Videos – Important quotations from Dhvanyaaloka


This post and the video covers the important quotations that have been asked in the KSOU MA exam. (Also refer to the other posts on Dhvanyaaloka containing the notes from the sessions by professors – Dr. H.V.Nagaraja Rao, Smt. Vanitha Ramaswamy, and Sri Sivakumaraswamy).

||ध्वन्यालोकः ||

||प्रथम उद्योतः ||

Mangala shloka

स्वेच्छाकेसरिणःस्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः |

त्रायन्तां वो मधुरिपोः प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदो नखाः ||

Let the claws of that Hari who manifested in the form of man-lion at His own will, which claws have outshone the moon in their crystal white hue, and which quells the afflictions of His devotees, protect you.


Anubhanda Chatrustayam

काव्यस्यात्मा ध्वनिरिति बुधैर्यः समाम्नातपूर्व-</*>

स्तस्याभावं जगदुरपरे भाक्तमाहुस्तमन्ये |

केचिद्वाचाम् स्थितमविषये तत्त्वमूचुस्तदीयम्

तेन ब्रूमःसहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् || 1.१ ||</*>

काव्यस्य+आत्मा ध्वनिः इति बुधैः यः समाम्नातपूर्वः

तस्य अभावं जगदुः अपरे भाक्तम् आहुः तम् अन्ये |

केचित् वाचाम् स्थितम् अविषये तत्त्वम् ऊचुः तदीयम्

तेन ब्रूमःसहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् ||

Dhvani (ध्वनि:) was declared (समाम्नातम्) to be the soul of poetry (काव्यस्यात्मा) by learned persons (बुधै:) of yore  (पूर्वै: ). All the same some would refute its existence (तस्याभावं); some would consider it as something that could be logically implied (अपरे भाक्तम्+आहु:+तम्); some others speak of its presence as being beyond the provision of expression (अन्ये केचित्+वाचाम् स्थितम्+अविषये). Hence, we hereby intend explaining (तेन ब्रूमः ) what its nature (तत्स्वरूपम्) is so as to cause delight to the hearts of sympathetic critics (सहृदय+मनः+प्रीतये).


Intro to Dhvani

योऽर्थः सहृदयश्लाघ्यः काव्यात्मेति व्यवस्थितः |

वाच्यप्रतीयमानाख्यौ तस्य भेदावुभौ स्मृतौ || 1.२ ||</*>

यः अर्थः सहृदय-श्लाघ्यः काव्य+आत्मा+इति व्यवस्थितः |

वाच्य+प्रतीयमान+आख्यौ तस्य भेदौ उभौ स्मृतौ ||

That sense (य:+अर्थः) which wins the approbation (admiration) of sensitive critics (सहृदय+श्लाघ्यः) is declared to be the soul of poetry (काव्य+आत्मा+इति व्यवस्थितः). The “denotative” and the “suggestive” (वाच्य+प्रतीयमाना+आख्यौ) are considered to be its two aspects (तस्य भेदौ उभौ स्मृतौ).


Existence of another meaning – Dhvani


प्रतीयमानं पुनरन्यदेव वस्त्वस्ति वाणीषु महाकवीनाम्|</***>

यत्तत्प्रसिद्धावयवातिरिक्तं विभाति लावण्यमिवाङ्गनासु || 1.४ ||</*>

प्रतीयमानं पुनः अन्यत् एव वस्तु अस्ति वाणीषु महाकवीनाम् |

यत् तत् प्रसिद्ध+अवयव+अतिरिक्तं विभाति लावण्यम् इव अङ्गनासु || 1.४ ||</*>

But the suggestive aspect is distinct from this (explicit – denotative – conventional) (प्रतीयमानं पुन: अन्यत् एव). It shows itself brilliantly in the words(वाणीषु) of celebrated poets (महाकवि) and reigns supreme over and above (अतिरिक्तंविभाति) the striking external elements प्रसिद्ध+ अवयव, even as charm among ladies(लावण्यम् इव अङ्गनासु). (4)

In the words of the mahakavis, there will be a meaning which is referred to as the Prateeyamaana – that which flashes. That is called Dhvani. When the overall beauty or laavanya of a woman is noticed, it is not pin-pointable to any specific feature.


Examples of Dhvani – vidhi vs nisheda

स हि कदाचिद्वाच्ये विधिरूपे प्रतिषेधरूपः |</**>| 1.4 ++ |

स: हि कदाचित् वाच्ये विधिरूपे प्रतिषेधरूपः |


Sometimes the suggestive idea will be prohibitive, where as the denotative (conventional) meaning is positive in nature.
भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः स शुनकोऽद्य मारितस्तेन |
गोदावरी-नदी-कूल-लता-गहन-वासिना दृप्त-सिंहेन ||
Freely (विस्रब्धः) roam (भ्रम) about, O Ascetic! That dog (स: शुनक:) which you were afraid of, has been killed (मारित:) recently (अद्य) by (तेन) the ferocious lion (दृप्त+सिंहेन) that dwells (लतागहन+वासिना) on the bank of Godavari river(गोदावरी+नदी+कूल).
Suggested meaning: Don’t worry that there is no privacy. The person who used to haunt us has been removed away by a more powerful person. So we can’t meet.


श्वश्रूरत्र शेते (अथवा निमज्जति) अत्राहं दिवसकं प्रलोकय |</****>

मा पथिक रात्र्यन्धः शय्यायामावयोः शयिष्ठाः ||<//****>| 1.4 ++ |

श्वश्रूः अत्र शेते (अथवा निमज्जति) अत्र अहं दिवसकं प्रलोकय |

मा पथिक रात्र्यन्धः शय्यायाम् आवयोः शयिष्ठाः ||

Mother-in-law lies here, fast asleep. I will be here. You shall know these before it gets dark. O traveller, don’t you tumble into our beds blinded by night.


In this example, the conventional (explicit) meaning prohibits the action whereas the suggestive (implicit) meaning approves of the proposal.

कस्य वा न भवति रोषो दृष्ट्वा प्रियायाः सव्रणमधरम् |</*>

सभ्रमरपद्माघ्राणशीले वारितवामे सहस्वेदानीम् ||<//*>| 1.4 ++ |

कस्य वा न भवति रोषः दृष्ट्वा प्रियायाः सव्रणम् अधरम् |

सभ्रमर+पद्म+आघ्राण+शीले वारित+वामे सहस्व इदानीम् ||

Whose rage is not aroused when one sees the lower lip of his beloved being hurt? You who are habituated to smell the lotus flower with the bee inside, being indifferent to my caution, face the situation (now).


Sometimes, the suggested meaning relates to something which is absolutely different from that with which the conventional meaning is associated. Here the lady’s friend is cautioning her about the consequences that she has to face from her husband if she continues to visit her lover.


Rasa is suggested

स्वशब्देन सा केवलमनूद्यते, न तु तत्कृता | </*> 1.4 ++ |

स्वशब्देन सा केवलम् अनूद्यते, न तु तत्कृता |

The experience of sentiments, etc., can never be restricted by the proper name though it gets its name. In reality, we do not experience sentiments, etc., in all instances where proper names are employed.


i.e., The rasa is not experienced by the mere mention of the name of the rasa. The rasa is suggested by the description of the characters. We clearly experience the rasa in cases where the name is not explicitly stated. Therefore, stating of name of the rasa merely reinstates the rasa and it does not cause the readers to experience the rasa.


