Video – Kathopanishad Chanting – quotations

Selected verses from Kathopanishad –from the question papers for KSOU MA Sanskrit (2007 to 2015). Refer the supporting videos — one with the chantings by Ätmaprajnänanda Saraswati and another video with the explanation in English for the selected verses.

Reference:

1.    Beginning

ॐ  ॥ अथ कठोपनिषद् ॥
ॐ सह नाववतु । सह नौ भुनक्तु । सहवीर्यं करवावहै ।
तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु । मा विद्विषावहै ॥
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

ॐ उशन् ह वै वाजश्रवस: सर्ववेदसं ददौ, तस्य ह नचिकेता नाम पुत्र आस ।

2.    अनन्दा नाम ते लोकास्तान् स गच्छति ता ददत् ॥ ३ ॥ २००८.०१, २०१३.०१

पीतोदका जग्धतृणा दुग्धदोहा निरिन्द्रियाः । अनन्दा नाम ते लोकास्तान् स गच्छति ता ददत् ॥ १.१.३ ॥

पीतोदकाः जग्धतृणाः दुग्धदोहाः निरिन्द्रियाः । अनन्दाः नाम ते लोकाः तान् सः गच्छति ताः ददत् ॥ १.१.३ ॥

(एते) पीतोदकाः जग्धतृणाः दुग्धदोहाः निरिन्द्रियाः  (सन्ति) | अनन्दाः नाम ते लोकाः (सन्ति) | ताः (धेनवः) ददत् सः तान् (लोकान्) गच्छति ॥ ३ ॥

पीतोदका: drunk water जग्धतृणा: eaten grass दुग्धदोहा: having given milk निरिन्द्रियाः become sterile । अनन्दा नाम Joyless  लोकाः worlds तान् स them he गच्छति goes/reaches ता: ददत्  giving away (as gifts) ॥

These cows have drunk water, eaten grass and given milk for the last time, and their senses have lost all vigor. He who gives these undoubtedly goes to joyless realms.

Among the verses on नचिकेतसो यमसकाशप्राप्ति:, this one is about नचिकेतस: स्वागतं चिन्ता |

(एते) पीतोदका: जग्धतृणा:दुग्धदोहा: निरिन्द्रियाः (भवन्ति) | ता: ददत् स: अनन्दा नाम ते लोका: गच्छति |
This verse shows the dedication of Nachiketa and his father, Vaajasravas’ ignorance. He gives importance to charity in the Yagna. There are 3 meanings for the word Yagna – देव पूजा, सङ्गति करण, दान.  Dhaana or charity is very critical. Nachiketa comes out of curiosity to see what things are being given away in charity, by which his father will get to go to the joyful realms – the उत्तम लोका, आनन्दा लोका.पीतोदका: जग्धतृणा:दुग्धदोहा: निरिन्द्रियाःare all in past participle भूतकृदन्तरूप. They have all done their activity and are not in a position to perform any activity. The cows are not able to drink water, eat grass, give milk or have any strength in their senses. The result of such a charity will not be good. न नन्दालोका: अनन्दा लोका: | Nachiketa feels sorry that his father will go to joyless worlds only. This is a preamble to the story of Nachiketa’s meeting with Yama.

3.    सस्यमिव मर्त्यः पच्यते सस्यमिवाजायते पुनः ॥ ६ ॥ २००९.०१, २०१४.०१

अनुपश्य यथा पूर्वे प्रतिपश्य तथाऽपरे । सस्यमिव मर्त्यः पच्यते सस्यमिवाजायते पुनः ॥ १.१.६ ॥

अनुपश्य यथा पूर्वे प्रतिपश्य तथा अपरे । सस्यम् इव मर्त्यः पच्यते सस्यम् इव अजायते पुनः ॥ १.१.६ ॥

यथा पूर्वे अनुपश्य | तथा अपरे प्रतिपश्य ।मर्त्यः सस्यम् इव पच्यते |  पुनः मर्त्यः सस्यम् इव अजायते |

अनुपश्य Consider यथा पूर्वे the way your forefathers behaved प्रतिपश्य तथा अपरे and consider also how the others behave now. सस्यम् इव Just like corn  मर्त्यः man पच्यतेdecays  सस्यम् इव अजायते पुनः and is reborn like corns sprouting.

Look back to those who lived before and look to those who live now. Like grain the mortal decays and like grain again springs up (is reborn).

Among the verses on नचिकेतसो यमसकाशप्राप्ति:, this one is पितरं प्रति नचिकेतस उक्ति: |

Since Nachiketa kept asking to whom Vyaajasravas is going to denote him, his father angrily says that he will be given to Yama. Before leaving for the Yama Loka, Nachiketa says this to his father.

Because his father has spelt out a few words in his mood of anger, and later on only he realizes what he has done. Just look at our predecessors and our followers. We need to follow their steps. Nachiketa feels that his father is not doing the right thing and that he does not have the right knowledge of how the sacrifice had to be conducted. His father also got angry when questioned about donating his son. Giving things in charity, which are of no use to the receiver does not result in good benefits. This ignorance and the anger are not the right features of a Jnaani or an enlightened soul. So Nachiketa is giving advice to his father. He points out that our predecessors never spoke untruth. So he tells his father not to do against the predecessors’ actions. The man matures like a crop. From the seed of the crop again, another crop emerges. (अ in अजायते indicates past tense and not negation). “Don’t feel bad that I am going to die. I will come back. This body might die. But I will remain in the form of the Atman. This has been told by our ancestors. This can never go wrong. Though there is continuity of the soul, man cannot live in this earth carrying the same body until eternity. So this transient life has to end. So make your words come true and send me to the Yama Loka”, says Nachiketa to his father, convincing him to send him to Yama Loka.

4.   अस्तीत्येके नायमस्तीति चैके

येयं प्रेते विचिकित्सा मनुष्ये — अस्तीत्येके नायमस्तीति चैके । एतद्विद्यामनुशिष्टस्त्वयाऽहं वराणामेष वरस्तृतीयः ॥ १.१.२० ॥

या इयं प्रेते विचिकित्सा मनुष्ये  अस्ति इति एके न अयम् अस्ति इति च एके । एतत् विद्याम् अनुशिष्ट: त्वया अहम्  वराणाम् एष: वर: तृतीयः ॥ २० ॥

मनुष्येप्रेते (सति) अयम् अस्ति इति एके, अयम् न अस्ति इति च एके (इति) या इयं विचिकित्सा (भवति), एतत् विद्याम् त्वया अहम् अनुशिष्ट: | एष: वर: वराणाम् तृतीयः वर: (भवति) |

या इयं this  प्रेते on the death विचिकित्सा doubt मनुष्ये- of man अस्ति ‘It exists” इति एके some say नायं ‘it does not’ अस्ति ‘exist’ इति च एके say the others. एतद् this विद्यां would like to know अनुशिष्टः being taught त्वया by you अहं I वराणां among the boons एष this वरः boon तृतीयः is the third one.

Nachikētas said: There is this doubt regarding what becomes of a man after death. Some say he exists, others that he does not exist. This knowledge I desire, being instructed by thee. Of the boons this is the third boon.

Among the verses on तृतीयो वर:, this one is आत्मज्ञानप्रार्थना |

Having reached the abode of Yama, Nachiketa waits for 3 days with any food, for Yama to return to his abode. To save himself from the ill-effects of not extending hospitality to the guest, Yama offers three boons to Nachiketa. As the first boon, Nachiketa prays for the peace of mind for his father. For the second boon, Nachiketa gains the knowledge about the construction of the fire altar and other actions associated with the fire sacrifice or Yagna which gets named after him as Naachiketaagni. This shloka has the third boon asked by Nachiketa. He has become aware of the extra-ordinary and the advantageous situation (सदवकाशा) that he is placed in. So he wants to make the best use of the third boon as he realizes the greatness of Yama. So he wants to gain the highest knowledge from Yama.

Being told to ask for the third boon, Nachiketa says this. “This is an eternal doubt that everyone has. Having died, a few people say that he continues to exist in a different state where the body, the senses, the mind and the intellect have been silenced. He exists beyond the body as the Atma. Another party says that there is no existence after death. We are not able to prove by Pratyaksha (Perception) or Anumaana (Inference) [The other means of knowledge or Pramaanaas are Upamaana (Comparison), Saabda (Verbal Testimony) , etc.]. This specialized field of knowledge (Vignaanam) is what I want to know. This knowledge is about the life after death. I was looking for a knowledgeable person to learn about it. As the third boon, kindly enlighten me with this knowledge.”

5.   कामानां त्वा कामभाजं करोमि (२०१५.०२.०२)

एतत्तुल्यं यदि मन्यसे वरं वृणीष्व वित्तं चिरजीविकां च । महाभूमौ नचिकेतस्त्वमेधि कामानां त्वा कामभाजं करोमि ॥ १.१.२४॥ (2015.02.90m)

एतत् तुल्यं यदि मन्यसे वरं वृणीष्व वित्तं चिरजीविकां च । महाभूमौ नचिकेतः त्वम्  एधि कामानां त्वा कामभाजं करोमि ॥ १.१.२४॥

यदि एतत् तुल्यं वरं मन्यसे, वित्तं चिरजीविकां च वृणीष्व | महाभूमौ नचिकेतः त्वम्  एधि | कामानां कामभाजं त्वा करोमि |

एतत्तुल्यं equal to these (offered in the previous mantra) यदि if मन्यसे you think वरं boon वृणीष्व ask वित्तं wealth चिरजीविकां च and long life. महाभूमौ in this vast region नचिकेतः O Nachiketa त्वं you एधि become कामानां delectable things त्वा you कामभाजं a fit enjoyer करोमि shall I make.

If you consider all that has been enumerated above as equal to the third boon ask for that as you like as also varieties of wealth and longevity. In this expansive universe, O Nachiketas, you prosper. I will make you fit for the enjoyment of all indescribable things.

Among the verses on तृतीयो वर:, this one is आत्मज्ञानफलतुल्यतया उपस्थापितानि कतिचित् फलानि |

Context: शतायुष: पुत्रपौत्रान्वृणीष्व बहून्पशून्हस्तिहिरण्यमश्वान् ।  भूमेर्महदायतनं वृणीष्व स्वयं च जीव शरदो यावदिच्छसि ॥२३॥

6.   नचिकेतो मरणं माऽनुप्राक्षीः ॥२००८.०२

ये ये कामा दुर्लभा मर्त्यलोके — सर्वान् कामाँश्छन्दतः प्रार्थयस्व ।
इमा रामाः सरथाः सतूर्या — न हीदृशा लम्भनीया मनुष्यैः ।
आभिर्मत्प्रत्ताभिः परिचारयस्व — नचिकेतो मरणं माऽनुप्राक्षीः ॥ २५ ॥

ये ये कामा दुर्लभा मर्त्यलोके — सर्वान् कामान् च्छन्दतः प्रार्थयस्व ।
इमा रामाः सरथाः सतूर्याः — न हि ईदृशाः लम्भनीयाः मनुष्यैः ।
आभिः मत्प्रत्ताभिः परिचारयस्व — नचिकेतो मरणं मा अनुप्राक्षीः ॥ २५ ॥

इमा: सरथाः सतूर्या: रामाः ईदृशा: मनुष्यैः न हि लम्भनीया:(भवन्ति)। मत्प्रत्ताभिः आभि: परिचारयस्व | हे नचिकेत, मरणं (i.e., मरणसम्बद्धं प्रश्नं) मा अनुप्राक्षीः (i.e., मा एवं प्रष्टुम् अर्हसि) |

ये ये whatever कामा desirable objects दुर्लभा difficult to get मर्त्यलोके in the world of mortals सर्वान् all those कामान् objects च्छन्दतः according to your choice प्रार्थयस्व seek to obtain. इमा these रामाः celestial nymphs सरथाः endowed with chariots सतूर्याः with musical instruments न never हि indeed ईदृशाः such ones लम्भनीयाः are obtainable मनुष्यैः by humans आभिः by these women मत्प्रत्ताभिः provided by Me (Yama) परिचारयस्व get served नचिकेतो O Nachiketa मरणं regarding death मा never अनुप्राक्षीः ask Me.

Whatsoever objects of desire are difficult to obtain in the realm of mortals, ask them all as thou desirest; these lovely maidens with their chariots and musical instruments, such as are not obtainable by mortals — be served by these whom I give to thee. O Nachikētas, do not ask regarding death.

