Notes for Shikshaa (Level 3) – Sandhi

Sandhi Summary

  1. स्वरसन्धिः
    • सवर्णदीर्घसन्धिः
      { अ आ } { इ ई } { उ ऊ } { ऋ } + सवर्णस्वरः = { आ ई ऊ ॠ }
    • गुणसन्धिः
      { अ आ } + { इ ई } { उ ऊ } { ऋ ॠ } { ऌ } = { ए ओ अर् अल् }
    • वृद्धिसन्धिः
      { अ आ } + { ए ऐ } { ओ औ } = { ऐ औ }
    • यण् सन्धिः
      { इ ई } { उ ऊ } { ऋ ॠ } { ऌ } + असवर्णस्वरः = { य् व् र् ल् }
    • यान्तवान्तादेशसन्धिः
      { ए } { ऐ } { ओ } { औ } + { स्वरः } = { अय् अव् आय् आव् }
    • पूर्वरूपसन्धिः ( ऽ – avagraha symbol)
      { ए } { ओ } + { अ } = { ए } { ओ }
      सो + अहम् = सोऽहम्
    • पररूपसन्धिः
      { अ } + { ए } { ओ } = { ए } { ओ }
  2. व्यञ्जनसन्धिः
  • श्चुत्वसन्धिः
    { सकार + तवर्ग: } + { शकार: + चवर्गः } = { शकार: + चवर्गः }
    ( first varga changes to equivalent in the second varga ) (order can be reversed also )
    { त } + { च … ञ श } or { च … ञ श } + { त } –> { च }
    { स } + { च … ञ श } or { च … ञ श } + { स } –> { श }
    सत् + चित् = सच्चित्
  • ष्टुत्वसन्धिः
    { सकार + तवर्ग: } + { षकार: + टवर्गः } = { षकार: + टवर्गः }
    ( first varga changes to equivalent in the second varga ) (order can be reversed also )
    { त } + { ट … ण ष } or { ट … ण ष } + { त } –> { ट }
    तत् + टीका = तट्टीका
  • जश्त्वसन्धिः
    वर्गीयव्यञ्जनानि + { स्वरः / मृदुव्यञ्जनानि ) = ग् ज् ड् द् ब्
    { 1, 2, 3, 4 } + { स्वरः {3, 4, 5} य र ल व ह } = { 3rd of first } + {second}
    जगत् + गुरु = जगद्गुरु
  • चर्तवसन्धिः
    वर्गीयव्यञ्जनानि + कर्कशव्यञ्जनानि = क् च् ट् त् प्
    { 1, 2, 3, 4 } + { 1, 2, श ष स ) = { 1st of first } + {second}
    विपद् + कालः = विपत्कालः
  • परसवर्णसन्धिः
    अनुस्वारः + व्यञ्जनम् (except श ष स ह ) = { 5th of second } + {second}
    शं + करः = शङ्करः
    { त् थ् द् ध् } + ल = ल्ल | न् + ल = ँल्ल
    तत् + लयः = तल्लयः
  • अनुनासिकसन्धिः
    • Optional वर्गीयव्यञ्जनानि + अनुनासिका = { 5th of first } + {second}
      जगत् + माता = जगन्माता
    • Mandatory when the second part is a suffix starting with अनुनासिका like मयम्, मात्रम् |
      तद् + मात्रम् = तन्मात्रम्
  • ङमुडागमसन्धिः
    { ह्रस्वस्वरः } + { ङ ण न } + स्वरः –> 2 { ङ ण न }
    गच्छन् + अस्ति = गच्छन्नस्ति
  • अनुस्वारसन्धिः
    { म } + { व्यञ्जनम् } = ं + { व्यञ्जनम् }
    अहम् प्रातः = अहं प्रातः
  • पूर्वसवर्णसन्धिः
    { 3rd } + { ह } = { 3rd } + { 4th }
    This could be followed by जश्त्वसन्धिः which changes the first part from { 1 2 3 4 } to 3rd. This sandhi is optional.
    जगत् + हिताय = जगद् + हिताय (जश्त्वसन्धिः) |
    जगद् + हिताय = जगद् + धिताय (पूर्वसवर्णसन्धिः) |
  • छत्वसन्धिः
    { वर्गीय-व्यञ्जनम् } + श् + { स्वरः ह य व र } = { } + { छ् } + { }
    This sandhi is optional.
    उत् + श्वासः = उच् + श्वासः – श्चुत्वसन्धिः |
    उच् + श् + वासः = उच् + छ् + वासः – छत्वसन्धिः |
  1. विसर्गसन्धिः
    • उकारादेशः
    • सकारादेशः
    • रेफादेशः
    • लोपः

व्यञ्जनसन्धिः  — Some key points to quickly identify the sandhi

Recommend everyone to prepare these clues in a way that is understandable to them.

Refer the question papers and the notes available in my google drive for Shikshaa.

  • { सकार / तवर्ग: } + YYY = XXX1 + Y(X) + YYY (Varga changes)
    • श्चुत्वसन्धिः — शकार: / चवर्गः — उत् + श्वासः = उच्श्वासः
    • ष्टुत्वसन्धिः — षकार: / टवर्गः — तत् + टीका = तट्टीका
  • { 1, 2, 3, 4} + YYY = XXX1 + X(1) / X(3) + YYY (Position changes)
    • र्तवसन्धिः — कर्कशव्यञ्जनानि — X(1) — विपद् + कालः = विपत्कालः
    • श्त्वसन्धिः –- स्वरः / मृदुव्यञ्जनानि — X(3) — जगत् + गुरु = जगद्गुरु
  • (XXX + अनुनासिका + YYY1) / ( XXX1 + अनुस्वारः + YYY) = XXX1 + X(5) / Y(5) + YYY
    • अनुनासिकसन्धिः – XXX + अनुनासिका — X(5) — जगत् + माता = जगन्माता (position change)
    • परसवर्णसन्धिः – अनुस्वारः + YYY — Y(5) — शं + करः = शङ्करः (varga change)
  • म् à ं loss  or  2 { ङ ण न } gain
    • अनुस्वारसन्धिः — म् à ं  before { व्यञ्जनम् }  — अहम् प्रातः = अहं प्रातः
    • ङमुडागमसन्धिः — 2 { ङ ण न } before स्वरः — गच्छन् + अस्ति = गच्छन्नस्ति
  • XXX + { ह् / श् } + YYY1 à XXX + { X(4) / छ् } + YYY1
    • पूर्वसवर्णसन्धिः
      { 3rd } + { ह } = { 3rd } + { 4th } जगद् + हिताय = जगद् + धिताय
    • त्वसन्धिः
      श् + स्वरः ह य व र = { छ् } — उच् + श् + वासः = उच् + छ् + वासः

 

Dhvanyaaloka – Dr. Sivakumaraswamy – KSOU 2016

Dhvanyaaloka – Dr. Sivakumaraswamy – The KSOU 2016 contact class sessions conducted for MA Sanskrit students at Bangalore. 

Class #1 – First Udyotta

The intent of this work, Dhvanyaaloka is to assert that Dhvani is the soul of poetry. This Dhvani was a new concept from the perspective of the earlier Alamkaarikas. So it was not readily accepted.

Mangala Shloka

This mangala shloka is an example for all the 3 types of Dhvani namely Vastu Dhvani, Alamkaara Dhvani and Rasa Dhvani. स्वेच्छाकेसरिणः स्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः | त्रायन्तां वो मधुरिपोः प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदो नखाः || (Meaning: Let the claws of that Hari who manifested in the form of man-lion at His own will, which claws have outshone the moon in their crystal white hue, and which quells the afflictions of His devotees, protect you.).

This is the first shloka of Dhvanyaaloka. He is praising Hari. He becomes the Samuchchita-Ishta-Devataa. He took the form of Kesari due to his own will rather than due to any karma. स्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः – Due to his white rays, the nails cause the Chandra to be troubled due to shame. मधुरिपोः नखाः – Vishnu’s nails. प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदः – his, who destroys the sufferings of those who surrender on to him. वः त्रायन्ताम् – Let them protect you all (this includes the author and the readers also).

Rasa Dhvani – There is Veera Rasa with the staayibhaava of utsaaha suggested here. Vishnu and his nails are ever enthusiastic to protect the devotees.

Vastu Dhvani – The nails destroy the sufferings of the devotees. He does not need any other tool. His nails are enough for him. This is the idea being suggested. Also the idea that he is brimming with energy to protect the devotees is also being suggested.

Alamkaara Dhvani – Due to his white rays, the nails cause the Chandra to be troubled due to shame. The chandra’s splendour is inferior to the shine of the nails. The upamaana of Chandra is inferior to the Upameya of Nails and so the alamkara of Vyatirekha is suggested here.

Structure of Dhvanyaaloka

There are kaarikaas and the vrittis. Dr. K. Krishnmoorthi and others in Karnataka are of the opinion that the kaarikaa and the vritti are written by Anandavardhana. There are others in North India and Kerala that opine that the vritti was only written by Anandavardhana. Their opinion is based on the commentator named Maheshwara, who mentioned that Bharata or someone else could have written the Kaarikaa. Moreover, in the Lochana, Abhinava Gupta writes this way “इदम् आह वृत्तिकारः” – “So says the author of the Vritti”. This has added to the controversy that the author of kaarikaa and the vrutti could be different people.

Definition of Dhvani & Dhvani virooda vaada

This is the first Kaarikaa.

काव्यस्यात्मा ध्वनिरिति बुधैर्यः समाम्नातपूर्व-स्तस्याभावं जगदुरपरे भाक्तमाहुस्तमन्ये | केचिद्वाचाम् स्थितमविषये तत्त्वमूचुस्तदीयम्  तेन ब्रूमः सहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् || १ || (Meaning: Dhvani (ध्वनि:) was declared (समाम्नातम्) to be the soul of poetry (काव्यस्यात्मा) by learned persons (बुधै:) of yore  (पूर्वै: ). All the same some would refute its existence (तस्याभावं); some would consider it as something that could be logically implied (अपरे भाक्तम्+आहु:+तम्); some others speak of its presence as being beyond the provision of expression (अन्ये केचित्+वाचाम् स्थितम्+अविषये). Hence, we hereby intend explaining (तेन ब्रूमः ) what its nature (तत्स्वरूपम्) is so as to cause delight to the hearts of sympathetic critics (सहृदय+मनः+प्रीतये)).

काव्यस्यात्मा ध्वनिरिति बुधैर्यः समाम्नातपूर्वः – That the soul of poetry is Dhvani has been recognized and agreed by the generations of earlier experts.

तस्याभावं जगदुरपरे – there are a few people who do not accept the existence of the Dhvani. Their arguments are called as abhaavavaada.

भाक्तमाहुस्तमन्ये – There are others who consider Dhvani to be Vyangyaartha or Bhaaktaartha, that meaning which comes out due to the function of Bhakti or indication.

केचिद्वाचाम् स्थितमविषये तत्त्वमूचुस्तदीयम् – Like how Brahma is Anirvachaneeyam, this Dhvani is also anirvachaneeyam. This vaada is also called anirvachaneeyataa vaada. It cannot be explained.

There are 5 arguments against Dhvani, i.e., Dhvani virooda vaada. The first three arguments are within the Abhaava-vaada. The fourth is Bhaakta vaada and the fifth is the anirvachaneeyataa vaada.

