Bharatiya Samskruti – Sanskrit Essay

भारतीयसंस्कृतिः

भारतीयसंस्कृतिः तु भारतीयानां संस्कृतिः भवति । कः भारतीयः इति प्रथमतया ज्ञातव्यम् । भारतस्य अथवा हिन्दुस्थानस्य विषये बार्हस्पत्यसंहितायाम् एवम् उक्तमस्ति “हिमालयात् समारभ्य यावत् इन्दुसरोवरम् । तं देवनिर्मितं देशं हिन्दुस्थानं प्रचक्षते” इति । श्रीविष्णुमहापुराणे तु एवं प्रोक्तम् “उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् । वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र सन्ततिः” इति । अतः विविधाः भाषाः वदन्ति चेत् अपि विविधान् वेशान् धरन्ति चेदपि भारतदेशे सर्वे भारतीयाः भवन्ति ।

इदानीं का नाम संस्कृतिः इति ज्ञातव्यम् । मातापितृभ्यां बोधनात् गुरूणां सकाशात् च यः संस्कारः आयाति, ज्येष्ठानां जीवनक्रमं दृष्ट्वा यः संस्कारः उदेति, अध्ययनात् यः संस्कारः आयाति – एते सर्वे आगत्य काचन मानसस्थितिः संपन्ना भवति । सा मानसस्थितिरेव संस्कृतिः । सर्वसंस्कारस्य फलं संस्कृतिः भवति ।

इयं भारतीयसंस्कृतिः तु अतिप्राचीना । आवेदकालात् तस्य परम्परा आगता । भारतीयसंस्कृतेः आधारः वेदः एव । वेदऋषयः अस्माकं जीवनस्य लक्ष्यं किम्, अस्माभिः किं करणीयं, कथं करणीयम् इत्यादिविषयेषु विचारं कृत्वा अस्माभिः सनातनधर्मस्य आचरणं करणीयं इति बोधितवन्तः । अतः भारतं तु लोकगुरुः भवति । “एतद्देशप्रसूतस्य सकाशादग्रजन्मनः। स्वं स्वं चरित्रं शिक्षेरन् पृथिव्यां सर्वमानवः” इति मनुस्मृत्यां कथितमस्ति । जीवनस्य लक्ष्यं ज्ञातुं च सिद्धिं प्राप्तुं च सर्वे जनाः भारतं प्रति आगच्छन्ति । अपि च अस्माकं संस्कृतिम् आचरन्ति ।

भारतीयसंस्कृतेः वैशिष्ट्यं तस्याः अतीव उदारता । धार्मिकविषये अपि उदारता अस्ति । अनेके देवाः अस्माभिः पूजिताः । तथापि अनेकासां देवतानां एकात्मरूपः परमात्मा एकः एव इति मन्यन्ते । परमात्मनः विविधशक्तयः एव इतराः देवताः । “एकं सत् विप्राः बहुधा वदन्ति” इति तेषाम् अभिप्रायः । अस्माकं संस्कृतेः दृष्ट्या देवतानां मध्ये ज्येष्ठत्व-कनिष्ठत्व-भावः नास्ति । मानवानां कृते अपि भेदभावना न ।  सर्वजीवराशिष्वपि आत्मा समानः एव इति मन्यन्ते । सूत्ररूपेण अस्य भारतीयसंस्कृतेः सङ्ग्रहः एवं कर्तुं शक्यते – “वैविध्ये एकता” अथवा  “विविधतायाम् एकता” इति ।

भारतीयसंस्कृत्यां विविधोत्सवाः आचर्यमाणाः सन्ति । ते वैयक्तिकस्तरः सामाजिकस्तरः इति स्तरद्वये माहात्म्यं भजन्ते । वैयक्तिकस्तरे गृहे सर्वे मिलित्वा देवपूजनं कुर्वन्ति । तदनन्तरं सामाजिकस्तरे पश्यामश्चेत् सर्वे मित्रबान्धवैः मिलित्वा, उत्सवस्य शुभसंदेशं दत्त्वा, ज्येष्ठानां नमस्कारादिकं कृत्वा, भक्षणानि संविभज्य प्रत्युपकारभावेन आनन्देन च उत्सवान् आचरन्ति ।

