Arthashastra quotations from 2007-15 years’ KSOU MA Sanskrit Questions papers.
विद्यासमुद्देशः Chp2 book 1 pg 35. This is from chapter 2 on “Establishing the need of Logical Philosophy of Anvikshaki”. आन्वीक्षिकी त्रयी वार्त्ता दण्डनीतिः च इति विद्याः | Meaning: Anvikshaki, the triple Védas (Trayi), Várta (agriculture, cattle-breeding and trade), and Danda–Niti (science of government) are what are called the four sciences. Context: The first topic that is dealt with in Arthashastra is about Vidya. Kautila begins by providing the components of knowledge. Here Anvikshaki comprises the Philosophy of Sankhya, Yoga, and Lokayata.
विद्यासमुद्देशः Chp2 book 1 pg 35 This is from chapter 2 on “Establishing the need of Logical Philosophy or Anvikshaki”. दण्ड-नीतिः एका विद्या इति उशनसा:। Meaning: The school of Usanas or Sukraacharya declare that there is only one science, and that the science of government. Context: Anvikshaki, the triple Védas (Trayi), Várta (agriculture, cattle-breeding and trade), and Danda-Niti (science of government) are what are called the four sciences. The school of Manu holds that there are only three sciences: the triple Vedas, Varta and the science of government. The school of Brihaspati says that there are only two sciences: Varta and the science of government. The school of Usanas or Sukraacharya declare that there is only one science, and that the science of government; for, they say, it is in that science that all other sciences have their origin and end. But Kautilya holds that four and only four are the sciences.
विद्यासमुद्देशः Chp2 book 1 pg 35 This is from chapter 2 on “Establishing the need of Logical Philosophy or Anvikshaki”. साङ्ख्यं योगः लोकायतं च इति आन्वीक्षिकी | Meaning: Anvikshaki comprises the Philosophy of Sankhya, Yoga, and Lokayata. Context: Anvikshaki, the triple Védas (Trayi), Várta (agriculture, cattle-breeding and trade), and Danda–Niti (science of government) are what are called the four sciences. In that, Anvikshaki comprises the Philosophy of Sankhya, Yoga, and Lokayata.
विद्यासमुद्देशः Chp2 book 1 pg 35. This is from chapter 2 on “Establishing the need of Logical Philosophy or Anvikshaki”. प्रदीपः सर्वविद्यानां उपायः सर्वकर्मणाम् |आश्रयः सर्वधर्माणां शश्वद् आन्वीक्षिकी मता ।। Meaning: Light to all kinds of knowledge, easy means to accomplish all kinds of acts and receptacle of all kinds of virtues, is the Science of Anvikshaki ever held to be. Context: This is the conclusion of this chapter on establishing the need for Anvikshaki. This Logical Philosophy consisting of Saankhya, Yoga and Lokaayata brings about proficiency in thought, speech and action.
त्रयीस्थापना chp3 book 1 pg 41. This is from chapter 3 on “Establishing the Triad”. व्यवस्थित-आर्य-मर्यादः कृत-वर्णाश्रम-स्थितिः | त्रय्या हि रक्षितः लोकः प्रसीदति न सीदति || Meaning: When the people suitably remain fixed in the limits of the Aryan rule of life, establish firmly the classes and the stages of life and remain protected by Triad, they prosper and they do not perish. Context: Kautilya concludes this chapter on Establishing the Triad, by stating the importance of the Vedas which causes the world to prosper. Kautilya says that the observance of one’s own prescribed duty leads one to heaven and to infinite bliss.
वृद्धसंयोग: Chp5 book 1 pg 56 This is from chapter 5 on “Association with Elders”. तस्मात् दण्ड-मूलाः तिस्रः विद्याः | Meaning: Therefore, the (first) three sciences (out of the four – Anvikshaki, Trayi, Várta and Danda–Niti) are dependent for their well-being on Danda–Niti, the science of government or Danda, punishment. Context: Kautilya says that training and discipline are acquired by the association with elders. For this he begins the chapter on association with elders by stressing on the need for Danda to gain discipline, since Punishment alone can procure safety and security of life.
राजर्षिवृत्तम् chp7 book 1 pg 73. This is from chapter 7 on “The Life of a Sage like King”. धर्म-अर्थ-अविरोधेन कामं सेवेत, न निस्सुखः स्यात् | Meaning: Not violating righteousness and material prosperity, he shall enjoy his desires. He shall never be devoid of happiness. Context: In this chapter, Kautilya describes the life of a sage like King. Earlier he had mentioned that the king should over throw the six-fold internal enemies namely lust, anger, greed, vanity, arrogance and over-delight, and conquer the senses. Having done that, he may enjoy in an equal degree the three pursuits of life, righteousness, material prosperity and physical pleasures. If anyone is cultivated in excess, it will harm itself and also the other two.
राजर्षिवृत्तम् chp7 book 1 pg 73. This is from chapter 7 on “The Life of a Sage like King”. अर्थ-मूलौ हि धर्म-कामौ इति | Meaning: Both Spiritual good and physical pleasures are based on material prosperity. Context: While the general opinion is that the King may enjoy in an equal degree the three pursuits of life namely righteousness, material prosperity and physical pleasures, Kautilya maintains that material prosperity along is prominent. He states that one can pursue righteousness and desires only if he is financially sound.
