Dhvanyaaloka – Dr. Sivakumaraswamy – KSOU 2016

Dhvanyaaloka – Dr. Sivakumaraswamy – The KSOU 2016 contact class sessions conducted for MA Sanskrit students at Bangalore. 

Class #1 – First Udyotta

The intent of this work, Dhvanyaaloka is to assert that Dhvani is the soul of poetry. This Dhvani was a new concept from the perspective of the earlier Alamkaarikas. So it was not readily accepted.

Mangala Shloka

This mangala shloka is an example for all the 3 types of Dhvani namely Vastu Dhvani, Alamkaara Dhvani and Rasa Dhvani. स्वेच्छाकेसरिणः स्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः | त्रायन्तां वो मधुरिपोः प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदो नखाः || (Meaning: Let the claws of that Hari who manifested in the form of man-lion at His own will, which claws have outshone the moon in their crystal white hue, and which quells the afflictions of His devotees, protect you.).

This is the first shloka of Dhvanyaaloka. He is praising Hari. He becomes the Samuchchita-Ishta-Devataa. He took the form of Kesari due to his own will rather than due to any karma. स्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः – Due to his white rays, the nails cause the Chandra to be troubled due to shame. मधुरिपोः नखाः – Vishnu’s nails. प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदः – his, who destroys the sufferings of those who surrender on to him. वः त्रायन्ताम् – Let them protect you all (this includes the author and the readers also).

Rasa Dhvani – There is Veera Rasa with the staayibhaava of utsaaha suggested here. Vishnu and his nails are ever enthusiastic to protect the devotees.

Vastu Dhvani – The nails destroy the sufferings of the devotees. He does not need any other tool. His nails are enough for him. This is the idea being suggested. Also the idea that he is brimming with energy to protect the devotees is also being suggested.

Alamkaara Dhvani – Due to his white rays, the nails cause the Chandra to be troubled due to shame. The chandra’s splendour is inferior to the shine of the nails. The upamaana of Chandra is inferior to the Upameya of Nails and so the alamkara of Vyatirekha is suggested here.

Structure of Dhvanyaaloka

There are kaarikaas and the vrittis. Dr. K. Krishnmoorthi and others in Karnataka are of the opinion that the kaarikaa and the vritti are written by Anandavardhana. There are others in North India and Kerala that opine that the vritti was only written by Anandavardhana. Their opinion is based on the commentator named Maheshwara, who mentioned that Bharata or someone else could have written the Kaarikaa. Moreover, in the Lochana, Abhinava Gupta writes this way “इदम् आह वृत्तिकारः” – “So says the author of the Vritti”. This has added to the controversy that the author of kaarikaa and the vrutti could be different people.

Definition of Dhvani & Dhvani virooda vaada

This is the first Kaarikaa.

काव्यस्यात्मा ध्वनिरिति बुधैर्यः समाम्नातपूर्व-स्तस्याभावं जगदुरपरे भाक्तमाहुस्तमन्ये | केचिद्वाचाम् स्थितमविषये तत्त्वमूचुस्तदीयम्  तेन ब्रूमः सहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् || १ || (Meaning: Dhvani (ध्वनि:) was declared (समाम्नातम्) to be the soul of poetry (काव्यस्यात्मा) by learned persons (बुधै:) of yore  (पूर्वै: ). All the same some would refute its existence (तस्याभावं); some would consider it as something that could be logically implied (अपरे भाक्तम्+आहु:+तम्); some others speak of its presence as being beyond the provision of expression (अन्ये केचित्+वाचाम् स्थितम्+अविषये). Hence, we hereby intend explaining (तेन ब्रूमः ) what its nature (तत्स्वरूपम्) is so as to cause delight to the hearts of sympathetic critics (सहृदय+मनः+प्रीतये)).

काव्यस्यात्मा ध्वनिरिति बुधैर्यः समाम्नातपूर्वः – That the soul of poetry is Dhvani has been recognized and agreed by the generations of earlier experts.

तस्याभावं जगदुरपरे – there are a few people who do not accept the existence of the Dhvani. Their arguments are called as abhaavavaada.

भाक्तमाहुस्तमन्ये – There are others who consider Dhvani to be Vyangyaartha or Bhaaktaartha, that meaning which comes out due to the function of Bhakti or indication.

केचिद्वाचाम् स्थितमविषये तत्त्वमूचुस्तदीयम् – Like how Brahma is Anirvachaneeyam, this Dhvani is also anirvachaneeyam. This vaada is also called anirvachaneeyataa vaada. It cannot be explained.

There are 5 arguments against Dhvani, i.e., Dhvani virooda vaada. The first three arguments are within the Abhaava-vaada. The fourth is Bhaakta vaada and the fifth is the anirvachaneeyataa vaada.

Shabda and Artha together is considered as kaavya. Not just that. There are alamkaaras, Gunas, Vrittis, Reeti or Maarga, etc. The first abhaava-vaada is questioning what is new in Dhvani when there are already other beautifying factors. The second abhaavavaada is vikalpa which rejects the existence of Dhvani. They say outright that there is no Dhvani. नास्त्येव ध्वनिः | प्रसिद्धप्रस्थानव्यतिरेकिणः  काव्यप्रकारस्य काव्यत्वहानेः .. | Prasthaanas are the major concepts that have been put forth by earlier alamkaarikas. There cannot be something new which can beautify the poetry. The third abhaavavaada is that there are different ways of Vaakvikalpa – these are all creativity of the poet. न सम्भवत्येव ध्वनिर्नामापूर्वः कश्चित् | कामनीयकमनतिवर्तमानस्य तस्योक्तेष्वेव चारुत्वहेतुष्वन्तर्भावात् |If this Dhvani add manohara to the poetry, it can be also be considered as a new type of one of the existing concepts like Alamkaara or Guna. They ask the Dhvani supporters to not close their eyes and keep dancing about Dhvani. तस्मात् प्रवादमात्रं ध्वनिः | Dhvani is not truth. It is a Pravaada, that which is simply spreading among a set of people. There was a poet named Manoratha. He wrote a shloka against Anandavardha. There is nothing interesting – no vastu, no alamkaaras, not written by great poets, and no varkrokti. What is the true form of Dhvani? Anandavardha quotes that and says that he is writing this work to explain that only. In the fourth Bhaakta Vaada, the Bhaaktaas say that the vyangyaartha can be included in Bhaaktyaartha itself. When the denoted meaning is not applicable, any way we are taking a different meaning. Let Dhvani also be that Bhaaktyaartha. लक्षणकरणशालीनबुद्धयः – These people become tired in mind if they think a little more while attempting to create a lakshana meaning.

तेनैवंविधासु विमतिषु स्थितासु सहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपं ब्रूमः | (Meaning: Taking into consideration all these conflicting views, we furnish hereunder the nature of suggestion for the satisfaction and appreciation of sympathetic critics i.e., connoisseurs). In such a situation, for bringing happiness to the minds of the sahrudayaas, I  will explain the nature of Dhvani.