Among the verses on तृतीयो वर:, this one is आत्मग्नानफलतुल्यतया उपस्थापितानि कतिचित् फलानि |  (तुल्यता = equivalent)

Yama was surprised when Nachiketa sought the knowledge of after-life and the science of soul (atmavignaanam) for his third boon. Even the demi-gods did not know this spiritual secret. It requires a lot of maturity. He discourages the boy from asking for this knowledge by presenting before him more attractive options to the young Nachiketa.

“You should enjoy life with beautiful wives, travelling in chariots, along with musical instruments. Don’t undermine the value of this pleasurable life. I am giving some of the best pleasures that one can wish to enjoy, which are not easily obtained by all. Be served by these women who are being provided by me. Don’t ask me the secret about death”.

Yama’s intention was not to avoid sharing the knowledge with Nachiketa. He was actually happy to see such a good disciple in Nachiketa.  But he wanted to test the Nachiketa’s eagerness, firmness of mind, and sincerity by tempting him with all the material pleasures.

7.    नवित्तेनतर्पणीयोमनुष्यो २०१०.०१, २०१२.०१, २०१४.०१, २०१४.१३,

Man cannot be gratified by wealth.

नवित्तेनतर्पणीयोमनुष्यो   लप्स्यामहे वित्तमद्राक्ष्म चेत्त्वा । जीविष्यामो यावदीशिष्यसि त्वं वरस्तु मे वरणीयः स एव ॥ २७ ॥

न वित्तेन तर्पणीयो मनुष्यः लप्स्यामहे वित्तम् अद्राक्ष्म चेत्  त्वा | जीविष्यामः यावत् ईशिष्यसि  त्वं वरस्तु मे वरणीयः स एव ||

न not वित्तेन by wealth तर्पणीयो satisfied मनुष्यः is man. लप्स्यामहे we shall acquire वित्तम् wealth अद्राक्ष्म having seen चेत्  त्वा now You. जीविष्यामो We shall live long यावत् as (long) as ईशिष्यसि  त्वं You will rule. वरस्तु But the boon मे worthy of my वरणीयः seeking is स that एव alone.

Man cannot be satisfied by wealth. Shall we possess wealth when we see thee (Death)? Shall we continue to live as long as thou rulest? Therefore that boon alone is to be chosen by me.

Among the shlokas on तृतीयो वर:, this one is नचिकेतसा सर्वकामोपभोगनिन्दा |

मनुष्य: वित्तेन नतर्पणीय: | त्वा अद्राक्ष्म चेत् वित्तम् लप्स्यामहे ।यावत् त्वं इशिष्यसि (तावत् वयं) जीविष्याम:| मे वरणीयः वर: तु स: एव (भवति) |

8.    अतिदीर्घेजीवितेकोरमेत॥२०१२.०२

अजीर्यताममृतानामुपेत्य जीर्यन्मर्त्यः क्वधःस्थः प्रजानन् । अभिध्यायन् वर्णरतिप्रमोदान् अतिदीर्घेजीवितेकोरमेत॥२८॥

अजीर्यतां अमृतानां उपेत्य जीर्यन् मर्त्यः क्वधःस्थः प्रजानन् | अभिध्यायन् वर्ण-रति-प्रमोदान् अतिदीर्घे जीविते को रमेत ||

अजीर्यतां undecaying अमृतानां immortals उपेत्य having reached the proximity जीर्यन् decaying मर्त्यः mortal क्वधःस्थः a dweller of the lower world प्रजानन् but is aware of the higher goals of life अभिध्यायन् having discriminated/deliberated on वर्ण-रति-प्रमोदान् the joys of mingling with sense objects/organs अतिदीर्घे in long जीविते life  को रमेत who indeed will delight? (None indeed will delight)

What man dwelling on the decaying mortal plane, having approached the undecaying immortal one, and having reflected upon the nature of enjoyment through beauty and sense pleasure, would delight in long life?

Among the shlokas on तृतीयो वर:, this one is नचिकेतसा सर्वकामोपभोगनिन्दा |

9.   हीयतेऽर्थाद्य उ प्रेयो वृणीते २०१४.०३

अन्यच्छ्रेयोऽन्यदुतैव प्रेय-स्ते उभे नानार्थे पुरुषँ सिनीतः । तयोः श्रेय आददानस्य साधुभवति हीयतेऽर्थाद्य उ प्रेयो वृणीते ॥ १.२.१ ॥

अन्यत् श्रेयः अन्यत् उ त एव प्रेयः ते उभे नानार्थे पुरुषं सिनीतः । तयोः श्रेयः आददानस्य साधु भवति हीयते अर्थात् यः उ प्रेयः वृणीते ॥

अन्यत् different श्रेयः is the preferable अन्यत् different उत also एव indeed प्रेयः pleasurable. ते these उभे two नानार्थे being aimed at different ends पुरुषं man सिनीतः bind. तयोः among these two श्रेय preferable आददानस्य who chooses साधु good भवति comes about हीयते falls  अर्थात् from the noble goal य he  उ that प्रेयो pleasurable वृणीते chooses.

Yama said: The good is one thing and the pleasant another. These two, having different ends, bind a man. It is well with him who chooses the good. He who chooses the pleasant misses the true end.

Among the shlokas on विद्याविद्ययोर्विद्याया एव श्रेयस्करत्वम्, this one is श्रेय: साधनमुपाददानस्यैव पुरुषार्थ: |

Nachiketa wants to understand relationship between the dualities – AtmaVidyaa and Avidyaa ; Preyas and Shreyas. Man is bound by Vidyaa and Avidyaa in different forms. The path of Preya gives pleasure at the immediate instant. Shreya path gives pleasure in the end.श्रेय: आददानस्य – For the one who chooses the good, साधुभवति – good things will happen to him.  “वृ वरणे” – प्रेय: वृणीते–One who chooses Preya, हीयते – he will be deprived of the desired result. Yama had showed various pleasures that Nachiketas rejected. So Yama feels happy that his student passed in all the tests he conducted for checking the eligibility of the student to receive this highest knowledge. He tells Nachiketa that among Vidya and Avidya, Vidya is the only good option.

10.            श्रेयो हि धीरोऽभि प्रेयसो वृणीते२०१२.०३, प्रेयो मन्दो योगक्षेमाद्वृणीते २०१३.०३, २०१५.०१

श्रेयश्च प्रेयश्च मनुष्यमेतः तौ सम्परीत्य विविनक्ति धीरः । श्रेयो हि धीरोऽभि प्रेयसो वृणीतेप्रेयो मन्दो योगक्षेमाद्वृणीते ॥ १.२.२ ॥

श्रेयः च प्रेयः च मनुष्यं एतः तौ संपरीत्य विविनक्ति धीरः | श्रेयः हि धीरः अभि प्रेयसः वृणीते प्रेयः मन्दः योग-क्षेमात् वृणीते ||

श्रेयः the preferable च and प्रेयः च the pleasurable मनुष्यं man एतः approach तौ these two संपरीत्य weighed विविनक्ति distinguishes/separates धीरः the intelligent man. श्रेयः the preferable, the beneficial हि indeed धीरः the intelligent one अभि by all means प्रेयसः comparable to the pleasurable वृणीते selects प्रेयः the pleasurable मन्दः the short-sighted one योग-क्षेमात् to satisfy his concern for security and growth वृणीते chooses.

The good and the pleasant approach man; the wise examines both and discriminates between them; the wise prefers the good to the pleasant, but the foolish man chooses the pleasant through love of bodily pleasure.

Among the shlokas on विद्याविद्ययोर्विद्याया एव श्रेयस्करत्वम्, this one is विवेकिन एव श्रेय: साधनं वृणते |

In this shloka, Yama explains why people choose the path of Preyas even though Shreyas is far better, even when they have the freedom to choose (कर्तुं स्वायत्ते). Like a rat that unknowingly gets stuck in its trap, man gets entangled in the pleasures one after the other even without realizing that he is getting trapped in it.  इत: प्राप्नुत: श्रेयश्च प्रेयश्च | Man can get both Preyas and Shreyas. अतो हंस इवाम्भस: पय: The Hamsa takes only the milk leaving the water. Like that the wise person takes only the Shreyas separating out the Preyas. विविनक्ति = due to his discriminating power. धीरः = One with high mental strength.योगक्षेमात्वृणीते –chooses for the sake of his worldly comfort.

11.            अन्धेनैव नीयमाना यथान्धाः ॥ ५ ॥    २०१०.०२, २००९.०२, २०१४.०२

अविद्यायामन्तरे वर्तमानाः स्वयं धीराः पण्डितंमन्यमानाः । दन्द्रम्यमाणाः परियन्ति मूढा अन्धेनैव नीयमाना यथान्धाः ॥ १.२.५ ॥

अविद्यायाम् अन्तरे वर्तमानाः स्वयं धीराः पण्डितं मन्यमानाः । दन्द्रम्यमाणाः परियन्ति मूढाः अन्धेन एव नीयमानाः यथा अन्धाः ॥

अविद्यायां अन्तरे in the midst of ignorance वर्तमानाः existing स्वयं themselves धीराः intelligent पण्डितं enlightened मन्यमानाः considering दन्द्रम्यमाणाः go round and round परियन्ति following crooked paths मूढाः senseless ones अन्धेन एव blind ones नीयमानाः being lead by यथा just as अन्धाः blind ones.

Fools dwelling in ignorance, yet imagining themselves wise and learned, go round and round in crooked ways, like the blind led by the blind.

Among the shlokas on यमकृता नचिकेतस: प्रशंसा, this one is नचिकेतसो विवेक: |

12.            आश्चर्यो ज्ञाता कुशलानुशिष्टः (exam – not sure)

श्रवणायापि बहुभिर्यो न लभ्यः शृण्वन्तोऽपि बहवो यं न विद्युः । आश्चर्यो वक्ता कुशलोऽस्य लब्धा आश्चर्यो ज्ञाता कुशलानुशिष्टः ॥ १.२.७ ॥

श्रवणायाः अपि बहुभिः यः न लभ्य: शृण्वन्तः अपि बहवः यं न विद्युः | आश्चर्यः वक्ता कुशलः अस्य लब्धा आश्चर्यः ज्ञाता कुशलानुशिष्टः ||

He about whom many are not even able to hear, whom many cannot comprehend even after hearing: wonderful is the teacher, wonderful is he who can receive when taught by an able teacher.

श्रवणायाः for the hearing अपि even बहुभिः for many यः that which न is not लभ्य: available. शृण्वन्तः अपि even while hearing/learning बहवः many यं which न do not विद्युः understand. आश्चर्यः wonderful वक्ता the expounder कुशलः proficient अस्य लब्धा who receives this teaching आश्चर्यः wonderful ज्ञाता is the knower कुशलानुशिष्टः being taught by an adept.

Among the shlokas on यमकृता नचिकेतस: प्रशंसा, this one is श्रेयोऽर्थी सुदुर्लभ: |

It is very rare to see a man who chooses this path of spiritual prosperity, Shreyas. Among numerous people, only a few take to the right path. Among the people who take to the path, there are only a few who get to reach the goal of spiritual enlightenment.

बहुभि: श्रवणाया अपि न लभ्यःMany people are there who do not even hear of Atman; Through the company of good people, man gets good thoughts. शृण्वन्त: अपि बहव: न विद्युः Though hearing of Him, many do not comprehend.आश्चर्य: वक्ता Wonderful is the expounder andकुशल: अस्य लब्धाrare the hearer; आश्चर्यो ज्ञाता rare indeed is the experiencer of Atman, कुशलानुशिष्टः taught by an able preceptor.

Self-knowledge is hailed as the highest vidyA, Knowledge. The supreme status accorded to AtmavidyA is due to the fact that it is the most difficult to teach, learn and assimilate. This triad of challenges makes the expounding and receiving vidyA a unique one. That is the reason that the Upanishads specify very high standards for the AchArya, the preceptor and the shiShya, the aspirant.

13.            मत्वा धीरो हर्षशोकौ जहाति ॥ १२ ॥ २००८.०३, २०१३.०२, २०१५.०३

तं दुर्दर्शं गूढमनुप्रविष्टंगुहाहितं गह्वरेष्ठं पुराणम् । अध्यात्मयोगाधिगमेन देवंमत्वा धीरो हर्षशोकौ जहाति ॥ १.२.१२ ॥

तं दुर्दर्शं गूढम् अनुप्रविष्टं गुहाहितं गह्वरेष्ठं पुराणम् | अध्यात्मयोगाधिगमेन देवं मत्वा धीरः हर्षशोकौ जहाति ||

तं That दुर्दर्शं inscrutable गूढम् lodged inaccessibly अनुप्रविष्टं having entered गुहाहितं and located in the intellect गह्वरेष्ठं and seated in the midst of misery पुराणम् ancient One अध्यात्मयोगाधिगमेन by resorting to the spiritual disciple देवं मत्वा knowing this Deity, the Conscious One धीरो the intelligent man हर्षशोकौ जहाति gives up happiness and sorrow.