Shabda and Artha together is considered as kaavya. Not just that. There are alamkaaras, Gunas, Vrittis, Reeti or Maarga, etc. The first abhaava-vaada is questioning what is new in Dhvani when there are already other beautifying factors. The second abhaavavaada is vikalpa which rejects the existence of Dhvani. They say outright that there is no Dhvani. नास्त्येव ध्वनिः | प्रसिद्धप्रस्थानव्यतिरेकिणः  काव्यप्रकारस्य काव्यत्वहानेः .. | Prasthaanas are the major concepts that have been put forth by earlier alamkaarikas. There cannot be something new which can beautify the poetry. The third abhaavavaada is that there are different ways of Vaakvikalpa – these are all creativity of the poet. न सम्भवत्येव ध्वनिर्नामापूर्वः कश्चित् | कामनीयकमनतिवर्तमानस्य तस्योक्तेष्वेव चारुत्वहेतुष्वन्तर्भावात् |If this Dhvani add manohara to the poetry, it can be also be considered as a new type of one of the existing concepts like Alamkaara or Guna. They ask the Dhvani supporters to not close their eyes and keep dancing about Dhvani. तस्मात् प्रवादमात्रं ध्वनिः | Dhvani is not truth. It is a Pravaada, that which is simply spreading among a set of people. There was a poet named Manoratha. He wrote a shloka against Anandavardha. There is nothing interesting – no vastu, no alamkaaras, not written by great poets, and no varkrokti. What is the true form of Dhvani? Anandavardha quotes that and says that he is writing this work to explain that only. In the fourth Bhaakta Vaada, the Bhaaktaas say that the vyangyaartha can be included in Bhaaktyaartha itself. When the denoted meaning is not applicable, any way we are taking a different meaning. Let Dhvani also be that Bhaaktyaartha. लक्षणकरणशालीनबुद्धयः – These people become tired in mind if they think a little more while attempting to create a lakshana meaning.

तेनैवंविधासु विमतिषु स्थितासु सहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपं ब्रूमः | (Meaning: Taking into consideration all these conflicting views, we furnish hereunder the nature of suggestion for the satisfaction and appreciation of sympathetic critics i.e., connoisseurs). In such a situation, for bringing happiness to the minds of the sahrudayaas, I  will explain the nature of Dhvani.

Types of meanings

We have come across to types of meanings namely वाच्यार्थः,  लक्ष्यार्थः and प्रतीयमानार्थः | Vaachya is very famous. Every one understand it. In the Alamkaaras like upamaa, these meanings are being used. बहुधा व्याकृतः सोऽन्यैः काव्यलक्ष्मविधायिभिः | – – – ततो नेह प्रतन्यते || 1.३||(meaning: The denotative conventional meaning is generally known and it has already been covered in many ways through figures of speech such as simile by other writers. Therefore that is not to be discussed here in detail). Since it has been elaborately discussed earlier, it is not being described here.

प्रतीयमानं पुनरन्यदेव वस्त्वस्ति वाणीषु महाकवीनाम् | </***> यत्तत्प्रसिद्धावयवातिरिक्तं विभाति लावण्यमिवांगनासु || 1.४||  </*> (meaning: But the suggestive aspect is distinct from this (explicit – denotative – conventional) (प्रतीयमानं पुन: अन्यत् एव). It shows itself brilliantly in the words(वाणीषु) of celebrated poets (महाकवि)and reigns supreme over and above (अतिरिक्तंविभाति) the striking external elementsप्रसिद्ध+ अवयव, even as charm among ladies(लावण्यम् इव अङ्गनासु)).

In the works of the great poets, there is a third type of meaning, which is different from Vaachya and lakshya. The prasiddha avayava of kaavya are shabda and artha. For those, the chaarutva is got by the shabda alamkaaras and sangatana chaaturya is got by the shabda gunas, the swaroopas are got by Arthaalamkaaras, and the sangatana dharmas are got by the arthagunas – these are all the popular organs of the Kaavya. That which is different all these, and which attracts us the very moment we notice it, is found in the prateeyamaanaartha. This is similar to the beauty seen in women that is different all the beauty of the individual organs. (Note: Laavanya is the bhaava of lavana or salt. It is the lakshanaartha that has come in roodi to indicate charmness. Laavanya indicates the charm that overtakes the other features). Only a sahrudaya will be able to appreciate this third type of meaning.

Types of Dhvani

The vyangya vastu will be different from the Vaachya vastu. The vyangyaalamkaara will be different from the Vaachyaalamkaara. The rasavadaadi Dhvani will be different and better than the rasavadaadyalamkaara. The vaachyaartha might be a vidhi or an instruction to do something. But the vyangyaartha might be a nisheda instruction that it should not be done. भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः स शुनकोऽद्य मारितस्तेन | गोदावरीनदीकूललतागहनवासिना दृप्तसिंहेन || (meaning: Freely (विस्रब्धः) roam (भ्रम) about, O Ascetic! That dog (स: शुनक:) which you were afraid of, has been killed (मारित:)recently (अद्य) by (तेन)the ferocious lion (दृप्त+सिंहेन) that dwells (लतागहन+वासिना)on the bank of Godavari river (गोदावरी+नदी+कूल). Suggested meaning: Don’t worry that there is no privacy. The person who used to haunt us has been removed away by a more powerful person. So we can’t meet). Here a woman tells a person who comes to meet her place and disturbs her that he could come freely now as the dog that used to bark at him has now been killed by a lion. Here though she says roam around freely, the hidden meaning is that you cannot walk around freely due to the presence of the lion. The interpretation is based on the context. There are examples of other cases like the case where the denoted meaning is to not do while the suggested meaning is to do. There could also be the cases where the suggested meaning is (अनुभय) neither vidhi nor nisheda.

Need for vaachyaartha

आलोकार्थी यथा दीपशिखायां यत्नवाञ्जनः | तदुपायतया तद्वदर्थे वाच्ये तदादृतः || ९ || </*> (Meaning: In the same manner(यथा – तद्वत्) as a man(जनः) intent upon seeing an object in darkness (आलोक+अर्थी), puts forth his efforts(यत्नवान्) towards fetching a lamp (दीप+शिखायां)owing to its being a means to realise his goal (of seeing the object) (तत्+उपायतया) one who is very much interested (तत्+आदृतः) in the suggested meaning (अर्थे) would at the outset direct his effort towards (understanding) the conventional meaning (वाच्ये)). Like the person who carries a lantern if he needs the light, in the same way, to be able to understand the vyangyaartha, the vaachyaartha is required.

The definition of Dhvani

यत्रार्थः शब्दो वा तमर्थमुपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ | व्यङ्क्तः काव्यविशेषः स ध्वनिरिति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३|| </*> (Meaning: The conventional word शब्द: and the conventional meaning अर्थः   (स्व+अर्थौ =  स्व + शब्द: + अर्थः) are abandoned उपसर्जनी+कृत |  अर्थः शब्द:वाव्यङ्क्तः | They become suggested word or meaning. व्यङ्क्तः = प्रतीयमान: अर्थ: भवति | That is a specialty of the poem called Dhvani. That kind of poetry in which the conventional meaning or the conventional word renders its meaning sub-ordinate and suggests the intended or implied meaning, is termed “Dhvani” or “suggestive poetry” by the learned people).

The वा here does not mean that it is either artha or shabda. The intention here is that when Artha is prominent in conveying the Dhvani, the word will be subordinate to it and similarly when shabda is prominent in conveying the Dhvani, the meaning will be subordinate to it. The other terms उपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ, and  व्यङ्क्तः are in dvivachana indicating both are there. When the suggested meaning is overtaken by the denoted word and meaning, that Kaavya is considered to be a Dhvani by the scholars. Upasarjana means “being subservient” – taking the guneebhaava or secondary position without having praadaanyam. Artha subsides by itself अर्थः उपसर्जनीकृतस्वः, while shabda makes its meaning subside शब्दः तमर्थमुपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थः | In that situation, it is called Dhvani Kaavya.

Many alamkaaras like अप्रस्तुतप्रशंसा, समासोक्तिः, विषेशोक्तिः, आक्षेप, पर्यायोक्तः, etc. have some suggested meaning in them. If the suggestion is not prominent, then it becomes Gunibhoota Vyangya and this gunibhoota vyangya is a type of Alamkaara only.   पर्यायोक्तः is an Alamkaara for which the example of “भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः” can be taken. But that has been given as an example of Dhvani. It is true that it qualifies to be an alamkara and a Dhvani. But due to the prominence of Dhvani and since the Alamkaara is just supplementary पर्यायोक्तस्याङ्गित्वेन , it is taken to be a Dhvani and also, all Dhvani cannot be equated to this Paryaayoktaalamkaara. Anandavardhana refers to this superiority of Dhvani (mahaavishaya) over an Alamkaara (alpavishaya) by the maxim, Paryaayoka-nyaaya, to indicate those cases where the Alamkaara cannot be treated to be Dhvani itself.

Bhaakta Vaada Khandana

Anandavardhana points out that – there is difference in the forms between the Bhaaktyaartha i.e., lakshyaartha, and the Dhvanyaartha. If Vaachyaartha is the stream, the lakshyaartha is the bank. The purpose which is to indicate the qualities of sacredness and chillness is not explicitly indicated in the lakshyaartha. So this is Dhvani. If just to make sense of the sentence, instead of the denoted meaning or mukhyaartha, the indicated meaning or the lakshanaa is taken, then it is not Dhvani. Thus there is Bhakti without Dhvani and they both cannot be the same. भक्त्या बिभर्ति नैकत्वम् रूपभेदादयं ध्वनिः (१३.१) | (Meaning: Suggestion and secondary signification are not one and the same because of the innate difference between the two. Among the three functions of the word, the second function is called Lakshana Vyaapaara or Bhakti. Believers of Bhakti are Bhaktaas. Suggestion and Bhakti are different since their forms are different (roopa bheda)). There will be ativyaapti dosha (where Dhvani is not there, even when Bhakti is present). There will also be Avyaapti dosha (where Dhvani is there without the presence of Bhakti).

Anirvachaneeyataa vaada Khandana

Anirvachaneeyataa vaadins say that Dhvani cannot be explained. Now that it has been properly defined, this argument has been totally refuted.