Rasadhvani is the soul of poetry

काव्यस्यात्मा स एवार्थस्तथा चादिकवेः पुरा | </*>
क्रौञ्चद्वन्द्ववियोगोत्थः शोकः श्लोकत्वमागतः || ५ ||</**>  | 1.5 |


काव्यस्यात्मा स: एव+अर्थ:+तथा च+आदिकवेः पुरा |
क्रौञ्च-द्वन्द्व-वियोग+उत्थः शोकः श्लोकत्वम्+आगतः ||


That meaning (Rasadhvani) alone is the soul of poetry. This is quite evident from the very incident of the first poet’s Valmiki’s grief which become evoked (in him) due to the wailing of the separate Kraunca bird (from its male mate drenched in pool of blood), which struck the inner core of the sage so as to present the flow of poetry.स: एव+अर्थ: = प्रतीयमान अर्थ: ;


शोको हि करुणस्थायिभावः |</*>  | 1.5 ++ |

शोक: हि करुण+स्थायिभावः |

Sorrow (shoka) is the abiding emotion (sthaayibhaava) which stands as the sentiment of pathos (karuna). It will be of the nature of suggestion. Example – The grief of the first poet Valmiki became transformed into a Shloka.

Only like-minded people can appreciate

शब्दार्थशासनज्ञानमात्रेणैव न वेद्यते|

वेद्यते स तु काव्यार्थतत्त्वज्ञैरेव केवलम् || ७ ||</***>


शब्दार्थ+शासन+ज्ञान+मात्रेण एव न वेद्यते |

वेद्यते स: तु काव्यार्थ+तत्त्वज्ञै: एव केवलम् || ७ ||
That meaning cannot be comprehended by the mere knowledge of the rules of grammar (word and sense) but can be realised only by those who have understood the real significance of poetry. (7)

This Dhvani or vyangyaarthaa will not be understandable by everyone. Only काव्यार्थतत्त्वज्ञः or the connoisseurs or experts in poetry can understand the suggested meaning. Ordinary people cannot understand.

Eg. In Kumaarasambhava, when Parvathi’s tapas is described. That it is as per Yoga shastra can be understood only by those who are aware of it.


Importance of vaakyaartha

आलोकार्थी यथा दीपशिखायां यत्नवाञ्जनः |

तदुपायतया तद्वदर्थे वाच्ये तदादृतः || ९||</*>
आलोक+अर्थी यथा दीप+शिखायां यत्नवान्+जनः |

तत्+उपायतया तद्वत्+अर्थे वाच्ये तत्+आदृतः || ९ ||

In the same manner(यथा – तद्वत्) as a man(जनः) intent upon seeing an object in darkness (आलोक+अर्थी), puts forth his efforts(यत्नवान्) towards fetching a lamp (दीप+शिखायां) owing to its being a means to realise his goal (of seeing the object) (तत्+उपायतया) one who is very much interested (तत्+आदृतः) in the suggested meaning (अर्थे) would at the outset direct his effort towards (understanding) the conventional meaning (वाच्ये). (9)
Though he does not want the flame of the lamp, and he wants the light only, he still brings the deepa shikaa because without the flame, there is not going to be any light. The flame of lamp is just an upaayaa – a means to the required end. Vachyaartha is the upaaya or the means. Vengyaartha is the upeya or desired goal. Vengyaartha could come for Vaachyaartha or Lakshyaartha. Lakshanaa is a vyaapaara or function where a meaning is indicated. There can be only one Vaachyaartha. There could be many intended or suggested meanings. In Mammata’s kavya prakaasha,

गतोस्तमर्क: |  गत:+अस्तम्+अर्क:  = अर्क: अस्तम् गत:  |

The vaachyaartha is that the sun has set. The Vaidhika Brahmana understands that it is time for Sandhya vandana. The thief thinks that he should start his work. The students want to start studying. Based on the nature of the listener, the message conveyed differs.


Definition of Dhvani

13th Kaarikaa (Important to be memorised)


यत्रार्थः शब्दो वा तमर्थमुपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ |

व्यङ्क्तः काव्यविशेषः स ध्वनिरिति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३ ||</*>


यत्र+अर्थः शब्द:+वा तम्+अर्थम्+उपसर्जनी+कृतस्वार्थौ |

व्यङ्क्तः काव्य+विशेषः स: ध्वनि:+इति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३ ||


The conventional word शब्द: and the conventional meaning अर्थः   (स्व+अर्थौ =  स्व + शब्द: + अर्थः) are abandoned उपसर्जनी+कृत |  अर्थः शब्द:वाव्यङ्क्तः | They become suggested word or meaning. व्यङ्क्तः = प्रतीयमान: अर्थ: भवति | That is a specialty of the poem called Dhvani.


That kind of poetry in which the conventional meaning or the conventional word renders its meaning sub-ordinate and suggests the intended or implied meaning, is termed “Dhvani” or “suggestive poetry” by the learned people.

Some time the meaning subdues itself and gives a more beautiful meaning. In other cases, the word does this. It can be shabda shakti mula dhvani or artha shakti mula dhvani.


व्यङ्ग्यप्राधान्येहि ध्वनिः |</*>  | 1.13+|

Aanandavardhana authoritatively declares that suggestion becomes possible only when the suggested element is absolutely prominent. This is not so in समासोक्ति (concise speech or condensed metaphor) and the like.


Dhvani Defn –Example of non-prominent suggestion

उपोढरागेण विलोलतारकं तथा गृहीतं शशिना निशामुखम् |</****>

यथा समस्तं तिमिरांशुकं तया पुरोऽपि रागाद्गलितं न लक्षितम् ||<//****>| 1.13+|

उपोढ-रागेण विलोल-तारकं तथा गृहीतं शशिना निशा-मुखम् |

यथा समस्तं तिमिर+अंशुकं तया पुरः अपि रागात् गलितं न लक्षितम् ||

The twilight with twinkling stars became brightened by the moon glowing red suddenly so that the whole mass of darkness vanishing in the east due to brightness was not noticed at all.


With reference to the lady, “The heroine’s face with its bright pupils was kissed by the hero overcome by passion with such intense love that the black garment which she had put on slipped away even in the very front was not at all noticed due to intense love.”


It is the explicit meaning which alone remains prominent and the suggested meaning serves only as subservient to it. In this stanza, the main purport is the description of the night and the moon over which the disposition of a heroine and of a hero are ascribed to them. That is secondary only.


In this illustration, the words though are primarily addressed to the moon and the night, also refer to in an implicit way to the disposition of a lover and the beloved, which has been heaped on moon and the night. Therefore the suggested sense is subservient to the conventional meaning. Hence Dhvani can never be included in Samaasookti.


Samasokti is compound statement / concise speech. The words of the stanza have double meaning. Note the pun in raaga – meaning redness and love. Taraka means pupil as well as stars. Purah means in front of her and also in the east. Note the masculine gender word for moon and feminine gender word for night.

Dhvani Defn – Dhvani is not a limb

न चावयव एव पृथग्भूतोऽवयवीति प्रसिद्धः |</*>  | 1.13+|

न च+अवयव एव पृथक्+भूत: अवयवी+इति प्रसिद्धः |

“अवयवी अवयव न एव | अवयवी पृथक्+भूत: च |” इति प्रसिद्धः

The limbs cannot be thought of as body.


Dhvani cannot be brought under other heads. It is because of the declaration that it is only the full-fledged kinds of poetry that could be called Dhvani. The limbs of poetry are figures of speech, qualities (Gunas) and varieties of diction (वृत्त्य:).The limbs cannot be thought of as body. When we consider them together, it will be a part of the whole but never identical with the whole. Even granting that identity may be possible in some of the instances, suggestive poetry cannot be deemed as conditioned by its limbs stated above, since Dhvani is quite extensive.