The wise, who by means of the highest meditation on the Self knows the Ancient One, difficult to perceive, seated in the innermost recess, hidden in the cave of the heart, dwelling in the depth of inner being, (he who knows that One) as God, is liberated from the fetters of joy and sorrow

Among the shlokas on वक्ष्यमाणज्ञानस्तुति:, this one is आत्माज्ञानाद् द्वन्द्वात्यय: |

धीर: तं दुर्दर्शं गूढम् अनुप्रविष्टंगुहाहितं गह्वरेष्ठं पुराणम् अध्यात्म+योग+अधिगमेन देवंमत्वा हर्षशोकौ जहाति | Yama glorifies the spiritual knowledge that has been asked as the third boon by Nachiketas. He explains the benefit of gaining this knowledge. धीर: हर्षशोकौ जहाति | धीर: – intelligent, smart person, one who can discriminate; An enlightened person gives up both  happiness and sorrow after gaining this knowledge. तं refers to that knowledge that Nachiketas wanted to obtain – यं ज्ञानं त्वम् इच्छसितं ज्ञानं दुर्दर्शं | दुर्दर्शं – दु:खेन दर्शनम् अस्य इति दुर्दर्श: |This knowledge is difficult to be understood. The nature or properties of this knowledge are the following:

  1. दुर्दर्शम् – hard to understand or perceive.
  2. गूढम् –it is secured in a secret place.
  3. अनुप्रविष्टम् –a thing which is difficult to be entered into.
  4. गुहाहितम् – (हितम् = स्थितम्) It is in the cave of intellect.
  5. गह्वरेष्ठम् –It is in the midst of many troubles (गह्वरे विषमे अनर्थसंकटे तिष्ठति).
  6. पुराणम्–It has been existing for a very long time. It is not something new. It exists in all the 3 काला

[side note त्रिकालाभाद्यं ज्ञानम् = सत्यम् ; अभाद्य = that which is not affected].

This sacred secret spiritual knowledge अध्यात्मयोगं is the one where the mind is cut off from sensory objects like the family and possessions, and the conscious is kept on the Atma. देवम् = आत्मानम्. The intelligent person has the समभावा and does not feel excited during happiness or depressed during sorrow. This is the state of attained by the gnaani on gaining this knowledge.

14.            सर्वे वेदा यत्पदमामनन्ति (not from exam)

सर्वे वेदा यत्पदमामनन्ति — तपाँसि सर्वाणि च यद्वदन्ति ।
यदिच्छन्तो ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति — तत्ते पदँ सङ्ग्रहेण ब्रवीम्योमित्येतत् ॥ १.२.१५ ॥

सर्वे वेदाः यत्पदम् आमनन्ति तपांसि सर्वाणि च यत् वदन्ति |
यत् इच्छन्तः ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति तत् ते पदं सङ्ग्रहेण ब्रवीमि | ॐ इति एतत् ||

सर्वे वेदाः all the veda-s यत्पदम् आमनन्ति in one voice proclaim that goal तपांसि सर्वाणि all austerities च यद्वदन्ति speak of यत् इच्छन्तो desiring that which ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति aspirants practice brahmacharya तत् that ते to you पदं goal सङ्ग्रहेण briefly ब्रवीमि shall I state ओं इत्येतत् it is Om.

Yama said: The goal which all the vedas declare, which all austerities aim at and which men desire when they lead the life of continence, I will tell you briefly: it is Om.

Among the shlokas on ओंकारद्वारेण ब्रह्मोपदेश:, this one is ओंकारसाधनत्वं ब्रह्मप्राप्तेः |

एतेन श्लोकेन ब्रह्मोपदेश: प्रारब्यते | If there can be a word that can be given as a synonym to Brahman, that is OM.

15.            एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं परम् (not from exam)

एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं ब्रह्म एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं परम् । एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं ज्ञात्वा  यो यदिच्छति तस्य तत् ॥ १.२.१६ ॥

एतत् हि एव अक्षरं ब्रह्म  एतद् हि एव अक्षरं परम् | एतद् हि एव अक्षरं ज्ञात्वा यः यत् इच्छति तस्य तत् ||

एतद् हि एव This alone indeed अक्षरं is the (inferior) ब्रह्म brahman एतद् हि एव This alone indeed अक्षरं परम् is the Supreme brahman. एतद् हि एव This alone indeed अक्षरं the letter, symbol, ज्ञात्वा having meditated upon यः he यत् इच्छति desiring which तस्य तत् his is that ॥ १६ ॥

This Word is indeed Brahman. This Word is indeed the Supreme. He who knows this Word obtains whatever he desires.

Among the shlokas on ओंकारद्वारेण ब्रह्मोपदेश:, this one is ओंकारस्य परब्रह्मालम्बनत्वम् |

नचिकेतसं प्रति यम: ॐ-कारस्य महत्वं वर्णयति |  It is not sufficient just to know that Om and Brahman are the same. The seeker has to meditate controlling the senses. यो यदिच्छति परम् अपरं वा, तस्य तद् भवति | परं ज्ञातव्यम्, अपरं चेत् प्राप्तव्यम् | Param is to be understood. Aparam is to be obtained.

16.            एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं परम् (not from exam)

एतत् आलम्बनं श्रेष्ठम् एतत् आलम्बनं परम् । एतत् आलम्बनं ज्ञात्वा ब्रह्मलोके महीयते ॥ 1.2.१७

एतत् This आलम्बनं medium श्रेष्ठम् is the best एतत् this आलम्बनं medium is the परम् supreme. एतत् This आलम्बनं medium ज्ञात्वा having meditated upon ब्रह्मलोके महीयते one becomes adorable in the world of Brahma.

This is the best support; this is the highest support. Whosoever knows this support is adored in the world of Brahma.

Among the shlokas on ओंकारद्वारेण ब्रह्मोपदेश:, this one is ओंकारस्य परब्रह्मालम्बनत्वम् |

Since a concentrated effort is required to attain the highest that is within creation, the Upanishad gives the method, the means, for this. This ‘Om’ is the best among the various means to attain brahman. This ‘Om’ is the means for attaining both the ‘inferior’ brahman as well as the ‘superior’brahman. The differentiation is based on what comes within creation and what transcends creation. When ‘Om’ is meditated upon with a view to attain the Supreme, Transcendental,brahman, one does achieve that. On the other hand if one resorts to ‘Om’ with a view to attain the highest state within creation, one gets to the state of Brahma, the first-born and becomes the object of adoration by others.

Now the Guru, Yama, embarks upon the delineation of the Atman that is the central theme of the discourse. Nachiketa had asked through the 14th mantra to know the Supreme that is beyonddharma and adharma, cause and effect, etc. The ‘Om’ meditation was mentioned as a means, for the well-accomplished aspirant, to attain the Supreme brahman. However, if the aspirant is of a middling and lowly type the ‘Om’ could be meditated upon with the conditioned-brahman as the subject. In the next mantra Yama gives out the nature of the Supreme brahman so that one can know It from the words employed to state Its nature:

17.            न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ॥ १८ ॥ २०१०.०३, २०१४.०३, २०१५.०१.०२

न जायते म्रियते वा विपश्चिन्नायं कुतश्चिन्न बभूव कश्चित् । अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणो न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ॥ १८ ॥

न जायते म्रियते वा विपश्चित् न अयं कुतश्चित् न बभूव कश्चित् । अज: नित्यः शाश्वत: अयं पुराण: न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ||

न जायते neither born म्रियते वा nor dies विपश्चित् this sentient Atman न अयं nor did It कुतश्चित् न बभूव originate from any cause कश्चित् nor did anything originate from It. अजः It is birthless नित्यः eternal शाश्वतः undecaying अयं पुराणः It is ancient न हन्यते It is not killed/injured हन्यमाने शरीरे when the body is killed.

The knowing Self is not born; It does not die. It has not sprung from anything; nothing has sprung from It. Birthless, eternal, everlasting and ancient. It is not killed when the body is killed.

Among the shlokas on आत्मन: साक्षात् स्वरूप-निर्धारणम्, this one is आत्मा सर्वविक्रियारहित: | |

अस्मिन् श्लोके आत्मन: साक्षात् स्वरूप-निर्धारणं करोति | The atma cannot be felt by the senses.  विपश्चित् = मेधावी | Don’t consider aatman to be an intelligent person. And don’t consider aatman to have come from a specific place like heaven. Nothing has originated from it. आत्मन: = ब्रह्मण: | निर्धारणम् = इदं इत्तं इति definition. अजः नित्यः शाश्वतः पुराणः |

18.            अणोरणीयान्महतो महीयान्

अणोरणीयान्महतो महीयान् — आत्मास्यजन्तोर्निहितं गुहायां | तमक्रतुः पश्यति वीतशोको — धातुः प्रसादात् महिमानमात्मनः  | १.२.२०|

अणोरणीयान् महतः महीयान् – आत्मा अस्य जन्तोः निहितं गुहायां | तम् अक्रतुः पश्यति वीतशोकः — धातुः प्रसादात् महिमान् अमात्मनः  | १.२.२०|

आत्मा अणो: अणीयान् | आत्मा महत: महीयान् | आत्मा अस्य जन्तो: गुहायां निहितम् अस्ति | वीतशोकः  अक्रतुः, धातुः प्रसादात्, तम् आत्मनः महिमानम्, पश्यति |

अणो: अणीयान् = Subtler than the subtle, महत: महीयान् = grosser than the gross, आत्मा अस्य जन्तो: निहितं गुहायां = the self is concealed in the heart-cave of this creature, तम् अक्रतुः = he who is free from desire पश्यति = perceives, वीतशोक: = free from sorrow, धातुः प्रसादात् = through the purity of the mind and the senses, आत्मनः  महिमानम् = the glory of the self

Subtler than the subtle, grosser than the gross, the self is concealed in the heart-cave of this creature.  He who is free from desire and free from sorrow perceives the glory of the self through the purity of the mind and the senses.

Among the shlokas on आत्मन: साक्षात् स्वरूप-निर्धारणम्, this one is अकाम एव आत्मानं पश्यति |

19.            महान्तं विभुमात्मानं मत्वा धीरो न शोचति (२०१५.०३.०२) see also 2.1.4

अशरीरँ शरीरेष्वनवस्थेष्ववस्थितम् । महान्तं विभुमात्मानं मत्वा धीरो न शोचति ॥ 1.2.२२॥  [2015.03]

शरीरेषु अशरीरं, अनवस्थेषु अवस्थितं, महान्तं, विभुम् आत्मानं मत्वा धीरः न शोचति |

शरीरेषु within the bodies अशरीरम् bodiless, अनवस्थेषु within the impermanent अवस्थितं the permanent, महान्तं that Great विभुम् all-pervading आत्मानं Self मत्वा knowing which धीरः the wise one न does not शोचति grieve.

The bodiless within the bodies, the permanent within the impermanent, the great, the omnipresent – knowing the self (to be this) a wise man grieves not.

Among the shlokas on आत्माविज्ञानफलं साधनं च, this one is आत्मग्नानस्य शोकराहित्यं फलम् |

The second half of the verse comes also in 2.1.4.

20.            तस्यैष आत्मा विवृणुते तनूँ स्वाम् ॥ २३ ॥ २००७.०१, २००९.०३

नायमात्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्योन मेधया न बहुना श्रुतेन । यमेवैष वृणुते तेन लभ्यःतस्यैष आत्मा विवृणुते तनूँ स्वाम् ॥ १.२.२३ ॥

न अयम् आत्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्य: न मेधया न बहुना श्रुतेन । यम् एव एष: वृणुते तेन लभ्यः तस्य एष आत्मा विवृणुते तनूँ स्वाम् |

न अयम् आत्मा This Atman is not प्रवचनेन लभ्यः attained through study न मेधया nor by intelligence न बहुना श्रुतेन or by much hearing of sacred literature. यम् he whom एव alone एष the Self वृणुते chooses तेन लभ्यः It is attained by such a person तस्य Its एष this आत्मा Atman विवृणुते reveals तनूं स्वाम् Its true nature.