 

प्रकृत्यनुरोधेन एव भवति अस्माकं भारतीयसंस्कृतिः । न तु प्रकृतिविरोधेन । महिलाः गृहं परितः रङ्गवल्ली इति रसात्मकं चित्रं यत् लिखन्ति तेन तेषां आनन्दः भवति । तत् क्षुद्रजन्तूनां भोजनमपि भवति । एतादृशम् आत्मोद्धरणाय अन्येषां हिताय च क्रियमाणानि कार्याणि भारतीयसंस्कृत्यां अन्तर्भवन्ति ।

“अतिथि देवो भव” इति न केवलं भारतीयानां कृते, परन्तु अन्यदेशीयानां कृते अपि मित्रभावं संदर्शयन्ति । “वसुदैव कुदुम्बकम्” इति विचारः भारतीयानां उदारतां प्रदर्शयति । “माता च पार्वती देवी पिता देवो महेश्वरः। बान्धवा: शिवभक्ताश्च स्वदेशो भुवनत्रयम्” इति सर्वलोकसमत्वं प्रतिपादितम् ।

एतादृशोन्नतसंस्कृतियुक्तदेशः अस्माकं भारतदेशः । अत्र भारतदेशे जन्म प्राप्तिः अस्माकं सौभाग्यमेव । वन्दे भारतमातरम् ।

