many languages of Southwest, Central and South Asia. The Indo-European language family has the largest number of speakers of all language families as well as the widest dispersion around the world.
These languages are akin to each other in Linguistic structure and therefore their phonological, morphological, syntactical and semantic equations are possible. It is true that these languages have undergone a change and have developed in their own way, but still they have followed some definite laws in the course of their development and changes.
It would not have been possible to establish the existence of the Indo-European language family if scholars had not compared the systematically recurring resemblances among European languages and Sanskrit, the oldest language of the Indian subcontinent that left many written documents. The common origin of European languages and Sanskrit was first proposed by Sir William Jones(1746-1794). Systematic comparisons between these languages by Franz Bopp supported this theory and laid the foundation for postulating that all Indo-European languages descended from a common ancestor, Proto-Indo-European (PIE), thought to have been spoken before 3,000 B.C. It then split into different branches which, in turn, split into different languages in the subsequent millennia.
Indo-European languages are classified into 11 [10 acc to material] major groups, 2 of which are extinct, comprising 449 languages.
Baltic: It has preserved many archaic features thought to have been present in PIE.
Celtic:They were once spread over Europe in the pre-Christian era. The oldest records of these languages date back to the 4th century AD. It includes the following languages
Germanic is divided into West Germanic and North Germanic.
West Germanic includes:
|English||US UK Australia Canada|
North Germanic includes:
Romanic [Italic] includes
|Spanish||Spain, Latin America|
Slavic is divided into 3 groups:
West Slavic includes:
East Slavic includes:
South Slavic includes
[Indo-Iranian group is divided into Indo-Aryan and Iranian according to course material]
Indo-Aryan [Indic] includes
|Romani||Romania and elsewhere|
Iranian: Ancient variety of Iranian group is Avesta or Zend Avesta which is the holy language of Zoroastrianism. Another language, Old Persian was the official language of Persia during the kingdom of Doria [522-486 BC]
|Kurdish||Iraq and elsewhere|
|Pashto||Afghanistan and elsewhere|
Albanian: Single language spoken in Albania.
Armenian: Single language spoken in Armenia.
Greek: It belongs to the Hellenic group of which Greek is the only surviving member. Spoken in Greece.
Tocharian [1000 AD] and Anatolian [7 cen BC] are both extinct.
ध्वनि नियमान् सोदाहरणं वर्णयत
Dhvani refers to even the pronunciation. Theories that were proposed to explain the differences in pronunciation and syllable changes are covered under Laws of Linguistics or dhvaniniyama.
Grimm’s Law is a about a historical sound change linking Proto-Indo-European with Germanic.Jacob Grimm was one of the great linguists of the 19th century. He found evidence for the unity of all the modern Germanic languages in the phenomenon known as the First Germanic Sound Shift (also known as Grimm’s law ), which set the Germanic branch apart from the other branches of the Indo-European family.
First level of change believed to have occurred in the prehistoric period. Second level of change occurred around the 7thcen possibly due to the influence of Yahudis and Christians.
There are 3 set of shifts that occur according to Grimm.
|Voiced Aspirated Stops घोषित महाप्राण||Voiced Stops घोषित अल्पप्राण||Voiceless stops अघोष अल्पप्राण||Voiceless Fricatives अघोष महाप्राण|
भ् -> ब् eg: Bhrata ->Brotar
द् -> त्eg: Dve ->two
प् -> फ्eg: Pita ->Father. Paada ->Fotu
In every case the location remains the same or close to it. The manner or voicing changes.
There are exceptions to Grimm’s Law. We see one in the table above. The middle “t” of Sanskrit “bhratar” correspnds to a “d” in Gothic “brodar”. But wait! “t” is supposed to go to “th”. Exception!
This particular exception is quite systematic and has to do with stress. It later got explained by Karl Verner with a different Law .
Grassmann’s law,[grasamannniyamaha] named after its discoverer Hermann Grassmann, is a dissimilatory phonological process in Ancient Greek and Sanskrit which states that if an aspirated [mahaprana] consonant is followed by another aspirated consonant in the next syllable, the first one loses the aspiration.uOne of the oldest and most established of the ‘laws’ of Indo-European (IE) is Grassmann’s Law (GL), first proposed in Grassmann 1863. This dissimilation process applies to Greek and Sanskrit alone among all IE languages: aspiration on two successive syllables is disallowed. If two aspirated consonants occur in contiguous syllables, sometimes within the same root, the first one loses its aspiration. Thus diaspirate roots turn up in surface form with aspiration only on the second consonant.
bhudh – ‘awaken’: past participle underlying form bhudh +ta ➝buddh a
dh ā- ‘put’: 1 sg. pres. underlying form dh a+dhā+mi➝da+dhā+mi
bh ū- ‘be’: 1 sg. perf. underlying form bha+bhuv+a➝babhuva
वर्णात्मक भाषाशास्त्रस्य स्थूलपरिचयं लिखतDescriptive Linguistics
Linguistics deals with the scientific study of a language. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group co-operates. It consists of orally produced meaningful words and sentences. Language is also said to be a system of 3 distinguishable systems namely – phonological system [sounds], morphological system [words] and syntactic system [sentences].