Class #2

The different types of Dhvani

  1. अविवक्षितवाच्य:
    • अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य:
    • अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य:
  2. विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य:
    • संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः
    • असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः

Here अविवक्षितवाच्य: is लक्षणामूलध्वानि and विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: is अभिधामूलध्वनि | (Refer Kaavya Prakaasha Notes for some more explanation). Along with सर्वथाविवक्षित, even अल्पविवक्षित is treated as अविवक्षित. So, when it is told to a very less extent, it becomes अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य: | When it is not told at all, it becomes अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य: | In the example,  “दण्डाः प्रविशन्ति”, the sticks cannot enter on their own. There is only अल्पविवक्षित. It joins with the पुरुषः and indicates the men holding the sticks. This is अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य: |

In गङ्गायां गोषः, we totally discard the meaning that it is the stream and we take it to be the banks. So this is अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य: | We do so to highlight the qualities like शैत्य and पावनत्वा |

स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतो वेल्लद्बलाका घना … वाताः शीकरिणः पयोदसुहृदामानन्दकेकाः कलाः | कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोरहृदयो रामोऽस्मि सर्वं सहे … वैदेही तु कथम् भविश्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव || (Meaning: स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतः, वेल्लद्बलाकाः, घनाः वाताः शीकरिणः, पयोदसुहृदाम् आनन्दकेकाः कलाः | कामं सन्तु दृढम् | कठोर+हृदय: राम: अस्मि | अहं सर्वं सहे | वैदेही तु कथं भविष्यति ? हहा हा | देवि, त्वं धीरा भव | The quarters are all painted as it was with the glistening dark clouds; the cranes are flying with excitement, forming a circle as it were. The gentle wind is full of moisture; these friends of clouds, i.e., the peacocks are giving out joyous notes in the wind. Let all these confront me (कामं सन्तु). I shall certainly put up with all these (सर्वं सहे), for, I am Rama (राम: अस्मि) whose heart is quite hard as adamantine (made of very hard material) (दृढं कठोर+हृदय:). But how will Sita bear with this (वैदेही तु कथम् भविश्यति)! Alas! Alas!(हहा हा) O my beloved queen!  Bear these with all fortitude or courage (देवि धीरा भव)).  Rama is separated from Sita. He describes the season which causes more pain for the separated lovers. He hopes that Sita is able to bear this pain. He says that he will be able to bear it. Here for the term Rama the meaning to be taken is much more than the son of Dasaratha. He is to be taken as one having the capacity to bear all the pains. It is an example of अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य: | The suggestion here is that he can bear all the pain (सर्वकष्टसहिश्नुत्वशक्तिमान्) |

This is from Anandavardhana’s विशमबाणलीला work. रविसङ्क्रान्तसौभाग्यस्तुषारावृतमण्डलः | निःश्वासान्ध इवादर्शश्चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते || (Meaning: All the charm (brightness) of the moon has gone to the sun. रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्य: It has disappeared now that the orb is enveloped by snowतुषार+आवृत+मण्डलः |  Like a mirror rendered blind by the heavingनिःश्वास+अन्ध: इव+आदर्श:, the moon does not glowचन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते |) The chandra’s shine is blocked as a mirror’s reflection is not clear when someone breathes out air on it. निःश्वासान्ध – The term’s literally meaning is being blinded by the breathed out air. We totally discard that meaning and we take the meaning that the chandra’s shine is not seen when the sun has risen.

We will now see about विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: | असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः is the रसध्वनिः | संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः could be the Alamkaara Dhvani, Vastu Dhvani or even the gunibhoota vyangya Dhvani. From the vibhaava, anubhaava, and Vyabhichaari bhaava, the staayibhaava is created and gets nourished by them and turns out to be the experience of Rasa. There is a karma or sequence there. Even if this sequence is present, it is not seen in असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः | यद्यपि क्रमः विद्यते, अतिसूक्ष्मत्वात् न लक्ष्यते | It is understood by the maxim of सहस्रदलसूचीभेदन्यायः | When the needle is made to go through 1000 petals, we would not notice how it crosses each petal. Here also though विभाव-अनिभाव-व्यभिचारिभावैः रसः, we do not notice them and we seem to directly experience the rasa.

असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः is Rasa Dhvani. It should be taken as Rasaadhi Dhvani as there are actually eight types namely Rasadhvani, Bhaavadhvani, Rasaabhaasa Dhvani, Bhaavaabhaasa Dhvani, Bhaavodaya, Bhaava Sandhi, bhaava shabalataa, and bhaava shaanti. रसभावतदाभासतत्प्रशान्त्यादिरक्रमः | ध्वनेरात्माङ्गिभावेन भासमानो व्यवस्थितः || 2.3 || (Meaning: Sentiment (रस), emotion (भाव), the semblance of sentiment (रस’sतद्+आभास), the semblance of motion (भाव’s तद्+आभास)  or mood and that rise and cessation – all these form un-discerned sequentiality. It is decided that when there is prominent presence (अङ्गि भावेन) of the variety that would be the very soul of suggestion (ध्वने: आत्मा)). In Lochana, the example has been given for each of the variety.

Rasaadi Dhvani vs Rasavadaadi Alamkaara

In Rasaadi Dhvani, there is prominence of one of these – Rasa, Bhaava, Rasaabhaasa, Bhaavaabhaasa, bhaavodaya, bhaava sandhi, bhaava shabalataa or bhaava shaanti. When Rasa, etc. are not prominent, it becomes Rasavadaadyalamkaara Dhvani. प्रधान्येऽन्यत्र वाक्यार्थे यत्राङ्गं तु रसादयः |  काव्ये तस्मिन्नलङ्कारो रसादिरिति मे मतिः || 2.५|| (Meaning: If on the other hand, the chief meaning of the sentence should direct towards something else and if Rasa etc. are to figure in only as subsidiary to it, that would be the case of Rasavadalankaara). Until Anandavardhana’s period, there was no work with this level of details. Dhandi had given example for 8 types of Alamkaara. All of these are to be considered as Rasa Dhvani only. He had considered them as Alamkaara. So Anandavardhana clarifies that where there is prominence of Rasa, it has to be considered as Dhvani and not Alamkaara – इति मे मतिः | This is my opinion. This was accepted by all.

Guna

Right from Bharata’s time, Gunas were recognized. Dhandi related Gunas to the Marga or Reeti and listed the ten Gunas. Vamana also explained in the same way classifying them as Shabda Guna and Artha Guna. While the alamkaarikaas prior to him had considered Guna to be the dharma of Marga or Reeti, Anandavardhana was the first one to say that Gunas are the dharmas of Rasa. He describes the difference between the Guna and Alamkaara. This difference was pointed out for the first time clearly by Vamana but in a different way. तमर्थमवलम्बन्ते येऽङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः | </*> अङ्गाश्रितास्त्वल’ ङ्कारा मन्तव्याः कटकादिवत् || 2.६  7|| (Meaning: Those which depend upon this main element are considered as “qualities”. The figures of speech are those that are connected with its parts in the same way as ornaments like bracelet, etc.) In this he says that the Rasa’s Dharma are the Gunas. The alamkaaras are only supplementary parts to the body made of Shabda-Artha. Kataka is the bangle. Like the ornaments to  the body, the alamkaaras are ornaments to the Kaavya. Dhandi mentions about 10 gunas. Anandavardhana accepts only three as Gunas. The first is maadurya guna which is the Shrungaaraadirasa’s dharma (like the dharmas of Shrungaara, Kaarunya, Hasya, etc.). The next one Ojas is related to Raudraadi Rasa (i.e., Raudra, Veera, Adbuda, Bibatsa). The third one Prasaada is the common dharma for all Rasa. Prasaada means Prasanna. This brings the ananda due to the Rasa. शृङ्गार एव मधुरः परः प्रह्लादनो रसः |  तन्मयं काव्यमाश्रित्य माधुर्यं प्रतितिष्ठति || ७  2.8||  (Meaning: Shringaara – the sentiment of love – is the sweetest and most relishable of all sentiments. The quality of Maadhurya or sweetness is declared to be in the poetic composition beaming with this sentiment). He says that the Shrungaara Rasa is the Rasa that can cause the most happiness. Madurya resides in this type of Kaavya having Rasas like Shrungaara. Madurya is a quality residing in the Shabda and Artha. And still it brings out the ananda of the Rasa. Even within the Shrungaara, the vipralamba shrungaara is much more enjoyable than the Samboga Shrungaara.

Madurya Guna and Karuna Rasa

The most enjoyable Rasa is Karuna. The Harishchandra drama is full of pathos. The audience would cry so much while watching it and yet they will want to watch the drama again. Vishwanath says in Saahitya Dharpana that करुणादावपि रसे जायते यत् परं सुखम् सचेतसामनुभव: प्रमाणं तत्र केवलम् | We experience Ananda even in Rasas like Karuna the proof is the ananda experienced by the sahrudayas. शृङ्गारे विप्रलम्भाख्ये करुणे च प्रकर्षवत् | माधुर्यमार्द्रतां याति यतस्तत्राधिकं मनः || ८  2.9|| (Meaning: In the two kinds of sentiments, namely, love-in-separation and the pathetic sentiment, sweetness should be the foremost because the heart of the recipient is moved very much in those situations). The most touching of all the Rasas, that melt the heart, are vipralambha-shrungaara and Karuna.

Ojas Guna

रौद्रादयो रसा दीप्त्या लक्ष्यन्ते काव्यवर्तिनः | तद्व्यक्तिहेतू  शब्दार्थावाश्रित्यौजो व्यवस्थितम् || ९ 2.10|| (Meaning: Raudrarasa etc. are significant in their having great exciting potency in poetry. The quality of ओजस् or forcefulness is said to be in word and sense which produce the effect). Sentiments like Raudra create a sort of excitement in poetic composition. Hence by lakshana, one might designate that sentiment itself by the term Deepti or excitement. It was said by the earlier alamkaarikas that दीर्घसमासत्वम् ओजत्वम् | Anandavardhana is of the opinion that Ojas may be found even in the simplest expressions. Two examples are given for Ojas from Venisamhaara. The first one has long compounds. चञ्चद्भुजभ्रमितचण्डगदाभिघात-सञ्चूर्णितोरुयुगलस्य सुयोधनस्य | स्त्यानावबद्धघनशोणितशोणपाणि-रुत्तंसयिष्यति कचांस्तव देवि भीमः || Bhima says that he will kill the kauravas and with that blood in his hands, he will tie Draupadi’s hair. Both Shabda and Artha have ojas guna. यो यः शस्त्रं बिभर्ति स्वभुजगुरुमदः पाण्डवीनां चमूनां यो यः पाञ्चालगोत्रे शिशुरधिकवया गर्भशय्यां गतो वा | यो यस्तत्कर्मसाक्षी चरति मयि रणे यश्च यश्च प्रतीपः  क्रोधान्धस्तस्य तस्य स्वयमपि जगतामन्तकस्यान्तकोऽहम् || Ashwattaama says he will kill all the people on the Pandavas side without leaving the fetus in the womb. In this example, the deepti is created by the word and meaning in spite of the absence of long compounds.

Prasaada Guna

समर्पकत्वं काव्यस्य यत्तु सर्वरसान् प्रति | स प्रसादो गुणो ज्ञेयः सर्वसाधारणक्रियः || १०|| (Meaning: That which produces congeniality in a poetic composition towards all sentiments is known as Prasaada which goes well with all sentiments and poetic compositions). प्रसादस्तु स्वच्छता शब्दार्थयोः | The quality of Prasaada or Perspecuity means clarity or lucidity in word and meanings. Samarpakatvam is to have the appropriate shabda and artha that is appropriate for the specific rasa. सर्वसाधारणक्रियः – it is applicable in common to all the rasas. स च सर्वरससाधारणो गुणः सर्वरचनासाधारणश्च व्यङ्ग्यार्थापेक्षयैव मुख्यतया व्यवस्थितो मन्तव्यः | All sentiments could be accommodated in this perspicuity and all poetic compositions could make use of this quality. Hence it is better we understand it as primarily relating to व्यङ्ग्यार्थ only.

Dosha

श्रुतिदुष्टादयो दोषा अनित्या ये च दर्शिताः | ध्वन्यात्मन्येव शृङ्गारे ते हेया इत्युदाहृताः || ११|| (Meaning: Faults like indelicacy which are considered to be non-permanent by the ancient writers have been deemed to be so only with reference to the sentiment of love when it has suggestion). Indelicacy is that which is not pleasant to hear. The faults like this are not considered as permanent faults. It can be ignorable in certain rasas and it can even enhance the raudraadi rasa. But it should be totally avoided in Shrungaara.

