Notes from Kaavya Prakaasha KSOU MA Contact class 2015 (along with one session from 2016) conducted by Dr. A.N. Bhat
The work of a Kashmiri grammarian, Mammata (1090 – 1160 AD) covering various factors and aspects of Sanskrit Poetics is Kaavyaprakaasa. In the history of Kavyasastra, Mammata is a luminous star, remembered with respect and adoration. Kuvata and kaiyata – brothers. Kaiyata’s son Mammata. Maternal uncle Sriharshah wrote Nashadeeya charitam. His two works are – Kaavyapraakasa and Sabda-vyapara-vicara.
The study of Kavyasasthra is considered incomplete without the study of Kavya Prakasa. The studies on Kavyasastra from Bharatha to Bhoja are beautifully explained in Kavya Prakasa. Kaavya-tattvaanaam prakaashah – mamdyama pada lopi samaasah | Mammataa is called Samanvayakaarah. Alankaara, Gunaah, Reeti, Doshaa, Dhvanihi, Auchityam, Rasah – He consolidated all these aspects.
Chapters or Ullaasa
There are 10 Ullaasa. (In the KSOU MA syllabus, 6 ullaasas are included). The text comprises of Kaarikas, Vrittis and Udhaaharanam. Kaarika are short verses in the form of shlokas. Vrittih is the description. Udhaaharanaani are the examples. The name of the chapter indicates the vishaya or the subject matter. The first ullaasa has the Kaavyas’ Prayojana, Kaarana and Svaroopa.
Mangala can be prayer, asheervaada or mention the subject matter of the text. Mangalam is for the completion of the work without any hindrance. Brahman’s creation has aspects of pleasure and pain. On the other hand, the creation of the Kavi or Poet does not have the limitations of the laws of nature. It is full of pleasure. Not dependent on others. Charming with nine rasaas. Let Bhaaratee i.e., Saraswati be victorious.
Purpose of Kaavya
Kavya brings fame and wealth – Even a well-read person is respected; It gives the sense of life in the world, forbids everything unpleasant and inauspicious (to the student, listener and spectator), offers instant and supreme pleasure, and gives advices on dos and don’ts like a loving wife. [Kantha Sammita – conveys in a loving manner like a beloved one; Prabhu Sammita – states the vidhis or rules – Vedas; Mitra Sammita – conveys the point through stories in a friendly manner – Puraanas and Epics ]
Apart from fame and wealth, it gives instructions on appropriate behaviour in social life, with different types of people. The most important benefit is the enjoyment of Rasa, which is the inspired stage of ultimate pleasure, untouched by sensuousness.
Those who go through the kaavya learn lessons on how to conduct their life. They are inclined to follow Rama and stay away from the actions of Ravana.
The cause (Karana) for the evolution of Kavya is combination of, firstly the natural intellectual power of the poet, secondly the faculty attained through the study of the Sasthras, on both spiritual and world matters, and last the training under the direction of the Guru, well versed in the style of construction of Kavya and its critical study.
The cultural basis of poetical talents is the force of intellectual ingenuity or Prathibha without which Kavya would not take shape, and even if produced in any other manner it would remain a mockery. The other requirement is knowledge acquired through exhaustive studies. He should have a thorough understanding about the mundane world. He should also be conversant with the principles of prosody, grammar, vocabulary arts, warfare, works of other great poets as also the Ithihasas. Nipunataa = Vyuthpathi is required – i.e., Loka-gnaana, Kavya-gnana, Shahtra gnana are required. The intellectual faculty and the knowledge thus accrue, along with the training or Abhyasa under the guidance and advice of those who are proficient in making and revising Slokas. All these three in combination cause the construction and development of Kavya. Thus Kavya Hethu is a combination of Prathibha, Vyuthpathi and Abhyasa.
Kavya Lakshana or Svaroopa
तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ सगुणावनलंकृती पुनः व्कापि | i.e., तत् अदोषौ शब्द+अर्थौ स+गुणौ+अन्+अलंकृती ।
Sabdartha devoid of Dosha, combined with Guna (normally with Alankara) and sometimes without Alamkara, is Kavya. Kaavya should be devoid of faults. It is comprises of meaningful words. It should include qualities or gunas. At times, even there could be absence of alamkara. This is the definition of Kaavya. Words and their meanings are the body of the poem. Sabda and Artha with Alankara should be present throughout, but in certain contexts, even if the alankara is not there, the Kavya aspects remain unaffected.