Linguistics developed in 2 stages. The earlier stage was the Descriptive school of linguistics also called Structural school. The latter one was the Transformational Generative school of Linguistics.
Descriptive school was pioneered by Bloomfield and his followers. It was popular between 1935 and 1960. The basic theoretical assumptions of this school are as follows:
- Every language has its own structure unrelated to the structure of any other language.
- A native speaker who has learnt the language as the mother tongue, from the parents or family, represents the structure.
- This structure can be studied, analyzed and described based on the specimen provided by the native speaker [informant].
- Description of the structural grammar of the language is derived at the end of this analysis.
- The structural grammar would be useful for learning and teaching the language.
- A language is a learnt behavior, learnt by observation and imitation.
Phonetics ध्वनि विज्ञान: In order to gather the specimen correctly a linguist should be able to identify the sounds uttered by the informant and represent it in an unambiguous and consistent writing system [universal phonetic script]. The branch of linguistics which deals with identifying the speech sounds of any language and representing them in the form of writing is called Phonetics.
Phonemics ध्वनिम विज्ञान: the study of phonemes [ध्वनिम] is called phonemics.
Phonemes are the significant sounds of a language. Sounds whose presence or absence can alter the meaning of the words in a language are called phonemes.
Eg: uri, kuri, guri in kannada. The k and g are phonemes here.
The descriptive school later developed into the Transformational generative school.
Simple and complex sentences.सरल वाक्यानि मिश्र वाक्यानि
Simple sentences are those that have only 2 constituents, a subject and a predicate and the predicate has only one verb.
मम अनुजः भरतः शीघ्रं धावति
प्रख्याताश्वा रमा अस्यां स्पर्धायां धावति
Complex sentences are those where 2 or more simple sentences are joined together. Here one of it is the main clause and the rest are subordinate clauses.
दशरथपुत्रः रामः रावणं संहरति –रामः दशरथपुत्रः अस्ति , रामः रावणं संहरति इति द्वौ विभागौ स्थः
दशरथपुत्रः रामः लङ्कापतिं रावणं संहरति –रामः रावणं संहरति, रामः दशरथपुत्रः, रावणः लङ्कापतिःइति
Compound sentences: here there are 2 or more independent main clauses with or without sub-clauses.
अहं कदलीफलं खादामि च सः आम्रफलं खादति
अस्वस्थः रामः संस्कारितयूषं पिबति च स्वस्थः कृष्णः परमान्नं खादति
रामः संस्कारितयूषं पिबति, रामःअस्वस्थः, कृष्णः परमान्नं खादति, कृष्णःस्वस्थः
Ekavarnalopa – Haplology (from Greek ἁπλός haplos “simple” and λόγος logos, “speech”) is defined as the elimination of a syllable when two consecutive identical or similar syllables occur. A sound change involving the loss of a syllable when it is next to a phonetically identical (or similar) syllable. The phenomenon was identified by American philologist Maurice Bloomfield in the 20th century. Linguists sometimes jokingly refer to the phenomenon as “haplogy” (subjecting the word haplology to haplology)
- Engla land> England 
- morphophonology> morphonology
- coercitive(obsolete spelling) > coercive
- mono nomial> monomial
- saamved for saamaveda – north Indian Sanskrit pronounciation
- व्याघ्रपाद -> व्याघ्रपात्
Satem – Centum: [shatamkentum]
Indo-European family was linguistically divided into 2 groups named Satem and Centum groups. [Division only for convenience sake]. Geographically they include the eastern [Asia] side and western [Europe] side respectively. The chief criterion for the classification is the treatment of the original Indo-European palatal sounds. It has been postulated that the original Indo-European had 3 series of gutturals.
- Palatals – K^ Kh^ G^ Gh^
- Velars – K Kh G Gh
- Labio-velars – Kw KhwGwGhw
In Satemgroup the velars coincide with labio-velars and the palatals have developed into sibilants. It includes Sanskrit, Avestan, Old Persian, Albanian, Armenian, Baltic and Slovenic. The word Satem is derived from the Avestan word meaning hundred.
In Centum group the velars coincide with the palatals. It includes Greek, Latin, Germanic, Celtic and Tokharian. The word Centum is derived for Latin word meaning hundred.
Aksharapallata: The letter va becoming ba in Bengali [chakravarthy = Chakraborty] and pa in tamil becoming ha in kannada [paalu=haalu, poovu=hoovu] ya becoming ja in certain dialects of hindi and Sanskrit of north India [ Yamuna=jamuna] similarly Vrindavan becoming Brindavan. These differences are mainly attributed to regional differences and change in dialects.
स्वर भक्ति: in order to make pronunciation simpler and easier, introduction of a letter [usually a swara] in a samyuktakshara is done. This is called swara bhakti
इन्द्र – इन्दिर
पृथ्वी – पृथिवी
चन्द्र – चन्दिर
स्वर्ण – सुवर्ण
Sanskrit to prakrit
श्री – सिरि
स्नेह – सणेह
क्लिष्ट – किल्लिष्ट
प्रसाद – परसाद
Sometimes a vyanjana may come in between.
सूनर – सुन्दर
वानर – बन्दर [वन्दर]