Bharata Maata Ashthottara-shata-naamaavali

Bharata Maata Ashthottarashata naamaavali

  1. ॐ विश्वम्भरायै नमः Salutations to the earth who is the sustainer of the entire universe
  2. ॐ वसुधान्यै नमः Prostrations to the bearer of wealth
  3. ॐ विश्वधान्यै नमः Prostrations to the supporter of the universe
  4. ॐ ऋतप्रथमजायै नमः Prostrations to the first born of the cosmic order
  5. ॐ इन्द्रगुप्तायै नमः Salutations to Her who is protected by Indra
  6. ॐ अनघायै नमः Salutations to Her who is devoid of defects
  7. ॐ आर्यजनन्यै नमः Prostrations to the mother of the Aryans
  8. ॐ अनुग्रहप्रदायै नमः Salutations to Her who confers blessings
  9. ॐ ध्येयसाधनभूम्यै नमः Prostrations to the land to which people have to come to achieve their spiritual goal
  10. ॐ हिमालयकिरीटिन्यै नमः Salutations to Her who has Himalayas as her crown
  11. ॐ काश्मीरललाटायै नमः Salutations to Her who has Kashmir as her forehead
  12. ॐ पञ्जाबास्सामभुजायै नमः Salutations to Her who has Punjab and Assam as her arms
  13. ॐ राजस्थानमध्योत्तरप्रदेशहृदयायै नमः Salutations to Her who has Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh as her heart
  14. ॐ गुर्जरमराठकर्णाटोत्कलान्ध्रोदरायै नमः Salutations to Her who has Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Orissa, and Andra Pradesh as her stomach
  15. ॐ चोलकेरलचरणायै नमः Salutations to Her who has the kingdom of Cholas (Tamil Nadu) and Kerala as her feet
  16. ॐ हिन्दुसागरपर्यन्तायै नमः Salutations to Her who has spread up to the Hindu Sagara
  17. ॐ हिन्दुसागरधौतपदाब्जायै नमः Salutations to Her whose feet are washed by the Hindu Sagara
  18. ॐ हिन्दुराष्ट्रात्मस्वरूपिण्यै नमः Salutations to Her who is the soul of the Hindu Rashtra
  19. ॐ हिन्दुमात्रे नमः Prostrations to the mother of the Hindus
  20. ॐ हिमाच्छादितगिरिपर्वतायै नमः Salutations to Her in whom there are snow-covered mountains
  21. ॐ सुजलायै नमः Salutations to Her who is the possessor sweet waters
  22. ॐ सुफलायै नमः Salutations to Her who is rich with tasty fruits
  23. ॐ फुल्लकुसुमसुरभिन्यै नमः Salutations to Her who is fragrant with the fully bloomed flowers
  24. ॐ स्वर्गसहोदर्यै नमः Salutations to Her who is the sister of paradise
  25. ॐ स्वर्गतुल्यसुखदायिन्यै नमः Salutations to Her who is the giver of heavenly happiness
  26. ॐ सर्वमङ्गलायै नमः Salutations to Her who possesses all auspiciousness
  27. ॐ सर्वकलानिलयायै नमः Salutations to Her who is the abode of all arts
  28. ॐ कृष्णवर्णायै नमः Salutations to Her who is black in color
  29. ॐ बभ्रुवर्णायै नमः Salutations to Her who is brown in color
  30. ॐ रोहिण्यै नमः Salutations to Her who sparkles
  31. ॐ विश्वरूपायै नमः Salutations to Her who has multifarious forms
  32. ॐ विश्वकर्मनिर्मितायै नमः Salutations to Her who has been created by Vishvakarma
  33. ॐ विश्वमात्रे नमः Prostrations to the mother of everyone in the universe
  34. ॐ विश्वगर्भायै नमः Prostrations to the womb from which everyone in the universe have come
  35. ॐ विश्ववन्द्यायै नमः Salutations to Her who is worshipped by everyone in the universe
  36. ॐ लोकशोकविनाशिन्यै नमः Prostrations to the remover of the afflictions of the world
  37. ॐ लोकमात्रे नमः Prostrations to the mother of the universe
  38. ॐ वीरपुत्रजनन्यै नमः Prostrations to the mother of brave children
  39. ॐ विन्ध्यामेखलायै नमः Salutations to Her who has Vindhya mountains as her waist band
  40. ॐ समुद्रदुर्गायै नमः Salutations to Her who has the ocean as her fort
  41. ॐ अब्धिनूपुरायै नमः Salutations to Her who has the two oceans Ganga Sagara and Sindhu Sagara as her anklets
  42. ॐ महर्षिवन्द्यचरणायै नमः Salutations to Her whose feet are prostrated by the great seers
  43. ॐ ब्रह्मराजर्षिरत्नाढ्यायै नमः Salutations to Her in whom there is abundance of the jewels of the Brahma Rishis and Raja Rishis
  44. ॐ रत्नगर्भायै नमः Prostrations to the earth filled with precious gems
  45. ॐ वसुधारिण्यै नमः Salutations to Her who holds wealth
  46. ॐ वसुप्रदायै नमः Salutations to Her who confers wealth
  47. ॐ वसुसङ्गमिन्यै नमः Salutations to Her in whom there are the collections of resources
  48. ॐ वसुधायै नमः Prostrations to the earth endowed with wealth
  49. ॐ वसुमत्यै नमः Salutations to Her who possesses wealth
  50. ॐ विष्णुपत्न्यै नमः Prostrations to the consort of Vishnu
  51. ॐ वर्धमानायै नमः Salutations to Her who is constantly growing
  52. ॐ शक्तिस्वरूपिण्यै नमः Prostrations to the personification of Power
  53. ॐ षडृतुधारिण्यै नमः Salutations to Her who is endowed with the six seasons