This Self cannot be attained by study of the Scriptures, nor by intellectual perception, nor by frequent hearing (of It); He whom the Self chooses (alternate meaning – He who chooses the Self alone), by him alone is It attained. To him the Self reveals Its true nature.

Context: The Acharya Yama is continuing his delineation of the Self upon being asked for it by the wonderful aspirant Nachiketas.

Among the shlokas on आत्माविज्ञानफलं साधनं च, this one is आत्मविज्ञानोपाय: |

वृणुते = “वृ वरणे” – whom the Brahma chooses ! ज्ञेय: = ज्ञातुं शक्य: | दुर्विज्ञेय: = ज्ञातुं न साध्यम् | तथापि उपायेन सुविज्ञेय: एव इति आह | प्रोत्साहं ददाति | (Gives encouragement). मेधया = ग्रन्थार्थधारणशक्त्या |

Krishna tells about 3 types of people who will come to hear the guru’s teachings. कुतूहली – Those who are curious. जिज्ञासुः – Those who are interested in knowing. मुमुक्षु: – One who comes with an open mind with an aim to gain the knowledge, will grasp and attain moksha. एषः साधकः यं स्वात्मानम् एव वृणुते प्रार्थयते तेन एव वरित्रा आत्मना आत्मा स्वयं लभ्यः ज्ञायते इत्येतत् । एवम् आत्मानम् एव निष्कामस्य प्रार्थयतः आत्मना एव आत्मा लभ्यः इत्यर्थः। स्व-याथात्म्यम् | तनूं = पारमार्थिक तनूम् | By that (selected वरित्रा) atmaa which alone the Sadhaka selects, the atmaa can be known.

21.            नाविरतो दुश्चरितात्

नाविरतो दुश्चरितात् — नाशान्तो नासमाहितः |  नाशान्तोमनसो वाऽपि — प्रज्ञानेनैनमाप्नुयात् || [1.2.24]

दुश्चरितात् अविरतः न | अशान्तः न | असमाहितः न |  अशान्तः मनसः वा अपि प्रज्ञानेन एनं न आप्नुयात् |

न अविरतः one who has not desisted दुश्चरितात् from evil conduct न अशान्तः whose senses are not under control न असमाहितः whose mind is not concentrated न अशान्तमानसः whose mind is not free from anxiety वा अपि प्रज्ञानेन he too cannot through knowledge एनम् आप्नुयात् attain this Atman.

One who has not abandoned his bad habits, whose mind is not under control, who does not have concentration or whose mind is disturbed cannot realize this atman by mere intellectual reasoning.

Among the shlokas on आत्माविज्ञानफलं साधनं च, this one is आत्मविज्ञाने साधनान्तराणि |

22.            आत्मानं रथिनं विद्धि शरीरं रथमेव तु

आत्मानं रथिनं विद्धि शरीरं रथमेव तुबुद्धिं तु सारथिं विद्धि मनः प्रग्रहमेव च || 3
इन्द्रियाणि हयान्याहु: विषयांस्तेषु गोचरान्आत्मेन्द्रियमनोयुक्तं भोक्तेत्याहुर्मनीषिणः || 4
यस्त्वविज्ञानवान् भवत्ययुक्तेन मनसा सदा — तस्येन्द्रियाण्यवश्यानि दुष्टाश्वा इव सारथे: || 5
यस्तु विज्ञानवान्भवति युक्तेन मनसा सदा । तस्येन्द्रियाणि वश्यानि सदश्वा इव सारथेः ॥ 6 ॥
विज्ञानसारथिर्यस्तु मनप्रग्रहवान् नरः — सोऽध्वन पारमाप्नोति तद्विष्णो: परमं पदम्  || 9  [1.3.3,4,5,6,9]

आत्मानं रथिनं विद्धि |शरीरं रथम् एव तु | बुद्धिं तु सारथिं विद्धि | मनः प्रग्रहम् एव च | इन्द्रियाणि हयानि आहुः | विषयान् तेषु गोचरान् | आत्मेन्द्रियमनोयुक्तं भोक्ता इति मनीषिणः आहुः |  ….. | सदा युक्तेन मनसा यः तु विज्ञानवान् भवति,  तस्य इन्द्रियाणि, सारथे: सदश्वाः इव, वश्यानि | यः तु विज्ञानसारथिः मनप्रग्रहवान् नरः, सः  अध्वनपारम् आप्नोति | तत् विष्णो: परमं पदम्  |

Know the self as the lord of the chariot, the body as the chariot,  the intellect as the charioteer and the mind as the reins. The senses are said to be the horses and the sense-objects the spheres for them.  Wise men say that (the individual self) as associated with body, the senses and the mind, is the enjoyer.  (Whoever becomes devoid of knowledge because of mind ever unyoked, for him the senses are uncontrollable, as wild horses are for a charioteer).  But whoever becomes endowed with knowledge because of mind ever yoked, for him the senses are controllable, as trained horses are for a charioteer.  One who has discriminating intellect as the charioteer and the mind as the reins reaches the end of the path and attains the highest goal of life.

Among the shlokas on रथरथिरूपककल्पना, these (३,४) are शरीरादीनां रथादित्वम् |
Among the shlokas on विज्ञानवदविज्ञानवतोः फलभेदः , these (5,6) are सुबुद्धिमत एव वश्येन्द्रियत्वम्  |
Among the shlokas on विज्ञानवदविज्ञानवतोः फलम् , this one (९) is अविज्ञानवतः संसारगतिः विज्ञानवतो मोक्षश्च |

 

23.            इन्द्रियेभ्यः परा ह्यर्था

इन्द्रियेभ्यः परा ह्यर्था अर्थेभ्यश्च परं मनः । मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्बुद्धेरात्मा महान्परः ॥ 1.3.१० ॥

इन्द्रियेभ्यः पराः हि अर्थाः अर्थेभ्यः च परं मनः  | मनसः परा  बुद्धिः बुद्धेः आत्मा महान् परः  ||

इन्द्रियेभ्यः पराः हि greater than the senses indeed अर्थाः are the objects अर्थेभ्यः च परं greater than the objects मनः is the mind.  मनसः परा  greater than the mind बुद्धिः is the intellect बुद्धेः greater than the intellect आत्मा महान् परः  is the Great self .

Beyond the senses are the objects; beyond the objects is the mind; beyond the mind, the intellect; beyond the intellect, the Great Atman.

Among the shlokas on ब्रह्मणः परमसूक्ष्मत्वात् प्रत्यगात्मत्त्वम् , this one is विष्णोः पदस्य प्रत्यगात्मत्त्वम्  | 

महतः परमव्यक्तमव्यक्तात्पुरुषः परः । पुरुषान्न परं किंचित्सा काष्ठा सा परा गतिः ॥ 1.3.११ ॥

महतः परम् अव्यक्तम् अव्यक्तात् पुरुषः परः | पुरुषात् न परं किञ्चित् सा काष्ठा सा परा गतिः ||

महतः परम् अव्यक्तम् beyond the Great is the unmanifest अव्यक्तात् पुरुषः परः beyond the unmanifest is the puruSha  पुरुषात् न परं किञ्चित् there is nothing beyond/greater than the puruSha सा काष्ठा this is the ultimate सा परा गतिः  this is the Supreme Goal.

Beyond the Great Atman, the Unmanifest; beyond the Unmanifest, the Purusha. Beyond the Purusha there is nothing: this is the end, the Supreme Goal.

Among the shlokas on ब्रह्मणः परमसूक्ष्मत्वात् प्रत्यगात्मत्त्वम् , this one is विष्णोः पदस्य प्रत्यगात्मत्त्वम्  | 

24. उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान्निबोधत ।२०१४.१२, २०१५.०२

उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान्निबोधत । क्षुरस्य धारा निशिता दुरत्यया | दुर्गं पथस्तत्कवयो वदन्ति ॥ १.३.१४ ॥

उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान् निबोधत । क्षुरस्य धारा निशिता दुरत्यया |  दुर्गं पथ: तत् कवय: वदन्ति |

उत्तिष्ठत – arise, जाग्रत – awake, प्राप्य – having received, वरान् – great teachers, निबोधत – get enlightened । क्षुरस्य – razor’s धारा – edge (अग्रम्),  निशिता – sharp दुरत्यया – difficult to tread upon |  दुर्गं – fortified (दु:संपाद्यम्). पथ: – road (मार्ग:), कवय: – those Brahma jnaanis – तत् – that वदन्ति – tell |

  1. Arise, awake!  Seek the great teachers and realize the self!  The wise say the path, difficult to navigate, is sharp and narrow like a razor’s edge.

Among the shlokas on सूक्ष्मस्यात्मनो दर्शनार्थं योग:, this one is आत्म-दर्शन-यत्न-कर्तव्यता-उपदेश: | 

The spiritual path is difficult because life is not what it seems and because as discrimination develops one discovers more and more subtle delusions. One needs to be eternally vigilant because it is easy to ‘fall off’ the path, identify with beliefs and opinions that prevent appreciation of one’s wholeness.

It may be possible to sort it out on your own but it is intelligent to realize your limitations and seek help. Associating with a teacher means that the non-dual perspective is constantly present. Additionally, your desire for liberation will grow quickly because a teacher will continually remind you of the limitations inherent in the pursuit of objects. Finally, you can present your doubts and have them cleared quickly and easily. It sometimes takes years to work though a problem that can be solved in a few minutes by a competent teacher.  

कर्तव्यं – a command that has to be abided. In the मिथ्याज्ञान, there are नाम, रूप, कर्म. ते विजृम्भितम् | हे जन्तव: आत्मज्ञान अभिमुखा भवत | निभोधत = अवगच्छत | वरान् = प्रकृष्तान् आचार्यान् तत्वविद: | अस्मिन् श्लोके शाङ्करभाष्ये “अहमस्मि” इति अद्वैतसिददान्तस्य प्रवेश: भवति | Shankara introduces the concept of Advaita as “Aham asmi” in this shloka. ज्ञेयस्य अति-सूक्ष्मत्वात् तत् विषयस्य ग्नानमार्गस्य दु:संपाद्यत्वं वदन्ति |

25. तस्मात्पराङ् पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् । २०१०.०४

पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयम्भू-स्तस्मात्पराङ्पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् ।
कश्चिद्धीरः प्रत्यगात्मानमैक्ष-दावृत्तचक्षुरमृतत्वमिच्छन् ॥ २.१.१ ॥

पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयम्भू:  तस्मात् पराङ् पश्यति न अन्तरात्मन् ।
कश्चित् धीरः प्रत्यगात्मानम् ऐक्षत् आवृत्तचक्षु: अमृतत्वम् इच्छन् |

पराञ्चि – outgoing tendencies; खानि – senses (आकाश जन्याणि), व्यतृणत् –  disturbed – mixed up things (हिंसितवान् हननं कृतवान्), स्वयम्भू: – the self-existent Brahma,  तस्मात् – therefore, पराङ् – external world, पश्यति – see, न – not, अन्तरात्मन् – the self, कश्चित् – some, धीरः – wise man, प्रत्यगात्मानम् – atman within (प्रत्यक् च असौ आत्मा च) , ऐक्षत् – he wished (अपश्यत्),  आवृत्तचक्षु: – one having eyes averted (with his senses turned away), अमृतत्वम् – immortality, इच्छन् – desiring.

2.1.1. The self existent self created the senses with outgoing tendencies. Therefore we see the external world and not the self. But the wise turn the senses away from the world and, seeking what is everlasting, realize the self within.

The Self-existent created the senses out-going; for this reason man sees the external, but not the inner Ātman (Self). Some wise man, however, desiring immortality, with eyes turned away (from the external) sees the Ātman within.

Among the shlokas on काम एव आत्मज्ञानस्य प्रतिबन्ध:, this one is पराग्दृष्टि: स्वभावो लोकस्य, प्रत्यग्दृष्टिस्तु कस्यचिदेव |

आत्माज्ञानस्य स्वरूप: क: इति वक्तव्यम् | तत् पूर्वम् आत्मज्ञानस्य विघ्ना: के इति वदति | काम एव आत्मज्ञानस्य प्रतिबन्ध: |किमर्थं प्रबन्ध: ज्ञातव्यः ?