The kavyas are classified into 3 based on their superiority namely Uttama, Madhyama, Adhama or Avaraa (अवरम् = अधमम्).
The Kavya with Dhvani or suggested meaning is supreme. When Vyangyartha (suggested meaning) is more graceful than the Vachyartha (expressed meaning), the Kavya assumes superiority. These are called Dhvani Kavyas. In Dhvani, there are various types namely Vastu Dhvani, Alamkaara Dhvani, Rasa Dhvani. In vastu dhvani, the object or character itself conveys some information – i.e., looking at Raavana we get certain emotions. Alamkaara by itself is not Dhvani. The suggested meaning derived out of the usage of alamkara and the Ananda one experiences reading an Alamkaara is Alamkaara Dhvani. In Rasa Dhvani, the suggested meaning will flash in our mind and give us happiness. This happiness will not be experienced if the information is stated in a straightforward manner. The grammarians used the word Dhvani to denote Vyangya (suggestion) primarily of Spota nature. Then in the course of time, critics accepted them and started terming such Sabda and Artha as Dhvani (which rendered Vachyartha secondary), and potential enough to express Vyangyartha. “Dhvanianthi spotam vyanakthi ithi Dhvani” whereby Dhvani means words which express Spota. Dhvani is the word expressing Vyangya which is Spotaroopa. Spota is obtained by the audible syllable or Dhvani. स्फोट = profound and subtle idea which bursts or flashes in one’s mind when a sound is uttered.
Second Ullasa – Primary Function of the words
Sabda is the sound waves. For a language that we don’t understand, we would hear the sabda but we will not be able to make out the meaning or Artha. Sabda is सूचक and Artha is ज्ञापक. The sabda has a power to convey the meaning when a word is uttered. We think of the object house when we hear the word “house”. This capacity is the shakti of the word –शक्ति
Different Types of meanings
|Shakti||Expressed meaning||Vaachaka||Koshaarthah, Vaachyaartha, शक्यार्थ||power of the word conveyed by the dictionary meaning|
|Bhakti||Indicated or suppressed meaning||Lakshana||Lakshyaarthah, Lakshanaarthah,
|Some element is suppressed (The word bank is suppressed in Gangaayaam goshah – Hamlet on the banks of Ganga and not in Ganges)|
|Vyakti||Suggested meaning||Vyangya||Dhvaniyarthah, Vyanjanaarthah, vyangyaarthah||It shows or reflects or suggests some other meaning. The tone of “Go, go!” might mean “Don’t go”.|
|Denotive word||वाचकः||वाच्य:||Denoted Meaning||अभिधा|
|Indicative word||लाक्षणिकः||लक्ष्यः||Indicated Meaning||लक्षणा|
|Suggestive word||व्यञ्जकः||व्यङ्ग्यः||Suggested Meaning||व्यञ्जना|
The vyaapaara is the action that happens in the mind – The thought about lotus when the word “kamala” is mentioned is the action or the process that happens.
Vachaka, Lakshanika and Vyanjaka are the three types of words used in Kavya. These also carry the meanings – Vachya, Lakshya and Vyangya in the respective order. There is also a fourth kind, Thathparya (signification). Vachaka is the real technical meaning expressed as Abhidha. The second one is the Lakshanaa or Laakshanika vrutti. Vyangya = dhvanih. The third one is the vyanjanaa vrutti.
Abhidha is the technical meaning in relation to Jathi (group or classification). Abhidha is the main meaning. The process that takes place in the Sabda to make this Artha comprehensible is Abhidhasakthi. The capacity to denote an object is the shakti of the word – अभिधा vrutti. व्यापार = वृत्ति It is the Mukhyaa vrutti. It is the meaning assigned to a word by convention which is called सङ्केत – a symbol. ईश्वरेच्छा सङ्केतः – Sanketa is the desire of God.