Types of meanings

We have come across to types of meanings namely वाच्यार्थः,  लक्ष्यार्थः and प्रतीयमानार्थः | Vaachya is very famous. Every one understand it. In the Alamkaaras like upamaa, these meanings are being used. बहुधा व्याकृतः सोऽन्यैः काव्यलक्ष्मविधायिभिः | – – – ततो नेह प्रतन्यते || 1.३||(meaning: The denotative conventional meaning is generally known and it has already been covered in many ways through figures of speech such as simile by other writers. Therefore that is not to be discussed here in detail). Since it has been elaborately discussed earlier, it is not being described here.

प्रतीयमानं पुनरन्यदेव वस्त्वस्ति वाणीषु महाकवीनाम् | </***> यत्तत्प्रसिद्धावयवातिरिक्तं विभाति लावण्यमिवांगनासु || 1.४||  </*> (meaning: But the suggestive aspect is distinct from this (explicit – denotative – conventional) (प्रतीयमानं पुन: अन्यत् एव). It shows itself brilliantly in the words(वाणीषु) of celebrated poets (महाकवि)and reigns supreme over and above (अतिरिक्तंविभाति) the striking external elementsप्रसिद्ध+ अवयव, even as charm among ladies(लावण्यम् इव अङ्गनासु)).

In the works of the great poets, there is a third type of meaning, which is different from Vaachya and lakshya. The prasiddha avayava of kaavya are shabda and artha. For those, the chaarutva is got by the shabda alamkaaras and sangatana chaaturya is got by the shabda gunas, the swaroopas are got by Arthaalamkaaras, and the sangatana dharmas are got by the arthagunas – these are all the popular organs of the Kaavya. That which is different all these, and which attracts us the very moment we notice it, is found in the prateeyamaanaartha. This is similar to the beauty seen in women that is different all the beauty of the individual organs. (Note: Laavanya is the bhaava of lavana or salt. It is the lakshanaartha that has come in roodi to indicate charmness. Laavanya indicates the charm that overtakes the other features). Only a sahrudaya will be able to appreciate this third type of meaning.

Types of Dhvani

The vyangya vastu will be different from the Vaachya vastu. The vyangyaalamkaara will be different from the Vaachyaalamkaara. The rasavadaadi Dhvani will be different and better than the rasavadaadyalamkaara. The vaachyaartha might be a vidhi or an instruction to do something. But the vyangyaartha might be a nisheda instruction that it should not be done. भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः स शुनकोऽद्य मारितस्तेन | गोदावरीनदीकूललतागहनवासिना दृप्तसिंहेन || (meaning: Freely (विस्रब्धः) roam (भ्रम) about, O Ascetic! That dog (स: शुनक:) which you were afraid of, has been killed (मारित:)recently (अद्य) by (तेन)the ferocious lion (दृप्त+सिंहेन) that dwells (लतागहन+वासिना)on the bank of Godavari river (गोदावरी+नदी+कूल). Suggested meaning: Don’t worry that there is no privacy. The person who used to haunt us has been removed away by a more powerful person. So we can’t meet). Here a woman tells a person who comes to meet her place and disturbs her that he could come freely now as the dog that used to bark at him has now been killed by a lion. Here though she says roam around freely, the hidden meaning is that you cannot walk around freely due to the presence of the lion. The interpretation is based on the context. There are examples of other cases like the case where the denoted meaning is to not do while the suggested meaning is to do. There could also be the cases where the suggested meaning is (अनुभय) neither vidhi nor nisheda.

Need for vaachyaartha

आलोकार्थी यथा दीपशिखायां यत्नवाञ्जनः | तदुपायतया तद्वदर्थे वाच्ये तदादृतः || ९ || </*> (Meaning: In the same manner(यथा – तद्वत्) as a man(जनः) intent upon seeing an object in darkness (आलोक+अर्थी), puts forth his efforts(यत्नवान्) towards fetching a lamp (दीप+शिखायां)owing to its being a means to realise his goal (of seeing the object) (तत्+उपायतया) one who is very much interested (तत्+आदृतः) in the suggested meaning (अर्थे) would at the outset direct his effort towards (understanding) the conventional meaning (वाच्ये)). Like the person who carries a lantern if he needs the light, in the same way, to be able to understand the vyangyaartha, the vaachyaartha is required.

The definition of Dhvani

यत्रार्थः शब्दो वा तमर्थमुपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ | व्यङ्क्तः काव्यविशेषः स ध्वनिरिति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३|| </*> (Meaning: The conventional word शब्द: and the conventional meaning अर्थः   (स्व+अर्थौ =  स्व + शब्द: + अर्थः) are abandoned उपसर्जनी+कृत |  अर्थः शब्द:वाव्यङ्क्तः | They become suggested word or meaning. व्यङ्क्तः = प्रतीयमान: अर्थ: भवति | That is a specialty of the poem called Dhvani. That kind of poetry in which the conventional meaning or the conventional word renders its meaning sub-ordinate and suggests the intended or implied meaning, is termed “Dhvani” or “suggestive poetry” by the learned people).

The वा here does not mean that it is either artha or shabda. The intention here is that when Artha is prominent in conveying the Dhvani, the word will be subordinate to it and similarly when shabda is prominent in conveying the Dhvani, the meaning will be subordinate to it. The other terms उपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ, and  व्यङ्क्तः are in dvivachana indicating both are there. When the suggested meaning is overtaken by the denoted word and meaning, that Kaavya is considered to be a Dhvani by the scholars. Upasarjana means “being subservient” – taking the guneebhaava or secondary position without having praadaanyam. Artha subsides by itself अर्थः उपसर्जनीकृतस्वः, while shabda makes its meaning subside शब्दः तमर्थमुपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थः | In that situation, it is called Dhvani Kaavya.

Many alamkaaras like अप्रस्तुतप्रशंसा, समासोक्तिः, विषेशोक्तिः, आक्षेप, पर्यायोक्तः, etc. have some suggested meaning in them. If the suggestion is not prominent, then it becomes Gunibhoota Vyangya and this gunibhoota vyangya is a type of Alamkaara only.   पर्यायोक्तः is an Alamkaara for which the example of “भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः” can be taken. But that has been given as an example of Dhvani. It is true that it qualifies to be an alamkara and a Dhvani. But due to the prominence of Dhvani and since the Alamkaara is just supplementary पर्यायोक्तस्याङ्गित्वेन , it is taken to be a Dhvani and also, all Dhvani cannot be equated to this Paryaayoktaalamkaara. Anandavardhana refers to this superiority of Dhvani (mahaavishaya) over an Alamkaara (alpavishaya) by the maxim, Paryaayoka-nyaaya, to indicate those cases where the Alamkaara cannot be treated to be Dhvani itself.

Bhaakta Vaada Khandana

Anandavardhana points out that – there is difference in the forms between the Bhaaktyaartha i.e., lakshyaartha, and the Dhvanyaartha. If Vaachyaartha is the stream, the lakshyaartha is the bank. The purpose which is to indicate the qualities of sacredness and chillness is not explicitly indicated in the lakshyaartha. So this is Dhvani. If just to make sense of the sentence, instead of the denoted meaning or mukhyaartha, the indicated meaning or the lakshanaa is taken, then it is not Dhvani. Thus there is Bhakti without Dhvani and they both cannot be the same. भक्त्या बिभर्ति नैकत्वम् रूपभेदादयं ध्वनिः (१३.१) | (Meaning: Suggestion and secondary signification are not one and the same because of the innate difference between the two. Among the three functions of the word, the second function is called Lakshana Vyaapaara or Bhakti. Believers of Bhakti are Bhaktaas. Suggestion and Bhakti are different since their forms are different (roopa bheda)). There will be ativyaapti dosha (where Dhvani is not there, even when Bhakti is present). There will also be Avyaapti dosha (where Dhvani is there without the presence of Bhakti).