Dhavani Defn –Example – Dhvani

सुवर्णपुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषास्त्रयः |</*>

शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च यश्च जानाति सेवितुम् ||<//*></*>| 1.13+|

सुवर्ण+पुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषा: त्रयः |
शूर: च कृतविद्य: च य: च जानाति सेवितुम् ||

There are plenty of golden flowers in this world. Only 3 types of people can gather it – namely warriors (valorous in battle), Scholar (one who has mastered any vidya) and people who know how to serve. (Three men will collect flowers of gold out of the earth – the courageous, the learned and he who knows how to serve.  Mahaabharata – 5.35.64)

This is an example of Deepaka alamkaara. Three people have the same common factor of being able to gather the golden flowers. In such verses, there will be Dhvani. But the prominence is not for Dhvani. The prominence is for the one who serves. The common factor applies to the other two types of people also. Deepa iva deepakam. Like the deepa lit in the door step, that lights the house, also lights outside.

Dhvani is classified into two, namely अविवक्षितवाच्य (unintended literal import) and विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य (intended but further extending literal import). In the first one, the literal sense is not intended. In the second one, the literal sense is intended, but is subordinated to a second meaning. This is an example of the first one, avivakshitavaachya. The flower of gold means success or worldly advancement.

Dhavani Defn – Example – विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य

शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम कियच्चिरं किमभिधानमसावकरोत्तपः । </*>
तरुणि येन तवाधरपाटलं दशति बिम्बफलं शुकशावकः ।। 1.13+|

शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम ? कियत् चिरम् ? किम् अभिधानम् असौ अकरोत् तपः । </*>
तरुणि येन तव अधरपाटलं दशति बिम्बफलं शुकशावकः ।। 1.13+|

हे तरुणि | येन तपसा शुकशावकः तव अधरपाटलं बिम्बफलं दशति, किम् अभिधानम् असौ तपः अकरोत् ? क्व नु नाम शिखरिणि तपः अकरोत् ? कियत् चिरं तपः अकरोत् ?

A person tells the parrot that it is very fortunate and it must have done a lot of penance. “On which mountain and for how long a time did this young parrot perform penance and what might be the name of the penance? For, this young parrot has been chewing the limb or fruit which is as red as your lips”. Here the suggested meaning is that he envies it as he was not able to reach his lover whereas it was able to go close to her / the fruit. Dhvani is classified into two, namely अविवक्षितवाच्य (unintended literal import) and विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य (intended but further extending literal import). In this, the literal sense is intended, but is subordinated to a second meaning. So it is विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य.
In its implication, this is a eulogy addressed to a lady by an impassioned lover, who communicates to her his secret desire in an artful manner. What is suggested is a parallel between the action of the parrot and that of the would-be lover – the speaker wishes he were in the position of the parrot, in relation to the maiden’s lips. This meaning, it is argued, flows directly from the expressed meaning of the sentence; there is no secondary meaning here because the literal meaning that “the lucky parrot is pecking at the plum that is red like your lip” is intact. On closer examination, however, we notice that the description of the parrot is the non-contextual meaning – the lover cannot simply be saying “What a lucky guy the parrot must be to peck the plum!” Such a remark would be rather pointless in the lover’s context. This consideration, together with other telltale signs, such as the absurdity of a parrot performing a penance and the likening of the plum to the lady’s lips (which would also have been pointless without an amorous intent on the part of the speaker), leads to the suggestion of a parallel between the explicit subject (the parrot) and the implicit subject (the would-be lover), the latter being the contextual or relevant meaning. Thus, even in this case, there is obstruction to the surface meaning, on the basis of which we arrive at the implied contextual meaning – the parallel of the lover relishing the maiden’s lips.  (Source: Sanskrit Criticism By V. K. Chari)


Dhavani Defn – Not Bhakti

भक्त्या बिभर्ति नैकत्वम् रूपभेदादयं ध्वनिः</*>| 1.13+|

भक्त्या बिभर्ति न+एकत्वम् रूपभेदात्+अयं ध्वनिः  |

Suggestion and secondary signification are not one and the same because of the innate different between the two. अयं ध्वनिः रूपभेदात् भक्त्या एकत्वं न बिभर्ति | If that is considered identical with suggestion, it commits the fallacies of “too wide” a definition and “too narrow” a definition.

Among the three functions of the word, the second function is called Lakshana Vyaapaara or Bhakti. Believers of Bhakti are Bhaktaas. They are also called as Laakshanikaas. Suggestion and Bhakti are different since their forms are different (roopa bheda).


ध्वन्यलोक २

The different types of Dhvani

  1. अविवक्षितवाच्य: (unintended literal import – लक्षणामूलध्वानि)
    • अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य:
    • अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य:
  2. विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: (intended but further extending literal import अभिधामूलध्वनि)
    • संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः (Vastu, Alamkaara) (shabda-shakti, artha-shakti)
    • असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः (Rasaadi)

Two types within अविवक्षित

अर्थान्तरे सङ्क्रमितमत्यन्तं वा तिरस्कृतम् |</*>

अविवक्षितवाच्यस्य ध्वनेर्वाच्यं द्विधा मतम् || 2.१||

अर्थ+अन्तरे सङ्क्रमितम् अत्यन्तं वा तिरस्कृतम् |

अविवक्षित-वाच्यस्य ध्वनेः वाच्यं द्विधा मतम् || 2.१||

The expressed meaning in the former variety i.e., अविवक्षितवाच्य is sub-divided into two, namely, अर्थान्तरसंक्रमित (transformed into some other sense) and अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत (totally discarded).

Example of अर्थान्तरसंक्रमित

स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतो वेल्लद्बलाका घना
वाताः शीकरिणः पयोदसुहृदामानन्दकेकाः कलाः |
कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोरहृदयो रामोऽस्मि सर्वं सहे
वैदेही तु कथम् भविष्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव ||

कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोर-हृदयः रामः अस्मि सर्वं सहे
वैदेही तु कथम् भविष्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव ||
(Meaning: स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतः, वेल्लद्बलाकाः, घनाः वाताः शीकरिणः, पयोदसुहृदाम् आनन्दकेकाः कलाः | कामं सन्तु दृढम् | कठोर+हृदय: राम: अस्मि | अहं सर्वं सहे | वैदेही तु कथं भविष्यति ? हहा हा | देवि, त्वं धीरा भव |

The quarters are all painted as it was with the glistening dark clouds; the cranes are flying with excitement, forming a circle as it were. The gentle wind is full of moisture; these friends of clouds, i.e., the peacocks are giving out joyous notes in the wind. Let all these confront me (कामं सन्तु). I shall certainly put up with all these (सर्वं सहे), for, I am Rama (राम: अस्मि) whose heart is quite hard as adamantine (made of very hard material) (दृढं कठोर+हृदय:). But how will Sita bear with this (वैदेही तु कथम् भविश्यति)! Alas! Alas!(हहा हा) O my beloved queen!  Bear these with all fortitude or courage (देवि धीरा भव)). 

Rama is separated from Sita. He describes the season which causes more pain for the separated lovers. He hopes that Sita is able to bear this pain. He says that he will be able to bear it. Here for the term Rama the meaning to be taken is much more than the son of Dasaratha. He is to be taken as one having the capacity to bear all the pains. It is an example of अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य: | The suggestion here is that he can bear all the pain (सर्वकष्टसहिश्नुत्वशक्तिमान्) |

Examples of अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत

रविसङ्क्रान्तसौभाग्यस्तुषारावृतमण्डलः | </**>

निःश्वासान्ध इवादर्शश्चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते ||

रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्य: तुषार+आवृत+मण्डलः चन्द्रमा, निःश्वास+अन्ध: आदर्श: इव न प्रकाशते |

“All the charm (brightness) to the sun has disappeared, now that the orb is enveloped by snow. Like a mirror rendered blind by the heaving, the moon does not glow.”

