Video Karma Yoga – Gita Chapter 3 – KSOU Exam

https://nivedita2015.wordpress.com/chapter-3-bhagavad-gita/

  • Bhagavad Gita
    • 02 gita sugita kartavya, kim anyaih sastra vistaraih ya svayam (Gita Mahatmya by Adi Sankara)
    • 02 sarva vedamayi gita
    • 01 tad idam gita-sastram samasta-vedartha-sarasangraha-bhutam (Adi Sankara)
    • 01,2013.02 What is the importance of BG as the essence of all Upanishads?
    • 01 the tatparya behind the relationship between Gita and Upanishad.
    • 02 The place of BG in Prasthana traya.
    • 01 Greatness of BG.
    • 01, 2009.01 In the Vedantic world, what is the greatness of BG?
  • Karma Yoga
    • 02, 2013.01 Explain Karma Yoga in BG.
    • 01 Explain the vailakshanya (difference) of Karma and Karma Yoga.
    • 02 What is the specialty of Karma Sanyaasa in BG?
    • 01 the aptness of naming 3rd chapter as Karma Yoga.
  • Intro
    • Bhagavat Gita – is the most popular religious philosophical poem in Sanskrit literature.
    • Gita is in the Bhishma Parva of Mahabharata, which is considered as Panchamo Vedah.
    • Bhagavad Gita means “The Song by Bhagavan”
    • It comprises of Lord Krishna’s advice to Arjuna, around 5150 years ago at Kurukshetra battle field.
  • Essence of Vedas and Upanishads
    • The Mahabharata says “सर्वशास्त्रमयी गीता” meaning that the Gita comprises of all the scriptures.
    • The science of understanding God is covered in the Gita. This is the subject matter of the Vedas also. The theme of the Upanishads is also the same.
    • गीतासुगीताकर्तव्याकिमन्यैःशास्त्रविस्तरैः।यास्वयंपद्मनाभस्यमुखपद्माद्विनिःसृता॥
      gita sugita kartavya kim anyaih shastra vistaraih
      ya svyam padama nabhaayasa mukha padmad vinih srita (Gita-mahatmya 4)
      This Gita which has come out of the lotus-like face of the Lord (He who has the lotus in His navel) and which is so melodious, should be studied. There is no need to study any other scriptures in detail.
    • Sri Shankaracarya states in the introduction to his Gita commentary, तत्इदम्गीताशास्त्रम्समस्तवेदार्थसारसंग्रहभूतम् tad idam gita-sastram samasta-vedartha-sarasangraha- bhutam, meaning “This Gita-sastra is the essence of the purport of all the Vedas”.
    • सर्वोपनिषदो गावो दोग्धा गोपाल नन्दनः ।पार्थोवत्सःसुधीर्भोक्तादुग्धंगीतामृतंमहत्॥६॥

The Bhagavad Gita is compared to a cow endowed with the rich milk containing the essence of the teachings of the Upanishads. Lord Krishna is compared to a skillful milkman who brings out that precious milk for the wise and Arjuna is compared to a calf, without which it is not possible to milk the cow easily.

  • सर्ववेदमयीगीतासर्वधर्ममयोमनु: ।सर्वतीर्थमयीगंगासर्वदेवमयोहरि: ।।9 ।।

Gita contains all the Vedas. The Manu Smriti contains all the dharmas. The benefit of all the sacred waters is in Ganga. All the gods are in Vishnu.