Anirvachaneeyataa vaada Khandana

Anirvachaneeyataa vaadins say that Dhvani cannot be explained. Now that it has been properly defined, this argument has been totally refuted.

Class #2

The different types of Dhvani

  1. अविवक्षितवाच्य:
    • अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य:
    • अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य:
  2. विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य:
    • संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः
    • असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः

Here अविवक्षितवाच्य: is लक्षणामूलध्वानि and विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: is अभिधामूलध्वनि | (Refer Kaavya Prakaasha Notes for some more explanation). Along with सर्वथाविवक्षित, even अल्पविवक्षित is treated as अविवक्षित. So, when it is told to a very less extent, it becomes अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य: | When it is not told at all, it becomes अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य: | In the example,  “दण्डाः प्रविशन्ति”, the sticks cannot enter on their own. There is only अल्पविवक्षित. It joins with the पुरुषः and indicates the men holding the sticks. This is अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य: |

In गङ्गायां गोषः, we totally discard the meaning that it is the stream and we take it to be the banks. So this is अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य: | We do so to highlight the qualities like शैत्य and पावनत्वा |

स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतो वेल्लद्बलाका घना … वाताः शीकरिणः पयोदसुहृदामानन्दकेकाः कलाः | कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोरहृदयो रामोऽस्मि सर्वं सहे … वैदेही तु कथम् भविश्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव || (Meaning: स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतः, वेल्लद्बलाकाः, घनाः वाताः शीकरिणः, पयोदसुहृदाम् आनन्दकेकाः कलाः | कामं सन्तु दृढम् | कठोर+हृदय: राम: अस्मि | अहं सर्वं सहे | वैदेही तु कथं भविष्यति ? हहा हा | देवि, त्वं धीरा भव | The quarters are all painted as it was with the glistening dark clouds; the cranes are flying with excitement, forming a circle as it were. The gentle wind is full of moisture; these friends of clouds, i.e., the peacocks are giving out joyous notes in the wind. Let all these confront me (कामं सन्तु). I shall certainly put up with all these (सर्वं सहे), for, I am Rama (राम: अस्मि) whose heart is quite hard as adamantine (made of very hard material) (दृढं कठोर+हृदय:). But how will Sita bear with this (वैदेही तु कथम् भविश्यति)! Alas! Alas!(हहा हा) O my beloved queen!  Bear these with all fortitude or courage (देवि धीरा भव)).  Rama is separated from Sita. He describes the season which causes more pain for the separated lovers. He hopes that Sita is able to bear this pain. He says that he will be able to bear it. Here for the term Rama the meaning to be taken is much more than the son of Dasaratha. He is to be taken as one having the capacity to bear all the pains. It is an example of अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य: | The suggestion here is that he can bear all the pain (सर्वकष्टसहिश्नुत्वशक्तिमान्) |

This is from Anandavardhana’s विशमबाणलीला work. रविसङ्क्रान्तसौभाग्यस्तुषारावृतमण्डलः | निःश्वासान्ध इवादर्शश्चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते || (Meaning: All the charm (brightness) of the moon has gone to the sun. रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्य: It has disappeared now that the orb is enveloped by snowतुषार+आवृत+मण्डलः |  Like a mirror rendered blind by the heavingनिःश्वास+अन्ध: इव+आदर्श:, the moon does not glowचन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते |) The chandra’s shine is blocked as a mirror’s reflection is not clear when someone breathes out air on it. निःश्वासान्ध – The term’s literally meaning is being blinded by the breathed out air. We totally discard that meaning and we take the meaning that the chandra’s shine is not seen when the sun has risen.

We will now see about विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: | असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः is the रसध्वनिः | संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः could be the Alamkaara Dhvani, Vastu Dhvani or even the gunibhoota vyangya Dhvani. From the vibhaava, anubhaava, and Vyabhichaari bhaava, the staayibhaava is created and gets nourished by them and turns out to be the experience of Rasa. There is a karma or sequence there. Even if this sequence is present, it is not seen in असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः | यद्यपि क्रमः विद्यते, अतिसूक्ष्मत्वात् न लक्ष्यते | It is understood by the maxim of सहस्रदलसूचीभेदन्यायः | When the needle is made to go through 1000 petals, we would not notice how it crosses each petal. Here also though विभाव-अनिभाव-व्यभिचारिभावैः रसः, we do not notice them and we seem to directly experience the rasa.

असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः is Rasa Dhvani. It should be taken as Rasaadhi Dhvani as there are actually eight types namely Rasadhvani, Bhaavadhvani, Rasaabhaasa Dhvani, Bhaavaabhaasa Dhvani, Bhaavodaya, Bhaava Sandhi, bhaava shabalataa, and bhaava shaanti. रसभावतदाभासतत्प्रशान्त्यादिरक्रमः | ध्वनेरात्माङ्गिभावेन भासमानो व्यवस्थितः || 2.3 || (Meaning: Sentiment (रस), emotion (भाव), the semblance of sentiment (रस’sतद्+आभास), the semblance of motion (भाव’s तद्+आभास)  or mood and that rise and cessation – all these form un-discerned sequentiality. It is decided that when there is prominent presence (अङ्गि भावेन) of the variety that would be the very soul of suggestion (ध्वने: आत्मा)). In Lochana, the example has been given for each of the variety.

Rasaadi Dhvani vs Rasavadaadi Alamkaara

In Rasaadi Dhvani, there is prominence of one of these – Rasa, Bhaava, Rasaabhaasa, Bhaavaabhaasa, bhaavodaya, bhaava sandhi, bhaava shabalataa or bhaava shaanti. When Rasa, etc. are not prominent, it becomes Rasavadaadyalamkaara Dhvani. प्रधान्येऽन्यत्र वाक्यार्थे यत्राङ्गं तु रसादयः |  काव्ये तस्मिन्नलङ्कारो रसादिरिति मे मतिः || 2.५|| (Meaning: If on the other hand, the chief meaning of the sentence should direct towards something else and if Rasa etc. are to figure in only as subsidiary to it, that would be the case of Rasavadalankaara). Until Anandavardhana’s period, there was no work with this level of details. Dhandi had given example for 8 types of Alamkaara. All of these are to be considered as Rasa Dhvani only. He had considered them as Alamkaara. So Anandavardhana clarifies that where there is prominence of Rasa, it has to be considered as Dhvani and not Alamkaara – इति मे मतिः | This is my opinion. This was accepted by all.