गूढ: आत्मा, सर्वेषुभूतेषु न प्रकाशते | केनापि न दृश्यते वा? अथवा कतिपयेषु दृष्टुं शक्यते वा? इति प्रश्न: अस्ति | स: वदति –अग्रया बुद्ध्यया दृष्टुं शक्यते | अग्रा बुद्धि: इत्युक्ते कुशाग्र मति:  – the intellect that has the sharpness of the edge of the Kusha or Dharbha grass. Even these people have obstruction or obstacles – प्रतिबन्ध: | परंतुतस्य अपि काम एव आत्मज्ञानस्य प्रतिबन्ध: |विघ्नस्य ज्ञानम् अस्ति चेत् तस्य निवारणं कर्तुं शक्नुम: | विघ्ननिवारणात् फलं कर्यप्राप्ति:, फलप्राप्ति: | अस्माकं दृष्टिस्तु आत्मज्ञाने अस्ति | विघ्नविचार: किमर्थम्? यदि विघ्ना: निवार्यते तर्हि फलप्राप्ति: सुखकरम् |

In this chapter, Yama is trying to tell Nachiketas about all the obstacles on the road of Atma gnana. There is a question there – We are interested in knowing about the Aatman and attaining the atma gnana. Why are just delaying by talking about these obstacles. For this Yama says, “It is very important because when you know the obstacles your mind will be prepared to watch out for and remove the obstacles. Once the obstacles are avoided, your path will be smooth and you will be able to reach the goal. There is Shreyas or prosperity and well-being only for you by knowing the obstacles. विघ्नस्य अपनयनाय यत्न आरब्धुं शक्यते – न अन्यथा | As long as you are attached to the desires, you will not be able to start getting into that path of Atma Gnana. Only after removing these obstacles, you can progress in your path.

शब्दगुणकमाकाशम् | The sound is the quality of space. The sound is captured by the ears. Sound can’t be heard in Vacuum. पराञ्चि = पराक् गच्छन्ति (अञ्चन्ति). वातावरणे ओंकारः सदा अस्ति | But the ears are not capable of hearing it. The creator has removed the power of hearing that sound from this sense organ.  पराङ् = अनात्मभूतान् शब्दादीन् = the sounds in these worldly environment. लौकिकशब्दा: ये सन्ति ते व्यवाहारे एव दृश्यते | अत: व्यवहारे एव ये ते शब्दा: शोत्रुं साद्यम् अस्ति | परन्तु ज्ञानी ओंकारम् एव शृणोति | At the time of creation, the creator disturbed and destroyed the sense so that it cannot hear the omkara and it can hear only the other sounds in the environment. लोकस्य स्वाभाव: एवं सति अपि, कश्चित्, नद्या: प्रतिस्रोत: प्रवर्तनामिव धीर: इन्द्रिय-प्रत्याहरणं कृत्वा प्रत्यगात्मानं अपश्यत् | Even if the nature of the world is like this, there will be some person who will control his senses and he will be able to realize the true self. Every sense wants to experience the pleasure. But a true seeker does not go after such pleasures – अमृतत्वम् अमरन+धर्मत्वं नित्य+स्वभावताम् इच्छन्, महता प्रयासेन स्वभावप्रवृत्तिनिरोधं करोति |

26.            पराञ्च: कामाननुयन्ति बालाः

पराञ्च: कामाननुयन्ति बाला-  स्ते मृत्योर्यान्तिविततस्य पाशम् | अथ धीराः अमृतत्वं विदित्वाध्रुवमध्रुवेष्विह न प्रार्थयन्ते || [2.1.2]

पराञ्च: कामान् अनुयन्ति बालाः    ते मृत्योः यान्ति विततस्य पाशम् | अथ धीराः अमृतत्वं विदित्वाध्रुवमध्रुवेषु इह न प्रार्थयन्ते ||

बालाः  पराञ्च: कामान् अनुयन्ति | ते मृत्योः विततस्य पाशं यान्ति | अथ धीराः अमृतत्वं विदित्वा ध्रुवमध्रुवेषु इह न प्रार्थयन्ते |

पराञ्च: external कामान् objects of desire अनुयन्ति seek/covet बालाः ignorant ते they मृत्योः of Death यान्ति attain to विततस्य wide-spread पाशम् snare अथ but धीराः the wise अमृतत्वं immortality विदित्वा realizing ध्रुवं the stable अध्रुवेषु in the unstable इह here न do not प्रार्थयन्ते covet/seek.

The immature pursue outward pleasures; they are caught in the far-flung snare of death.  But the wise, knowing immortality to be permanent, do not pray for anything here amidst what are transitory.

Among the shlokas on काम एव आत्मज्ञानस्य प्रतिबन्ध:, this one is अविवेकिनामेव विषयविषयः कामः, न विवेकिनाम् |

27. महान्तं विभुमात्मानं मत्वा धीरो न शोचति २०१५.०३.२

स्वप्नान्तं जागरितान्तं चोभौ येनानुपश्यति । महान्तं विभुमात्मानं मत्वा धीरो न शोचति ॥ ४ ॥

स्वप्नान्तं जागरितान्तं च उभौ येन अनुपश्यति | महान्तं विभुम् आत्मानं मत्वा धीरः न शोचति ||

स्वप्नान्तं within dream जागरितान्तं within waking च and उभौ both येन by which अनुपश्यति one perceives महान्तं that Great विभुम् all-pervading आत्मानं Self मत्वा knowing which धीरः the wise one न does not शोचति grieve.

That by which one perceives both what is within dreams and what is within the waking state – having known that great, all-pervading self, the wise one does not grieve.

Among the shlokas on आत्माधिगमप्रकारः, this one is यञ्जाग्रत्स्वपणसाक्षि, तदेव प्रकृतमात्मतत्त्वम् |

By this mantra the teacher Yama brings almost the entire gamut of human experience into the picture. First, all that is experienced in the dream and then the contents of the waking experience are all shown to be witnessed by the Self. In fact, it is due to the illumining by the Self that these experiences come to be had by the jeeva through the mind-senses-body complex. By knowing this illumining Self to be one’s true Self the wise one goes out of the cycle of samsaara and no longer grieves.

The key point made by the Teacher is that one discriminates between the identification with the body-mind complex and the illumining Self, the Witness, and realizes his true identity with the illumining Self and dissociates from the identification with the body-mind complex which indeed is the not-Self.

28. अरण्योर्निहितो जातवेदा गर्भ इव सुभृतो गर्भिणीभिः ।२००७.०२

अरण्योर्निहितो जातवेदा गर्भ इव सुभृतो गर्भिणीभिः । दिवे दिव ईड्यो जागृवद्भिर्हविष्मद्भिर्मनुष्येभिरग्निः ।एतद्वै तत् ॥ २.१.८ ॥

अरण्यो: निहित: जातवेदा: गर्भ इव सुभृत: गर्भिणीभिः । दिवे दिव ईड्यः जागृवद्भि: हविष्मद्भि: मनुष्येभि: अग्निः । एतत् वै तत् ॥ २.१.८ ॥

अरण्यो: – pair of fire-sticks, निहित: – reside (स्थित:), जातवेदा: –  fire,  गर्भ – fetus इव – like सुभृत: – well-guarded (सुष्ठु भरित:) गर्भिणीभिः – by the pregnant woman । दिवे दिव – day after day ईड्यः – worshipped,  जागृवद्भि: – by wakeful seekers, हविष्मद्भि: – by one who does sacrifice, मनुष्येभि: – by such people, अग्निः – Agni । एतत् वै तत् – Certainly this is that !

2.1.8. The all-seeing consciousness that, like fire, is hidden in wood and concealed like a fetus in the womb is worshipped by self inquirers and ritualists. This is what you wish to know.

Ritualists are also self worshippers although their worship is indirect i.e. through rituals. Even though they worship deities, they actually worship the self in so far as the self works through the deity to bolster their faith.

The all-seeing fire which exists hidden in the two sticks, as the fetus is well- guarded in the womb by the mother, (that fire) is to be worshipped day after day by wakeful seekers (after wisdom), as well as by sacrificers. This verily is That.

Context: Brahman (The supreme self) and aatman (the inner self) are identical.

Among the shlokas on प्रत्यगात्मब्रह्मण: सर्वात्मत्वम्, this one is अग्निरूपेण स्थितो विराडपि ब्रह्मैव |

There is some heat in the atmosphere. All the five elements are present. Agni is virat. Even that is Brahma only. In the Yogis, Agni is present in their heart. The mother eats food which is converted to energy that passes on to the fetus by means of the agni inside the body. Agni is there inside everyone. That is only Brahman and Aatman. अग्निः ऋत्विग्भि: योगिभिश्च सम्यक् भृत: | The Rutvig are the great rishis who conduct the yaga, namely Hotr, Adhvaryu, Udgatr, and Brahman. अध्वरे हृदये च – in the homa and in the hearts.

29.            नेह नानाऽस्ति किंचन ।२००७.०३

मनसैवेदमाप्तव्यं नेह नानाऽस्ति किंचन । मृत्योः स मृत्युं गच्छति य इह नानेव पश्यति ॥ 2.1.११ ॥

मनसा एव इदम् आप्तव्यं न इह नाना अस्ति किंचन । मृत्योः स: मृत्युं गच्छति य: इह नाना इव पश्यति |  

मनसा एव इदम् आप्तव्यम् | इह किंचन नाना न अस्ति । य: इह नाना इव पश्यति स: मृत्योः मृत्युं गच्छति |

२.१.11. By the mind alone is the self to be realized. There is no difference between the seen and the unseen. See a difference and move from death to death.

Among the shlokas on ब्रह्मात्मैक्त्वज्ञानात् सर्वानर्थप्रहाणि:, this one is अविद्ययैव ब्रह्मणि नानात्वं बासते |

This verse is intended for those who think the mind is the enemy and should be stopped or destroyed or transcended. You cannot ‘gain’ the self by getting rid of anything because the self is you. How can you get rid of yourself? Even if you could, you wouldn’t because it is for the sake of yourself that you do everything. Therefore because inquiry produces self knowledge it is the only way to get what you already have. The self is only ‘hidden’ by ignorance. No gain or loss can remove ignorance. Only self knowledge removes it.

By mind alone this is to be realized. There is no difference whatever (between visible and invisible). He who sees difference here (between these) goes from death to death.

Context: All beings are one only! Due to ignorance also, the difference are seen.

30.            यथोदकं दुर्गे वृष्टं पर्वतेषु विधावति

यथोदकं दुर्गे वृष्टं पर्वतेषु विधावति । एवं धर्मान् पृथक् पश्यंस्तानेवानुविधावति ॥ 2.1.१४ ॥

यथा उदकं दुर्गे वृष्टं पर्वतेषु विधावति | एवं धर्मान् पृथक् पश्यन् तानेव अनुविधावति ||

यथा दुर्गे वृष्टं उदकं पर्वतेषु विधावति,  एवं धर्मान् पृथक् पश्यन् तान् एव अनुविधावति |

यथा just as उदकं water दुर्गे on a mountain peak वृष्टं rained पर्वतेषु on the rocks विधावति runs down एवं so too धर्मान् entities different from the Self पृथक् पश्यन् seeing as different तानेव them alone अनुविधावति runs in pursuit.

As rainwater falling on a mountain peak runs down to the abyss in all directions, even so he who sees the attributes as different from Brahman verily runs after them in all directions.

Among the shlokas on ज्ञानाज्ञानफलोपसंहारः , this one is अज्ञानिनः सातत्येन संसारः |

The Upanishad spells out the dire consequence of taking as real the multiplicity seen in the state of ignorance.  A suitable analogy is employed here to convey the message:  When it rains on a mountain peak, the water, finding its natural levels, flows down to the spots that lie at the lower ranges.  There is no effort involved in accomplishing this.  So too when a person entertains as real the idea of difference, multiplicity, in the world, actually strengthens the erroneously deeply ingrained idea of difference, bheda, thereby ending up perpetuating the saMsAra born of bheda-buddhi, the notion of difference.  Primarily, by ‘difference’ is meant the idea of finitude.  This is the fundamental error since the Upanishadic fact is that there is absolutely no room for difference in the Impartite brahman. The Upanishad teaches brahman as an Infinite mass of consciousness, giving no room for any object, subtle or gross, as different from brahman. This fact is not known to the ignorance-enveloped person and he goes about imagining a variety of objects, sentient and insentient in a world, also imagined by him.  If only the truth of one’s own infinitude be grasped and firmly internalized, there is no occasion for any difference whatsoever.  Such an eternal state is liberation, mokSha.   One realizes that there is no danger to one’s Being from any quarter, for there is nothing that is not this Being, Sat.