अलङ्कारस्य स्थानविवेकः

Anandavardhana clarifies about the usage of Alamkaara within the composition that has Dhvani. If the Alamkaara effortlessly finds a place there, then retain it. But for the sake of including an Alamkaara, do not force it into the composition. Kalidasa uses the Alamkaara judiciously, only those which are appropriate to the rasa in that context.  विवक्षा तत्परत्वेन नाङ्गित्वेन कदाचन | काले च ग्रहणत्यागौ नातिनिर्वहणैषिता || १८|| (Meaning: It must be realized that the figure of speech should serve as a means to the delineation of sentiment and it should not be an end in itself. He should have the right to abandon it when not needed in the same way as he uses them when needed rightfully). Alamkaaras are to be used only when they nourish the Rasa. It should not be forcefully introduced just for the sake of having an Alamkaara there. It should not be the angi i.e., gain prominence over the Rasa. Leave the use of Alamkaara if it is not supporting the rasa. निर्व्यूढावपि चाङ्गत्वे यत्नेन प्रत्यवेक्षणम् | रूपकादिरलङ्कारवर्गस्याङ्गत्वसाधनम् || १९|| (Meaning: He shall not exercise his over-enthusiasm however much he may feel himself an expert. He should be keen in rendering it only secondary or subordinate. It is only thus, the figures like Rupaka become instrument to suggest sentiments). To recap the points (1) विवक्षा तत्परत्वेन – Alamkaara should be to enhance the sentiment (2) न अङ्गित्वेन कदाचन – at any point of time, it should not gain prominence over the rasa (3) काले च ग्रहणत्यागौ – it should be used or given up (4) न अतिनिर्वहणैषिता – One should not over do the Alamkaaras. (5) निर्व्यूढावपि चाङ्गत्वे यत्नेन प्रत्यवेक्षणम् – If it happens to come that way, the poet should put effort to make it only secondary or subordinate.

In abhignaana shaakuntalam, there is a svabhaavokti Alamkaara, which describes the nature of the bee. It has helped in enjoying the rasa even more. It is an example of विवक्षा तत्परत्वम् | चलापाङ्गां दृष्टिं स्पृशसि बहुशो वेपथुमतीं रहस्याख्यायीव स्वनसि मृदु कर्णान्तिकचरः | करौ व्याधुन्वत्याः पिबसि रतिसर्वस्वमधरं वयं तत्त्वान्वेषान्मधुकर हतास्त्वं खलु कृती ||

संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः

There are two types in this – artha-shakti-moola-dhvani and shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani. Note that according to Mammata there are three types considering shabdaartha-ubhaya-shakti-moola-dhvani. शब्दार्थशक्तिमूलत्वात्सोऽपि द्वेधा व्यवस्थितः || २०||(Meaning: The samlakshyakramavyangya or the discernible sequence is also of two kinds having its roots in the potency of the meaning and words).

shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani

आक्षिप्त एवालङ्कारः शब्दशक्त्या प्रकाशते | यस्मिन्ननुक्तः शब्देन शब्दशक्त्युद्भवो हि सः || २१|| (Meaning: That example in which a figure which is not expressed directly by any word is present and conveys solely, by the suggestive potency of the word itself, should be taken as suggestion based on the potency of the word). When an Alamkaara is suggested, it is shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani. According to him, only Alamkaara Dhvani will be shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani and not Vastu Dhvani. The word has the potential to give two meanings. The two meanings can be connected by means of some relationship like that of upamaana and upameya, thus suggesting an Alamkaara. Mammata says that Vastu Dhvani is also possible here.

As in Shlesha, even in shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani, there is scope for two meanings. The difference is explained here. In shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani, we take both the meanings. येन ध्वस्तमनोभवेन बलिजित्कायः पुरास्त्रीकृतो  यश्चोद्वृत्तभुजङ्गहारवलयो गङ्गां च योऽधारयत् | यस्याहुः शशिमच्छिरो हर इति स्तुत्यं च नामामराः पायात्स स्वयमन्धकक्षयकरस्त्वां सर्वदोमाधवः || In this example, the meaning applicable for Hari and the one applicable for the Hara exist.  Here both the ideas are simultaneously present as an outcome of the potency of the word and hence it is shlesha. When one meaning is considered as an upamaa for the other meaning (King and elephant), then it is shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani.

Class #3 – Second Udyotta Conti. + Third Udyotta

Arthashakti Moola Dhvani

This type called Arthashaktimooladhvani is a suggestion that depends on the potency of the meaning. The meaning which suggests another meaning is of three kinds: (a) स्वतस्सम्भवी, (b) कविप्रौढोक्तिसिद्धा, and (c) कविनिबद्धवक्तृप्रौढोक्तिसिद्धा | In Svatassambhavi, the description by the poet matches the real life without any imaginative aspect. In kavipraudoktisiddha, the suggestion is attained by the ability of the poet. In Kavi-nibhaddha-vaktru-praudokti-siddha, the suggestion is attained by the ability of the character created by the poet in the work. Each of these are further divided into 4 types. (1) वस्तुना वस्तुध्वनि – by the meaning indicating some Vastu, another meaning indicating another vastu is suggested. (2) वस्तुना अलंकारध्वनि (३) अलंकारेण अलंकारध्वनि (४) अलंकारेण वस्तुध्वनि | Along with these 12 in arthashakti moola dhvani, including the one for shabdha shakti moola Dhvani, there are 13 types in संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः that is under विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: |  असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः  is Raasaadhidhvani and there are innumerable varieties in it. This is the 14th. Thus there are 16 in all, when the 2 avivakshitavaachyadhvani is included.

सज्जयति सुरभिमासो न तावदर्पयति युवतिजनलक्ष्यमुखान् | अभिनवसहकारमुखान्नवपल्लवपत्रलाननङ्गस्य शरान् || (2. 24 +)  (Meaning: The spring season keeps its ready but not yet releases the shaft of cupid, with sharp heads of just then manifested mango buds and feathers of fresh leaves at young ladies who form its targets). Here though the surabhi maasa does not create the sharp heads for manmata in reality, it is something imagined by the poet. This is an example of kavipraudoktisiddha वस्तुना वस्तुध्वनि.

In another kaarika, Anandavardha says that the poet should be careful to make the suggested meaning be not exposed directly.

Third Udhyotta

In this 3rd udhyotta, the different types are listed from the perspective of the Vyanjaka – word while in the earlier chapter, it was based on the Vyangya – meaning. Due to the presence of a certain word, there could be suggestion. Or due to the entire sentence itself, there could be suggestion. अविवक्षितवाच्यस्य पदवाक्यप्रकाशता | तदन्यस्यानुरणनरूपव्यङ्ग्यस्य च ध्वनेः || १|| (Meaning: Both the varieties of suggestion with unintended literal meaning and resonance-like suggestion are suggested by individual words and also by whole sentences). When the bell is run, the resonance that is heard is called अनुरणन |  In every variety, there are two sub-types for the suggestion by individual words and by whole sentence.

अलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः

Asamlakshyakramadhvani which is rasaadidhvani, is explained next. एवं व्यङ्ग्यमुखेनैव ध्वनेः प्रदर्शिते सप्रभेदे स्वरूपे पुनर्व्यञ्जक- मुखेनैतत्प्रकाश्यते (before 1st karika). (Meaning: Having thus displayed the nature of varieties of suggestion in detail, through the stand point of the suggested material, the same shall be set forth through the suggestive elements). यस्त्वलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यो ध्वनिर्वर्णपदादिषु | वाक्ये सङ्घटनायां च स प्रबन्धेऽपि दीप्यते || २|| (Meaning: Suggestion with undiscerned sequence (asamlakshyakrama vyangya) will glow in letter, word etc., sentence, composition and finally in the composition too). There is varna-vyanjakataa, pada-vyanjakataa, Vaakya-vyanjakataa, Sangatanaa, and Prabhanda.

Influence of Letters

शषौ सरेफसंयोगो ढकारश्चापि भूयसा | विरोधिनः स्युः शृङ्गारे ते न वर्णा रसच्युतः || ३||  (Meaning: The letters “श” and “ष”, letters conjunct with र and ढ – all these are not conducive to evoke rasa in the context of Shrungara.  In Shrungaara, the use of certain specific letters is considered to be inappropriate. त एव तु निवेश्यन्ते बीभत्सादौ रसे यदा | तदा तं दीपयन्त्येव ते न वर्णा रसच्युतः || ४|| (Meaning: When the same letters are used in relation to the sentiment of disgust बीभत्स and others, they will certainly intensify them. Therefore letters also suggest sentiments).

Influence of Pada

Every word comprises of two parts prakruti and pratyaya. Each of these could cause suggestiveness. These possibilities are there in Rasaadhi Dhvani. उत्कम्पिनी भयपरिस्खलितांशुकान्ता  ते लोचने प्रतिदिशं विधुरे क्षिपन्ती |  क्रूरेण दारुणतया सहसैव दग्धा धूमान्धितेन दहनेन न वीक्षितासि (after 3.4) || (Context: Vasavadatta being burnt down and Udayana says this to her. Meaning: You, whose garment was slipping due to being struck with fear and whose helpless eyes were being diverted in different directions, were all on a sudden consumed by the cruel fire due to his hard heartedness. You could not be seen by him since he was surely blinded by his own smoke). Here “those” eyes in the illustration are suggestive of sentiment. Udayana recollects how those eyes of Vasavadatta used to create in him an impression of her anger, desire and helplessness.

Sangathanaa

असमासा समासेन मध्यमेन च भूषिता |  तथा दीर्घसमासेति त्रिधा सङ्घटनोदिता || 3.५|| </***> (meaning: The composition or texture is of three kinds namely (1) without compounds, (2) with medium compounds and (3) with long compounds). There are three styles of writing. First one is असमास sangatana. The other two are अल्पसमास (मध्यम) sangatana and दीर्घसमास sangatana.  गुणानाश्रित्य तिष्ठन्ती माधुर्यादीन्व्यनक्ति सा | रसान् – – – ||3.6|| (Meaning: Composition is based on qualities like sweetness and suggests sentiments). Since the sangathanaa is based on guna, is it same as guna or is it different? If it is different, does guna depend on sangathanaa or the other way? तत्रै-क्यपक्षे सङ्घटनाश्रयगुणपक्षे च गुणानात्मभूतानाधेयभूतान्वाश्रित्य  तिष्ठन्ती सङ्घटना रसादीन् व्यनक्तीत्ययमर्थः | The first option is ऐक्यपक्ष taking both to be the same, गुणान् आत्मभूतान् the gunas is identical with Sangatana itself; and in the second case where both are different, the texture becomes the substratum or foundation for the qualities. सङ्घटनाश्रयगुणपक्षे गुणान् आधेयभूतान् आश्रित्य  तिष्ठन्ती सङ्घटना | Thus in both of these cases, the texture  either being based on itself or being based on the nature of its attributes, suggests rasa. सङ्घटना रसादीन् व्यनक्ति | The other possibility of both being different or the guna being the foundation for sangatana is also discussed and they are refuted.

Guna, Sanghatana and Rasas

There is a general opinion that long compounds are not appropriate for Shrungaara. But there are cases where the long compounds have been used in Shrungaara. There are cases where there is Ojoguna in the absence of samaasa (which contradict the earlier definition of समासभूयत्वम् ओजः | So it has to be understood that irrespective of the sangatana, the rasa is suggested only through the gunas. There is no generalized rule mapping specific Sanghatana to specific rasas. As mentioned earlier (तमर्थमवलम्बन्ते येऽङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः), the Rasa’s dharma are the gunas.  Guna’s relation to Rasa is constant like Maadhurya and Prasaada may be used for suggesting Karuna and Vipralambhasrungaara. Ojas is used to suggest only Raudra, Adbhutaa and not Karuna. There is no principle governing the scope of Sanghatanaa.