At the advent of morning, the sun is raising and the brightness of moon is fading. The soubhaagyaa of chandra has now been transferred to Sun (रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्य: | ) तुषारावृत+मण्डलः | आदर्श: = दर्पणः = mirror. When we breathe out air on the mirror, the mirror becomes unclear. The person is unable to see clearly. Like that, Chandra has also is not bright now. The literal meaning here is that the mirror has become blind अन्ध: by the breathed out air. There is Dhvani in the shabda “andha” as it means that it is unable to reflect the image clearly. This type of Dhvani is अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्या. The literal meaning is overridden.

Here the word “blinded” is suggestive of the second variety. This is a famous stanza from the epic Valmiki Raamaayana. When we breathe out air on the mirror, the mirror becomes unclear for some time and then becomes bright again. Like that, Chandra is also not bright now, but he will get the light back later on. The literal meaning here is that the mirror has become blind by the breathed out air. There is Dhvani in the shabda “andha” as it means that it is unable to reflect the image clearly. This type of Dhvani is atyanta tiraskruta vaachyaa. The literal meaning is overridden. Through similarity in not being able to reflect or see clearly, the word takes the Lakshana meaning. The conventional meaning of the word “Andha” is completely discarded.


गगनं च मत्तमेघं धारालुलितार्जुनानि च वनानि |</**>

निरहङ्कारमृगाङ्का हरन्ति नीला अपि निशाः ||<//**>||2.1 ++||

मत्तमेघं गगनं च, धारालुलित+अर्जुनानि वनानि च, निरहङ्कार+मृगाङ्काः निशाः नीला अपि (मनः) हरन्ति ||

The sky is enveloped with intoxicated or rolling clouds गगनं मत्तमेघंच | the Arjuna trees in the forest have water drops dripping वनानि धारालुलित+अर्जुनानि च | Nights are not bright with moon bereft of pride निशाः निरहङ्कार+मृगाङ्का: | Though black in colour, they capture you नीला अपि (मन:) हरन्ति | मन: is अध्याहार: (supplying the missing text).

Here the words “rolling”, “bereft of pride” are replete (brimming) with suggestion.

Explanation about विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य:

मुख्यतया प्रकाशमानो व्यङ्ग्योऽर्थो ध्वनेरात्मा |</*> | 2.2 + |
स च वाच्यार्थापेक्षयाकश्चिदलक्ष्यक्रमतया प्रकाशते ,
कश्चिद्क्रमेणेति द्विधा मतः ||| 2.2 + |

मुख्यतया प्रकाशमान: व्यङ्ग्य: अर्थ: ध्वने: आत्मा |
स: च वाच्यार्थ अपेक्षया कश्चित् अलक्ष्यक्रमतया प्रकाशते ,
कश्चित् क्रमेण इति द्विधा मतः ||| 2.2 + |

The nature of suggestion is such that the suggested meaning can be conveyed with significance. A variety of it can be grasped along with the expressed since the sequence in comprehending both conventional and suggested meanings cannot be discerned. Another variety is that in which the sequentiality can be easily discerned.

Even when the suggested meaning is present, if it is not enjoining importance and pre-eminence, then it should not be called as Dhvani.

This is the vritti for “The nature of suggestion”. विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य (intended literal import) is also divided into two, namely संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य (where sequentiality can be discerned) and असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य (where sequentiality cannot be discerned).  One variety in which the suggested meaning is grasped along with the expressed since the sequence in comprehending both conventional and suggested meanings cannot be discerned (separated). Another variety is that in which the sequentiality can be easily discerned.

Explanation about  असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य

रसादिरर्थो हि सहैव वाच्येनावभासते |</**>  | 2.3 + | स चाङ्गित्वेनावभासमानोध्वनेरात्मा |

रसादि: अर्थ: हि सह एव वाच्येन+अवभासते | सः च अङ्गित्वेन अवभासमानः ध्वनेः आत्मा |

(Note: This is the vritti to the following kaarikaa
रसभावतदाभासतत्प्रशान्त्यादिरक्रमः |
ध्वनेरात्माङ्गिभावेन भासमानो व्यवस्थितः || २.३ || )

The elements such as Rasa (i.e., Rasa – sentiment, bhaava – emotion, Rasaabhaasa – semblance of sentiment, bhaavaabhaasa – semblance of emotion or mood, and that rise and cessation) would strike the mind along with the conventional i.e., literal, import. If they also shine prominently, there would be the soul of suggestion.

This is the vritti for “Sentiment – Rasa, emotion – bhaava, the semblance of sentiment – rasaabhaasa, semblance of emotion or mood – bhaavaabhaasa and that rise and cessation – all these form un-discerned sequentiality. It is decided that when there is prominent presence of the variety, that would be the very soul of suggestion.

It would seem like the vaachyaartha and the vyangyaartha are coming together. Kaarana has to be present before the Kaarya. Since Vaachyaartha is the Kaarana, it has to be present even before the Kaarya which is the Vyangyaartha. But the gap is so less that it feels as though they are there together. The Rasaadi Dhvanis are inseparable with the Vaachyaartha. They might seem to come together. But there is a clear order in the vastu dhvani and alamkaara dhvani where the vaachyaartha occurs first and then comes the vyangyaartha.

Definition of Rasavadalankaara

प्रधान्येऽन्यत्र वाक्यार्थे यत्राङ्गं तु रसादयः |</***>

काव्ये तस्मिन्नलङ्कारो रसादिरिति मे मतिः || ५||  |2.5|

प्रधान्ये अन्यत्र वाक्यार्थे यत्र अङ्गं तु रसादयः |

काव्ये तस्मिन् अलङ्कारः रसादिः इति मे मतिः ||

If on the other hand, the chief meaning of the sentence should direct towards something else and if Rasa etc. are to figure in only as subsidiary to it – that would be the case of Rasavadalankaara.


For eg., it may be easily seen how in hymns of praise (stotras), the sentiments etc. appear as sub-ordinate things. They are treated as examples of Preyas Alankaara (praising god, guru, etc.)

एवं ध्वनेरुपमादीनां रसवदलङ्कारस्य च विभक्तविषयता भवति |</*> |2.6+|

एवं ध्वने: उपमादीनां रसवदलङ्कारस्य च विभक्त-विषयता भवति |

In this way, there is a specific differentiating aspect between Dhvani, alamkaaras like upama, and the Rasavadamkaara.

Difference between Guna and Alamkaara

तमर्थमवलम्बन्ते येऽङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः |</*>

अङ्गाश्रितास्त्वलङ्कारा मन्तव्याः कटकादिवत् || ६  2.7 ||

तम्+अर्थम्+अवलम्बन्ते ये+अङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः |
अङ्ग+आश्रिता:+तु+अलङ्कारा: मन्तव्याः कटकादिवत् ||

That which depends upon this main element (here rasa) are considered as “qualities”. The figures of speech are those that are connected with its parts (here the expressed meaning and the expression) in the same way as ornaments like bracelet, etc.