  • Prasthanatraya means the three sources of authority (in the Vedantic world). It is the collective name given to the Upanishads, Bramha Sutra and Srimad Bhagavat Gita, which are accepted as three sources from which the different schools of Vedanta derived their authority.
    • Bramha Sutras are a compendium of 555 aphorisms by Sage Bhagavan Veda Vyasa.  They present in concentrated form the entire philosophy of the Upanishads. It is the text book for post graduate study for a student of Vedanta.
    • The Upanishads generally form the end of the aranyakas of the Vedas and therefore the philosophy obtaining therein is called as Vedanta meaning `end  of the Vedas’.  They contain the essence of Vedic teachings.  They are the foundations on which most of the later philosophies and religions of India rest.
  • Greatness
    • Gita mahaatmyam or the Glory of Gita is hence unlimited and beyond description. It contains the essence of all the four vedas and yet its style is so simple that after a little study, anyone can easily follow the structure of the words. Yet it is so profound that even a lifelong study may not reveal the depth of meaning. As a reader grows in maturity, the same words reveal more and more facets of thought and hence the Gita remains eternally new.
    • गीताश्रयेऽहं तिष्ठामि गीता मे चोत्तमं गृहम् ।गीताज्ञानमुपाश्रित्य त्रींलोकान्पालयाम्यहम् ॥ ७॥The Lord Himself says in the varaahapuraaNaathat He has made Gita his abode and maintains the three worlds on the strength of the wisdom contained in the Gita.
    • The Bhagavad Gita has lessons for the young and old of any caste, creed and religion and teaches the technique of perfect living for all times.
  • Contents
    • Gita conveys sublime teaching on religion, philosophy, ethics and the art and science of correct and efficient living and attitude towards life and its problems.
    • 1) the first six chapters (called karma-shatkam) talk about the concept of renunciation of the deeds of karma as a method of liberation, (2) the next six chapters (called bhakti-shatkam) talk about the love of the personal God as a method of liberation and (3) the last six chapters (called gyana-shatkam) talk about the way of knowledge as a method of liberation.
    • By performing the prescribed duties, with unshakeable knowledge and desirelessness, one can get into and practice the path of devotion to attain The Almighty controller Sriman Narayana, called as Brahman
  • Karma Yoga
    • Yoga means linking oneself to the supreme personality or Godhead.
    • The main purpose of Bhagavad Gita is to induce people to action. Sri Krishna urges all to do their duty sincerely, as per existing laws and without attachment or expectation of results. Here the stress is on KARMA YOGA as the suitable path for advancement of mankind.
    • What does Karma Yoga mean?
      • KARMA: The word originated from the root “KRU” meaning do, work, etc. Karma thus means action or work, and not the popular meaning of “fate”. There are two types of Karma – 1) Niskama Karma- work without attachment, which produces no bondage, and 2) Sakama Karma-all work done for some end result, which leads to bondage for the doer. The work may be to maintain your body, meet your official obligations, to upkeep your family, prayers & other religious activities, service to society or many other things. In Gita, the word Karma is used to denote all human activities.
      • YOGA: This is a much more confusing word. Yoga is generally understood as the activity of breath control or taking different body postures, or the activities mentioned by Pathanjali. But in Gita this word has a much wider and somewhat different meaning.
        The word Yoga originated from the root ”YUJ” meaning Joining, tieing together, etc. This word is used at innumerable places in the Gita with meanings like appropriateness, joining, expertise, attainment, etc. The essential meaning of Yoga is explained by Sri Krishna himself as “Yogah Karmasu Kausalam” (Gita 2.50). Kausalam means a special talent, expertise or skill in doing something. So doing things with expertise is Yoga. A Yogi is one who does something with expert knowledge or skill.
      • Karma yoga goes beyond simple daily chores and extends to the whole life. It is meant not only for spiritual aspirants but also for worldly people, to whom work is the way of life and who have to deal with tougher challenges and greater distractions as they are engaged in the act of living. Karma Yoga or the path of action as suggested in the Bhagavad-Gita teaches people how to cope with the pains and pleasures of life without choosing and without escaping. It teaches people how to remain engaged with the process of living, however difficult and distasteful the circumstances may be. This is in stark contrast to the popular opinion that men should renounce their worldly things, go to a forest or some secluded place, away from society like a cave and perform tapas or meditation in order to achieve self-realization.
    • Karma Sanyaasa Yoga – Different from Karma Yoga
      संन्यासं कर्मणां कृष्ण पुनर्योगं च शंससि। यच्छ्रेय एतयोरेकं तन्मे ब्रूहि सुनिश्चितम् ||

O Krishna, You praised or extolled the yoga of renunciation of action and then again the yoga of action. Of these two, tell me for sure which is better.  5-1