Prabhanda Vyanyakatva

There could be suggestiveness at the level of the entire composition itself. विभावभावानुभावसञ्चार्यौचित्यचारुणः | विधिः कथाशरीरस्य वृत्तस्योत्प्रेक्षितस्य वा || ३.१०|| (वृत्तस्य वा  उत्प्रेक्षितस्य वा कथा-शरीरस्य विधिः विभाव-भाव-अनुभाव-सञ्चारि-औचित्य-चारुणः | Meaning: A poet should design only such a theme कथा-शरीरस्य विधिः, based either on traditional accounts वृत्तस्य वा  or an invented one उत्प्रेक्षितस्य वा which could be charming चारुणः with its propriety औचित्य of the accessories of sentiment namely, the settings and its stimuli विभाव, abiding emotion अनुभाव, emotional responses and changing moods सञ्चारिभाव). In the Prabhanda, there should be the usage of Vibhaava, Anubhaava, and Vyabhichaari Bhaava. It should come along with the theme or plot of the story. The plot could be based on the stories from epis and puraanas or based on some imagination. If the vibhaava, anubhaava and vyabhichaari bhaava are used along with the texture of the plot, the entire composition could suggest a rasa.

इतिवृत्तवशायातां त्यक्त्वाऽननुगुणां स्थितिम् | उत्प्रेक्ष्याऽप्यन्तराभीष्टरसोचितकथोन्नयः || 3.११|| (Meaning: If in a theme based on traditional accounts, the poet comes across a situation which is in conflict with the intended sentiment, we must be prepared to abandon such incidents. He may even invent incidents of his own imagination in their place, with an objective of depicting the sentiment that he intends). The situations that could cause hindrance to the main theme of the story should be avoided. The kavi should create new situations that are amicable to the theme. The best example is Abhignaana Shaakuntala of Kaalidaasa. In the original story, Dhushyanta is a cheat who does not want to admit that he had married Shakuntala. Kaalidaasa glorified Dhushyanta’s role by introducing the incident about the curse. In this way, the unnecessary incidents should be dropped and introduce new incidents that support his intention. That they finally meet in the Maareecha ashrama is not in the original story. The main message of the story is this – initially they had only worldly love. In their separation, it became a heavenly love. To indicate this the kavi made them meet in the heavenly abode of Maareecha.

The sandhi and sandhyangaas should come in every kaavya and Naataka. In Ratnaavali, the author has included all the sandhi and sandhyangaas irrespective of whether they are required or not. सन्धिसन्ध्यङ्गघटनं रसाभिव्यक्त्यपेक्षया | न तु केवलया शास्त्रस्थितिसम्पादनेच्छया || 3.१२|| (Meaning: The construction of divisions and sub-sdivisions of the theme must help the depiction of sentiments and not blindly conform to the rules of poetics). Only the required ones need to be taken and others have to be avoided. Sandhyanga is the joining of the portion of the Kathaa vastu and the Avashtaa vishesha. There are 64 of these Sandhyanga.

(Side note: https://archive.org/details/Dasarupaka has English translation of Dhananjaya’s Dasharoopaka which has an elaborate discussion on how stories are structured. It is called Pancha Sandhi structure. Each Sandhi is made up of a combination of an Arthaprakriti and a Kaaryaavastha.
Kaaryaavasthas: aarambha, yatna, praaptyaasha, niyataapti and phalaagama/phalayoga.

Arthaprakritis: beeja, bindu, pataaka, prakaree and kaarya

Sandhis: mukha, pratimukha, garbha, avamarsha and upasamhriti/nirvahaNa)

For example, in the Sandhi called Mukha, there is a Sandhyanga called Upakshepa. The purpose of upakshepa is to sow the seed of the main plot. When the hermits stop Dhushyanta from hunting there, he immediately stops. Pleased with that behavior they bless him to have a son worthy of his clan. Here is where the seed is laid that he will have a son with Shakuntala.

The second Sandhi is Pratimukha sandhi. At this stage, the person has to get into action. In Venisamhaara, when Duryodhana leaves for the battle, he has used a sandhyanga called Vilaasa which indicates sarasa-sallaapa. This is inappropriate. For the entire drama, this brought auchityaa bhanga. यथा वेणीसंहारे विलासाख्यस्य प्रतिमुखसन्ध्यङ्गस्य प्रकृतरसनिबन्धाननुगुणमपि द्वितीयेऽङ्के भरतमतानुसरणमात्रेच्छया घटनम् | This should not have been used here. उद्दीपनप्रशमने यथावसरमन्तरा | रसस्यारब्धविश्रान्तेरनुसन्धानमङ्गिनः || 3.१३|| (meaning: A poet should be in a position to present the sentiments in its high as well as in its low ebb keeping an eye over the appropriateness. He must maintain the unity of the main sentiment from beginning to the end). One has to be careful about where uddeepana and prashamana is placed, considering the entire plot in mind. अलङ्कृतीनां शक्तावप्यानुरूप्येण योजनम् | प्रबन्धस्य रसादीनां व्यञ्जकत्वे निबन्धनम् || 3.१४|| (Meaning:  He must exercise judiciousness in the use of figures of speech though he may be endowed with the ability of using them profusely. These are the stipulations underlying the suggestiveness of a whole composition in respect of sentiments, etc.).  A poet might have the capacity to create different types of Alamkaaras. Even then, he should include only the required ones, keeping in mind the entire story.

Angi Rasa

In every prabhanda, there has to be only one which has to be Angi Rasa and the other rasas have to be anga rasa. Shrungaara, Veera, shanta and karuna can be Angi. Bhaavabhuti said “एको रसः करुण एव” and then Karuna was considered as a Angi Rasa. Prabhoda-chandrodaya was an allegorical drama which had Shanta as its primary rasa. The prateekaas or concepts were the characters. Dhveshaa, Asooya and Adhvaita bhaavana were characters.

(Side note: Initially the definition of the story demanded a single person to be the hero. Only after Raghuvamsa, which had a lineage of kings whose stories were being described, Vishvanaatha included changed the definition that there could be multiple heroes belonging to the same clan in a story).

Anandavardhana says that Shanta is the prominent rasa in the entire Mahabharata. It shows the impermanence of all the worldly possessions, valour, etc. Thrushnaakshaya is the most important aspect there. तृष्णाक्षय, is the cessation of desire and the tranquility of mind. It is the staayeebhava of Shaanta rasa. The entire Mahabharata is based on this Shaanta rasa. The rasa of the entire Ramayana is Karuna rasa though it is not explicitly mentioned anywhere in the epic. रामायणे हि करुणो रसः |

There are some mutually in-compatible rasas. In the same situations, these both cannot come together. Rasa-viroodha-parihaara has to be done. For example, if Shrungaara and Karuna rasa  are there, make one become supplementary to the main rasa. प्रबन्धे मुक्तके वापि रसादीन्बन्द्धुमिच्छता | यत्नः कार्यः सुमतिना परिहारे विरोधिनाम् || १७|| (Meaning: An earnest effort should be directed to remove the opposition by a celebrated poet who is intent upon infusing sentiments etc. whether his composition be a whole work or a single verse).

Class #4 –Third Udyotta Conti. + Fourth Udyotta

प्रकारोऽन्यो गुणीभूतव्यङ्ग्यः काव्यस्य दृश्यते | यत्र व्यङ्ग्यान्वये वाच्यचारुत्वं स्यात्प्रकर्षवत् || ३.३४|| (Meaning: We come across another kind of poetry, having suggestion as subordinate, in which the poetic exuberance of the expressed is much more intense than in the suggested, though both the expressed and the suggested are together found). Here he defines Guneebhootavyangya. It is a kind of poetry other than Dhvani. In this, more than the suggested meaning – vyangyaartha, there is prominence of the vaachyaartha itself. The maaduryam is due to vaachyaartha and vyangyaartha just supports it. Here the Vyangyaa has गुणीभाव i.e., it has become secondary to something else.

अनुरागवती सन्ध्या दिवसस्तत्पुरस्सरः | अहो दैवगतिः कीदृक्तथापि न समागमः || (after 1.12) (Meaning: Twilight is full of love and the day follows her face to face. Alas! What is ordained by decree of fate is that thye never meet!) The day goes in the front. The vadu – Sandhya follows himself from behind. But the destiny is such that they could never meet. Here the vaachyaartha itself is much attractive than the vengyaartha which suggests the pain of the couple who could not unite. Eg. ग्रामतरुणं तरुण्या नववञ्जुलमञ्जरीसनाथकरम् । पश्यन्त्या भवति मुहुर्नितरां मलिना मुखच्छाया ॥ kaavya prakaasha ३॥ (Meaning: In this, the literal meaning is that the brightness of the young woman’s face becomes acutely faded when she sees the youthful villager who carries in his hand a bunch of fresh Vanjula flowers. Here the suggested meaning is that she did not go to the meeting point even though she had promised to meet her lover there. Since the denoted meaning is more charming, in this example, the suggested meaning is subordinated to the denoted meaning). The person brings the creeper from the meeting place and shows it to his lover to convey that she did not come to meet him there at the appointed time. This is also an example of Guneebhoothavyangya.

प्रसन्नगम्भीरपदाः काव्यबन्धाः सुखावहाः | ये च तेषु प्रकारोऽयमेव योज्याः सुमेधसा || ३.३५|| (Meaning: All literary compositions, which attract the readers, with their lucid elegant words, are to be rekoned as Guneebhuta by the sensitive critic).The Prasanna padas are the pleasing words which pleasing when we read it. Gambheera padas are the words that are impregnated with deep meaning.  The Kaavya that comprises of Prasanna and Gambheera padas bring happiness. In case of Vastu Dhvani and Alamkaara dhvani, there is some chamatkaara – some surprise – some enjoyable factor. In Rasa Dhvani also, the viewer or reader experiences Ananda. Similarly, in the guneebhoothavyangya also, ananda will be experienced. Thus, even if it is guneebhoothavyangya kaavya, if it has prasanna and gambheera padas, it can be considered almost equal to Dhvani Kaavya.

वाच्यालङ्कारवर्गोऽयं व्यङ्ग्यांशानुगमे सति | प्रायेणैव परां छायां बिभ्रल्लक्ष्ये निरीक्ष्यते || 3.३६|| (Meaning: The entire roup of Alankaaras obtain special charm when it is brought in association with suggested element). Even the Vaachyaalamkaaras which are supported by vyangyaarthas, gain supreme splendor. There is an Alamkaara called samaasokti. It is nurtured by vyangya and thus enhances its splendor. In such cases, the guneebhoothavyangya kaavya is almost equal to Dhvani Kaavya.  These verses show the abhimaana that Anandavardhana had for Guneebhootavyangya Kaavyas.

There is some common aspect within all the alamkaaras which causes them to be attractive. That aspect is called Athishayaa. Athishayokti is a specific Alamkaara. Athishayaa is the basis for the extra-ordinary-ness in the alamkaaras. It is lokottara vaak – the speech that is beyond the normal speeches. Bhaama and others call it as Vakrokti. सैषा सर्वैव वक्रोक्तिरनयार्थो विभाव्यते | यत्नोऽस्यां कविना कार्यः कोऽलङ्कारोऽनया विना || इति | (after 3.36)| (Context: Bhaamaha has defined exaggeration as follows. Meaning: This exaggeration is nothing but the artistic turn of expression and it is by this poetic idea is conveyed. A poet should work hard on it in particular and there cannot be any girue without it). The essence of that which is called Athisayoktih is completely Vakrokti only. Such vakrokti is the basis for all alamkaaras. So the Kavi should make special effort to introduce this vakrokti in his works. विभाव्यते – Visheshana bhaavyate – i.e., it gets a specialty due to vakrokti. The reason for the attractiveness of all the alamkaaras is the athishaya amsha – the vakrokti.