Essential Conditions for Sabdabodha or verbal cognition
आकाङ्क्षा, योग्यता, सन्निधि – expectancy, compatibility and proximity of pronunciation are the essential conditions required to be fulfilled if a sentence has to yield its meaning correctly. पदानां परस्मरम् अपेक्षा = आकाङ्क्षा | The sentence would require a subject and a verb and in case of transitive verbs – akarmaka dhaatu, there is an expectancy for a karma pada. Sannidhi is proximity of the utterance of the words of a sentence. Yogyataa is compatibility of meanings.
Four types of words – जाति, गुण, क्रिया, यदृच्छा
An eternal property, which is universally one and exists in many, individual things may be called Saamaanya or Jaati. For instance, Gotva or Cowness exists in all the cows. There are words that denote specific qualities or Guna like white, tasty, small, etc. There are words that denote actions or Kriya – पाचकः, चालकः | Yadruchchaa are the names that are arbitrarily given to things like Raama or Raavana.
The word force by virtue of which another meaning is aimed at, and that one, which is superimposed is Lakshana. It happens by any particular signification in the Mukhyartha, or that is in any connected to the Mukhyartha or by Roodhi.
Types of Lakshana
गङ्गायां घोषः – Ghosa is a village where cowherds live. A village cannot exist in the stream of water. So the primary meaning is given up and the indicated meaning, namely the river bank, is accepted.
The third function of the word which is different from the derived or intended meaning is Dhvani or Vyangya or the suggested meaning. नाम कियच्चिरं किमभिधानमसावकरोतप:। सुमुखि येन तवाधरपाटलं दशति बिम्बफलं शुकशावक:॥ A person tells the parrot that bite his lover that it is very fortunate and it must have done a lot of penance. “On which mountain and for how long a time did this young parrot perform penance and what might be the name of the penance? For, this young parrot has been chewing the limb or fruit which is as red as your lips”. Here the suggested meaning is that he envies it as he was not able to reach his lover whereas it was able to go close to her / the fruit.
Chapter 3 – अर्थव्यञ्जकता Suggestiveness
अर्थव्यञ्जकता or the suggestive power of three types of meanings namely, Vaacya, Lakshya and Vyangya. Vyanjana or suggestiveness is the function of the word, which is the cause of the cognition of another meaning (different from the denoted meaning). Only those who have imagination or pratibha will be able to understand it. There understanding will be based on the specialty of the speaker वक्तृ or वक्त्रा, the person spoken to श्रोतृ or श्रोत्रा, intonation – modulation – tone काकुः, sentence वाक्यम्, the denoted meaning वाच्या, the presence of another person – सन्निधि, the context or the situation प्रकरणम्, the place विश्य or प्रविश्य, the time – समय, and so on.
[Side note: येन केन प्रकारेण यस्य कस्यापि देहीनः। संतोषं जनयेत्प्राज्ञस्तदेवेश्वरपूजनम्।। ]
तदा मम गण्डस्थलनिमग्नां दृष्टिं नानैषीरत्न्यत्र । इदानीं सैवाहं तौ च कपोलौ न च सा दृष्टिः ॥
“Then you did not turn aside your eye fixed on my cheek. Now, I am the same, the cheeks are the same, but your look is not the same”. This actually means “O stealthy lover! You were happily looking at my friend reflected in my cheek. When she moved away, your look immediately changed.” This is an example of Karuna rasa which is not explicitly stated in the Vaakya.
Chapter 4 – Types of Dhvani
Avivakshitavaachya – one in which the primary meaning is not intended to be mainly conveyed. There is dominance of the abstruse suggested meaning based upon the indication. अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्या – original meaning is transformed into some other sense. अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्या – original meaning is totally discarded.
(Side note: from Dhvanyaaloka notes – अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्या – e.g. A lotus will be a lotus only when it is blessed by the sun’s rays. The second time usage of lotus could mean different things like the abode of Lakshmi, sakala soundarya aakara, etc. Here some additional meaning over the derived meaning is suggested. सङ्क्रम is to go from one place to another. Here the meaning changes for one to another).
अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्या – the primary meaning becomes transformed into another meaning.