Right from Bharata’s time, Gunas were recognized. Dhandi related Gunas to the Marga or Reeti and listed the ten Gunas. Vamana also explained in the same way classifying them as Shabda Guna and Artha Guna. While the alamkaarikaas prior to him had considered Guna to be the dharma of Marga or Reeti, Anandavardhana was the first one to say that Gunas are the dharmas of Rasa. He describes the difference between the Guna and Alamkaara. This difference was pointed out for the first time clearly by Vamana but in a different way. तमर्थमवलम्बन्ते येऽङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः | </*> अङ्गाश्रितास्त्वल’ ङ्कारा मन्तव्याः कटकादिवत् || 2.६  7|| (Meaning: Those which depend upon this main element are considered as “qualities”. The figures of speech are those that are connected with its parts in the same way as ornaments like bracelet, etc.) In this he says that the Rasa’s Dharma are the Gunas. The alamkaaras are only supplementary parts to the body made of Shabda-Artha. Kataka is the bangle. Like the ornaments to  the body, the alamkaaras are ornaments to the Kaavya. Dhandi mentions about 10 gunas. Anandavardhana accepts only three as Gunas. The first is maadurya guna which is the Shrungaaraadirasa’s dharma (like the dharmas of Shrungaara, Kaarunya, Hasya, etc.). The next one Ojas is related to Raudraadi Rasa (i.e., Raudra, Veera, Adbuda, Bibatsa). The third one Prasaada is the common dharma for all Rasa. Prasaada means Prasanna. This brings the ananda due to the Rasa. शृङ्गार एव मधुरः परः प्रह्लादनो रसः |  तन्मयं काव्यमाश्रित्य माधुर्यं प्रतितिष्ठति || ७  2.8||  (Meaning: Shringaara – the sentiment of love – is the sweetest and most relishable of all sentiments. The quality of Maadhurya or sweetness is declared to be in the poetic composition beaming with this sentiment). He says that the Shrungaara Rasa is the Rasa that can cause the most happiness. Madurya resides in this type of Kaavya having Rasas like Shrungaara. Madurya is a quality residing in the Shabda and Artha. And still it brings out the ananda of the Rasa. Even within the Shrungaara, the vipralamba shrungaara is much more enjoyable than the Samboga Shrungaara.

Madurya Guna and Karuna Rasa

The most enjoyable Rasa is Karuna. The Harishchandra drama is full of pathos. The audience would cry so much while watching it and yet they will want to watch the drama again. Vishwanath says in Saahitya Dharpana that करुणादावपि रसे जायते यत् परं सुखम् सचेतसामनुभव: प्रमाणं तत्र केवलम् | We experience Ananda even in Rasas like Karuna the proof is the ananda experienced by the sahrudayas. शृङ्गारे विप्रलम्भाख्ये करुणे च प्रकर्षवत् | माधुर्यमार्द्रतां याति यतस्तत्राधिकं मनः || ८  2.9|| (Meaning: In the two kinds of sentiments, namely, love-in-separation and the pathetic sentiment, sweetness should be the foremost because the heart of the recipient is moved very much in those situations). The most touching of all the Rasas, that melt the heart, are vipralambha-shrungaara and Karuna.

Ojas Guna

रौद्रादयो रसा दीप्त्या लक्ष्यन्ते काव्यवर्तिनः | तद्व्यक्तिहेतू  शब्दार्थावाश्रित्यौजो व्यवस्थितम् || ९ 2.10|| (Meaning: Raudrarasa etc. are significant in their having great exciting potency in poetry. The quality of ओजस् or forcefulness is said to be in word and sense which produce the effect). Sentiments like Raudra create a sort of excitement in poetic composition. Hence by lakshana, one might designate that sentiment itself by the term Deepti or excitement. It was said by the earlier alamkaarikas that दीर्घसमासत्वम् ओजत्वम् | Anandavardhana is of the opinion that Ojas may be found even in the simplest expressions. Two examples are given for Ojas from Venisamhaara. The first one has long compounds. चञ्चद्भुजभ्रमितचण्डगदाभिघात-सञ्चूर्णितोरुयुगलस्य सुयोधनस्य | स्त्यानावबद्धघनशोणितशोणपाणि-रुत्तंसयिष्यति कचांस्तव देवि भीमः || Bhima says that he will kill the kauravas and with that blood in his hands, he will tie Draupadi’s hair. Both Shabda and Artha have ojas guna. यो यः शस्त्रं बिभर्ति स्वभुजगुरुमदः पाण्डवीनां चमूनां यो यः पाञ्चालगोत्रे शिशुरधिकवया गर्भशय्यां गतो वा | यो यस्तत्कर्मसाक्षी चरति मयि रणे यश्च यश्च प्रतीपः  क्रोधान्धस्तस्य तस्य स्वयमपि जगतामन्तकस्यान्तकोऽहम् || Ashwattaama says he will kill all the people on the Pandavas side without leaving the fetus in the womb. In this example, the deepti is created by the word and meaning in spite of the absence of long compounds.

Prasaada Guna

समर्पकत्वं काव्यस्य यत्तु सर्वरसान् प्रति | स प्रसादो गुणो ज्ञेयः सर्वसाधारणक्रियः || १०|| (Meaning: That which produces congeniality in a poetic composition towards all sentiments is known as Prasaada which goes well with all sentiments and poetic compositions). प्रसादस्तु स्वच्छता शब्दार्थयोः | The quality of Prasaada or Perspecuity means clarity or lucidity in word and meanings. Samarpakatvam is to have the appropriate shabda and artha that is appropriate for the specific rasa. सर्वसाधारणक्रियः – it is applicable in common to all the rasas. स च सर्वरससाधारणो गुणः सर्वरचनासाधारणश्च व्यङ्ग्यार्थापेक्षयैव मुख्यतया व्यवस्थितो मन्तव्यः | All sentiments could be accommodated in this perspicuity and all poetic compositions could make use of this quality. Hence it is better we understand it as primarily relating to व्यङ्ग्यार्थ only.


श्रुतिदुष्टादयो दोषा अनित्या ये च दर्शिताः | ध्वन्यात्मन्येव शृङ्गारे ते हेया इत्युदाहृताः || ११|| (Meaning: Faults like indelicacy which are considered to be non-permanent by the ancient writers have been deemed to be so only with reference to the sentiment of love when it has suggestion). Indelicacy is that which is not pleasant to hear. The faults like this are not considered as permanent faults. It can be ignorable in certain rasas and it can even enhance the raudraadi rasa. But it should be totally avoided in Shrungaara.

अलङ्कारस्य स्थानविवेकः

Anandavardhana clarifies about the usage of Alamkaara within the composition that has Dhvani. If the Alamkaara effortlessly finds a place there, then retain it. But for the sake of including an Alamkaara, do not force it into the composition. Kalidasa uses the Alamkaara judiciously, only those which are appropriate to the rasa in that context.  विवक्षा तत्परत्वेन नाङ्गित्वेन कदाचन | काले च ग्रहणत्यागौ नातिनिर्वहणैषिता || १८|| (Meaning: It must be realized that the figure of speech should serve as a means to the delineation of sentiment and it should not be an end in itself. He should have the right to abandon it when not needed in the same way as he uses them when needed rightfully). Alamkaaras are to be used only when they nourish the Rasa. It should not be forcefully introduced just for the sake of having an Alamkaara there. It should not be the angi i.e., gain prominence over the Rasa. Leave the use of Alamkaara if it is not supporting the rasa. निर्व्यूढावपि चाङ्गत्वे यत्नेन प्रत्यवेक्षणम् | रूपकादिरलङ्कारवर्गस्याङ्गत्वसाधनम् || १९|| (Meaning: He shall not exercise his over-enthusiasm however much he may feel himself an expert. He should be keen in rendering it only secondary or subordinate. It is only thus, the figures like Rupaka become instrument to suggest sentiments). To recap the points (1) विवक्षा तत्परत्वेन – Alamkaara should be to enhance the sentiment (2) न अङ्गित्वेन कदाचन – at any point of time, it should not gain prominence over the rasa (3) काले च ग्रहणत्यागौ – it should be used or given up (4) न अतिनिर्वहणैषिता – One should not over do the Alamkaaras. (5) निर्व्यूढावपि चाङ्गत्वे यत्नेन प्रत्यवेक्षणम् – If it happens to come that way, the poet should put effort to make it only secondary or subordinate.