The difference between Alamkaara and Guna is stated here. A person might have decorated himself in a certain way. But his Gunas or qualities are different. The Alamkaaras are decorations of the body and the Gunas always depend on the soul (अङ्गि that which contains the organs). The अङ्गि of kavya is rasa. Prasaad, Ojas, Madhurya and the other gunas are decorations of the soul, the rasa dhvani, which is the अङ्गि. शब्दार्थौ काव्यस्य शरीरम् | The alamkaaras are attached to the body which is the word, shabda and the meaning, vaachya. Yamaka is a shabda alamkara. Upamaa is an arthaalamkaara. ये अङ्गिनं तम् अर्थम् (dhvani) अवलम्बन्ते, ते गुणाः | अङ्ग-आश्रिता: तु अलङ्कारा: | कटकादिवत् = Like the bangle (कटक) and others.

Relation between Guna and Rasa

शृङ्गार एव मधुरः परः प्रह्लादनो रसः |</*>

तन्मयं काव्यमाश्रित्य माधुर्यं प्रतितिष्ठति || २.७  8||


Srngaara (sentiment of love) is the sweetest and most relishable of all sentiments. The quality of Maadhurya (sweetness) is declared to be in the poetic composition beaming with this sentiment.


Usage of Alamkaara

ध्वन्यात्मभूते शृङ्गारे यमकादिनिबन्धनम् |

शक्तावपि प्रमादित्वं विप्रलम्भे विशेषतः || २.१६ / 2.15 || </*>

ध्वनि+आत्मभूते शृङ्गारे यमकादि-निबन्धनम्
शक्तौ अपि  प्रमादित्वं विप्रलम्भे विशेषतः |

ध्वनि+आत्मभूते शृङ्गारे शक्तौ प्रमादित्वम् अपि यमकादि निबन्धनम् | विप्रलम्भे विशेषतः |

Even granting that the poet is proficient in using the figures like assonance, it would be a lapse on his part in case he were to use them while delineating the sentiment of love which is the very soul of Dhvani, especially in vipralambha shrungaara. (यमकादि शक्तौ प्रमादित्वम् = proficiency in the skill of including alamkaras like Yamaka). In this section, Anandavardhana clarifies the role of Alamkara in Dhvani poetry.

रसाक्षिप्ततया यस्य बन्धः शक्यक्रियो भवेत् |
अपृथग्यत्ननिर्वत्यः सोऽलङ्कारो ध्वनौ मतः || 2.१७ / 2.16 || </*>

रसाक्षिप्ततया यस्य बन्धः शक्यक्रियः भवेत् |
अपृथक्+यत्न+निर्वत्यः सः अलङ्कारः ध्वनौ मतः ||

The poet is permitted to use only such figures the employment of which is made possible only by the emotional exuberance (excitement) of the poet and in the use of which figure there is no special effort used.

Counter-example of Shabdashakti in Samlakshya

तस्या विनापि हारेण निसर्गादेव हारिणौ |</****>

जनयामासतुः कस्य विस्मयं न पयोधरौ ||<//****>||2.22  ++  in book||

हारेण विनापि निसर्गात् एव हारिणौ तस्याः पयोधरौ कस्य विस्मयं न जनयामासतुः |

Her bosoms having no garland though garlanded by active (attractive) as it were, whom should they not amaze.


That example in which a figure which is not expressed directly by any word is present and conveys solely, by the suggestive potency of the word itself, should be taken as suggestion based on the potency of the word (shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani). The shlesa on the word हार helps only in conveying a tinge of virodha or paradox on how she is garlanded with a garland. There is no suggestion based on the potency of the word. So this verse is not an example for shadba-shakti-moola-dhvani. But the sentiment of love conveyed here through Slesa or Virodha could be taken as asamlakshyakramaviyanga – suggestion with undiscerned sequentiality.

Types of Arthashaktimooladhvani

Samlakshyakramadhvani is classified into shabdashakti-moola-dhvani and arthashakti-mooladhvani. Arthashaktimooladhvani is the case where the meaning which suggests another meaning. It is of two kinds – (1) प्रौढोक्तिः found in ornamented expression. (2) स्वतः सम्भवी naturally existing.  Each of these two types are further classified into (a) वस्तुना वस्तुध्वानिः, (b) वस्तुना अलंकारध्वनिः, (c) अलंकारेण वस्तुध्वनिः, (d) अलंकारेण अलंकारध्वनिः |

Examples of Arthashakti – Svatahsambhavi – Vastunaa vastudhvani

एवंवादिनि देवर्षौ पार्श्वे पितुरधोमुखी |</***>

लीलाकमलपत्राणि गणयामास केवलम् ||<//***>  | 2.23 ++ in book|

एवं+वादिनि देवर्षौ पार्श्वे पितु: अधोमुखी |
लीला+कमल+पत्राणि गणयामास केवलम् || after 2.22

This shloka is from Kumaara Sambhava. The Sapta Rishis have come. Narada comes and tells Himaalaya that Shiva is the suitable groom for Parvathi and that he has agreed to marry Parvathi. When Narada was talking in this way (एवं+वादिनि देवर्षौ), Parvathi was standing next to her father with head facing down (पार्श्वे पितु: अधोमुखी). She was holding a lotus for play (leela) लीला+कमल+पत्राणि.  She started seriously counting its petals (गणयामास केवलम्). The bhava of shyness is suggested.

That example in which one sense leads to another sense through its own potency of suggestion and not out of the denotative potency of words will be an example of suggestion which depends upon the potency of meaning very much akin to resonance – artha-shakti-moola-dhvani. In this case, counting of petal suggests bashfulness. This is

शिखिपिच्छकर्णपूरा जाया व्याधस्य गर्विणी भ्रमति |</*>

मुक्ताफलरचितप्रसाधनानां मध्ये सपत्नीनाम् || 2.२४||<//*>

शिखिपिच्छ-कर्ण-पूरा जाया व्याधस्य गर्विणी भ्रमति |

मुक्ताफल-रचित-प्रसाधनानां मध्ये सपत्नीनाम् ||

शिखि-पिच्छ-कर्ण-पूरा With the plumes of peacock (i.e., an ornament made from the feathers in the peacock’s tail) adorning her ears, व्याधस्य जाया the wife of the hunter गर्विणी भ्रमति walks in pride मुक्ता-फल-रचित-प्रसाधनानां सपत्नीनां मध्ये in the midst of all her co-wives who are possessed of ornaments of pearls.


This is an example where the naturally existing sense is that which is akin to what is found in stark world. Her good fortune in the form of her winning her husband’s special love to her and the bad fortune of other wives are suggested without any imaginative twist to the meaning. So this is an example of svatah-sambhavi-arthashaktimoola-dhvani. This also comes under vastunaa vastudhvani.

Example of Vastunaa-alamkaaradhvani – Utpreksa-dhvani

चन्दनासक्तभुजगनिःश्वासानिलमूर्च्छितः |</*>

मूर्च्छयत्येष पथिकान्मधौ मलयमारुतः ||<//*>  | 2.28 ++ |

चन्दन+आसक्त+भुजग+निःश्वासानिल+मूर्च्छितः |

मूर्च्छयति एषः पथिकान्मधौ मलयमारुतः ||

In this spring season the southerly wind raising the breath of snakes reclining on sandal trees causes stupor to travelers.


This verse describing the spring season is an example of Utpreksa (poetic fancy) Dhvani. The southerly wind causes stupor (lethargy) in travellers because it generates passionate longing in them. The southerly wind itself is poetically fancied (i.e., imagined by the poet) as stuporous because of its coming in contact with the heaves of snakes which have encircled the sandal trees. This fancy is not directly conveyed by the words like “as it”, etc. But it is conveyed through suggestion by the potency of sense in the sentence. It is just like resonance. Since the cause of the lethargy is an imaginative one, it is an example of हेतूत्प्रेक्षा | Here the suggester is a vastu and hence this is an example of vastunaa alamkaaradhvani.