त्वामस्मि वच्मि विदुषां समवायोऽत्र तिष्ठति । आत्मीयां मतिमास्थाय स्थितिमत्र विधेहि तत् ॥२३॥
“I am telling you this. Here sits an assembly of scholars. Therefore, remain here, keeping your mind alert.” Here “telling” transforms itself into “advising”.
अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्या – Means the totally opposite sense i.e. the primary meaning is totally rejected on account of being incompatible in the given context.
उपकृतं बहु तत्र किमुच्यते सुजनता प्रथिता भवता परम् । विदधदीदृशमेव सदा सखे सुखितमास्स्व ततः शरदां शतम् ॥२४॥
“You have helped me greatly; what can I say? You have exhibited extremely good humaneness. O my friend! Live for a hundred years happily doing acts of the very same kind”. In this example, the person is ironically telling that the other person has caused him grievous trouble (using vipareetalaksana).
विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य – The primary meaning is intended to be conveyed, but in such a way that it is there to serve another suggested meaning.
Alaksyakramavyangya – in which the sequence is imperceptible. Here sequence means we first realize the derived meaning and then get the suggested meaning. Vibhaava, Anubhaava and Vyabhichaarins are not themselves Rasa, but Rasa manifests from them, so there is a sequence. But it is not perceived due to subtlety or quickness of comprehension. Rasa, Bhaava, Rasaabhaasa, Bhaavaabhaasa, Bhaavasaanti and the like are considered to be Alaksyakramavyangya, if they are in the state of being embellished, being different from Alankaaras like Rasavat.
(Side note: there are 9 rasas and Bhaavas 52=33+19).
Samlakshyakramavyangya – in which the sequence is perceptible.
[side note – सदा संतुष्टचित्तानां सम्पदस्तु दिने दिने ]
[side note – ना भुक्तं क्षीयते कर्म जन्म कोटि शतैरपि। ]
कारणान्यथ कार्याणि सहकारीणि यानि च । रत्यादेः स्थायिनो लोके तानि चेन्नाट्यकाव्ययोः ॥ कारिका २७ ॥
कारणं कार्यं सहकारी are respectively विभाव, अनुभाव, सञ्चारीभाव | स्थायिभाव raises to a state where it becomes Rasa. The vishesha bhavaa or bhaavana due to which we see Shakuntala in the heroine is the Vibhava. The reason or kaarana for our pleasure is this character and hence Vibhava is the kaarana. Even when the audience feels sad on seeing the suffering of Sita, they are actually experience a kind of joy. Sanchaaribhaava is a temporary feeling. Rasa = रस्यते आस्वाद्यते इति रसः | The enjoyment is experienced by the mind and not by the senses. Vibhaava, anubhaava, vyabhichaaribhaava samyogaat | Only the Sahurdaya – samaanam hrudayam yasya – one who has the same feelings as that of the poet. In paanaka – it is a mixture of water, jaggery, etc. Rasa is also a mixture. This nyaaya is called पानक रस न्याय. Karaka and gnaapaka. Kaaraka is the producer and Jnaapaka is the indicator. Rasa is neither. Such a thing is not seen anywhere else. So it is alaukika. Brahmaananda Sahodarah. Rasa’s ananda is not permanent. Brahmaananda is permanent bliss. This is kaavyaananda.
Types of Srngaara
Two kinds of Srngaara-rasa. Sambhoga is the love in union and Vipralambha is the love in separation.
शून्यं वासगृहं विलोक्य शयनादुत्थाय किञ्चिच्छनैर्
निद्राव्याजमुपागतस्य सुचिरं निर्वर्ण्य पत्युर्मुखम् ।
विश्रब्धं परिचुम्ब्य जातपुलकामालोक्य गण्डस्थलीं
लज्जानम्रमुखी प्रियेण हसता बाला चिरं चुम्बिता ॥३०॥
“She saw the residence totally empty (of all people except the two lovers), rose gently from the couch, gazed at the face of her beloved husband intently for a long time. He was feigning (pretending) sleepiness. She kissed him fearlessly but saw there was rising of hair on his cheeks, and bent her face being shy. Her beloved laughed and kissed her for a long time.”