  54. ॐ शुभचन्द्रयुक्तचारुयामिन्यै नमः Salutations to Her whose nights are beautiful with the auspicious moon
  55. ॐ नवकुसुमदामशोभितायै नमः Salutations to Her who shines with the garlands of fresh flowers
  56. ॐ नानारण्यशोभितायै नमः Salutations to Her in whom there are various forests
  57. ॐ नित्यपुष्टायै नमः Salutations to Her who is ever-nourished
  58. ॐ पृथिव्यै नमः Salutations to Her who is expansive
  59. ॐ प्रतिष्ठायै नमः Salutations to Her who is the substratum
  60. ॐ परमव्योमगतहृदयायै नमः Salutations to Her whose heart is in the highest ether (Paramaatman)
  61. ॐ पर्जन्यपूतायै नमः Salutations to Her who is purified by rain
  62. ॐ पवित्रनदीपूतायै नमः Salutations to Her who is sanctified by the holy rivers
  63. ॐ पद्ममालाधरायै नमः Salutations to Her who adorns the garland of lotuses
  64. ॐ पद्मगन्धिन्यै नमः Salutations to Her who has the fragrances of lotuses
  65. ॐ पर्वतस्तनमण्डलायै नमः Salutations to Her who has the mountains as her expansive breasts
  66. ॐ अग्निष्टोमपरिशोधितवायुमण्डलायै नमः Salutations to Her whose atmosphere is purified by the Agnishtoma Yajna
  67. ॐ आसेतुहिमाचलपर्यन्तायै नमः Salutations to Her who extends from the Himalayas up to the ocean
  68. ॐ एकात्ममानवतास्वरूपिण्यै नमः Prostrations to the embodiment of the Integral Humanism
  69. ॐ जगन्निवेशिन्यै नमः Prostrations to the resting place of the universe
  70. ॐ कामदुघायै नमः Salutations to Her who fulfills all desires
  71. ॐ कर्मभूम्यै नमः Prostrations to the land of action
  72. ॐ गन्धवत्यै नमः Salutations to Her who possesses fragrance
  73. ॐ ध्रुवायै नमः Salutations to Her who is steady
  74. ॐ धर्मधृतायै नमः Prostrations to the upholder of Dharma
  75. ॐ धर्मनिलयायै नमः Prostrations to the abode of Dharma
  76. ॐ देवकृतपुण्यक्षेत्रायै नमः Prostrations to the sacred land created by gods
  77. ॐ द्रविणदात्र्यै नमः Prostrations to the giver of substances
  78. ॐ वैदिकज्ञानसम्पन्नायै नमः Salutations to Her who is endowed with the Vedic Knowledge
  79. ॐ वेदभूम्यै नमः Prostrations to the land of the Vedas
  80. ॐ वेदान्तविज्ञानसुनिश्चितार्थायै नमः Salutations to Her who stands for the well-reasoned spiritual and scientific knowledge
  81. ॐ यज्ञभूम्यै नमः Prostrations to the land of Yagnas
  82. ॐ मधुरध्वनिध्वनितदिशायै नमः Salutations to Her in whom all the directions resonate melodious sounds
  83. ॐ सस्यश्यामलदिशावत्यै नमः Salutations to Her who possesses directions that are green with trees and plants
  84. ॐ सत्यावृतहृदयायै नमः Salutations to Her whose heart is enveloped in Truth
  85. ॐ सर्वसहायै नमः Salutations to Her who is tolerant of everything
  86. ॐ सर्वमानवचारित्र्यबोधिन्यै नमः Salutations to Her who imparts the right ways of life to the entire humanity
  87. ॐ सनातनसम्स्त्कृतिसम्पन्नायै नमः Salutations to Her who is enriched with the ancient eternal cultural values
  88. ॐ सर्वभूतहितप्रदायै नमः Salutations to Her who confers welfare on all beings
  89. ॐ हिरण्यगर्भायै नमः Salutations to Her who has gold in her womb
  90. ॐ हिरण्मय्यै नमः Salutations to Her who is totally filled with gold
  91. ॐ विमृग्वर्यै नमः Salutations to Her who is pure
  92. ॐ वर्षमेदस्विन्यै नमः Salutations to Her who is plentiful with rain water
  93. ॐ विविधवाङ्मयस्तुतायै नमः Salutations to Her who is praised by various literary works
  94. ॐ विविधभाषामयायै नमः Salutations to Her who has different languages
  95. ॐ विविधवेषभूषितजनाङ्गायै नमः Salutations to Her whose people wear different types of dresses
  96. ॐ शिवराजवरदायै नमः Salutations to Her who granted boons to Maharaja Shivaji
  97. ॐ प्रजाहितप्रदायिन्यै नमः Salutations to Her who confers welfare on her subjects
  98. ॐ प्रसादाभिमुख्यै नमः Salutations to Her who is prone to bestow her blessings
  99. ॐ पुण्यभूम्यै नमः Prostrations to the holy land
  100. ॐ प्रथमानायै नमः Salutations to Her who is ever expanding
  101. ॐ पयस्विन्यै नमः Salutations to Her who is rich with resources
  102. ॐ पयस्वत्यै नमः Salutations to Her who possess abundant resources
  103. ॐ भरतमात्रे नमः Prostrations to the mother of Bharata
  104. ॐ भूतधात्र्यै नमः Salutations to Her who nourishes all beings
  105. ॐ बहुपुण्यक्षेत्रवत्यै नमः Salutations to Her in whom there are many sacred abodes
  106. ॐ भूरितीर्थधारावत्यै नमः Salutations to Her in whom there are numerous series of sacred waters
  107. ॐ ब्रह्मविष्णुशिवात्मिकायै नमः Salutations to Her who is the embodiment of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva
  108. ॐ भारतमात्रे नमः Salutations to Bharata Mata, who is the mother of all Bharatiyas, the people who are deeply merged in the brightness of knowledge.

