(Video) Yajnavalkya Smriti Quotations

Yajnavalkyasmriti quotations from 2007-15 KSOU MA question papers.

 

[१. साधारणव्यवहारमातृकाप्रकरणम्]

व्यवहारान् नृपः पश्येद् विद्वद्भिर् ब्राह्मणैः सह ।
धर्मशास्त्रानुसारेण क्रोधलोभविवर्जितः ॥ यास्मृ२.१ ॥

विद्वद्भिः ब्राह्मणैः सह क्रोध-लोभ-विवर्जितः नृपः धर्मशास्त्रानुसारेण व्यवहारान् पश्येत् ।

The king, free from anger and greed, should administer justice, along with learned braahmanas, in conformity with dharmashaastra, the principles of legal sciences.

श्रुताध्ययनसंपन्ना धर्मज्ञाः सत्यवादिनः ।
राज्ञा सभासदः कार्या रिपौ मित्रे च ये समाः ॥ यास्मृ२.२ ॥

ये रिपौ मित्रे च समाः, श्रुत+अध्ययन-संपन्नाः, धर्मज्ञाः, सत्यवादिनः, राज्ञा (ते) सभासदः कार्याः  |

A king should select as his councilors, those persons, who have accomplished by learning and study, who know the law, who speak always the truth, and who are equal to both friends and foes alike.

अपश्यता कार्यवशाद् व्यवहारान् नृपेण तु ।
सभ्यैः सह नियोक्तव्यो ब्राह्मणः सर्वधर्मवित् ॥ यास्मृ२.३ ॥

कार्यवशात् व्यवहारान् अपश्यता नृपेण तु सभ्यैः सह सर्वधर्मवित् ब्राह्मणः नियोक्तव्यः |

By a King, who is unable to attend to the administration of justice on account of other engagements, a Brahmana, knowing all laws, should be appointed (in his place) to work along with the councilors.

प्रत्यर्थिनोऽग्रतो लेख्यं यथावेदितम् अर्थिना ।
समामासतदर्धाहर्नामजात्यादिचिह्नितम् ॥ यास्मृ२.६ ॥

प्रत्यर्थिनः अग्रतः, यथा वेदितम्, अर्थिना, समा-मास-तदर्धाहः-नाम-जात्यादि-चिह्नितं लेख्यं (करणीयं भवति) |

Whatever is alleged by the plaintiff / applicant should be reduced to writing in the presence of the defendant, and marked with the year, the month, the fortnight, the day, the name, the caste and the like.

श्रुतार्थस्योत्तरं लेख्यं पूर्वावेदकसंनिधौ ।
ततोऽर्थी लेखयेत् सद्यः प्रतिज्ञातार्थसाधनम् ॥ यास्मृ२.७ ॥

पूर्वावेदक-संनिधौ, श्रुतार्थस्य उत्तरं, लेख्यं (भवति) । ततः सद्यः अर्थी प्रतिज्ञात+अर्थ-साधनं लेखयेत् |

The answer (refutation) of the defendant, who has heard the complaint, should be taken down in writing, in the presence of the plaintiff or complainant. Next, the plaintiff should immediately have written down the evidence by means of which the matter in dispute is to be established.

तत्सिद्धौ सिद्धिम् आप्नोति विपरीतम् अतोऽन्यथा ।
चतुष्पाद् व्यवहारोऽयं विवादेषू प्रदर्शितः ॥ यास्मृ२.८ ॥

तत्सिद्धौ सिद्धिम् आप्नोति | अतः अन्यथा विपरीतम् (आप्नोति)। अयं व्यवहारः विवादेषू चतुष्पाद् प्रदर्शितः |

If he (the plaintiff) succeeded in accomplishing the point of issue, he obtains success; otherwise, (the non-accomplishment of the proof in any other manner) it brings the reverse (i.e., defeat). This legal procedure is declared to be of four-fold character in litigation. Note: First part – plaintiff complains. Second – defendant answers. Third part – Evidence and proof are produced. Fourth part – decision is taken.

[२. असाधारणव्यवहारमातृकाप्रकरणम्]

अभियोगम् अनिस्तीर्य नैनं प्रत्यभियोजयेत् ।
अभियुक्तं च नान्येन नोक्तं विप्रकृतिं नयेत् ॥ यास्मृ२.९ ॥

एनम् अभियोगम् अनिस्तीर्य न प्रत्यभियोजयेत् । अन्येन अभियुक्तं च न | उक्तं विप्रकृतिं न नयेत् |

Until the accusation or the complaint is disposed of, no counterclaim should be allowed against the complainant. Not should be any other person be allowed to file a complaint against one who is already under a charge nor what has already been alleged should be allowed to be changed.

कुर्यात् प्रत्यभियोगं च कलहे साहसेषु च ।
उभयोः प्रतिभूर्ग्राह्यः समर्थः कार्यनिर्णये ॥ यास्मृ२.१० ॥

कलहे च साहसेषु च प्रत्यभियोगं कुर्यात् । कार्यनिर्णये समर्थः उभयोः प्रतिभूः ग्राह्यः |

A countercharge may be allowed in cases of defamation and assault. From both a security should be taken, who would be competent to satisfy the object of judgement.