31.            एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा  (comes in 3 verses. Refer those verses also)

अग्निर्यथैको भुवनं प्रविष्टो  — रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव | एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मारूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बहिश्च  [2.2.9]

यथा एकः भुवनं प्रविष्टः अग्निः, रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपः बभूव,  तथा एकः सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा, रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपः, बहिः च  बभूव |

अग्नि: यथा just as fire एकः being one भुवनं प्रविष्टः has entered the world रूपं रूपं taking every form प्रतिरूपः reflection  बभूव attained एकः तथा similarly being one सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा the Self-of-all रूपं रूपं takes every form प्रतिरूपः reflection बहिः च and is outside them.

As Agni (Fire), which is one, entering this world becomes varied in form according to the respective forms (of objects it burns), so also the one inner self of all beings becomes varied in form according to the respective forms of beings it inhabits and also (exists) outside.

Among the shlokas on आत्मैकत्वे दृष्टान्तौ, this one is एकस्यैवानेकत्वेन विभाव्यमानत्वे दृष्टान्तद्वयम् |

As the same non-dual fire, after it has entered the world, becomes different according to whatever it burns, so also the same non-dual Atman, dwelling in all beings, becomes different according to whatever It enters. And It exists also without.

The Upanishad is embarking on giving certain analogies in order to make our understanding of the nature of the Self easier.  First the fire-analogy is presented here. Fire, as an entity, is one.  It is present in a latent manner in everything that is combustible. The mantra puts it in a poetic way: the non-dual fire has entered, as it were, every combustible material and has taken up that form, as it were.  The idea is: even though the combustible materials are myriad, fire that is said to be inherent in them, however, is one.  Thus it is as if the non-dual fire has become manifold, in so many forms.

Even so, the non-dual Self, brahman, has entered this world of innumerable names and forms and exists in all of them.  It is as though the non-dual Self has become so many.  And how has this to be understood? It is the Self which forms the core of everything that we encounter as separate from one another.  By saying ‘core’ what is meant is that ‘the Self is the essential reality in each object, while the name and form of the object is unreal, insubstantial.  When we take people, the Self is the innermost essence, the Atman, in each of us, while the body, mind, etc. are the insubstantial elements in us. But then, does the One Atman really become many and therefore get divided? No.  It is ever One only even though it appears that it is existing as many in each object.  The Self is indivisible.  It is present in each object not in any corner but pervades the entire objective world, in and through.  There is no object or place, even in between objects, that is not pervaded by Atman. Just for the sake of convenience of expression and comprehension the mantra says that the Self gets variedly reflected.

32.            एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा  (3 verses)

वायुर्यथैको भुवनं प्रविष्टो  रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव । एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा  रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बहिश्च ॥ २.२.१० ॥

वायुः यथा एकः भुवनं प्रविष्टः रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपः बभूव | एकः तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपः बहिः च || 2.2.10

वायुः यथा just as air एकः is one भुवनं the world प्रविष्टः has entered रूपं रूपं every form प्रतिरूपः reflection बभूव attained एकः तथा similarly being one सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा the self-of-all रूपं रूपं every form प्रतिरूपः reflection बहिः च and outside them.

As the same non-dual air, after it has entered the world, becomes different according to whatever it enters, so also the same non-dual Atman, dwelling in all beings, becomes different according to whatever It enters. And It exists also without.

Among the shlokas on आत्मैकत्वे दृष्टान्तौ, this one is एकस्यैवानेकत्वेन विभाव्यमानत्वे दृष्टान्तद्वयम् |

Air has entered every living being as the prANa, the life force.  In this way air, though one, has attained several forms, as it were, and is available in many loci. By this much it cannot be said that air is multiple.  It remains one only.  In the same way the Atman though one only is reflected in the various bodies.  The reflections are many owing to the manifoldness of the reflecting media.

Yet another example is given with a more profound message in the next verse.

33.            एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा  (3 verses) + न लिप्यते लोकदुखेन बाह्य:

सूर्यो यथा सर्वलोकस्य चक्षु: — न लिप्यते चाक्षुषैर्बाह्यदोषै: | एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा — न लिप्यते लोकदुःखेन बाह्य: || [2.2.11]

सूर्यः  यथा सर्वलोकस्य चक्षुः न लिप्यते चाक्षुषैः बाह्यदोषैः | एकः तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा न लिप्यते लोकदुःखेन बाह्यः || 2.2.11 ||

यथा सर्वलोकस्य चक्षु: सूर्यः अक्षुषैः बाह्यदोषै: न लिप्यते च, तथा एकः बाह्य: सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा, लोकदुखेन न लिप्यते |

सूर्यः  यथा just as the sun सर्वलोकस्य चक्षुः being the eye of the entire world न लिप्यते is untouched by चाक्षुषैः बाह्यदोषैः by the seen outside defects  एकः तथा similarly being one सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा the self-of-all न लिप्यते is untouched लोकदुःखेन by the misery of the world बाह्यः being outside the world.

As the sun, which helps all eyes to see, is not affected by the blemishes of the eyes or of the external things revealed by it, so also the one Atman, dwelling in all beings, is never contaminated by the misery of the world, being outside it.

Among the shlokas on देहस्थस्यापि परस्य न संसारदुःखम्, this one is परमात्मनो दुःखालिप्तत्वे दृष्टान्तः |

This analogy comes very close to the topic on hand: the Atman.  The sun is considered the illumining power that enables every sentient being in creation to perceive objects.  The vedic system holds the sun-god, Aditya, to be the presiding deity in the organ eye of beings, blessing the organ with the power of perception of colours and forms.  The perceived objects are of a varied nature, some holy and others unclean, unholy, like urine and excreta.  In the orthodox practice, the sight of these unholy objects is said to cause impurity to the person who beholds them.  On the other hand, the sight of holy things, like a learned brAhmaNa, a cow, a married woman loyal to her husband, are said to bring merit to the beholder.  Keeping this practice in mind the mantra says that the sun, even though the illuminer of all objects, holy and otherwise, is not touched by the merit or demerit arising out of the beholder seeing them.  The demerit, for instance, can be admitted to accrue only to the person who beholds them and not to the illumining power, the sun.  Similarly the Atman, though the power lending the sentiency to all beings is never touched by the sins, etc. of the beings.  The Self transcends all objectivity and therefore is never touched by the characteristics of the objective world.

Sentient beings, owing to the fundamental ignorance of their true Atman-nature, superimpose the mind-body complex on the Self and identify with the merits, etc. that really are only properties of the not-self, the mind.  Surely these do not inhere in the Atman.  The impurity pertaining to the superimposed snake, silver and water does not inhere in their substratum the rope, the shell and the desert land.  These impurities have arisen owing to erroneously perceiving the rope, etc. as snake, etc. Surely the rope, etc. are outside the purview of the error and the error-born defects.

In the same way people ignorant of the true nature of the Self superimpose on the Self the false notions of actions, agent and fruit (akin to the superimposing the snake, etc. on the rope, etc.) and experience misery born of birth, disease, death, etc. Surely, the Atman, being totally outside these wrong identifications and their effects, is never tainted by these.  This is the central message of theUpanishad.  He who grasps it correctly is instantly released from the error and the error-born effects called saMsAra.

34.            तेषां सुखं शाश्वतं नेतरेषाम् (not yet asked in exam)

एको वशी सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा  —  एकं रूपं बहुधा यः करोति । तमात्मस्थं येऽनुपश्यन्ति धीराः  —  तेषां सुखं शाश्वतं नेतरेषाम् ॥ २.२.१२ ॥

एकः वशी सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा एकं रूपं बहुधा यः करोति | तम् आत्मस्थं ये अनुपश्यन्ति धीराः तेषां सुखं शाश्वतं न इतरेषाम् ||

एकः One वशी Ruler सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा of the inmost Self of all beings एकं One रूपं form बहुधा manifold यः He करोति does तम् Him आत्मस्थं situated in the mind ये those अनुपश्यन्ति who perceive धीराः wise तेषां for them सुखं happiness शाश्वतं eternal न not इतरेषाम् for others.

“The one Controller, the inner self of all  beings who makes his one form manifold;  the wise who perceive him as existing within themselves – for them there is eternal happiness; not for others.

Among the shlokas on आत्मज्नानिनां नित्यसुखशान्ति, this one is सर्वकारणं परमात्मानमात्मत्वेन पश्यताम् नित्यसुखम् |

35.            तस्य भासा सर्वमिदं विभाति ॥ १५ ॥ २००९.०४, २००८.०४, २०१२.०४

न तत्र सूर्यो भाति न चन्द्रतारकंनेमा विद्युतो भान्ति कुतोऽयमग्निः । तमेव भान्तमनुभाति सर्वंतस्य भासा सर्वमिदं विभाति ॥ २.२.१५ ॥

न तत्र सूर्यः भाति न चन्द्रतारकम् न इमा विद्युतः भान्ति कुतः अयम् अग्निः । तम् एव भान्तम् अनुभाति सर्वं तस्य भासा सर्वम् इदं विभाति ॥ २.२.१५ ॥

न तत्र सूर्यः the sun does not भाति shine न nor चन्द्रतारकं moon and stars न इमा nor these विद्युतो lightnings भान्ति shine कुतः how indeed अयम् this अग्निः fire? तम् एव भान्तम् Its shine alone अनु भाति shine सर्वं all this तस्य भासा by Its shine सर्वम् all इदं this विभाति shines.

२.२.15. Neither the sun nor the moon nor the stars shine there, much less these worldly fires. Shining, everything shines after It. All is illumined by Its light.

Among the shlokas on ब्रह्मनन्द: सर्वेषामपि सुवेद्य:, this one is आत्मा स्वयं भाति विभाति चेतररूपेण |

This beautiful mantra answers the last question posed in the previous mantra. The last two mantras present both indirect and direct self knowledge. The presentation of the self as ‘there’ is indirect knowledge. The revelation of the identity of ‘That’ and ‘This’ is direct knowledge. Indirect knowledge needs to be converted to direct knowledge to set you free. If it isn’t, the self will always remain an object. Many of the verses in this Upanishad present the self indirectly.

Context 2.2.14. Of that indescribable bliss the wise say, ‘This is That. How can I know it? Does it shine on its own or is it only reflected light?
This is that.  Self realization is the discovery that the fullness that you thought was only available elsewhere is actually always present in the form of your self. You cannot ‘know’ it because you are it. Or, better yet, self realization is the understanding that you have always known the self. The last question is rhetorical. Self realization is the discovery that you, the ‘light’ shine on your own. You don’t need anything other than your own existence to validate you. Hence self realization is called liberation. 
Context: Nature of the Self

36.            ऊर्ध्वमूलोऽवाक्शाख एषोऽश्वत्थः सनातनः ।२००७.०४

ऊर्ध्वमूलोऽवाक्शाख एषोऽश्वत्थः सनातनः । तदेव शुक्रं तद्ब्रह्म तदेवामृतमुच्यते । तस्मिँल्लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे तदु नात्येति कश्चन ।एतद्वै तत् ॥ २.३.१ ॥

ऊर्ध्वमूलः अवाक्शाखः एषः अश्वत्थः सनातनः | तत् एव शुक्रं तत् ब्रह्म  तत् एव अमृतम् उच्यते |  तस्मिन् लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे तदु न अत्येति कश्चन | एतत् वै तत् ||

ऊर्ध्वमूलः root above अवाक्शाखः branches below  एषः this is अश्वत्थः ashwattha tree सनातनः eternal तत् एव that alone शुक्रं bright तत् that is ब्रह्म  brahman तत् that एव alone is  अमृतम् immortal उच्यते called तस्मिन् in that लोकाः the worlds श्रिताः reside सर्वे all तदु that न अत्येति कश्चन none can pass beyond एतत् this वै verily is तत् That.

2.3.1. The ancient tree of saMsAra has its roots above in that. It branches spread below into the world of men. That is limitless and immortal and all the worlds rest in It. None surpasses It. Verily, this is That.

Among the shlokas on जगत: परमकारणं ब्रह्म, this one is संसारवृक्षरूपकम् |

The dream of limitation can only come out of awareness (‘that’) because there is nothing other than the self. Unlike the awareness that makes it possible, it is not limitless, nor is it immortal because it ends when self knowledge dawns. saMsAra is not a fact. It is simply a belief.

This ancient Āswattha tree has its root above and branches below. That is pure, That is Brahman, That alone is called the Immortal. All the worlds rest in That. None goes beyond That. This verily is That.