Lord Krishna starts his discourse by telling Arjuna that both Sanyasa & Karma Yoga are parts of the package to awaken to the truth within, but one should be very clear that for a person who is yet to be fully ready, resorting to Karma Yoga is far better. The essence of sanyasa is to attain a state wherein one neither has any aversion for things outside nor does he associates too great an importance to extraneous things. This ability alone is aimed to be developed & polished by Karma Yoga. So both these sadhanas aim at one goal alone.
While the earlier chapters (three and four) revealed the extreme necessity of karma in life, and then emulating the action done by Lord Krishna himself to get the best out of our life, the fifth chapter reveals a subtler & subjective dimension of this process of transcending the process of karma.

लोकेऽस्मिन् द्विविधा निष्ठा पुरा प्रोक्ता मयानघ ।
ज्ञानयोगेन साङ्ख्यानां कर्मयोगेन योगिनाम् ॥ ३ ॥

कर्मेन्द्रियाणि संयम्य य आस्ते मनसा स्मरन् ।

इन्द्रियार्थान्विमूढात्मा मिथ्याचारः स उच्यते ॥ ६ ॥

नियतं कुरु कर्म त्वं कर्म ज्यायो ह्यकर्मणः ।

शरीरयात्रापि च ते न प्रसिद्ध्येदकर्मणः ॥ ८ ॥

यज्ञार्थात्कर्मणोऽन्यत्र लोकोऽयं कर्मबन्धनः ।
तदर्थं कर्म कौन्तेय मुक्तसङ्गः समाचर ॥ ९ ॥

देवान्भावयतानेन ते देवा भावयन्तु वः ।
परस्परं भावयन्तः श्रेयः परमवाप्स्यथ ॥ ११ ॥

(Prajapati created humans along with the Yajna. Yajna are the dedicated work performed in a spirit of sacrifice. Deva = the presiding deity in any field of activity who blesses the worker in that field with his profit. i.e., the productive potential. The potential is dormant. When he worker puts in the effort, he reaps the benefits. Bhaavata = nourish. Param shreyah = Harmonious growth of existence).

अन्नाद्भवन्ति भूतानि पर्जन्यादन्नसम्भवः ।

यज्ञाद्भवति पर्जन्यः यज्ञः कर्मसमुद्भवः ॥ १४ ॥

bhutaani = society; Annam = enjoyable crop of profit;  Parjanya = favorable conditions that convert the raw material to enjoyable profit; Yajna = Dedicated Activities; Wheel of Action = Action à Activities à helpful conditions à enjoyable profit

 कर्म ब्रह्मोद्भवं विद्धि ब्रह्माक्षरसमुद्भवम् ।

तस्मात्सर्वगतं ब्रह्म नित्यं यज्ञे प्रतिष्ठितम् ॥ १५ ॥

Imperishable Supreme à Creator à The power to act

कर्मणैव हि संसिद्धिमास्थिता जनकादयः ।

लोकसङ्ग्रहमेवापि सम्पश्यन्कर्तुमर्हसि ॥ २० ॥

Welfare of the world – performed actions in a spirit of detachment and dedication.

यद्यदाचरति श्रेष्ठस्तत्तदेवेतरो जनः ।
स यत्प्रमाणं कुरुते लोकस्तदनुवर्तते ॥ २१ ॥

प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्माणि सर्वशः ।
अहङ्कारविमूढात्मा कर्ताहमिति मन्यते ॥ २७॥

श्रेयान्स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् ।

स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेयः परधर्मो भयावहः ॥ ३५ ॥

Dharma = duty; Here Vasanas in the mind = texture of the thoughts. Man’s personality.  Swadharma = type of vasanas that one discovers in one’s own mind. To act according to one’s own taste, inborn and natural, is the only known method of living in peace and joy, in success and satisfaction.  To act against the grain of one’s own vasanas would be acting in terms of Para-dharma, and that is fraught with danger.

एवं बुद्धेः परं बुद्ध्वा संस्तभ्यात्मानमात्मना ।
जहि शत्रुं महाबाहो कामरूपं दुरासदम् ॥ ४३ ॥

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