Chitra Kaavya

 प्रधानगुणभावाभ्यां व्यङ्ग्यस्यैवं व्यवस्थिते | काव्ये उभे ततोऽन्यद्यत्तच्चित्रमभिधीयते || 3.४१ || (Meaning:  The two divisions of poetry have been thus recognized mainly on the standard of primary importance and secondary importance attached to the suggested idea. That class of poetry which is different from both these is called Citrakaavya). When Vyangya is prominent it is Dhvani. When it is equal to or subservient to Vaachyaartha, it is called Guneebhoota Vyangya Kaavya. When vyangya is barely noticeable it is called Chitra Kaavya. Note that Vyangya is the soul of poetry and there cannot be poetry without Dhvani. चित्रं शब्दार्थभेदेन द्विविधं च व्यवस्थितम् | तत्र किञ्चिच्छब्दचित्रं वाच्यचित्रमतः परम् || ४२ || (Meaning: This Chitrakaavya is further divided into two depending on its grounding on word and meaning. They are Shabdachitram and arthachitram). By differentiating between the shabda and artha, there are two types of chitra – namely shabda chitra which gains attractiveness due to shabdaalamkaara and the other artha chitra which gains attractiveness due to the arthaalamkaara. Example of shabda chitra given in Kaavya prakaasha is स्वच्छन्दोच्छलदच्छकच्छकुहरच्छातेतराम्बुच्छटा मूर्छन्मोहमहर्षिहर्षविहितस्नानाह्निकाह्नाय वः । भिद्यादुद्यदुदारदर्दुरदरीदीर्घादरिद्रद्रुम द्रोहोद्रेकमहोर्मिमेदुरमदा मन्दाकिनी मन्दताम् ॥४॥} <(गोविन्दठक्कुरऽस्काव्यप्रदीप)>. Example of Artha chitra is the verse given in Kaavya prakaasha where Amaraavati closes her eyes due to fear. विनिर्गतं मानदमात्ममन्दिराद्भवत्युपश्रुत्य यदृच्छयापि यम् । ससंभ्रमेन्द्र्रद्रुतपातितार्गला निमीलिताक्षीव भियामरावती ॥५॥ (मेण्ठकृतं हयग्रीववधम्). When Indra hears that Hayagriva has exited from his residence, the gates of Amaraavati are instantly closed and that city appears to be closing her eyes out of dread. There is utprekshaalamkaara in the words निमीलिताक्षीव.  The upamaa’s feature of eyes is superimposed on the city, though city does not have eyes. This is utprekshaalamkaara.

Fourth Udyotta

ध्वनेर्यः सगुणीभूतव्यङ्ग्यस्याध्वा प्रदर्शितः | अनेनानन्त्यमायाति कवीनां प्रतिभागुणः || 4.१||  (Meaning: The way in which principal suggestion and subordinated suggestion have been expounded hitherto, will enhance the richness of creative imagination in poets and there will be no end at all to that). We have described the Dhvani’s marga and the Guneebhootavyangya’s marga. Having learnt all these, the Kavi’s imagination knows no bounds. He brings Ananda.

अतो ह्यन्यतमेनापि प्रकारेण विभूषिता | वाणी नवत्वमायाति पूर्वार्थान्वयवत्यपि || 4.२|| (Meaning:  By a mere contact of even a single variety of suggestion out of the many that have been enlisted earlier, the poets’ expression will gain novelty though it might present a stale idea). By these numerous types, if Saraswati is pleased even by any one of these, she would gain novelty. नवनवोन्मेषशालिनी प्रतिभा – That which produces newer and newer meaning is Prathibha. In whichever type, it is included, it bring a novelty to the work.

Samvaada

Samvaada is similarity. Here he clarifies when it becomes Plagiarism.  संवादास्तु भवन्त्येव बाहुल्येन सुमेधसाम् | </*> स्थितं ह्येतत् संवादिन्य एव मेधाविनां बुद्धयः | किन्तु – – – नैकरूपतया सर्वे ते मन्तव्या विपश्चिता || ११|| (Meaning: There would certainly be plentiful conincidences of ideas present by the minds).  It is quite possible that another poet shares the same opinion or idea of a poet. Within the works of great poets, there will be similarity. There is similarity between Ashvaagosha and Kaalidasa. Great minds could think alike. It is not a fault. The idea could be the same. The presentation and approach would change between the poets.

Types of Samvaada

तत्पुनः शरीरिणां प्रतिबिम्बवदालेख्याकारवत्तुल्यदेहिवच्च त्रिधा व्यवस्थितम् | (after 4.11) | (Meaning: Coincidence in poetic themes is recognized as of three types – (1) like that of reflected image of persons in a mirror (2) like that of a picture of a boy, drawn in painting, (3) like that of two individuals resembling one another). It can be like the reflection of a person शरीरिणां प्रतिबिम्बवत्, it can be like the painting आलेख्याकारवत्, or it can be like another person who has the resemblance – तुल्यदेहिवत् | Here further says about these three. तत्र पूर्वमनन्यात्म तुच्छात्म तदनन्तरम् | तृतीयं तु प्रसिद्धात्म नान्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः || 4.१३||  (Meaning: Of these, the first one has no individual existence of its own, the possibility of the second is not better than a non-entity. The third one of course has a concrete existence. A poet need not have to bypass similarity in themes).  In resemblance, it is अनन्यात्मा – it is not a different person. The painting one is inferior. The resemblance between two people like twins is acceptable since they have their own existence and specialty though they have some similar features. न अन्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः – This should not be given up by the poet. Though it is not a fault to have some idea that resembles the work of an earlier poet, it is better to avoid building on another person’s idea. There are numerous options available and the poet should try to find something new than choosing something that has already been done. परस्वादानेच्छाविरतमनसो वस्तु सुकवेः सरस्वत्येवैषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती || 4.१७||  (Meaning: The goddess of speech i.e., Sarasvati herself will help the deserving and talented poets in procuring the ideas provided they shun plagiarism). For a person who is not interested in copying another person’s idea, Goddess Saraswati herself will provide with new ideas as much as needed.

Alamkaara General – Answers for some Important Questions

Answers for some Important Questions on General Alamkaara (Paper 9 / 10) by Smt. Harini

(more short notes to be included in this post).

Vamana and his Riti Siddhanta

Vamana who lived during the 8thcentury AD, in Kashmir was a contemporary of Udbhata. Vamana was the pioneer of Riti Siddhanta. He accorded the highest place for Riti or the style of composition as the soul of poetry.

The term used to denote that core or fundamental element or the principle which defines the very essence of Kavya is the Atma or the soul. The soul of the kavya is truly the poet’s vision without which its other constituents cannot come together.

Bhamaha defined kavya as shabdaarthasahitaukavyam. Kavya is the combination or the complex of words and their meanings. It also implies blemish-free or nirdosha. He later extended it to include the element of alamkara in the definition. Dandin also went with this view. But the later schools felt that this definition of kavya was centred on the external element or the body of the kavya and not the spirit or the soul of kavya. Thus began the quest for the soul of kavya.

Vamana the author of Kavyalankara sutra vritti declared Ritihaatmakavyasya. Though Vamana advocates Riti, he also states that Alamkara enhances the beauty of kavya. Vamana says Kavya is the union of sound and sense which is free from poetic flaws [nirdosha] and is adorned with excellences [gunas] and alamkaras [ornamentation or figures of speech].  To him Riti is a beautiful collocation endowed with excellences – vishishtaapadarachanaareetihvisheshogunaatmaa.

According to Vamana, Riti represents the particular structure of sounds combined with poetic excellence. Riti is the going or the flowing together of the elements of a poem.

Vamana expanded on the concept of Gunas dealt by Dandin. Kavyalamkarasutravritti is divided into 5 adhikaranas each consisting of 2 or 3 adhyayas.

Though Vamana retained the 10 gunas enumerated by Dandin [Ojas, Prasada, Shlesha, Samata, Samadhi, Madhurya, Sukumarata, Udavarta, Arthavyakti and Kanti], he modified their names and increased the number of gunas to 20. He created 2 sets of the same 10 Gunas under 2 headings namely Shabdaguna and Arthaguna.

He attempts to explain each guna in terms of both Shabda and Artha. For eg, Prasada [clarity] means shaithilya [readability] under shabdaguna while it means Auchitya [propriety] under arthaguna.

He abandoned the approach of Bhamaha and Dandin who treated Rasa as a subsidiary element of the verse.

Although he did not accord rasa an independent status, he treated rasa as an aspect of arthaguna.

Riti, according to Vamana, is a particular mode or organisation of verbal structure that is different from common usage and also has excellence of gunas.

Dandin had named literary styles as Marga and mentioned Vaidarbhi and Gaudiya margas. Vamana not only modified this concept of style, he also renamed Marga as Riti and included Panchali to the above list.

Panchali has Madhurya and Saukumaryagunas while Gaudiya has Ojas and Kanti. It is however Vaidarbhi that has all 10 gunas and is the most preferred style. He terminates the view that the practice of Gaudi and Panchali would help a poet gain experience to adopt Vaidarbhi. The interesting example given by him is:

nashanasutravaanabhyaasetrasarasutravaanvaichitryalaabhah.

How can anyone trained in weaving jute cloth ever hope to weave silk cloth?

Vamana treats alamkaras as a subsidiary significance. Guna and kavya have a samavayasambandha while Alamkara and kavya are said to be in samyogasambandha. Guna is related to the soul of the poetry while Alamkara is related to the body of the poetry. He has considered only 2 shabdalankaras namely, Yamaka and Anuprasa. With regard to Arthalankaras, he opines that most of all Alamkaras lies only in comparison. His collective name for all figures is Upamaaprapancha.

Vamana’s conception of rasa corresponds to that of Dandin as far as status allotted to it is concerned. But while Dandin brings Rasa under Alamkaras, Vamana treats it as belonging to Gunas.

Vamana laid the foundation to the theory of Vichchithi which was later developed by Kuntaka. However the Riti school of Vamana did not have followers in the same way as Rasa, Alamkara and Dhvani schools had. The general conception of Riti was severely criticised by Mammata. In spite of all this, Vamana was the ablest writer to formulate a definite theory so as to determine the soul of poetry.


 

Function of Vyanjana

ShabdaVyapara or functions of a word are of 3 kinds namely, Abhidaana – denotation,  Lakshana – indication  and Vyanjana – suggestion.

Vyanjana is that function of the word which unfolds the vyangya or the suggested meaning. The importance of vyanjana in poetry cannot be overstated. Rasa which is the quintessence of poetry can manifest only through vyanjana and it is the suggested sense which makes kavya beautiful and charming.

Vyanjana is understood as 1.based on lakshana and 2.based on abhidaa.

When we say gangayam goshah, the word ganga denotes the stream. This is the abhidaa or denoted meaning. Further since there is an incompatibility between ganga and gosha (hamlet), we adopt the indicated meaning [lakshana] which helps us understand ganga as ganga tata – the bank.  The prayojana or purpose for resorting to the indicated meaning is to highlight that the qualities of ganga [sacredness, coolness, etc.] are present in the hamlet also due to its closeness. Thus Vyanjana is required to realize the prayojana or phala or the intended purpose.