Example of Yathaasamkhya-dhvani (alamkaarena-alamkaara Dhvani)

अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च सहकारः |</*>

अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च हृदि मदनः ||<//*> | 2.28 ++ |

The mango tree sheds sprouts, converts into leaf, buds and flowers. Love (treasured) in the hearts sprouts, turns into leaf, buds and flowers.

The following is one example of the suggested – यथासंख्यध्वनि: (suggested relative).

Here the resonance-like charm maintaining the same order of occurrence referring to love and mango tree is far far greater than the charm associated with the expressed figure तुल्ययोगिता (combination of equals). The expressed alamkara, tulyayogitaa results in resonance and suggests यथासंख्य alamkara.
(Side note: My understanding of yathasankhya alankara is this – An alamkara where the object and the mirrored object – both follow an enumeration in a fixed order.  Further, I am guessing in this case, since both are not made to follow a single enumeration and rather there is resonance in its place, it does not become that alamkara. But it remains as a suggested alamkaara).

Utility of Alamkaaradhvani

शरीरीकरणं येषां वाच्यत्वे न व्यवस्थितम् |</*>

तेऽलङ्काराः परां छायां यान्ति ध्वन्यङ्गतां गतः || २८||<//*>   | 2.29 |

येषां वाच्यत्वे शरीरीकरणं न व्यवस्थितम्, ते अलङ्काराः ध्वन्यङ्गतां गतः परां छायां यान्ति |

The following aphorism points out the utility of suggested figures. The very same figures of speech (ते अलङ्काराः) which cannot afford to become even the body of poetry (येषां वाच्यत्वे शरीरीकरणं न व्यवस्थितम्), will gain special beauty (परां छायां यान्ति) much more than what they were in their expressed aspect, when they become involved in suggestion (ध्वन्यङ्गतां गतः).


ध्वन्यालोकः ३

In this 3rd udhyotta, the different types are listed from the perspective of the Vyanjaka – word while in the earlier chapter, it was based on the Vyangya – meaning.

Example of वाक्यप्रकाशता in अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी | </*>

यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः || <//*>  | 3.1 eg |


The following is the example of a suggestive sentence of the sub-class of “Primary sense totally discarded (अत्यन्त तिरस्कृतवाच्य) under the class of “that with intended expressed sense” (अविवक्षितवाच्य).


What is night for all beings, the saint keeps himself awake during then; when the beings are awake that will be night for the saint.


The expressed sense that one should be awake during night, and remain sleeping during other time is absolutely irrelevant to what is intended. This only suggests predominantly that the wise saint has been with spiritual alertness and has shunned false notions about Reality. The primary meaning thus has been totally discarded and the suggested meaning comes to the forefront in the mind of a connoisseur. Hence it is an instance of a suggestive sentence (वाक्यप्रकाशता).  Suggestive sentence and suggestive word are the two categories under the subdivision of अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्यध्वनि.

Types of Sanghatanaa or Texture of compositions


असमासा समासेन मध्यमेन च भूषिता |

तथा दीर्घसमासेति त्रिधा सङ्घटनोदिता|| ५||</***>  | 3.5 |
Composition (texture – सङ्घटना) is of three kinds namely (1) without compounds असमासा (2) with medium compounds मध्यमेन समासेन भूषिता and (3) with long compounds दीर्घसमासा. Gunas or qualities like maadhuryam or sweetness and prasaada or perspicuity (eloquence / articulacy) are constantly found in plenty only when vipralambhashrungaara (love in separation) is delineated. Oojas (forcefulness) goes with Raudra (Furious) and adbhuta (wonder). But the same conformity does not apply to the Sanghatanaa. Thus we find sanghatanaa when we have long compounds even when erotic sentiment is delineated and even when we have no compounds in Raudra Rasa.

Avoid Rasabhanga by avoiding Anuchityaa

अनौचित्यादृते नान्यद्रसभङ्गस्य कारणम् | </*>

प्रसिद्धौचित्यबन्धस्तु रसस्योपनिषत्परा || ३. १४++ ||  | 3.14 |

अनौचित्यात्+ऋते न+अन्यत्+रसभङ्गस्य कारणम् |
प्रसिद्ध+औचित्य+बन्ध:+तु रसस्य+उपनिषद्+परा ||

रसभन्गस्य कारणम् अन्यत् न There could be no other cause for a breach in sentiment अनौचित्यात्+ऋते except impropriety. रसस्य परा उपनिषद् The greatest secret about the delineation of sentiment is प्रसिद्ध+औचित्य+बन्ध: to conform to the well-known and accepted considerations of propriety.


An interruption of aesthetic relish is called Rasa bhanga. The main reason for this is anauchitya. Bharata laid down the strict rule that in the stage play par excellence, only a well-known plot and a familiar noble hero should figure in. If this rule is adopted, a poet can ill-afford to go wrong in the matter of maintaining propriety in relation to the hero with impossible super human characteristics while writing a drama with its plot invented by him.

औचित्यम् = propriety – suitableness – it is the bhava of uchita. उचितम् = proper.

[Side note: A Kashmiri poet, Kshemendra (after Anandavardhana) wrote a work called Auchitya Vichaara Charchaa. He states that Guna, Alamkaaraa, Vrutti, Pravrutti or the suggested meaning vyangyaartha – all these should been within the limits of auchitya. Else it will become a laughing stock].

There is the suitability of the character and the suitability of even Vrutti, Pravrutti and Sannivesha (situation) are to be considered. For example, the king taking out his sword to fight enemy is acceptable but if he takes out his sword in a fight with his wife, it is not appropriate. Even in the Natya Shastra, when Indra flies in the sky, it is acceptable for the audience to accept the divine feats only by gods. But when an ordinary man says that he will fly to the heaven, it is inappropriate. Another example – in a drama, there is a pandit. His speech could indicate his knowledge. But the character of a servant cannot be shown to be talking in that same manner. For each rasa like adbhuda, karuna, vira or bhayaanaka, the poem has to be written appropriately. The dialog and the actions for Karuna and Vira will be different. Adbhuda might have a lengthy dialog expressing surprise. Thus the most important factor among the suitability is Rasa Auchitya. The auchitya is decided according to the main rasa. The characters have 3 types of prakruti – daivi prakruti, aasuree prakruti or maanavee prakruti. Based on their prakruti, everything else should match like the dress and the mannerism. There is another thing called Sandarba auchitya. What is appropriate in such situation has to be considered. Most importantly the rasa’s auchitya has to be ensured.

Example of suggestion through Krudanta

अतिक्रान्तसुखाः कालाः प्रत्युपस्थितदारुणाः |

श्वः श्वः पापीयदिवसा पृथिवी गतयौवना || 3.१६++

अतिक्रान्तसुखाः | कालाः प्रत्युपस्थितदारुणाः | श्वः श्वः पापीय-दिवसा | पृथिवी गतयौवना |

Gone are the delights and times pose more and more depression. The earth has become destitute of youth and every next day (tomorrow) is a sinful day.

In the above verse suggestion with alakshyakrama  is communicated through primary suffix – krudantaah (अतिक्रान्त, प्रत्युपस्थित, गत), number – bahu vachaana (सुखाः, कालाः)  and the suggestion with the expressed totally discarded (अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य) is found in the expression “पृथिवी गतयौवना” |

One Prominent Rasa should be present

प्रसिद्धेऽपि प्रबन्धानां नानारसनिबन्धने |

एको रसोऽङ्गीकर्तव्यस्तेषामुत्कर्षमिच्छता || २१||</******>  | 3.21 |

प्रसिद्धे नाना-रस-निबन्धने अपि प्रबन्धानां तेषाम् उत्कर्षम् इच्छता (कविना) एकः रसः अङ्गी कर्तव्यः |

No doubt, there is a convention that in entire literary composition, there should be more than one sentiment. It is ordained here that one of those sentiments should be made the main by any poet who wants his work to be great.