In abhignaana shaakuntalam, there is a svabhaavokti Alamkaara, which describes the nature of the bee. It has helped in enjoying the rasa even more. It is an example of विवक्षा तत्परत्वम् | चलापाङ्गां दृष्टिं स्पृशसि बहुशो वेपथुमतीं रहस्याख्यायीव स्वनसि मृदु कर्णान्तिकचरः | करौ व्याधुन्वत्याः पिबसि रतिसर्वस्वमधरं वयं तत्त्वान्वेषान्मधुकर हतास्त्वं खलु कृती ||


There are two types in this – artha-shakti-moola-dhvani and shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani. Note that according to Mammata there are three types considering shabdaartha-ubhaya-shakti-moola-dhvani. शब्दार्थशक्तिमूलत्वात्सोऽपि द्वेधा व्यवस्थितः || २०||(Meaning: The samlakshyakramavyangya or the discernible sequence is also of two kinds having its roots in the potency of the meaning and words).


आक्षिप्त एवालङ्कारः शब्दशक्त्या प्रकाशते | यस्मिन्ननुक्तः शब्देन शब्दशक्त्युद्भवो हि सः || २१|| (Meaning: That example in which a figure which is not expressed directly by any word is present and conveys solely, by the suggestive potency of the word itself, should be taken as suggestion based on the potency of the word). When an Alamkaara is suggested, it is shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani. According to him, only Alamkaara Dhvani will be shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani and not Vastu Dhvani. The word has the potential to give two meanings. The two meanings can be connected by means of some relationship like that of upamaana and upameya, thus suggesting an Alamkaara. Mammata says that Vastu Dhvani is also possible here.

As in Shlesha, even in shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani, there is scope for two meanings. The difference is explained here. In shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani, we take both the meanings. येन ध्वस्तमनोभवेन बलिजित्कायः पुरास्त्रीकृतो  यश्चोद्वृत्तभुजङ्गहारवलयो गङ्गां च योऽधारयत् | यस्याहुः शशिमच्छिरो हर इति स्तुत्यं च नामामराः पायात्स स्वयमन्धकक्षयकरस्त्वां सर्वदोमाधवः || In this example, the meaning applicable for Hari and the one applicable for the Hara exist.  Here both the ideas are simultaneously present as an outcome of the potency of the word and hence it is shlesha. When one meaning is considered as an upamaa for the other meaning (King and elephant), then it is shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani.

Class #3 – Second Udyotta Conti. + Third Udyotta

Arthashakti Moola Dhvani

This type called Arthashaktimooladhvani is a suggestion that depends on the potency of the meaning. The meaning which suggests another meaning is of three kinds: (a) स्वतस्सम्भवी, (b) कविप्रौढोक्तिसिद्धा, and (c) कविनिबद्धवक्तृप्रौढोक्तिसिद्धा | In Svatassambhavi, the description by the poet matches the real life without any imaginative aspect. In kavipraudoktisiddha, the suggestion is attained by the ability of the poet. In Kavi-nibhaddha-vaktru-praudokti-siddha, the suggestion is attained by the ability of the character created by the poet in the work. Each of these are further divided into 4 types. (1) वस्तुना वस्तुध्वनि – by the meaning indicating some Vastu, another meaning indicating another vastu is suggested. (2) वस्तुना अलंकारध्वनि (३) अलंकारेण अलंकारध्वनि (४) अलंकारेण वस्तुध्वनि | Along with these 12 in arthashakti moola dhvani, including the one for shabdha shakti moola Dhvani, there are 13 types in संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः that is under विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: |  असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः  is Raasaadhidhvani and there are innumerable varieties in it. This is the 14th. Thus there are 16 in all, when the 2 avivakshitavaachyadhvani is included.

सज्जयति सुरभिमासो न तावदर्पयति युवतिजनलक्ष्यमुखान् | अभिनवसहकारमुखान्नवपल्लवपत्रलाननङ्गस्य शरान् || (2. 24 +)  (Meaning: The spring season keeps its ready but not yet releases the shaft of cupid, with sharp heads of just then manifested mango buds and feathers of fresh leaves at young ladies who form its targets). Here though the surabhi maasa does not create the sharp heads for manmata in reality, it is something imagined by the poet. This is an example of kavipraudoktisiddha वस्तुना वस्तुध्वनि.

In another kaarika, Anandavardha says that the poet should be careful to make the suggested meaning be not exposed directly.

Third Udhyotta

In this 3rd udhyotta, the different types are listed from the perspective of the Vyanjaka – word while in the earlier chapter, it was based on the Vyangya – meaning. Due to the presence of a certain word, there could be suggestion. Or due to the entire sentence itself, there could be suggestion. अविवक्षितवाच्यस्य पदवाक्यप्रकाशता | तदन्यस्यानुरणनरूपव्यङ्ग्यस्य च ध्वनेः || १|| (Meaning: Both the varieties of suggestion with unintended literal meaning and resonance-like suggestion are suggested by individual words and also by whole sentences). When the bell is run, the resonance that is heard is called अनुरणन |  In every variety, there are two sub-types for the suggestion by individual words and by whole sentence.


Asamlakshyakramadhvani which is rasaadidhvani, is explained next. एवं व्यङ्ग्यमुखेनैव ध्वनेः प्रदर्शिते सप्रभेदे स्वरूपे पुनर्व्यञ्जक- मुखेनैतत्प्रकाश्यते (before 1st karika). (Meaning: Having thus displayed the nature of varieties of suggestion in detail, through the stand point of the suggested material, the same shall be set forth through the suggestive elements). यस्त्वलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यो ध्वनिर्वर्णपदादिषु | वाक्ये सङ्घटनायां च स प्रबन्धेऽपि दीप्यते || २|| (Meaning: Suggestion with undiscerned sequence (asamlakshyakrama vyangya) will glow in letter, word etc., sentence, composition and finally in the composition too). There is varna-vyanjakataa, pada-vyanjakataa, Vaakya-vyanjakataa, Sangatanaa, and Prabhanda.