Context: The way of Adhyatma Yoga

37. मृत्युर्धावति पञ्चमः ॥ ३ ॥२०१४.०१

भयादस्याग्निस्तपति भयात्तपति सूर्यः । भयादिन्द्रश्च वायुश्च मृत्युर्धावति पञ्चमः ॥ 2.3.३ ॥

भयात् अस्य अग्निः तपति भयात् तपति सूर्यः | भयात् इन्द्रः च वायुः च मृत्युः धावति पञ्चमः ||

भयात्  due to fear अस्य of Him अग्निः Fire तपति burns भयात् due to fear तपति burns  सूर्यः sun भयात् from fear इन्द्रः indra च and वायुः vAyu च and  मृत्युः Death धावति run पञ्चमः the fifth

From fear of Him the fire burns, from fear of Him the sun shines. From fear of Him Indra and Vāyu and Death, the fifth, speed forth.

2.3.3. For fear of it fire burns, the sun shines and the elemental forces stream forth.

Among the shlokas on जगन्नियन्तृ ब्रह्म, this one is ब्रह्मणो भयहेतुत्वम् |

One only fears the ‘other,’ never one’s self. In so far as the self’s forms seem to be other than the self they are poetically said to ‘fear’ it. We need to be constantly reminded that reality is non-dual because the appearance of duality is so convincing. 

Context: The way of Adhyatma Yoga

38.            इन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः (probably not yet asked in exam)

इन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनो मनसः सत्त्वमुत्तमम् । सत्त्वादधि महानात्मा महतोऽव्यक्तमुत्तमम् ॥ 2.3.७ ॥

इन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः मनसः सत्त्वम् उत्तमम् | सत्त्वात् अधि महान् आत्मा महतः अव्यक्तम् उत्तमम् ||

इन्द्रियेभ्यः परं beyond the senses मनः is the mind मनसः beyond the mind सत्त्वम् उच्यते is said to be the intellect  सत्त्वात् अधि higher than the intellect महान् आत्मा the great Atman महतः and even than the great Atman अव्यक्तम् उत्तमम् the Unmanifest is higher.

Beyond the senses is the mind, beyond the mind is the intellect, higher than the intellect is the Great Atman, higher than the Great Atman is the Unmanifest.

Among the shlokas on ब्रह्म प्रत्यगात्मत्त्वेनैव बोद्धव्यम् , this one is आत्मनः सर्वप्रत्यक्त्वं ज्ञात्वा मुक्तिः |

The senses are the ones directly connected, through interaction, with the objects of the world.  So, the mention of the senses includes the idea that the senses are of the same category as the objects. Beyond the senses is the mind stuff.  And the intellect is the one that is higher, in status, hierarchy, than the mind.  The intellect is the subtle entity called ‘mahat’  The ‘mahat’ principle, also known as hiraNyagarbha,  is the totality of all the individual intellects in creation and since it is ‘huge/large’ that way, it is called Great Atman.  This principle is the product of the Unmanifest principle.  In other words, the mahat can be said to be the first entity in the manifest world.  Therefore, beyond the mahat is the Unmanifest.

39.            अव्यक्तात्तु परः पुरुषः (probably not yet asked in exam)

अव्यक्तात्तु परः पुरुषो व्यापकोऽलिङ्ग एव च । यं ज्ञात्वा मुच्यते जन्तुरमृतत्वं च गच्छति ॥ ८ ॥

अव्यक्तात् तु परः पुरुषः व्यापकः अलिङ्ग एव च | यं ज्ञात्वा मुच्यते जन्तुः अमृतत्वं च गच्छति ||

अव्यक्तात् तु beyond the unmanifest परः पुरुषः is the Supreme puruSha व्यापकः is all-pervading अलिङ्ग एव च bereft of all indicatory marks यं ज्ञात्वा realizing Whom मुच्यते is released जन्तुः the born entity अमृतत्वं च and immortality गच्छति attains.

Beyond the Unmanifest is the Person, all-pervading and imperceptible. Having realized Him, the embodied self becomes liberated and attains immortality.

Among the shlokas on ब्रह्म प्रत्यगात्मत्त्वेनैव बोद्धव्यम् , this one is आत्मनः सर्वप्रत्यक्त्वं ज्ञात्वा मुक्तिः |

Higher than the Unmanifest is the puruSha, the Supreme Self, called brahman or Atman.  ThispuruSha is all-pervading.  Even though ether is admitted to pervade everything in creation, yet being a product in creation, ether too is limited in that sense.  The puruSha is the Cause of even the ether and everything else in creation and therefore is the absolutely all-pervading principle.  One special feature of this puruSha is that there is no indicatory mark which can be used to locate/identify Him.  For example, the intellect, etc. can be said to be the indicatory marks for inferring that there is a sentient entity.  Such a mark is not present in the case of the Supremebrahman since It is bereft of all such faculties like the intellect.  By saying this, the mantra is stating that brahman is devoid of all sAmsAric attributes.

By realizing this puruSha as not different from oneself, the aspirant is released from the transmigratory bondage.  From what is he released?  It is from the ‘knot’ comprising of avidyA, etc. that binds him.  What is special is that even while alive he becomes freed from these bonds.  Upon the fall of the body on death, the entity called a jIva and jIvanmukta, liberated while alive, is now one with the Immortal Supreme brahman.  It is this Supreme brahman that is devoid of all indicatory marks.  And therefore alone, the vedAntic mokSha is extremely unique in that it gives no scope to ‘know’ it objectively.

40.  Conclusion

अङ्गुष्ठमात्रः पुरुषोऽन्तरात्मा सदा जनानां हृदये संनिविष्टः । तं स्वाच्छरीरात्प्रवृहेन्मुञ्जादिवेषीकां धैर्येण । तं विद्याच्छुक्रममृतं तं विद्याच्छुक्रममृतमिति ॥ १७ ॥

मृत्युप्रोक्तां नचिकेतोऽथ लब्ध्वा विद्यामेतां योगविधिं च कृत्स्नम् । ब्रह्मप्राप्तो विरजोऽभूद्विमृत्यु- रन्योऽप्येवं यो विदध्यात्ममेव ॥ १८ ॥

सह नाववतु । सह नौ भुनक्तु । सह वीर्यं करवावहै । तेजस्विनावधीतमस्तु मा विद्विषावहै ॥ १९ ॥

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

Important questions

  1. Conversation between Yama and Nachiketa in prathamavalli (2010) (2012)
  2. Trinachiketaagni / svargasaadanabhootaamagnividhyaam (2007) (2011)
  3. Svargyaagnividhyaamahatvam (2009)
  4. Nachiketa’s thirst for Adhyaatmagnaana (2014)
  5. Aatmagnaanam (2008)
  6. Aatmasvaroopam – as told by Yama (2007) (2010) (2011) (2012) (2014)
  7. Paramaatmanahsvaroopam (2009) (2013)
  8. Shreyas Vs Preyas (2008)

 

Important questions

  1. Conversation between Yama and Nachiketa in prathamavalli (2010) (2012)

Yama comes to know that Nachiketa has remained unfed for three days. To atone for the inhospitality Lord Yama offers him three boons. For the first boon Nachiketa chooses to return to his father who would feel happy to receive his son back. For  the second boon, Nachiketa gains the knowledge of the fire sacrifice, leading to immortality. For the third boon he chooses the knowledge concerning the meaning of the great passing beyond. Lord Yama tests Nachiketas by offering instead everything that men usually value – sons, wealth, power, longevity and every other kind of pleasure. However, Naciketas has realized their transient nature and he rejects them all. Therefore, he consistently requests Yama to disclose the secret of what lies beyond death.

  1. Trinachiketaagni / svargasaadanabhootaamagnividhyaam (2007) (2011)

Nachiketa gets to know this sacrificial ritual from Yama as his second boon. This rite serves as the means of attaining the well being in the life hereafter. Yama explains which bricks are to be used, how many bricks are to be used, and the manner in which it should be used. Yama elaborates the efficacy of the Fire-rite. When Nachiketa confirms his understanding by saying it back to Yama, Yama becomes very happy. He gives a multi-coloured jewel and also names the fire-ritual after Nachiketas.

  1. Svargyaagnividhyaamahatvam (2009)
    He who performs thrice, the Nachiketa sacrifice after knowing these three factors on which bricks are to be used, how many bricks are to be used, and the manner in which it should be used, and he who meditates upon Agni casts off the shackles of death before the falling of this body, overcomes sorrow and rejoices in the heavenly world.
  2. Nachiketa’s thirst for Adhyaatmagnaana (2014)
  • येयं प्रेते विचिकित्सा मनुष्ये — अस्तीत्येके नायमस्तीति चैके । एतद्विद्यामनुशिष्टस्त्वयाऽहं वराणामेष वरस्तृतीयः ॥ १.१.२० ॥
  • शतायुष: पुत्रपौत्रान्वृणीष्व बहून्पशून्हस्तिहिरण्यमश्वान् ।  भूमेर्महदायतनं वृणीष्व स्वयं च जीव शरदो यावदिच्छसि ॥२३॥
  • एतत्तुल्यं यदि मन्यसे वरं वृणीष्व वित्तं चिरजीविकां च । महाभूमौ नचिकेतस्त्वमेधि कामानां त्वा कामभाजं करोमि ॥ १.१.२४॥
  • ये ये कामा दुर्लभा मर्त्यलोके — सर्वान् कामाँश्छन्दतः प्रार्थयस्व ।
    इमा रामाः सरथाः सतूर्या — न हीदृशा लम्भनीया मनुष्यैः ।
    आभिर्मत्प्रत्ताभिः परिचारयस्व — नचिकेतो मरणं माऽनुप्राक्षीः ॥ २५ ॥
  • नवित्तेनतर्पणीयोमनुष्यो लप्स्यामहे वित्तमद्राक्ष्म चेत्त्वा । जीविष्यामो यावदीशिष्यसि त्वं वरस्तु मे वरणीयः स एव ॥ २७ ॥
  • अजीर्यताममृतानामुपेत्य जीर्यन्मर्त्यः क्वधःस्थः प्रजानन् । अभिध्यायन् वर्णरतिप्रमोदान् अतिदीर्घेजीवितेकोरमेत॥२८॥
  1. Shreyas Vs Preyas (2008)
  • अन्यच्छ्रेयोऽन्यदुतैव प्रेय-स्ते उभे नानार्थे पुरुषँ सिनीतः । तयोः श्रेय आददानस्य साधुभवति हीयतेऽर्थाद्य उ प्रेयो वृणीते ॥ १.२.१ ॥
  • श्रेयश्च प्रेयश्च मनुष्यमेतः तौ सम्परीत्य विविनक्ति धीरः । श्रेयो हि धीरोऽभि प्रेयसो वृणीतेप्रेयो मन्दो योगक्षेमाद्वृणीते ॥ १.२.२ ॥
  1. Aatmagnaanam (2008)
  • अविद्यायामन्तरे वर्तमानाः स्वयं धीराः पण्डितंमन्यमानाः । दन्द्रम्यमाणाः परियन्ति मूढा अन्धेनैव नीयमाना यथान्धाः ॥ १.२.५ ॥
  • श्रवणायापि बहुभिर्यो न लभ्यः शृण्वन्तोऽपि बहवो यं न विद्युः । आश्चर्यो वक्ता कुशलोऽस्य लब्धा आश्चर्यो ज्ञाता कुशलानुशिष्टः ॥ १.२.७ ॥
  • तं दुर्दर्शं गूढमनुप्रविष्टंगुहाहितं गह्वरेष्ठं पुराणम् । अध्यात्मयोगाधिगमेन देवंमत्वा धीरो हर्षशोकौ जहाति ॥ १.२.१२ ॥
  • पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयम्भू-स्तस्मात्पराङ्पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् ।
    कश्चिद्धीरः प्रत्यगात्मानमैक्ष-दावृत्तचक्षुरमृतत्वमिच्छन् ॥ २.१.१ ॥
  • पराञ्च: कामाननुयन्ति बाला- स्ते मृत्योर्यान्तिविततस्य पाशम् | अथ धीराः अमृतत्वं विदित्वाध्रुवमध्रुवेष्विह न प्रार्थयन्ते || [2.1.2]

 

  1. Aatmasvaroopam – as told by Yama (2007) (2010) (2011) (2012) (2014)
  • तं दुर्दर्शं गूढमनुप्रविष्टंगुहाहितं गह्वरेष्ठं पुराणम् । अध्यात्मयोगाधिगमेन देवंमत्वा धीरो हर्षशोकौ जहाति ॥ १.२.१२ ॥
  • न जायते म्रियते वा विपश्चिन्नायं कुतश्चिन्न बभूव कश्चित् । अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणो न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ॥ १८ ॥
  • अणोरणीयान्महतो महीयान् — आत्मास्यजन्तोर्निहितं गुहायां | तमक्रतुः पश्यति वीतशोको — धातुः प्रसादात् महिमानमात्मनः | १.२.२०|