साक्षिषूभयतः सत्सु साक्षिणः पूर्ववादिनः ।
पूर्वपक्षेऽधरीभूते भवन्त्युत्तरवादिनः ॥ यास्मृ२.१७ ॥

उभयतः साक्षिषु सत्सु, पूर्ववादिनः साक्षिणः । पूर्वपक्षे अधरीभूते (सति), उत्तरवादिनः (साक्षिणः) भवन्ति |

When there are witnesses for both sides, those for the person who claims priority should be taken first; and if the first claim gets invalidated, then the witnesses of the next claimant should be examined.

स्मृत्योर्विरोधे न्यायस्तु बलवान् व्यवहारतः ।
अर्थशास्त्रात् तु बलवद् धर्मशास्त्रम् इति स्थितिः ॥ यास्मृ२.२१ ॥

स्मृत्योः विरोधे न्यायः तु व्यवहारतः बलवान् । अर्थशास्त्रात् तु बलवद् धर्मशास्त्रम् इति स्थितिः |

Where two smritis conflict, principles of equity as determined by popular usage shall prevail. The rule, however, is that the science of law धर्मशास्त्रम् is stronger than the science of politics अर्थशास्त्रम्. Note that when two smritis conflict, the king was not given any power or discretion to make a choice, but he was required to apply the law as approved by custom and usage by the people themselves.

सर्वेष्वर्थविवादेषु बलवत्युत्तराक्रिया ।
आधौ प्रतिग्रहे क्रीते पूर्वा तु बलवत्तरा ॥ यास्मृ२.२३ ॥

सर्वेषु अर्थ-विवादेषु उत्तरा-क्रिया बलवती (भवति) । आधौ प्रतिग्रहे क्रीते च पूर्वा तु बलवत्तरा |

In all civil disputes regarding property, evidence adduced in support of a later transaction preponderates (i.e., gains more importance). In the case of a pledge (आधिः), a gift and a sale “however” evidence in support of the prior claim preponderates.

नृपेणाधिकृताः पूगाः श्रेणयोऽथ कुलानि च ।
पूर्वं पूर्वं गुरु ज्ञेयं व्यवहारविधौ नृणाम् ॥ यास्मृ२.३० ॥

नृपेण अधिकृताः पूगाः श्रेणयः अथ कुलानि च | नृणाम् व्यवहार-विधौ पूर्वं पूर्वं गुरु (इति) ज्ञेयम् |

In a matter of legal proceedings between men, officers appointed by the King, the Pugas, the Srenis, and the Kulas (each of these) proceedings should be considered to be in the superior order of priority. In descending order of importance, they are (a) officers appointed by the king (b) ‘pugas’ (assemblies of inhabitants of the same village or town), (c) ‘srenis’ (associations of merchants and craftsmen), and (d) ‘kulas’ (families). The decision of a Kula or kin group was subject to revision by the Sreni which, in turn, could be revised by the Puga.

[३. ऋणादानप्रकरणम्]

कान्तारगास्तु दशकं सामुद्रा विंशकं शतम् ।
दद्युर्वा स्वकृतां वृद्धिं सर्वे सर्वासु जातिषु ॥ यास्मृ२.३८ ॥

कान्तारगाः तु दशकं, सामुद्रा विंशकं शतम् । सर्वे सर्वासु जातिषु स्वकृतां वा वृद्धिं दद्युः |

Persons (usually) travelling through forests should pay ten percent and those who travel by sea twenty percent. Or all should pay what they agree to among all classes. The interest is more as there is a danger of the loss of the principal also. The transactions are to be held as per the agreement.

संततिस्तु पशुस्त्रीणां रसस्याष्टगुणा परा ।
वस्त्रधान्यहिरण्यानां चतुस्त्रिद्विगुणा परा ॥ यास्मृ२.३९ ॥

स्त्रीणां तु संततिः पशुः | रसस्य अष्टगुणा परा । वस्त्र-धान्य-हिरण्यानां चतु-स्त्रि-द्विगुणा परा |

In the case of female animals, the interest is their progeny. In the case of fluid the utmost limit for interest is eight-fold. The interest of the principal loan advanced should be four-fold, three-fold, and two-fold in the case of cloth, grain and gold respectively.

सुराकामद्यूतकृतं दण्डशुल्कावशिष्टकम् ।
वृथादानं तथैवेह पुत्रो दद्यान् न पैतृकम् ॥ यास्मृ२.४७ ॥

सुरा-काम-द्यूत-कृतं, दण्ड-शुल्क-अवशिष्टकं, वृथादानं तथा एव इह, पैतृकं पुत्रः न दद्यान् |

The son should not pay the paternal debt which was contracted for the purposes of spirituous liquor, lust or gambling, or which is due as the balance of an unpaid (i.e., remaining portion of) fine or toll, as also a gift without any consideration.