Influence of Letters

शषौ सरेफसंयोगो ढकारश्चापि भूयसा | विरोधिनः स्युः शृङ्गारे ते न वर्णा रसच्युतः || ३||  (Meaning: The letters “श” and “ष”, letters conjunct with र and ढ – all these are not conducive to evoke rasa in the context of Shrungara.  In Shrungaara, the use of certain specific letters is considered to be inappropriate. त एव तु निवेश्यन्ते बीभत्सादौ रसे यदा | तदा तं दीपयन्त्येव ते न वर्णा रसच्युतः || ४|| (Meaning: When the same letters are used in relation to the sentiment of disgust बीभत्स and others, they will certainly intensify them. Therefore letters also suggest sentiments).

Influence of Pada

Every word comprises of two parts prakruti and pratyaya. Each of these could cause suggestiveness. These possibilities are there in Rasaadhi Dhvani. उत्कम्पिनी भयपरिस्खलितांशुकान्ता  ते लोचने प्रतिदिशं विधुरे क्षिपन्ती |  क्रूरेण दारुणतया सहसैव दग्धा धूमान्धितेन दहनेन न वीक्षितासि (after 3.4) || (Context: Vasavadatta being burnt down and Udayana says this to her. Meaning: You, whose garment was slipping due to being struck with fear and whose helpless eyes were being diverted in different directions, were all on a sudden consumed by the cruel fire due to his hard heartedness. You could not be seen by him since he was surely blinded by his own smoke). Here “those” eyes in the illustration are suggestive of sentiment. Udayana recollects how those eyes of Vasavadatta used to create in him an impression of her anger, desire and helplessness.


असमासा समासेन मध्यमेन च भूषिता |  तथा दीर्घसमासेति त्रिधा सङ्घटनोदिता || 3.५|| </***> (meaning: The composition or texture is of three kinds namely (1) without compounds, (2) with medium compounds and (3) with long compounds). There are three styles of writing. First one is असमास sangatana. The other two are अल्पसमास (मध्यम) sangatana and दीर्घसमास sangatana.  गुणानाश्रित्य तिष्ठन्ती माधुर्यादीन्व्यनक्ति सा | रसान् – – – ||3.6|| (Meaning: Composition is based on qualities like sweetness and suggests sentiments). Since the sangathanaa is based on guna, is it same as guna or is it different? If it is different, does guna depend on sangathanaa or the other way? तत्रै-क्यपक्षे सङ्घटनाश्रयगुणपक्षे च गुणानात्मभूतानाधेयभूतान्वाश्रित्य  तिष्ठन्ती सङ्घटना रसादीन् व्यनक्तीत्ययमर्थः | The first option is ऐक्यपक्ष taking both to be the same, गुणान् आत्मभूतान् the gunas is identical with Sangatana itself; and in the second case where both are different, the texture becomes the substratum or foundation for the qualities. सङ्घटनाश्रयगुणपक्षे गुणान् आधेयभूतान् आश्रित्य  तिष्ठन्ती सङ्घटना | Thus in both of these cases, the texture  either being based on itself or being based on the nature of its attributes, suggests rasa. सङ्घटना रसादीन् व्यनक्ति | The other possibility of both being different or the guna being the foundation for sangatana is also discussed and they are refuted.

Guna, Sanghatana and Rasas

There is a general opinion that long compounds are not appropriate for Shrungaara. But there are cases where the long compounds have been used in Shrungaara. There are cases where there is Ojoguna in the absence of samaasa (which contradict the earlier definition of समासभूयत्वम् ओजः | So it has to be understood that irrespective of the sangatana, the rasa is suggested only through the gunas. There is no generalized rule mapping specific Sanghatana to specific rasas. As mentioned earlier (तमर्थमवलम्बन्ते येऽङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः), the Rasa’s dharma are the gunas.  Guna’s relation to Rasa is constant like Maadhurya and Prasaada may be used for suggesting Karuna and Vipralambhasrungaara. Ojas is used to suggest only Raudra, Adbhutaa and not Karuna. There is no principle governing the scope of Sanghatanaa.

Prabhanda Vyanyakatva

There could be suggestiveness at the level of the entire composition itself. विभावभावानुभावसञ्चार्यौचित्यचारुणः | विधिः कथाशरीरस्य वृत्तस्योत्प्रेक्षितस्य वा || ३.१०|| (वृत्तस्य वा  उत्प्रेक्षितस्य वा कथा-शरीरस्य विधिः विभाव-भाव-अनुभाव-सञ्चारि-औचित्य-चारुणः | Meaning: A poet should design only such a theme कथा-शरीरस्य विधिः, based either on traditional accounts वृत्तस्य वा  or an invented one उत्प्रेक्षितस्य वा which could be charming चारुणः with its propriety औचित्य of the accessories of sentiment namely, the settings and its stimuli विभाव, abiding emotion अनुभाव, emotional responses and changing moods सञ्चारिभाव). In the Prabhanda, there should be the usage of Vibhaava, Anubhaava, and Vyabhichaari Bhaava. It should come along with the theme or plot of the story. The plot could be based on the stories from epis and puraanas or based on some imagination. If the vibhaava, anubhaava and vyabhichaari bhaava are used along with the texture of the plot, the entire composition could suggest a rasa.

इतिवृत्तवशायातां त्यक्त्वाऽननुगुणां स्थितिम् | उत्प्रेक्ष्याऽप्यन्तराभीष्टरसोचितकथोन्नयः || 3.११|| (Meaning: If in a theme based on traditional accounts, the poet comes across a situation which is in conflict with the intended sentiment, we must be prepared to abandon such incidents. He may even invent incidents of his own imagination in their place, with an objective of depicting the sentiment that he intends). The situations that could cause hindrance to the main theme of the story should be avoided. The kavi should create new situations that are amicable to the theme. The best example is Abhignaana Shaakuntala of Kaalidaasa. In the original story, Dhushyanta is a cheat who does not want to admit that he had married Shakuntala. Kaalidaasa glorified Dhushyanta’s role by introducing the incident about the curse. In this way, the unnecessary incidents should be dropped and introduce new incidents that support his intention. That they finally meet in the Maareecha ashrama is not in the original story. The main message of the story is this – initially they had only worldly love. In their separation, it became a heavenly love. To indicate this the kavi made them meet in the heavenly abode of Maareecha.

The sandhi and sandhyangaas should come in every kaavya and Naataka. In Ratnaavali, the author has included all the sandhi and sandhyangaas irrespective of whether they are required or not. सन्धिसन्ध्यङ्गघटनं रसाभिव्यक्त्यपेक्षया | न तु केवलया शास्त्रस्थितिसम्पादनेच्छया || 3.१२|| (Meaning: The construction of divisions and sub-sdivisions of the theme must help the depiction of sentiments and not blindly conform to the rules of poetics). Only the required ones need to be taken and others have to be avoided. Sandhyanga is the joining of the portion of the Kathaa vastu and the Avashtaa vishesha. There are 64 of these Sandhyanga.

(Side note: https://archive.org/details/Dasarupaka has English translation of Dhananjaya’s Dasharoopaka which has an elaborate discussion on how stories are structured. It is called Pancha Sandhi structure. Each Sandhi is made up of a combination of an Arthaprakriti and a Kaaryaavastha.
Kaaryaavasthas: aarambha, yatna, praaptyaasha, niyataapti and phalaagama/phalayoga.