For example in gangayamgoshah, the special qualities which are cognised in the bank ie.,sacredness and so on are grasped through a function which is different from abhidhaa, lakshanaa and tatparyaa. That function is called vyanjanaa, dhvananaa, dyotanaa etc. This is an example of vyanjana based on lakshana.

The next category is Vyanjanaa based on Abhidaa. There are 14 conditions in this category.

  1. Samyoga: Contact.

Eg.Hari carrying shankha and chakra . The meaning is restricted to Vishnu because he is known to have a contact with shankha and chakra.

  1. Viprayoga: Separation.

Eg.Hari without shankha and chakra. Again we understand Hari as Vishnu because he is the only one capable of being separated from them.

  1. Saahacharya: Association.

Eg.Ramalakshmanau. Here meaning of the word Rama is restricted to son of Dasharatha due to his association with Lakshmana.

  1. Virodhita: Enmity.

Eg.Ramarjunagatistayoh. Here Rama is Parashurama and Arjuna is Kartaveeryarjuna. Their known enmity is referred here.

  1. Artha: Purpose.

Eg.Sthanumbhajabhavachchide. Here Sthanu can mean pole or Shiva. Here it refers to Lord Shiva due to the purpose of bhavachedana that can be attributed to him.

  1. Prakarana: Context.

Eg.Sarvamjanatidevah. Here the meaning is based on the context. Devah can mean God or a king. Here it refers to the person addressed to in that context.

  1. Linga: Peculiar feature.

Eg.Kupitahmakaradhwajah. Here makaradhwajah can mean Manmatha or the ocean. Here kopa or anger can be linked to Manmatha only.

  1. Shabdantarasannidhi: Proximity of another word.

Eg.Devasyapuraratheh. Here again deva can have different meanings. But due to the proximity with the word purarathe, we understand Deva as Lord Shiva.

  1. Saamarthyam: Ability.

Eg.Madhunamathahkokilah. The word madhu has various meanings liquor, nectar, honey etc. but the ability to produce intoxication in kokila exists only in vasantaritu. So madhu here refers to the season vasanta.

  1. Auchiti: Propriety.

Eg.Patuvodayitaamukham. Here mukham can mean face, presence, beginning etc. based on propriety here it means presence.

  1. Deshah: Place.

Eg.Bhatyatraparameshwarah.Parameshwara can refer to God and king. The meaning here is king as the sentence is spoken in the capital city of a kingdom.

  1. Kalah: Time.

Eg.Chitrabhanurvibhati.Chitrabhanu means sun and fire. If the sentence is spoken during day, it refers to sun and at night it refers to fire.

  1. Vyaktih: Gender.

Eg.Mitrambhati or mitrahbhati.Mitram neuter gender means friend while mitrah masculine gender means sun.

  1. Svara: Accents used in Vedas, namely Udaatta,Anudaatta and Svarita.

Eg.Based on the accents, Indrashatru can mean 1. One for whom Indra will be the killer and 2. Indra’s killer. The first one is a Bahuvrihi compound and will have Purvapadaprakritiswara or Adyodaatta. While the second is Tatpurusha compound and is Antodaatta.


Sanskrit Essay – Ramayana – Smt. Harini

रामायणस्य महत्वम्। by Smt. Harini  TO BE UPDATED

रामस्य अयनम् चरितम् वा रामायणम्। एतत् सीताया: महच्चरितम् इत्यपि वक्तुं शक्यते। भारतीयेतिहासे संस्कृतसाहित्ये च रामायणवत् अत्यन्तलोकप्रियः प्रसिद्धः  च अन्यग्रन्थ: नास्त्येव।

रामायणम् आदिकाव्यम् इति प्रसिद्धम्। तस्य कर्ता वाल्मीकि: आदिकवि: इति विख्यातः । वाल्मीकि: पूर्वं रत्नाकरनामा कश्चन तस्कर: आसीत्। नारदमहर्षे: उपदेशात् स: रत्नाकर: रामनामजपं तप: च अकरोत्। तपोशक्तिवशात् रत्नाकर: वामीकिमहर्षि: अभवत्।

एकदा एकस्य निषादस्य दुष्कर्मनः क्रौञ्चद्वन्द्ववियोग: सम्भवति। वाल्मीके: शोक: एव श्लोकतया परिणत:। तदनंतरं स: अतिसरलसंस्कृतभाषायां चतुर्विंशतिसहस्रान् श्लोकान् व्यरचयत्। बालकाण्डम् अयोध्याकाण्डम् आरण्यकाण्डं किष्किन्धाकाण्डं युद्धकाण्डम् उत्तरकाण्डम् चेति सप्तकाण्डानि सन्ति।

रामायणे प्रकृतिसौन्दर्यवर्णनम् उपमाद्यलड़्काराणाम् उपयोगः च अत्युत्तमम्। यद्यपि अस्मिन् काव्ये करुणारसशोकस्थायीभावयो: प्राधान्यमस्ति तथापि शृङ्गाररसोऽपि दृश्यते।

रामायणं केवलं मनोरञ्जनोपयोगिकथा नास्ति एतत् धर्मशास्त्रम्। राज्यपरिपालनस्य पितृपुत्रपतिव्रतादीनां धर्मस्य सद्वृत्तस्य च विषये अयम् आदर्शभूत: ग्रन्थ:। राज्यपरिपालनं, पितृपुत्रपतिव्रतादीनां धर्मः, सद्वृत्तिः इत्यादिषु विषयेषु अयम् ग्रन्थ: आदर्शभूत: ।

रामायणम् सर्वकालोपयोगि नीतिग्रन्थ:।

Sanskrit Essay – Greatness of Vedas

वेदानां महत्त्वम्

Intro…. TO BE INCLUDED    Vid ….

वेदस्य महत्त्वं अत्र वेदे गोपतब्राह्मणे एवं दृश्यते – “श्रेष्ठोहि वेद तपसा अधिजातः ब्रह्मज्ञानां हृदये संबभूव” | श्रेष्ठतमज्ञानम् वेदे एव अस्ति | वेदाः ऋषीणां हृदयगोचराः अभवन् | वेदाः अपौरुषेयाः | अस्माकं ऋषिभिः, मनसा अन्तश्चक्षुषा च, श्रुतः दृष्टः च वेदः | अतः ते ऋषयः मन्त्रद्रष्टारः | न तु मन्त्रकर्तारः | अतः ऋषिभिः श्रुताः एते वेदाः श्रुतिः  इति कथ्यन्ते |

वेदः स्वतप्रामाण्यग्रन्थः | यत् वेदे अस्ति तत् सत्यम् एव | तत् शब्दप्रामाणं भवति | अस्माकं पुराणेषु उच्यते यत् वेदस्य साहाय्येन एव ब्रह्मा सृष्टिकार्यं करोति इति | वेदस्य आदिः नास्ति | वेदः अनादिः इति उच्यते | वेदस्य अन्तः अपि नास्ति | अनन्ताः वै वेदाः इति कथितम् (वेदेषु एव)  |

महर्षिणा वेदव्यासेन द्वापरयुगे वेदस्य विभाजनं कृतम् | ते ऋग्वेदः, यजुर्वेदः, सामवेदः, अथर्वणवेदः चेति चत्वारः सन्ति | प्रतिवेदं संहिता, ब्राह्मणम्, आरण्यकम्, उपनिषद् चेति चत्वारः भागाः सन्ति | संहिताः वृक्षाः इति चिन्तयामश्चेत्, ब्राह्मणानि अत्र पुष्पाणि भवन्ति, आरण्यकानि अपक्वफलानि, उपनिषदः तु पक्वफलानि भवन्ति | एतदतिरिच्य आयुर्वेद-धनुर्वेद-गन्‍धर्ववेद-स्थापत्यवेदाख्याः चत्‍वारः उपवेदाः अपि सन्ति | अस्माकं संस्कृतेः स्वरूपम् एव एते उपवेदाः | नास्ति वेदात् परं शास्त्रम् इति लोकोक्तिः | सर्वविज्ञानविषयाः अपि तत्र विद्यन्ते | ते सर्वे संस्कृतभाषया एव निबद्धाः |

वेदे, विशेषतः यजुर्वेदे, यज्ञस्य प्राधान्यम् अस्ति | कः यज्ञः इति द्रष्टव्यः | “ज्ञ” इति अक्षरम् ज्ञानं सूचयति, यथा प्रकृष्टरूपेण यः जानाति सः प्रज्ञः | “य” इति अक्षरम् आश्रयं सूचयति | अस्माकं सृष्टेः आश्रयः परमात्मा एव | आश्रयस्य स्वरूपज्ञानम् एव यज्ञाचरणस्य उद्देश्यः | अतः यज्ञः इति पदम् आत्मज्ञानम् एव सूचयति | आत्मज्ञानेन जीवनस्य साफल्यं भवति |

वेदस्य अध्ययनं मौखिकरूपेण एव अभवत् | तत्र दोषवर्जनाय वेदाध्ययने एको नियमः विहितः | चतुर्वेदैः सह षडङ्गानाम् अध्ययनम् अपि करणीयम् इति | वेदानां सम्यग्ज्ञानाय एतेषां षडङ्गानां ज्ञानं अनिवार्यम् । तानि षडङ्गानि  शिक्षा, छन्दस्, व्याकरणम्, निरुक्तम्, ज्योतिषम्, कल्पम् चेति <quote… >| वेदाध्ययनाय कानिचन विद्यास्थानानि भवन्ति | वेदस्य संपूर्णावगमनार्थं एतानि चतुर्वेदाः, षड्वेदाङ्गानि, मीमांसा, न्यायविस्तरः, पुराणम्, धर्मशास्त्रम्, उपवेदाः च वेदितव्यानि |

सर्वेषु शास्त्रेषु वेदाः एव श्रेष्ठाः | नदीनां वैशिष्ट्यकथनसमये ताः गाङ्गासदृश्यः इति उच्यते | क्षेत्राणां वैशिष्ट्यं वक्तुं प्रभवामश्चेत् तानि काशीसदृशानि इति वदामः | तादृशं किमपि ग्रन्थस्य अथवा ज्ञानस्य वैशिष्ट्यं वक्तव्यञ्चेत् तत् वेद इव अस्ति इत्येव वदन्ति | अस्माकं देशस्य द्वौ इतिहासौ स्तः रामायणं महाभारतं च | महाभारतम् पञ्चमो वेदः इति प्रसिद्धः | प्रचेतसपुत्रेण वाल्मीकिना विरचितस्य रामायणस्य विषये अपि उच्यते – वेदवेद्ये परे पुंसि जाते दशरथात्मजे | वेदः प्राचेतसादासीत् साक्षाद् रामायणात्मना – इति |

वेदानां महत्त्वं वक्तुम् एका घटना अपि उच्यते | कुमरिलभट्टः इति एकः पूर्वमीमाम्सकः आसीत् | एकदा कुमरील भट्टस्य रिपवः तं एकस्मात् पर्वतात् पातितवन्तः | तदा सः उत्क्तवान् यदि वेदः सत्यम् अस्ति, तर्हि मम किमपि हानिः न भविष्यति इति | उन्नतात् पर्वतात् पतनानन्तरमपि सः जीवितवान् | परन्तु तस्य एकं नयनं गतम् | किमर्थं इति चेत् तेन “यदि वेदाः सत्यं तर्हि” इति उक्तम् | अत्र किञ्चित् संशयः दृश्यते | तेन दृढनिश्चयेन “वेदाः सत्यम् | अतः” इति वक्तव्यम् आसीत् |