मन्त्रिपुरोहितोत्पत्ति: Chp 9 book 1 pg 88. This is from chapter 9 on “The creation of Mantris and Priests”. प्रत्यक्ष-परोक्ष-अनुमेयाः हि राजवृत्तिः | Meaning: The work or the royal administration of a king may be visible (directly perceived), invisible (indirectly cognized) and inferential. Context: Here the need for appointing ministers is specified since the King cannot oversee all the activities in person. He has to directly see some tasks; and he has to know from others about certain things; and infer what is not accomplished from knowing what is accomplished.
उपधाभाश्शौचज्ञानममात्यानाम् chp10 book 1 pg 96. This is from chapter 10 on “Ascertaining by temptations or secret tests, the purity or impurity in the character of ministers.” सर्व उपधा-शुद्धान् मन्त्रिणः कुर्यात् | Meaning: Those whose character has been tested under all kinds of allurements shall be employed as mantris or councilors. Context: Before appointing the ministers, the King ascertains the integrity of the person by conducting secret tests under the three pursuits of life, religion, wealth and love, and under fear. While doing so, Kautilya opines that the King should never make himself or his Queen the target to prove the purity of his ministers.
ये बन्धुषु नि:स्नेहा: क्रूराश्चालसाश्च ते रसादा:। गूढपुरुषप्रणिधि: Chp12 pg 8 bk2. This is from chapter 12 on “Appointment of Wandering Spies”. ये बन्धुषु निस्स्नेहाः क्रूराः च अलसाः च ते रसदाः | Meaning: The poison-givers are those who have no affection towards their kinsman, are very cruel and lethargic. Context: Kautilya explains the different types of wandering spies namely Satri – the secret agent in the disguise of astrologer, Teekshna – the brave and energetic spy, rasada – the poison-giver, and bhikshukee – the begging lady monk.
गूढपुरुषप्रणिधि: chp12 Pg 9 bk2. This is from chapter 12 on “Appointment of Wandering Spies”. गृहीत-पुत्र-दारान् च कुर्यात् उभय-वेतनान् | तान् च रिप्रहितान् विद्यात् तेषां शौचं च तद्विधैः || Meaning: Those whose sons and wives are kept (as hostages) shall be made recipients of salaries from two states and considered as under the mission of enemies. Context: While describing the responsibilities of different types of Spies, Kautilya mentions about the spies whose family in taken charge of by the king and who seemingly work for the enemy and gather secret information for the king. He adds that the purity of character of such persons shall be ascertained through persons of similar profession.
मन्त्राधिकार: Chp 15 pg 28 bk 2. This is from chapter 15 on “The Business of Counsel Meeting”. मन्त्र-पूर्वाः सर्व-आरम्भाः | Meaning: All kinds of administrative measures are preceded by deliberations in a well-formed council. Context: Once the king has conquered his own party and his enemy, he should undertake the administrative works. For that, the king has to consult his counsel and only then take his decisions. The conduct of the secret council is described in this chapter.
दूतप्रणिधि: Chp16 pg 40/42 bk2. This is from chapter 16 on “The Employment of Envoys”. उद्धृत-मन्त्रः दूतप्रणिधिः | Meaning: Whoever has succeeded as a councillor or Mantri is an envoy. Context: Having dealt with the secret counsel, Kautilya describes the employment of Envoys. He begins by saying the responsibilities that can be given to the different types of Envoys. Whoever possesses ministerial qualifications is the fully authorized one who will be in-charge of the affairs (nisrishtárthah). Whoever possesses the same qualifications less by one-quarter is an agent entrusted with a definite mission having limited authority (parimitárthah). Whoever possesses the same qualifications less by one-half is a conveyer of royal writs or messenger (sásanaharah).
राजपुत्ररक्षणम् Chp17 pg 52 bk2. This is from chapter 17 on “Protection of Princes”. बुद्धिमान् आहार्य-बुद्धिः दुर्बुद्धिः इति पुत्र-विशेषाः | Meaning: Sons are of three kinds: those of sharp intelligence; those of stagnant intelligence; and those of perverted mind. Context: Kautilya explains the different kinds of sons that a King might have in this way – Whoever carries into practice whatever he is taught concerning righteousness and wealth is one of sharp intelligence; whoever never carries into practice the good instructions he has imbibed is one of stagnant intelligence; and whoever entangles himself in dangers and hates righteousness and wealth is one of perverted mind. Kautilya suggests the actions to be taken by the king for his own protection and the welfare of the kingdom in these different cases.
राजप्रणिधि: chp19 pg 64/68 bk2. This is from chapter 19 on “The Duties of the King”. राजानं उत्थितं अनूत्तिष्ठन्ते भृत्याः | Meaning: If a king is energetic, his subjects will be equally energetic. Context: While starting to explain the duties of the King, Kautilya mentions this first that the king has to be energetic. If he is reckless, the subjects will not only be reckless likewise, but also eat into his works. Besides, a reckless king will easily fall into the hands of his enemies. Hence the king shall ever be wakeful.
राजप्रणिधिः Chp19 pg 66/70 bk2. This is from chapter 19 on “The Duties of the King”. प्रजा-सुखे सुखं राज्ञः प्रजानां च हिते हितम् | न-आत्म-प्रियं हितं राज्ञः प्रजानां तु प्रियं हितम् || Meaning: In the happiness of his subjects lies his happiness; in their welfare his welfare; whatever pleases himself he shall not consider as good, but whatever pleases his subjects he shall consider as good. Context: Kautilya states that the King should find his happiness in serving his subjects. Hence the king shall ever be active and discharge his duties since the root of wealth is activity, and of evil its reverse.