 

Kathopanishad by Swamini Svatmavidyananda

Video Recording – http://livestream.com/Swaminiji/events/5324372

Class on June 2nd 2016. This is a continuation from the earlier class. 2nd Adhyaaya’s 3rd Valli’s first shloka along with Shankara’s commentary has been completed in the earlier class.

Other references:

 

Chapter 2 — Canto 3Verse 1

ऊर्ध्वमूलोऽवाक्शाख एषोऽश्वत्थः सनातनः ।
तदेव शुक्रं तद्ब्रह्म तदेवामृतमुच्यते ।
तस्मिँल्लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे तदुनात्येति कश्चन ।
एतद्वै तत् ॥ १ ॥
ऊर्ध्व-मूलः अवाक्-शाखः एषः अश्वत्थः सनातनः | तदेव शुक्रं तद्ब्रह्म तदेव अमृतम् उच्यते ।
तस्मिन् लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे तद्-उन अत्येति कश्चन । एतद्वै तत् ॥ १ ॥

This is the सनातन ancient Asvatha-Peepal tree whose ऊर्ध्व-मूलः roots are above and अवाक्-शाखः whose branches spread below. एतद्वै तत् – This verily is that!   This is the mahaa vaakya that is repeatedly mentioned. Here तत् – the pronoun “that” does not refer to the earlier noun which is the samsaara tree that is present upside-down. Rather, तद्ब्रह्म “that” refers to Brahman. तदेव शुक्रम् –That is verily purity. It is un-afflicted. तत् उ न अत्येति कश्चन – none can transcend it – It is not outside the scheme of things. Ignorance makes Jagat into Samsaara. Brahman is not outside this samsaara. Brahman is the truth of this samsaara. Ishwara is neither inside nor outside space. Space is Ishvara. उ is for emphasis. तदेव अमृतम् उच्यते – It is also called the immortal. Free from birth and death. तस्मिन् लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे – All the worlds of this Samsaara are as-though realities that lean on Brahman.

Samsaara is very addictive. Samsaara causes affliction. We continuously seek the infinite in the finite due to our ignorance. In this verse, like the aversion therapy carried out for de-addiction, an aversion or distaste for the Samsaara, the very object of addiction, is being developed. Shabda Pramaana is an important therapy for the afflicted individual. Poorva Punya is required even to realize that one is caught up in Samsaara and to have the desire to get out of it. रसवर्जं रसोऽप्यस्य – B.G. 2.59 (After the sense objects leave), the longings also leave the abstinent man (on seeing the Supreme). The Guru takes the person out of samsaara. But taking the samsaara out of the person is a slow process. The guru does it by truly enabling them to discover distaste for this samsaara. The guru shows how upside down the priorities are. This is Nitiddyaasanaa – overcoming the habitual orientation to Samsaara. The first part of the mantra creates this distaste for samsaara and the second part talks about what the person really wants – “Tat”. That is Brahma. That is called immortal. Yama always deals with mortality. So as though he does not have the right to talk about immortality he says this in passive form that it is said to be immortal. तस्मिन् लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे – Samsaara is an incidental projection that leans on Brahman. Brahman is the refuge of Samsaara. Just like the shadow clings on to the light, the samsaara clings onto the Brahman. तत् उ न अत्येति कश्चन – No one can transgress it. The cause is unaffected by the effect.