Arthaprakritis: beeja, bindu, pataaka, prakaree and kaarya

Sandhis: mukha, pratimukha, garbha, avamarsha and upasamhriti/nirvahaNa)

For example, in the Sandhi called Mukha, there is a Sandhyanga called Upakshepa. The purpose of upakshepa is to sow the seed of the main plot. When the hermits stop Dhushyanta from hunting there, he immediately stops. Pleased with that behavior they bless him to have a son worthy of his clan. Here is where the seed is laid that he will have a son with Shakuntala.

The second Sandhi is Pratimukha sandhi. At this stage, the person has to get into action. In Venisamhaara, when Duryodhana leaves for the battle, he has used a sandhyanga called Vilaasa which indicates sarasa-sallaapa. This is inappropriate. For the entire drama, this brought auchityaa bhanga. यथा वेणीसंहारे विलासाख्यस्य प्रतिमुखसन्ध्यङ्गस्य प्रकृतरसनिबन्धाननुगुणमपि द्वितीयेऽङ्के भरतमतानुसरणमात्रेच्छया घटनम् | This should not have been used here. उद्दीपनप्रशमने यथावसरमन्तरा | रसस्यारब्धविश्रान्तेरनुसन्धानमङ्गिनः || 3.१३|| (meaning: A poet should be in a position to present the sentiments in its high as well as in its low ebb keeping an eye over the appropriateness. He must maintain the unity of the main sentiment from beginning to the end). One has to be careful about where uddeepana and prashamana is placed, considering the entire plot in mind. अलङ्कृतीनां शक्तावप्यानुरूप्येण योजनम् | प्रबन्धस्य रसादीनां व्यञ्जकत्वे निबन्धनम् || 3.१४|| (Meaning:  He must exercise judiciousness in the use of figures of speech though he may be endowed with the ability of using them profusely. These are the stipulations underlying the suggestiveness of a whole composition in respect of sentiments, etc.).  A poet might have the capacity to create different types of Alamkaaras. Even then, he should include only the required ones, keeping in mind the entire story.

Angi Rasa

In every prabhanda, there has to be only one which has to be Angi Rasa and the other rasas have to be anga rasa. Shrungaara, Veera, shanta and karuna can be Angi. Bhaavabhuti said “एको रसः करुण एव” and then Karuna was considered as a Angi Rasa. Prabhoda-chandrodaya was an allegorical drama which had Shanta as its primary rasa. The prateekaas or concepts were the characters. Dhveshaa, Asooya and Adhvaita bhaavana were characters.

(Side note: Initially the definition of the story demanded a single person to be the hero. Only after Raghuvamsa, which had a lineage of kings whose stories were being described, Vishvanaatha included changed the definition that there could be multiple heroes belonging to the same clan in a story).

Anandavardhana says that Shanta is the prominent rasa in the entire Mahabharata. It shows the impermanence of all the worldly possessions, valour, etc. Thrushnaakshaya is the most important aspect there. तृष्णाक्षय, is the cessation of desire and the tranquility of mind. It is the staayeebhava of Shaanta rasa. The entire Mahabharata is based on this Shaanta rasa. The rasa of the entire Ramayana is Karuna rasa though it is not explicitly mentioned anywhere in the epic. रामायणे हि करुणो रसः |

There are some mutually in-compatible rasas. In the same situations, these both cannot come together. Rasa-viroodha-parihaara has to be done. For example, if Shrungaara and Karuna rasa  are there, make one become supplementary to the main rasa. प्रबन्धे मुक्तके वापि रसादीन्बन्द्धुमिच्छता | यत्नः कार्यः सुमतिना परिहारे विरोधिनाम् || १७|| (Meaning: An earnest effort should be directed to remove the opposition by a celebrated poet who is intent upon infusing sentiments etc. whether his composition be a whole work or a single verse).

Class #4 –Third Udyotta Conti. + Fourth Udyotta

प्रकारोऽन्यो गुणीभूतव्यङ्ग्यः काव्यस्य दृश्यते | यत्र व्यङ्ग्यान्वये वाच्यचारुत्वं स्यात्प्रकर्षवत् || ३.३४|| (Meaning: We come across another kind of poetry, having suggestion as subordinate, in which the poetic exuberance of the expressed is much more intense than in the suggested, though both the expressed and the suggested are together found). Here he defines Guneebhootavyangya. It is a kind of poetry other than Dhvani. In this, more than the suggested meaning – vyangyaartha, there is prominence of the vaachyaartha itself. The maaduryam is due to vaachyaartha and vyangyaartha just supports it. Here the Vyangyaa has गुणीभाव i.e., it has become secondary to something else.

अनुरागवती सन्ध्या दिवसस्तत्पुरस्सरः | अहो दैवगतिः कीदृक्तथापि न समागमः || (after 1.12) (Meaning: Twilight is full of love and the day follows her face to face. Alas! What is ordained by decree of fate is that thye never meet!) The day goes in the front. The vadu – Sandhya follows himself from behind. But the destiny is such that they could never meet. Here the vaachyaartha itself is much attractive than the vengyaartha which suggests the pain of the couple who could not unite. Eg. ग्रामतरुणं तरुण्या नववञ्जुलमञ्जरीसनाथकरम् । पश्यन्त्या भवति मुहुर्नितरां मलिना मुखच्छाया ॥ kaavya prakaasha ३॥ (Meaning: In this, the literal meaning is that the brightness of the young woman’s face becomes acutely faded when she sees the youthful villager who carries in his hand a bunch of fresh Vanjula flowers. Here the suggested meaning is that she did not go to the meeting point even though she had promised to meet her lover there. Since the denoted meaning is more charming, in this example, the suggested meaning is subordinated to the denoted meaning). The person brings the creeper from the meeting place and shows it to his lover to convey that she did not come to meet him there at the appointed time. This is also an example of Guneebhoothavyangya.

प्रसन्नगम्भीरपदाः काव्यबन्धाः सुखावहाः | ये च तेषु प्रकारोऽयमेव योज्याः सुमेधसा || ३.३५|| (Meaning: All literary compositions, which attract the readers, with their lucid elegant words, are to be rekoned as Guneebhuta by the sensitive critic).The Prasanna padas are the pleasing words which pleasing when we read it. Gambheera padas are the words that are impregnated with deep meaning.  The Kaavya that comprises of Prasanna and Gambheera padas bring happiness. In case of Vastu Dhvani and Alamkaara dhvani, there is some chamatkaara – some surprise – some enjoyable factor. In Rasa Dhvani also, the viewer or reader experiences Ananda. Similarly, in the guneebhoothavyangya also, ananda will be experienced. Thus, even if it is guneebhoothavyangya kaavya, if it has prasanna and gambheera padas, it can be considered almost equal to Dhvani Kaavya.

वाच्यालङ्कारवर्गोऽयं व्यङ्ग्यांशानुगमे सति | प्रायेणैव परां छायां बिभ्रल्लक्ष्ये निरीक्ष्यते || 3.३६|| (Meaning: The entire roup of Alankaaras obtain special charm when it is brought in association with suggested element). Even the Vaachyaalamkaaras which are supported by vyangyaarthas, gain supreme splendor. There is an Alamkaara called samaasokti. It is nurtured by vyangya and thus enhances its splendor. In such cases, the guneebhoothavyangya kaavya is almost equal to Dhvani Kaavya.  These verses show the abhimaana that Anandavardhana had for Guneebhootavyangya Kaavyas.