Rasa Dhvani, Alamkaara Dhvani and Vastu Dhvani – all of these result in Ananda.
2016 class रसनिष्पत्तिः – Rasa Nishpatti – Rasa Sutra
Utpatti Vaada उत्पत्तिः
भट्टलोल्लटः put for the utptti vaada. He was a Kashimiri pandit specializing in Mimaansa मीमांसा (i.e., purva mimaansa). He said that the Rasa is created by the vibhaava, etc. So he calls रसः as उत्पाद्यः and the other causes विभावः अनुभावः and व्यभिचारिभावः as उत्पादकः | उत्पाद्य-उत्पादक-भाव-संबन्धः | He says that the Rasa is experienced due to the मुख्यवृत्तिः or मुख्यशक्तिः | अनुकर्ता – नटः, अनुकार्यः – रामादिः | He said that the Rasa is created in the mula vyakti like Rama.
Sri Shankuka – He was a specialist in न्यायः | He says that we image (अनुमान) the actor to be having the feelings of the character like Rama. So रसः अनुमितिः = ऊहात्मकं ज्ञानम् | It can come in four ways – सम्यक्-प्रतीतिः, मित्या-प्रतीतिः, संशय-प्रतीतिः and सादृश्य-प्रतितिः | (सम्यङ्मिथ्यासंशयसादृश्यप्रतीतिभ्यः after 24.1) We would feel the pain of Sita only if we imagine the actress to be the real Sita. Considering this person to be Sita is सम्यक्-प्रतीतिः | But that is not the case completely. We also know that she is not sita मित्या-प्रतीतिः | It is not that we doubt whether she might be Sita संशय-प्रतीतिः. It is also not Saadrushya-prateetih that we think that this person is like Sita. The experience of the viewer is not any of the above. It is a different one called सादारणीकरण | It is understood with the analogy of Citra-turaga nyaaya, i.e., the maxim of the picture of the horse. This is like the picture of a horse where we consider it to be a horse though we know that it is not the real horse.
भट्टनायकः – He was an expert in साङ्ख्यशास्त्रम्. The function is called भोगीकृत-व्यापार. (Note: Other details mentioned in the book is that the function of भावकत्व first happens and it generalizes the vibhaavas etc., and brings the sthaayibhaava to a state of relishability. Then it is relished as Rasa by means of भोग). We enjoy the Rasa. (विभावादिसाधारणीकरणात्मना भावकत्वव्यापारेण भाव्यमानः स्थायी … भोगेन भुज्यते | )
अभिनवगुप्तः – अभिव्यक्तिः (manifestation) is the final argument that was accepted refuting the earlier arguments. Abhinava Guptaacharya. His works are अभिनवभारति (on bharatha’s naatya shaastra) and लोचना (on Anandavardhana’s Dhvanyaaloka). He based his argument based on वेदन्तशास्त्रम् | He says that विभावादयः व्यञ्जकाः, रसः व्यङ्ग्यः | nishpatti = व्यञ्ज्यते or अभिव्यञ्ज्यते – flashes / manifests by saadaaraneekarana. The rasaasvaada is experienced only by the sahrudayas. The actor only helps for the manifestation of the rasa to happen in the viewers. He says that it is अनिर्वचनीयः – inexplicable. It is a not-worldly experience – अलौकिकः – superhuman – to be experienced in the mind | स्वानुभववेद्यः – to be experienced by one’s own self. आनन्दरूपः – ब्रह्मानन्दस्वरूपम् – रसोवै सः रसं ह्येवाऽयं लब्ध्वा आनन्दी भवति | It is said that Kaavya Ananda is Brahmaananda sahodarah | The nava-rasa has to be experienced by one’s own self. Rasa is not an effect or कार्य. The vibhaava, etc. are kaarana. If it were the Kaarya, it would have existed after the kaaranas disappeared unlike the pot which exists even after the disappearance of the kaaranas. It is also not a Kaaranam unlike the dandaa and chakra that are used to make the pot. This is Anandaroopa – anubhava-vedyah. Rasa is Kaavyaatma. This is given by Abhinava Gupta based on the Naatya Shaastram and Dhvanyaaloka.