Angi rasa – is the prominent rasa which should be present from the beginning till the end of the Kavya. Anga rasa is the secondary rasa which could appear in between at some time.

There are two vibhaavaas namely Aalambana Vibhaavaa and Udeepana Vibhaavaa. The object towards which the rasa is targeted is Aalambana Vibhaavaa. Bhima says that he will drink Dhushaasanaa’s blood. So Bhima is the kaarana or Aalambana Vibhaavaa for Dhushsaasanaa’s fear. When Bhima comes, there are others who come with him making loud noises beating their drums. They become the secondary cause and enhance the fear. They are the Udeepana Vibhaavaa. So the Vibaavaa, Anubhaavaa and Sanchaaribhaavaa included by the poet should enhance the main rasa. It should not be against the main rasa.

Example – Insertion of Opposed sentiment

सत्यं मनोरमा रामाः सत्यं रम्या विभूतयः | </*>

किं तु मत्ताङ्गनापाङ्गभङ्गलोलं हि जीवितम् || <//*> | 3.30 ++ |


It is indeed true that women are endearing to the heart (रामाः मनोरमाः सत्यं). It is true that wealth is quite alluring (विभूतयः रम्याः सत्यं). But life (जीवितम्) itself is much transient as to compete with the tremulous glances [ i.e., the incomplete movement (भङ्ग+लोलं) of the corner of the eyes (अपाङ्ग)] of the love-intoxicated (मत्त) lady (अङ्गना). (यथा मत्ताङ्गनाया: अपाङगात् भङ्गं लोलं अशाश्वतं क्षणिकं च, तथैव जीवितम् )

If there be slightest touch of the opposite sentiments while dealing with the Sringaara Rasa and its accessories, there may not arise any defect when the rules governing the non-opposition of sentiments are meticulously followed. Hence indeed there can be no defect with the insertion of an opposed sentiment as one finds in the above verse.


ध्वन्यालोकः ४

The prominent rasa of Ramayana

रामायणे हि करुणो रसः | </*> | ४.५ + |

The prominent rasa of Ramayana is being discussed. In Ramayana, there is Shringaara, Vipralambha Shringaara, Karuna, Vira, kroda, etc. Valmiki himself states that शोकः श्लोकत्वमागतः | So shoka or sorrow is the staayibhaava of this entire epic. The last scene ends with Sita entering the earth. As Karuna has been present from start to end, it is the prominent (angi) rasa of Ramayana.

Next, Mahaabhaarata is taken up. In most of the Parvaas it is mainly fight and hence Vira is a rasa. There are also Shringaara and Shoka or Karuna. But Anandavardhana says that the prominent rasa of Mahabharata is Shanta rasa. Anukramani is the table of contents. In the anukramanika of Mahabharata, there is no reference to the term Shanta. Then, how can it be taken as the main rasa? Anandavardhana says that the most obvious thing should not be stated explicitly. It should be understood through Dhvani. In the Anukramanika, there is one verse. ‘ भगवान्वासुदेवश्च कीर्त्यतेऽत्र सनातनः’   — ‘ भगवान्+वासुदेव:+च कीर्त्यते+अत्र सनातनः’ The meaning of Vaasadeva is not the son of Vasudeva. Sanaatanaa is eternal. Vasudeva’s son was not eternal. वसति इति वासु: | वासु: च असौ देव: च वासुदेवः | The praise of that eternal god is being sung in the entire Mahaabhaarata. That god is the personification of Shanta. Even if the other characters like Arjuna and Bhima are described in the Bhaarata, only this Vaasudeva is the main character. Bharata is a Kavya and it is also a Shashtra. As a Kavya, Krishna is the ultimate. As a Shashtra, Shantha is the ultimate. All the rasas culminate in Shantha.

Samvaada or Correspondence or Similarity of Thought


संवादास्तु भवन्त्येव बाहुल्येन सुमेधसाम् | </*>

स्थितं ह्येतत् संवादिन्य एव मेधाविनां बुद्धयः | किन्तु – – –

नैकरूपतया सर्वे ते मन्तव्या विपश्चिता || 4.११ ||

11a. There would certainly be plentiful coincidences of ideas presented by the minds.

11b. But all of them need not be considered identical by any stretch of imagination by the recipients.

Anandavardhana talks about Samvaada in the fourth chapter. Assume Shakespeare writes something. If the same thing is also said by our poets, say Kalidasa or Bhaaravi, we say that there is Samvaada or Correspondence or Similarity of thought. For example, what was found (like value of pi) by our great mathematician like Aryabhaatta and Bhaskaracharya was also found independently by European mathematicians. “Great minds think alike”. But, Krithi chauryaa – plagiarism – is stealing someone’s work.  Samvaada is Correspondence or Similarity of thought.

The thoughts of two poets might concur. सु+मेधाः = The ability to retain the knowledge is Medhaa i.e., the धारण after ग्रहण. It is the retentive memory. There will be samvaada among great poets and it cannot be avoided. Refer the earlier notes on three types. In the case where both come up with the same thought, one cannot reject the other, though there is similarity. In other cases, it becomes Kruti Chaurya.

तत्पुनः शरीरिणां प्रतिबिम्बवदालेख्याकारवत्तुल्यदेहिवच्च त्रिधा व्यवस्थितम् | (after 4.11) | (Meaning: Coincidence in poetic themes is recognized as of three types – (1) like that of reflected image of persons in a mirror (2) like that of a picture of a boy, drawn in painting, (3) like that of two individuals resembling one another). It can be like the reflection of a person शरीरिणां प्रतिबिम्बवत्, it can be like the painting आलेख्याकारवत्, or it can be like another person who has the resemblance – तुल्यदेहिवत् | Here further says about these three.

तत्र पूर्वमनन्यात्म तुच्छात्म तदनन्तरम् | तृतीयं तु प्रसिद्धात्म नान्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः || 4.१३||  तत्र पूर्वम् अनन्यात्म तुच्छात्म तत् अनन्तरम् | तृतीयं तु प्रसिद्धात्म नन्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः(Meaning: Of these, the first one has no individual existence of its own, the possibility of the second is not better than a non-entity. The third one of course has a concrete existence. A poet need not have to bypass similarity in themes).  In resemblance, it is अनन्यात्मा – it is not a different person. The painting one is inferior. The resemblance between two people like twins is acceptable since they have their own existence and specialty though they have some similar features. न अन्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः – This should not be given up by the poet. Though it is not a fault to have some idea that resembles the work of an earlier poet, it is better to avoid building on another person’s idea. There are numerous options available and the poet should try to find something new than choosing something that has already been done.

परस्वादानेच्छाविरतमनसो वस्तु सुकवेः सरस्वत्येवैषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती || 4.१७||  परस्वादान+इच्छा+विरत+मनसः वस्तु सुकवेः सरस्वति एषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती || (Meaning: The goddess of speech i.e., Sarasvati herself will help the deserving and talented poets in procuring the ideas provided they shun plagiarism). For a person who is not interested in copying another person’s idea, Goddess Saraswati herself will provide with new ideas as much as needed.