There is some common aspect within all the alamkaaras which causes them to be attractive. That aspect is called Athishayaa. Athishayokti is a specific Alamkaara. Athishayaa is the basis for the extra-ordinary-ness in the alamkaaras. It is lokottara vaak – the speech that is beyond the normal speeches. Bhaama and others call it as Vakrokti. सैषा सर्वैव वक्रोक्तिरनयार्थो विभाव्यते | यत्नोऽस्यां कविना कार्यः कोऽलङ्कारोऽनया विना || इति | (after 3.36)| (Context: Bhaamaha has defined exaggeration as follows. Meaning: This exaggeration is nothing but the artistic turn of expression and it is by this poetic idea is conveyed. A poet should work hard on it in particular and there cannot be any girue without it). The essence of that which is called Athisayoktih is completely Vakrokti only. Such vakrokti is the basis for all alamkaaras. So the Kavi should make special effort to introduce this vakrokti in his works. विभाव्यते – Visheshana bhaavyate – i.e., it gets a specialty due to vakrokti. The reason for the attractiveness of all the alamkaaras is the athishaya amsha – the vakrokti.

Chitra Kaavya

 प्रधानगुणभावाभ्यां व्यङ्ग्यस्यैवं व्यवस्थिते | काव्ये उभे ततोऽन्यद्यत्तच्चित्रमभिधीयते || 3.४१ || (Meaning:  The two divisions of poetry have been thus recognized mainly on the standard of primary importance and secondary importance attached to the suggested idea. That class of poetry which is different from both these is called Citrakaavya). When Vyangya is prominent it is Dhvani. When it is equal to or subservient to Vaachyaartha, it is called Guneebhoota Vyangya Kaavya. When vyangya is barely noticeable it is called Chitra Kaavya. Note that Vyangya is the soul of poetry and there cannot be poetry without Dhvani. चित्रं शब्दार्थभेदेन द्विविधं च व्यवस्थितम् | तत्र किञ्चिच्छब्दचित्रं वाच्यचित्रमतः परम् || ४२ || (Meaning: This Chitrakaavya is further divided into two depending on its grounding on word and meaning. They are Shabdachitram and arthachitram). By differentiating between the shabda and artha, there are two types of chitra – namely shabda chitra which gains attractiveness due to shabdaalamkaara and the other artha chitra which gains attractiveness due to the arthaalamkaara. Example of shabda chitra given in Kaavya prakaasha is स्वच्छन्दोच्छलदच्छकच्छकुहरच्छातेतराम्बुच्छटा मूर्छन्मोहमहर्षिहर्षविहितस्नानाह्निकाह्नाय वः । भिद्यादुद्यदुदारदर्दुरदरीदीर्घादरिद्रद्रुम द्रोहोद्रेकमहोर्मिमेदुरमदा मन्दाकिनी मन्दताम् ॥४॥} <(गोविन्दठक्कुरऽस्काव्यप्रदीप)>. Example of Artha chitra is the verse given in Kaavya prakaasha where Amaraavati closes her eyes due to fear. विनिर्गतं मानदमात्ममन्दिराद्भवत्युपश्रुत्य यदृच्छयापि यम् । ससंभ्रमेन्द्र्रद्रुतपातितार्गला निमीलिताक्षीव भियामरावती ॥५॥ (मेण्ठकृतं हयग्रीववधम्). When Indra hears that Hayagriva has exited from his residence, the gates of Amaraavati are instantly closed and that city appears to be closing her eyes out of dread. There is utprekshaalamkaara in the words निमीलिताक्षीव.  The upamaa’s feature of eyes is superimposed on the city, though city does not have eyes. This is utprekshaalamkaara.

Fourth Udyotta

ध्वनेर्यः सगुणीभूतव्यङ्ग्यस्याध्वा प्रदर्शितः | अनेनानन्त्यमायाति कवीनां प्रतिभागुणः || 4.१||  (Meaning: The way in which principal suggestion and subordinated suggestion have been expounded hitherto, will enhance the richness of creative imagination in poets and there will be no end at all to that). We have described the Dhvani’s marga and the Guneebhootavyangya’s marga. Having learnt all these, the Kavi’s imagination knows no bounds. He brings Ananda.

अतो ह्यन्यतमेनापि प्रकारेण विभूषिता | वाणी नवत्वमायाति पूर्वार्थान्वयवत्यपि || 4.२|| (Meaning:  By a mere contact of even a single variety of suggestion out of the many that have been enlisted earlier, the poets’ expression will gain novelty though it might present a stale idea). By these numerous types, if Saraswati is pleased even by any one of these, she would gain novelty. नवनवोन्मेषशालिनी प्रतिभा – That which produces newer and newer meaning is Prathibha. In whichever type, it is included, it bring a novelty to the work.


Samvaada is similarity. Here he clarifies when it becomes Plagiarism.  संवादास्तु भवन्त्येव बाहुल्येन सुमेधसाम् | </*> स्थितं ह्येतत् संवादिन्य एव मेधाविनां बुद्धयः | किन्तु – – – नैकरूपतया सर्वे ते मन्तव्या विपश्चिता || ११|| (Meaning: There would certainly be plentiful conincidences of ideas present by the minds).  It is quite possible that another poet shares the same opinion or idea of a poet. Within the works of great poets, there will be similarity. There is similarity between Ashvaagosha and Kaalidasa. Great minds could think alike. It is not a fault. The idea could be the same. The presentation and approach would change between the poets.

Types of Samvaada

तत्पुनः शरीरिणां प्रतिबिम्बवदालेख्याकारवत्तुल्यदेहिवच्च त्रिधा व्यवस्थितम् | (after 4.11) | (Meaning: Coincidence in poetic themes is recognized as of three types – (1) like that of reflected image of persons in a mirror (2) like that of a picture of a boy, drawn in painting, (3) like that of two individuals resembling one another). It can be like the reflection of a person शरीरिणां प्रतिबिम्बवत्, it can be like the painting आलेख्याकारवत्, or it can be like another person who has the resemblance – तुल्यदेहिवत् | Here further says about these three. तत्र पूर्वमनन्यात्म तुच्छात्म तदनन्तरम् | तृतीयं तु प्रसिद्धात्म नान्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः || 4.१३||  (Meaning: Of these, the first one has no individual existence of its own, the possibility of the second is not better than a non-entity. The third one of course has a concrete existence. A poet need not have to bypass similarity in themes).  In resemblance, it is अनन्यात्मा – it is not a different person. The painting one is inferior. The resemblance between two people like twins is acceptable since they have their own existence and specialty though they have some similar features. न अन्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः – This should not be given up by the poet. Though it is not a fault to have some idea that resembles the work of an earlier poet, it is better to avoid building on another person’s idea. There are numerous options available and the poet should try to find something new than choosing something that has already been done. परस्वादानेच्छाविरतमनसो वस्तु सुकवेः सरस्वत्येवैषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती || 4.१७||  (Meaning: The goddess of speech i.e., Sarasvati herself will help the deserving and talented poets in procuring the ideas provided they shun plagiarism). For a person who is not interested in copying another person’s idea, Goddess Saraswati herself will provide with new ideas as much as needed.


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