Alamkaarikaas after आनन्दवर्धन are called नवीनालंकारिकाः and those before him are called प्राचीनालंकारिकाः like Bhaamah, Vaamah, etc. The later alamkaarikaas were all great scholars. The work that they did was more of compilation only. They were संग्रहकाराः |
- धनञ्जयः – दशरूपकम्
- महिमभट्टः – व्यक्तिविवेकः – It deals with Anumitih (Note: anumaana is a saadhana while anumitih is the knowledge).
- विश्वनाथः – साहित्यदर्पण
- विश्वेश्वरः – चमत्कारचन्द्रिका
- भानुदत्तः – भावप्रकाशः
- मधुसूदनसरस्वतिः – (… ८भक्तिसामान्यनिरूपणम् ९ भगवद्गीतागूढार्थ-दीपिका १० भगवद्भक्तिरसायनम् ११ …)
- अप्पयदीक्षितः – कुवलयानन्दम्
- जगन्नाथपण्डितः – रसगङ्गाधरः
(Side Note: Madhusoodhana Saraswati, Rupa Goswami, and Jeeva Goswami consider Bhakti as a rasa rather than a Bhaava. There are two types – Laukika and Alaukika Bhakti).
Vyabhicaarins and Santarasa
वस्तुतः रसः एक एव – उपाधिभेदेन बहुधा दृश्यते | आनन्द is only one. Hence Rasa is only one. Due to its ingredients, it is seen differently. (Note: He was an Advaiti). Nirveda is the staayeebhaava. From this staayibhaava, the rasa of shaantah comes. This is also called kshamaa. निर्वेदस्थायिभङावोऽस्ति शान्तोऽपि नवमो रसः। यथा “अहौ वा हारे वा कुसुमशयने वा दृषदि वा मणौ वा लोष्टे वा बलवति रिपौ वा सुदृदि वा। तृणे वा स्त्रैणे वा मम समदृशो यान्ति दिवसाः व्कचित्पुण्यारण्ये शिव शिव शिवेति प्रलपतः” (१.३४) । Here is an example describing the Sanyaani who has nirveda. शिवः = मङ्गलकरः | I constantly mutter the God’s name. I see no different. I see all things to be equal. अहौ वा हारे वा snake or garland, कुसुमशयने वा दृषदि वा bed or rock, मणौ वा लोष्टे वा gem or sand, बलवति रिपौ वा mighty foe, तृणे वा स्त्रैणे वा grass or things related to a lady, all are the same for the Sanyaasi.
रतिर्देवादिविषया व्यभिचारी तथाञ्जितः ॥ कारिका ३५ ॥ भावः प्रोक्तः … Love for God, etc. and suggested mood are called Bhava. Because of the happiness experienced, we think that it is Rasa. Love is रतिः i.e., प्रीतिः | In the definition, “etc.” means sage, guru, king, son, etc. The suggested (or manifested) love for the spouse is Srungaara. Bhakti is the love towards elders like God, guru, etc. Vaatsalya is another kind of love towards those who are younger like devotee, students, child, etc. Vatsalah is the sthaayibhaava from which the bhaava of Vaatsalya comes. According to Mammatta, Vaatsalya is not a Rasa. It is a bhaava. There is a third type called कान्ताविषया तु व्यक्ता शृङ्गारः ।
Example from स्सिशुपालवध for Bhakti. हरत्यघं संप्रति हेतुरेष्यतः शुभस्य पूर्वाचरितैः कृतं शुभैः । शरीरभाजां भवदीयदर्शनं व्यनक्ति कालत्रितयेऽपि योग्यताम् ॥४६॥ It is also called Maaghakaavya. “Your sight, O Narada, destroys sins in the present, causes welfare in the future, and indicates the good deeds of the past”. This is an example of Bhakti Bhaava.