प्रतिपन्नं स्त्रिया देयं पत्या वा सह यत् कृतम् ।
स्वयंकृतं वा यद् ऋणं नान्यत् स्त्री दातुम् अर्हति ॥ यास्मृ२.४९ ॥

प्रतिपन्नं, पत्या सह वा यत् कृतं, स्वयंकृतं वा यद् ऋणं, स्त्रिया देयम् | स्त्री अन्यत् दातुं न अर्हति |

A debt agreed to by her, or which was contracted by her jointly with the husband, or by herself (alone) should be paid by a woman. A woman is not bound to pay any other debt.

[४. उपनिधिप्रकरणम्]

न दाप्योऽपहृतं तं तु राजदैविकतस्करैः ।
भ्रेषश्चेन्मार्गितेऽदत्ते दाप्यो दण्डं च तत्समम् ॥ यास्मृ२.६६ ॥

राज-दैविक-तस्करैः अपहृतं तं तु न दाप्यः । मार्गिते अदत्ते (सति) भ्रेषः चेत् तत् समम् दण्डं दाप्यः च |

That, however, which has been carried away by (an act of) the King, natural calamities, or thieves shall not be caused to be restored. When, however, the loss occurs after demand and non-payment, the depositary should be fined and compelled to pay an amount equal (to the deposit).

[५. साक्षिप्रकरणम्]

त्र्यवराः साक्षिणो ज्ञेयाः श्रौतस्मार्तक्रियापराः । यथाजाति यथावर्णं सर्वे सर्वेषु वा स्मृताः ॥ यास्मृ२.६९ ॥

त्रि+अवराः श्रौत-स्मार्त-क्रियापराः यथा-जाति, यथा-वर्णं, सर्वे सर्वेषु वा स्मृताः, साक्षिणः ज्ञेयाः |

The competent witnesses should be not less than three, and should be devoted to the performance of Srauta and Smaarta rites, each respectively according to their caste or class or all for all castes and classes.

साक्षिणः श्रावयेद्वादिप्रतिवादिसमीपगान् ।
ये पातककृतां लोका महापातकिनां तथा ॥ यास्मृ२.७३ ॥

वादि-प्रतिवादि-समीपगान् साक्षिणः श्रावयेत् – “ये पातककृतां लोकाः महापातकिनां तथा …” |

In the present of the plaintiff and the defendant, the witnesses should be affirmed (in the following form). “Those regions which are meant for the perpetrators of sins and of baser sins, ….. to all these shall he go who gives false evidence.”

[६. लेख्यप्रकरणम्]

विनापि साक्षिभिर्लेख्यं स्वहस्तलिखितं तु यत् ।
तत् प्रमाणं स्मृतं लेख्यं बलोपधिकृताद् ऋते ॥ यास्मृ२.८९ ॥

साक्षिभिः विना अपि यत् लेख्यं तु स्व-हस्त-लिखितं,  बल+उपधिकृताद् ऋते तत् लेख्यं प्रमाणं स्मृतम् |

A writing, which is in one’s own hand, although it be without witnesses, is declared to be evidence, except when it is caused by force or fraud.

ऋणं लेख्यकृतं देयं पुरुषैस्त्रिभिरेव तु ।
आधिस्तु भुज्यते तावद् यावत्तन्न प्रदीयते ॥ यास्मृ२.९० ॥

त्रिभिः पुरुषैः एव लेख्यकृतं ऋणं तु देयम् । यावत् तत् न प्रदीयते तावद् आधिः तु भुज्यते |

A debt evidenced by writing should be paid by persons in three generations only. A pledge, however, is enjoyed as long as it is not paid off.

देशान्तरस्थे दुर्लेख्ये नष्टोन्मृष्टे हृते तथा ।
भिन्ने दग्धेऽथवा छिन्ने लेख्यम् अन्यत् तु कारयेत् ॥ यास्मृ२.९१ ॥

देशान्तरस्थे, दुर्लेख्ये, नष्टोन्मृष्टे, हृते तथा, भिन्ने, दग्धे, अथवा छिन्ने, अन्यत् लेख्यम् तु कारयेत् |

If a document is in another country, is badly written, or is lost, or effaced, as also, if it is stolen, if it is torn, burnt, or cut asunder, another should be allowed (by the King) to be made (in its place).

[७. दिव्यप्रकरणम्] (out of syllabus)

सचैलं स्नातम् आहूय सूर्योदयोपोषितम् ।
कारयेत् सर्वदिव्यानि नृपब्राह्मणसंनिधौ ॥ यास्मृ२.९७ ॥

स्नातं सचैलं  सूर्योदय-उपोषितं आहूय, सर्वदिव्यानि नृपब्राह्मणसंनिधौ कारयेत् |

All these divyas or ordeals (i.e., the tests that the accused is put through hoping to get some divine proof) are to be performed in the presence of the King and the Brahmins, by inviting the person who should have been fasting since sunrise and he should come bathed with his (wet) clothes on him.

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