 

यदिदं किं च जगत् सर्वं प्राण एजति निःसृतम् ।
महद्भयं वज्रमुद्यतं य एतद्विदुरमृतास्ते भवन्ति ॥ २ ॥
This mantra responds to a poorvapaksha that questions the existence of this Brahman. Shankara mentions this in the Sangathi or the connection to this verse :

सङ्गतिः — यद् विज्ञानात् अमृताः भवन्ति इति उच्यते तत् जगतः मूलं ब्रह्म नास्ति एव, (इदं जगत्) असतः एव निःसृतम् इति | तन्न |

यद् विज्ञानात् अमृताः भवन्ति – That knowing which one becomes immortal; जगतः मूलम् – that is also the root of Samsaara, that which is un-afflicted by everything, ब्रह्म नास्ति एव if that Brahma does not exist, then how is this Jagat created. This is not so. This vaada is called Tera vaada which denies the existence of anything. To them the whole universe has come out of nothing.

In Chandokyopanishad, in the sixth chapter, it is stated, तदेव सौम्य, इदमग्रे आसीत् – before all these came into manifestation, only Sat was there. स आत्मा त्वमसि श्वेतकेतो … That Atma is you, O Svetaketu ! Later on in the same chapter, असत्वा इदमग्रे आसीत् | तस्मात् सत् अजायत | All that was there was non-existence. From non-existence, existence came. This could be confusing. The non-existence here means it was free from name and form.

The creation of the jagat cannot happen in random. There is a नियति and hence a नियन्ता – the ruler who sets the rules. Questioning the existence of Brahman is to question one’s own existence. This existence does not require any proof as the knowledge that I exist can never be denied. Ishwara’s existence is not a matter of anumaana or inference. Shabda Pramaana is the proof for its existence. This verse answers why we should say that the Jagat has come from Brahman and not nothingness.

यत् किञ्च इदं जगत् सर्वं प्राणे (सति) निःसृतम् एजति । ये एतद् महद्भयं वज्रमुद्यतं विदुः ते अमृताः भवन्ति ।

यत् किञ्च इदं जगत् सर्वं What all is there in this whole jagat, प्राणे (सति) निःसृतम् एजति – Here प्राणे means परस्मिन्ब्रह्मणि – in the life force | एजति means कम्पते  moves | This whole universe evolved from the Brahman, moves or vibrates in the Prana i.e., the highest Brahman. The whole world is as-though exhaled निःसृतम् by Bhagavan. It does not happen in random. Shankara adds how it happens – क्रमेण – नियमेन  – in an orderly way. प्राण एजति – प्राणे एजति – the ए is elided. Praane is interpreted in two ways. प्राणे सति – Praana being present;  The other meaning indicates in the Praana or from the Praana.

यदेवं जगदुत्पत्त्यादिकारणं ब्रह्म तत् महद्भयम्, महच्च तत् भयं च बिभेति अस्मादिति महद्भयम्,

The orderly universe that has come out is an object of great fear. It is big and it is a cause of fear. We do not fear the creator. We fear our own karma phala. That is why we pray to Rudra – नमस्ते रुद्र मन्यवऽ उतोतऽ इषवे नम: ॥१॥ Salutations to your arrows. Please keep them to yourself. Sickness, disease, death – are all the result of Karma Phala. Hence we are helplessly trapped in this life cycle. What is to be done to overcome this fear?  (TO BE CONTINUED)