Rasaabhaasa and Bhaavaabhaasa
When the Rasas or Bhaavas are improperly manifested, they are called Rasaabhaasa and Bhaavaabhaasa respectively. तदाभासा अनौचित्यप्रवर्त्तिताः | The kavya containing rasaabhaasa or bhaavaabhaasa is also Uttama Kaavya only. (Side note: In Meghadutam, there is personification of a thing (megha) that is not a person. Like that, here it seems like Rasa but it is not completely rasa. In panchatantra, the animals or birds talk. There is अनौचित्य).
Bhaavodaya is the utpatti of a Bhaava from another Bhaava. An on-looker might be laughing watching some Haasya and finally shed some tears. It is the utpatti of another Bhaava. BhaavaSandhi is the joining of two Bhaavas. Bhaavasabalataa is mixture of two rasas.
Bhaavashaanti is subsiding of sentiment. Bhaavodaya is the birth or rise of sentiment. Bhaavasandhi is the junction of two sentiments and Bhaavashabalataa is the admixture of sentiments. All these are types of the Samlakshya Dhvani. These kaavyaas are Uttama Kaavya.
Types of Kaavyas
Dhvanikaavya is Uttamakaavya. There are types of dhvanikaavya – VastuDhvani, AlamkaaraDhvani, Rasadhvani. In अप्रधानध्वनिः which is the Madhyamakaavya – there are apradhaan-Vastu-dhvani, apradhaanaalamkaaradhvani, and apradhaana-rasadhvani. In chitrakaavyam which is the adhamakaavya – there are shabdachitra and arthachitra.
Madhyama Kaavyam or Gunibhutavangya – fifth ullaasa
Gunibhuta – Not primary. There are eight types of Gunibhutavangya. अगूढमपरस्याङ्गं वाच्यसिद्ध्यङ्गमस्फुटम् । सन्दिग्धतुल्यप्राधान्ये काक्वाक्षिप्तमसुन्दरम् ॥ कारिका ४५ ॥ They are अगूढम् where the suggested meaning is not properly concealed where it is pretty explicit (It should be सूच्य and not वाच्य), अपरस्याङ्गम् where the suggested meaning is subservient to something else, वाच्यसिद्ध्यङ्गम् where the suggested meaning is for the accomplishment of the denoted meaning, अस्फुटम् where the suggested meaning is abstruse or unclear (note: स्फोट is different from स्फुटम्), सन्दिग्धप्राधान्यम् where the prominence of the suggested and denoted meanings is doubted, तुल्यप्राधान्यम् where the prominence of the suggested and denoted meanings is equal, काक्वाक्षिप्तम् where the suggested meaning is implied by intonation and असुन्दरम् where the suggested meaning is not beautiful – it is ग्राम्य.
Adhama Kaavya – sixth ullaasa
Adhama is also kaavya. It is not that it is bad poetry. Just that it would be so interesting when we go through it again and again, similar to the ornaments that might not seem so attractive when we see it repeatedly. There are two types – Shabda Chitra Adhama Kaavyam and Artha Chitra Adhama Kaavyam. शब्दार्थचित्रं यत्पूर्वं काव्यद्वयमुदाहृतम् । गुणप्राधान्यतस्तत्र स्थितिश्चित्रार्थशब्दयोः ॥ कारिका ४८ ॥ The examples where Artha is prominent are present in Kuvalayaanandam. By means of the meaning only we conclude the types of Alamkaara. There is vaichitrya or importance for Artha. Mammatta says that Alamkaara is optional. Guna is important. Rasa gives happiness every time. But these adhama kaavyas might seem good during the first reading. But it will not be so interesting that someone wants to read it repeatedly. (Side Note: We enjoy the food every day. But certain special items, though they might seem tasty, cannot be consumed on a regular basis. The external Alamkaara to the body is also optional. The most important decoration is the guna). Example of artha-chitra is वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये। जगत: पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ ।। Here the meaning gains superiority over other aspects. For shabda-chitra, the examples are the verses with Yamaka, Anupraasaa, etc. present in Bhaaravi’s Kiraartaarjuneeyam. This is an example of सर्वथोबद्रा |
दे वा का नि नि का वा दे
वा हि का स्व स्व का हि वा
का का रे भ भ रे का का
नि श्व भ व्य व्य भ श्व नि
Guna is most important and not Alamkaara in Kaavya just as the character is most important in the person and not the ornaments.