Short notes:

Anandavardhana is credited with creating the dhvani theory. He wrote of dhvani (meaning sound, or resonance) in regard to the “soul of poetry.” “When the poet writes,” said Anandavardhana, “he creates a resonant field of emotions.”

Questions from exams


Book no./ page no.


श्वशूरत्र निमज्जति अत्राहम् दिवसकम् प्रलोक्यम्। १/२५

कस्य वा न भवति । १/२६

उपोढरागेण विलोलतारकम् । १/५२

शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम । १/५५

सुवर्णपुष्पाम् प्ऋथिवीम्। १/५५

गगनम् मत्तमेघम् । २/५

रवि सम्क्रान्त सौभाग्य। २/५

तस्या: विनापि हारेण। २/५९

एवम् वादिनि देवर्षो पार्श्वे। २/७०

शिखिपिच्छकर्णपूरा जाया। २/७२

चन्दनासक्त भुजग। २/७६

अड़्कुरित: पल्लवित:। २/७७

या निशा सर्वभूतानाम्। ३/११

अति क्रान्त सुखा: काला:। ४/७

सत्यम् मनोरमा: रामा:। ४/५४


शब्दार्थौ सहितौ काव्यम्


अपऋथग्यत्न निर्वव्र्य: सोsलड़्कारो ध्वनौ मत:


Concepts  / short notes


Different meanings for Dhvani

There are different meanings given to the term Dhvani. One is the best type of poetry – Atyuttama Kaavya. Dhvani also means the suggested meaning. The word that has the suggested meaning is also called Dhvani. The vyanjanaa vyaapaara which is the function that indicates the suggested meaning is also Dhvani. Dhvani is used in five different senses – Suggestive words, suggestive ideas, suggested ideas, suggestion and the composition in which all or any one may be found.

(Additional notes from KSOU Textbook:

  1. व्याञ्जकोऽर्थः – Suggestive meaning due to which the primary sense discards itself
  2. ध्वनिः काव्यम् – A composition where the primary senses are discarded
  3. व्यञ्जनाव्यापारः – The suggestive function through which the primary sense is discarded.
  4. व्जञ्जकः शब्दः ध्वनिः – Suggestive words whose primary sense is discarded
  5. व्यङ्ग्योऽर्थः – Suggested sense for whose sake the expressed meaning is rendered not fruitful.

List of Examples — for Quick Reference

 Dhvani – what it can be

(1) suggestive idea will be prohibitive

भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः स शुनकोऽद्य मारितस्तेन |

गोदावरी-नदी-कूल-लता-गहन-वासिना दृप्त-सिंहेन ||

(2)suggestive meaning approves.

श्वश्रूरत्र शेते (अथवा निमज्जति) अत्राहं दिवसकं प्रलोकय |</****>

मा पथिक रात्र्यन्धः शय्यायामावयोः शयिष्ठाः ||

(3)suggested meaning relates to something which is absolutely different

कस्य वा न भवति रोषो दृष्ट्वा प्रियायाः सव्रणमधरम् |</*>

सभ्रमरपद्माघ्राणशीले वारितवामे सहस्वेदानीम् ||<//*>| 1.4 ++ |

Dhvani – What it is not

(4) Samaasookti – the suggested sense is subservient to the conventional meaning

उपोढरागेण विलोलतारकं तथा गृहीतं शशिना निशामुखम् |</****>

यथा समस्तं तिमिरांशुकं तया पुरोऽपि रागाद्गलितं न लक्षितम् ||<//****>| 1.13+|

Bhakti is not Dhvani

(*) रामगिरि आश्रमेषु – yaksha – not Bhakti only Dhvani

(*) पत्र शयनं वदति – only lakshanaa. No Dhvani

Types of Dhvani

(5) अविवक्षितवाच्य

सुवर्णपुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषास्त्रयः |</*>

शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च यश्च जानाति सेवितुम् ||<//*></*>| 1.13+|

(6) विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य

शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम कियच्चिरं किमभिधानमसावकरोत्तपः । </*>

तरुणि येन तवाधरपाटलं दशति बिम्बफलं शुकशावकः ।। 1.13+|

(7) अर्थान्तरसंक्रमित within


कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोर-हृदयः रामः अस्मि सर्वं सहे

वैदेही तु कथम् भविष्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव ||

(*) रविकिरण-अनुगृहीतानि भवन्ति कमलानि कमलानि |

(8a) अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत within अविवक्षितवाच्य

रविसङ्क्रान्तसौभाग्यस्तुषारावृतमण्डलः | </**>

निःश्वासान्ध इवादर्शश्चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते ||

(8b) अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत within अविवक्षितवाच्य

गगनं च मत्तमेघं धारालुलितार्जुनानि च वनानि |</**>

निरहङ्कारमृगाङ्का हरन्ति नीला अपि निशाः ||<//**>||2.1 ++||

(*)रसवदलंकारः — हे हेरंब किमम्ब … Hasya over Karuna.

(*)Shabdashakti in Samlakshya (eg from Kaavya Prakaasha)

भद्रात्मनो दुरधिरोहतनोर्विशाल वंशोन्नतेःकृतशिलीमुखविग्रहस्य । यस्यानुपप्लुतगतेः परवारणस्य दानाम्बुसेकसुभगः सततं करोभूत् ॥१२॥

The verse could mean both a king (contextual) and an elephant belonging to the jaati of Bhadra.

(*) note: NOT example of Sabdashakti in Samlakshya because shlesha with both meaning being contextual

सर्वदोमाधवः = सर्वदः माधवः / सर्वदा उमाधवः

(9) note: NOT example of Shabdashakti in Samlakshya

तस्या विनापि हारेण निसर्गादेव हारिणौ |</****>

जनयामासतुः कस्य विस्मयं न पयोधरौ ||<//****>||2.22  ++  ||

(10a) Arthashakti – Svatahsambhavi – Vastunaa vastudhvani

एवंवादिनि देवर्षौ पार्श्वे पितुरधोमुखी |</***>

लीलाकमलपत्राणि गणयामास पार्वती ||<//***>  | 2.23 ++ |

(10b) Arthashakti – Svatahsambhavi – Vastunaa vastudhvani

शिखिपिच्छकर्णपूरा जाया व्याधस्य गर्विणी भ्रमति |</*>

मुक्ताफलरचितप्रसाधनानां मध्ये सपत्नीनाम् || 2.२४||<//*>

(*) Arthashakti – Kavipraudokti – सज्जयति सुरभिमासः – The month arranges for manmata.

(*)Arthashakti – Kavi-nibhaddha-vaktru-praudokti शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम mentioned earlier.

(11) Vastunaa-alamkaaradhvani – Utpreksa-dhvani

चन्दनासक्तभुजगनिःश्वासानिलमूर्च्छितः |</*>

मूर्च्छयत्येष पथिकान्मधौ मलयमारुतः ||<//*>  | 2.28 ++ |

(12) Yathaasamkhya-dhvani (alamkaarena-alamkaara Dhvani)

अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च सहकारः |</*>

अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च हृदि मदनः ||<//*> | 2.28 ++ |

(13) वाक्यप्रकाशता in अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी | </*>

यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः || <//*>  | 3.1 eg |

(14) suggestion through Krudanta

अतिक्रान्तसुखाः कालाः प्रत्युपस्थितदारुणाः |

श्वः श्वः पापीयदिवसा पृथिवी गतयौवना || 3.१६++

(15) Insertion of Opposed sentiment

सत्यं मनोरमा रामाः सत्यं रम्या विभूतयः | </*>

किं तु मत्ताङ्गनापाङ्गभङ्गलोलं हि जीवितम् || <//*> | 3.30 ++ |


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