 

  1. Paramaatmanahsvaroopam (2009) (2013)
    1. The world is compared to an inverted peepal tree, whose unseen root is Brahman. He is mysterious awful living energy from whom the Universe originates and whom its powers must ever obey.
  • अग्निर्यथैको भुवनं प्रविष्टो — रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव |
    एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मारूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बहिश्च  [2.2.9]
  • वायुर्यथैको भुवनं प्रविष्टो रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव ।
    एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा  रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बहिश्च ॥ १० ॥
  • सूर्यो यथा सर्वलोकस्य चक्षु: — न लिप्यते चाक्षुषैर्बाह्यदोषै: |
    एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा — न लिप्यते लोकदुःखेन बाह्य: || [2.11]
  • ऊर्ध्वमूलोऽवाक्शाख एषोऽश्वत्थः सनातनः । तदेव शुक्रं तद्ब्रह्म तदेवामृतमुच्यते ।
    तस्मिँल्लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे तदु नात्येति कश्चन ।एतद्वै तत् ॥ २.३.१ ॥
  • भयादस्याग्निस्तपति भयात्तपति सूर्यः ।
    भयादिन्द्रश्च वायुश्च मृत्युर्धावति पञ्चमः ॥ 3.३ ॥

1.3.6, 1.3.13, 1.3.1,3.2

 

30-oct-2015

In the mahabharat’s anushaashana parva, in the 81th .., Dharmaputra asks Bhishma about the benefits of donating cow. Bhishma explains the Nachiketoopakhyaana which mentioning about the benefit of Go Dhaanaa. He mentions that the benefit of go Dhaanaa is also got by doing Nachiketaagni.

Sending Nachiketas, the conversation is in the form of Question/answer,

Vaajah = annam, तत् दानम् = दाननिमित्तं, शरवस् = कीर्थि: — यस्य असौ वाजश्रवा: | उद्दालक was born in the gotra of Gautama.  He was famous as vaajasravas for his charity of food. He did vishwajit yaaga and gave all his possessions in charity.  His son is Nachiketa, also called as औदालकी. नचिकेता, नचिकेतासौ, नचिकेतस: |

Nachiketa got shraddha in the charity that it has to be done as per the shastras. सर्वस्व दक्षिणा is the injection. During the Yaga …, doing the items being given away in charity, Nachiketa got shraddha in the words of the Shastra “कर्म सार्गुन्यार्थं  पित्रा सर्वस्वं दातव्यम् |” Dhaana is the nucleus of the yaga. The yaga is not complete without charity.

In all daanaas, except in case of marriage, it is said “na mama” | This is not applicable in the marriage when the girl is given away in marriage to another person. Smrithi is not eternal. It undergoes changes over time. In the Vedas, father himself continues to own the girl even after marriage. Even remarriage has been accepted. Smrithi has to abide by the basic principles of Shruti. Vivekananda says that a new smrithi has to be written for the current situation.

He (Nachikata) is insisting on something that the other person (his father) does not like. So he told him that he will be given to Yama.  According to the shastras, the performer of the sacrifice has to give away everything. अहं च पुतु: स्वम् |  So he has to give me up also. So he asks कस्मै मां दास्यसि | Creating a circumstance where Yama ends up giving boons to Nachiketas.

I will show him the scene of your return from the place of Death.

Shruti and Smriti recommend Yagna. Give me the knowledge that will bring immortality.

Yama become very happy and gave to Nachiketa the knowledge of the two types of Nachiketa agni that can be achieved by upaasanaa.

The yagna for achieving the Svarga and other akshaya lokas. It was earlier Svargyaagni. Nachiketa repeated the entire instruction again to Yama, Yama gives the additional tavaiva etad agnim pravakshyanti janaasah |

स त्वं अग्निं स्वर्ग्यं अध्येषि | अग्निस्वरूप: is the formation and the process of this yagna.

आत्मशक्ते: प्रणवस्य च प्रभाव: — अगस्त्यमहर्षिणा बोदित: राम:

रामरावनयोर्युद्धं प्राचलत् अस्ति | रावण: आगच्छति | रामेण किमपि कर्तुं न शक्यते | रावण: वरप्रभावात् बहुशक्त: अस्ति | तत्र बहूणि वराणि रावणेन प्राप्तानि | अथ: किमपि रामेण कर्तुं न शक्यते | एकवारं गच्छति | पुन: द्वितीयवारम् आगच्छति | तदापि किमपि न कर्तुं शक्यते | “तपस्वी अस्ति | वरप्रभावेन बलवानपि अस्ति | एतं  रावणं कथं हन्तुं शक्तोऽहम् ? अहं न शक्त: अस्मि ” इति चिन्ताक्रान्त: अभवत् राम: | स: रावण: अधर्मे एव तिष्टतिचेत् राम: हन्तुं शक्नोति | परन्तु स:  तु तपस्वी अपि अस्ति | राम: तं स्पर्ष्टुं अपि न शक्त: | कथं हनिष्यामि इति चिन्ताक्रान्त: अभवत् | रामरावनयोर्युद्धस्य रामरावणयोर्स्युद्ध: एव समम् | अन्य उपमा नास्ति एव | देवादिदेवा: स्वर्गलोके स्थित्वा पश्यन्त: आसन् | तदानीम् अगस्त्य: चिन्तयति रामस्य किञ्चित् ज्ञानम् अपेक्षितमिति | अगस्त्यमहर्षिः तत्र युद्धभूमौ अवतरति | राम: अगस्त्यं दृष्ट्वा नमस्करोति | अनुग्रहं कर्तुं प्रार्तयति | तदानीम् अगस्त्यमहर्षिणा रामं प्रति एवम् उक्तम् अस्ति – “हे राम | भवान् चिन्तयति – मम समीपे दिव्यास्त्रा: सन्ति | एतेषां दिव्यास्त्राणां शक्त्या रावणं हन्तुं शक्नोमि इति | नैव | तथा मा चिन्तयतु | यदि तत्र दैहिकशक्त्या रावणम् अहं हनिष्यामि इति चिन्त्यते भवता तत् न साद्यम् |  तपसा बहु प्रबल: अस्ति रावण: | अत: किं करणीयम् इति सम्यक् जानातु | आत्मा शक्तिं वर्धनीयम् |  यदा आत्मा प्रबल: भवति, सशक्त: भवति, तदा आत्माशक्ति: भवत: देहे प्रवहति | भवत: अस्त्रेषु अपि प्रवहति | तदा भवान् तं हन्तुं शक्नोति |” अगस्त्यमहर्षि: ब्रह्मोपदेशं कृत्वा आदित्य हृदयं पाठयति |

आत्मशक्ति वर्धनाय एष: कठोपनिषद: श्लोकः सर्वे प्रतिदिनं पठन्तु |

सर्वे वेदा यत्पदमामनन्ति — तपाँसि सर्वाणि च यद्वदन्ति ।
यदिच्छन्तो ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति — तत्ते पदँ संग्रहेण ब्रवीम्योमित्येतत् ॥ १.२.१५ ॥

सर्वे वेदा: यत् पदम् आमनन्ति, तपाँसि सर्वाणि च यत् वदन्ति,  यत्+इच्छन्त: ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति, तत् ते पदँ संग्रहेण ब्रवीमि ॐ इति एतत् |

एतस्मिन् कठोपनिषद: श्लोके प्रणवस्य प्रभावं उक्तम् अस्ति |

एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं ब्रह्म एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं परम् ।

एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं ज्ञात्वा यो यदिच्छति तस्य तत् ॥ १६ ॥

एतत् हि एव अक्षरं ब्रह्म | एतत् हि एव अक्षरं परम् । एतत् हि एव अक्षरं ज्ञात्वा, य: यत् इच्छति, तस्य तत्  |

Quotations from Kathopanishad

  • Ka.Up 1.2.18 and BG 2.20 [Exact]
  • Ka.Up 1.2.19 and BG 2.19 [Exact]
  • Ka.Up 1.2.17 and BG 2.29 [Paraphrased and Adopted.]
  • Ka.Up 1.2.15 and BG 8.13 [Imperishability and significance of Om. Almost word for word]
  • Ka. Up. 1.3.10-11 has the hierarchy: senses < objects < mind < intellect < Mahat < Avyakta < Purusha, with nothing being beyond Purusha. The hierarchy in BG 3.42 is senses < mind < intellect < Purusha, which he feels is crisp.
  • Ka. Up 2.6.1, Asvattha (BG 15.1BG 15.2 and BG 15.3-4)

Some points…

  • Vaajasravas performed Vishvajit yagna desiring religious merit and heaven.
  • Gets three boons for his each night of his
  • Yama dissuades Naciketas from knowing the mystery of death.

Contents

  1. अनन्दा नाम ते लोकास्तान् स गच्छति ता ददत् ॥ ३ ॥ २००८.०१, २०१३.०१. 2
  2. सस्यमिव मर्त्यः पच्यते सस्यमिवाजायते पुनः ॥ ६ ॥ २००९.०१, २०१४.०१. 2
  3. अस्तीत्येके नायमस्तीति चैके.. 3
  4. कामानां त्वा कामभाजं करोमि (२०१५.०२.०२) 5
  5. नचिकेतो मरणं माऽनुप्राक्षीः ॥२००८.०२. 5
  6. नवित्तेनतर्पणीयोमनुष्यो २०१०.०१, २०१२.०१, २०१४.०१, २०१४.१३, 6
  7. अतिदीर्घेजीवितेकोरमेत॥२०१२.०२. 7
  8. हीयतेऽर्थाद्य उ प्रेयो वृणीते २०१४.०३. 8
  9. श्रेयो हि धीरोऽभि प्रेयसो वृणीते२०१२., प्रेयो मन्दो योगक्षेमाद्वृणीते २०१३.०३, २०१५.०१. 9
  10. अन्धेनैव नीयमाना यथान्धाः ॥ ५ ॥ २०१०.०२, २००९.०२, २०१४.०२. 10
  11. आश्चर्यो ज्ञाता कुशलानुशिष्टः.. 11
  12. मत्वा धीरो हर्षशोकौ जहाति ॥ १२ ॥ २००८.०३, २०१३.०२, २०१५.०३. 12
  13. सर्वे वेदा यत्पदमामनन्ति… 13
  14. एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं परम्. 14
  15. न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ॥ १८ ॥ २०१०.०३, २०१४.०३, २०१५.०१.०२. 15
  16. अणोरणीयान्महतो महीयान्. 16
  17. महान्तं विभुमात्मानं मत्वा धीरो न शोचति (२०१५.०३.०२) see also 2.1.4. 16
  18. तस्यैष आत्मा विवृणुते तनूँ स्वाम् ॥ २३ ॥ २००७.०१, २००९.०३. 17
  19. महान्तं विभुमात्मानं मत्वा धीरो न शोचति (२०१५.०३.०२) See also 1.2.22. 17
  20. नाविरतो दुश्चरितात्. 18
  21. आत्मानं रथिनं विद्धि शरीरं रथमेव तु. 18
  22. उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान्निबोधत ।२०१४.१२, २०१५.०२. 19
  23. तस्मात्पराङ् पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् । २०१०.०४. 20
  24. पराञ्च: कामाननुयन्ति बालाः…. 22
  25. अरण्योर्निहितो जातवेदा गर्भ इव सुभृतो गर्भिणीभिः ।२००७.०२. 23
  26. नेह नानाऽस्ति किंचन ।२००७.०३. 24
  27. एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा (comes in 3 verses. Refer the verse also). 26
  28. तेषां सुखं शाश्वतं नेतरेषाम् (not yet asked in exam). 29
  29. तस्य भासा सर्वमिदं विभाति ॥ १५ ॥ २००९.०४, २००८.०४, २०१२.०४. 30
  30. ऊर्ध्वमूलोऽवाक्शाख एषोऽश्वत्थः सनातनः ।२००७.०४. 31
  31. मृत्युर्धावति पञ्चमः ॥ ३ ॥२०१४.०१. 32
  32. इन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः (probably not yet asked in exam). 32
  33. अव्यक्तात्तु परः पुरुषः (probably not yet asked in exam). 33

 

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