वेदशब्दाः आकाशे सर्वत्र सर्वदा व्याप्ताः | अस्माकं भारतीयसंस्कृतिः वेदप्रामाण्यात् वेदसंस्कृतिः इति प्रसिद्धा अस्ति | वेदोक्तयज्ञाचरणमेव अस्माकं संस्कृतिः | भारतस्य प्रतिष्ठे द्वे संस्कृतं संस्कृतिस्तथा | यद्यपि वयं वेदमन्त्राणं अर्थं न जानीमः, केवलं मन्त्रश्रवणेन एव शुभं प्राप्नुमः | यावत् पर्यन्तम् अस्माभिः वेदस्य रक्षणं क्रियते तावत् अस्माकं भारतदेशस्य समृद्धिः संरक्ष्यते | भारतं लोकगुरुः भूत्वा सर्वान् सन्मार्गे नयेत् |

Videos – Important quotations from Dhvanyaaloka

 

This post and the video covers the important quotations that have been asked in the KSOU MA exam. (Also refer to the other posts on Dhvanyaaloka containing the notes from the sessions by professors – Dr. H.V.Nagaraja Rao, Smt. Vanitha Ramaswamy, and Sri Sivakumaraswamy).

||ध्वन्यालोकः ||

||प्रथम उद्योतः ||

Mangala shloka

स्वेच्छाकेसरिणःस्वच्छस्वच्छायायासितेन्दवः |

त्रायन्तां वो मधुरिपोः प्रपन्नार्तिच्छिदो नखाः ||

Let the claws of that Hari who manifested in the form of man-lion at His own will, which claws have outshone the moon in their crystal white hue, and which quells the afflictions of His devotees, protect you.

 

Anubhanda Chatrustayam

काव्यस्यात्मा ध्वनिरिति बुधैर्यः समाम्नातपूर्व-</*>

स्तस्याभावं जगदुरपरे भाक्तमाहुस्तमन्ये |

केचिद्वाचाम् स्थितमविषये तत्त्वमूचुस्तदीयम्

तेन ब्रूमःसहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् || 1.१ ||</*>

काव्यस्य+आत्मा ध्वनिः इति बुधैः यः समाम्नातपूर्वः

तस्य अभावं जगदुः अपरे भाक्तम् आहुः तम् अन्ये |

केचित् वाचाम् स्थितम् अविषये तत्त्वम् ऊचुः तदीयम्

तेन ब्रूमःसहृदयमनःप्रीतये तत्स्वरूपम् ||

Dhvani (ध्वनि:) was declared (समाम्नातम्) to be the soul of poetry (काव्यस्यात्मा) by learned persons (बुधै:) of yore  (पूर्वै: ). All the same some would refute its existence (तस्याभावं); some would consider it as something that could be logically implied (अपरे भाक्तम्+आहु:+तम्); some others speak of its presence as being beyond the provision of expression (अन्ये केचित्+वाचाम् स्थितम्+अविषये). Hence, we hereby intend explaining (तेन ब्रूमः ) what its nature (तत्स्वरूपम्) is so as to cause delight to the hearts of sympathetic critics (सहृदय+मनः+प्रीतये).

 

Intro to Dhvani

योऽर्थः सहृदयश्लाघ्यः काव्यात्मेति व्यवस्थितः |

वाच्यप्रतीयमानाख्यौ तस्य भेदावुभौ स्मृतौ || 1.२ ||</*>

यः अर्थः सहृदय-श्लाघ्यः काव्य+आत्मा+इति व्यवस्थितः |

वाच्य+प्रतीयमान+आख्यौ तस्य भेदौ उभौ स्मृतौ ||

That sense (य:+अर्थः) which wins the approbation (admiration) of sensitive critics (सहृदय+श्लाघ्यः) is declared to be the soul of poetry (काव्य+आत्मा+इति व्यवस्थितः). The “denotative” and the “suggestive” (वाच्य+प्रतीयमाना+आख्यौ) are considered to be its two aspects (तस्य भेदौ उभौ स्मृतौ).

 

Existence of another meaning – Dhvani

 

प्रतीयमानं पुनरन्यदेव वस्त्वस्ति वाणीषु महाकवीनाम्|</***>

यत्तत्प्रसिद्धावयवातिरिक्तं विभाति लावण्यमिवाङ्गनासु || 1.४ ||</*>

प्रतीयमानं पुनः अन्यत् एव वस्तु अस्ति वाणीषु महाकवीनाम् |

यत् तत् प्रसिद्ध+अवयव+अतिरिक्तं विभाति लावण्यम् इव अङ्गनासु || 1.४ ||</*>

But the suggestive aspect is distinct from this (explicit – denotative – conventional) (प्रतीयमानं पुन: अन्यत् एव). It shows itself brilliantly in the words(वाणीषु) of celebrated poets (महाकवि) and reigns supreme over and above (अतिरिक्तंविभाति) the striking external elements प्रसिद्ध+ अवयव, even as charm among ladies(लावण्यम् इव अङ्गनासु). (4)

In the words of the mahakavis, there will be a meaning which is referred to as the Prateeyamaana – that which flashes. That is called Dhvani. When the overall beauty or laavanya of a woman is noticed, it is not pin-pointable to any specific feature.

 

Examples of Dhvani – vidhi vs nisheda

स हि कदाचिद्वाच्ये विधिरूपे प्रतिषेधरूपः |</**>| 1.4 ++ |

स: हि कदाचित् वाच्ये विधिरूपे प्रतिषेधरूपः |

 

Sometimes the suggestive idea will be prohibitive, where as the denotative (conventional) meaning is positive in nature.
भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः स शुनकोऽद्य मारितस्तेन |
गोदावरी-नदी-कूल-लता-गहन-वासिना दृप्त-सिंहेन ||
Freely (विस्रब्धः) roam (भ्रम) about, O Ascetic! That dog (स: शुनक:) which you were afraid of, has been killed (मारित:) recently (अद्य) by (तेन) the ferocious lion (दृप्त+सिंहेन) that dwells (लतागहन+वासिना) on the bank of Godavari river(गोदावरी+नदी+कूल).
Suggested meaning: Don’t worry that there is no privacy. The person who used to haunt us has been removed away by a more powerful person. So we can’t meet.

 

श्वश्रूरत्र शेते (अथवा निमज्जति) अत्राहं दिवसकं प्रलोकय |</****>

मा पथिक रात्र्यन्धः शय्यायामावयोः शयिष्ठाः ||<//****>| 1.4 ++ |

श्वश्रूः अत्र शेते (अथवा निमज्जति) अत्र अहं दिवसकं प्रलोकय |

मा पथिक रात्र्यन्धः शय्यायाम् आवयोः शयिष्ठाः ||

Mother-in-law lies here, fast asleep. I will be here. You shall know these before it gets dark. O traveller, don’t you tumble into our beds blinded by night.

 

In this example, the conventional (explicit) meaning prohibits the action whereas the suggestive (implicit) meaning approves of the proposal.

कस्य वा न भवति रोषो दृष्ट्वा प्रियायाः सव्रणमधरम् |</*>

सभ्रमरपद्माघ्राणशीले वारितवामे सहस्वेदानीम् ||<//*>| 1.4 ++ |

कस्य वा न भवति रोषः दृष्ट्वा प्रियायाः सव्रणम् अधरम् |

सभ्रमर+पद्म+आघ्राण+शीले वारित+वामे सहस्व इदानीम् ||

Whose rage is not aroused when one sees the lower lip of his beloved being hurt? You who are habituated to smell the lotus flower with the bee inside, being indifferent to my caution, face the situation (now).

 

Sometimes, the suggested meaning relates to something which is absolutely different from that with which the conventional meaning is associated. Here the lady’s friend is cautioning her about the consequences that she has to face from her husband if she continues to visit her lover.

 

Rasa is suggested

स्वशब्देन सा केवलमनूद्यते, न तु तत्कृता | </*> 1.4 ++ |

स्वशब्देन सा केवलम् अनूद्यते, न तु तत्कृता |

The experience of sentiments, etc., can never be restricted by the proper name though it gets its name. In reality, we do not experience sentiments, etc., in all instances where proper names are employed.

 

i.e., The rasa is not experienced by the mere mention of the name of the rasa. The rasa is suggested by the description of the characters. We clearly experience the rasa in cases where the name is not explicitly stated. Therefore, stating of name of the rasa merely reinstates the rasa and it does not cause the readers to experience the rasa.

 

Rasadhvani is the soul of poetry

काव्यस्यात्मा स एवार्थस्तथा चादिकवेः पुरा | </*>
क्रौञ्चद्वन्द्ववियोगोत्थः शोकः श्लोकत्वमागतः || ५ ||</**>  | 1.5 |

 

काव्यस्यात्मा स: एव+अर्थ:+तथा च+आदिकवेः पुरा |
क्रौञ्च-द्वन्द्व-वियोग+उत्थः शोकः श्लोकत्वम्+आगतः ||

 

That meaning (Rasadhvani) alone is the soul of poetry. This is quite evident from the very incident of the first poet’s Valmiki’s grief which become evoked (in him) due to the wailing of the separate Kraunca bird (from its male mate drenched in pool of blood), which struck the inner core of the sage so as to present the flow of poetry.स: एव+अर्थ: = प्रतीयमान अर्थ: ;

 

शोको हि करुणस्थायिभावः |</*>  | 1.5 ++ |

शोक: हि करुण+स्थायिभावः |

Sorrow (shoka) is the abiding emotion (sthaayibhaava) which stands as the sentiment of pathos (karuna). It will be of the nature of suggestion. Example – The grief of the first poet Valmiki became transformed into a Shloka.

Only like-minded people can appreciate

शब्दार्थशासनज्ञानमात्रेणैव न वेद्यते|

वेद्यते स तु काव्यार्थतत्त्वज्ञैरेव केवलम् || ७ ||</***>

 

शब्दार्थ+शासन+ज्ञान+मात्रेण एव न वेद्यते |

वेद्यते स: तु काव्यार्थ+तत्त्वज्ञै: एव केवलम् || ७ ||
That meaning cannot be comprehended by the mere knowledge of the rules of grammar (word and sense) but can be realised only by those who have understood the real significance of poetry. (7)

This Dhvani or vyangyaarthaa will not be understandable by everyone. Only काव्यार्थतत्त्वज्ञः or the connoisseurs or experts in poetry can understand the suggested meaning. Ordinary people cannot understand.

Eg. In Kumaarasambhava, when Parvathi’s tapas is described. That it is as per Yoga shastra can be understood only by those who are aware of it.

 

Importance of vaakyaartha

आलोकार्थी यथा दीपशिखायां यत्नवाञ्जनः |

तदुपायतया तद्वदर्थे वाच्ये तदादृतः || ९||</*>
आलोक+अर्थी यथा दीप+शिखायां यत्नवान्+जनः |

तत्+उपायतया तद्वत्+अर्थे वाच्ये तत्+आदृतः || ९ ||

In the same manner(यथा – तद्वत्) as a man(जनः) intent upon seeing an object in darkness (आलोक+अर्थी), puts forth his efforts(यत्नवान्) towards fetching a lamp (दीप+शिखायां) owing to its being a means to realise his goal (of seeing the object) (तत्+उपायतया) one who is very much interested (तत्+आदृतः) in the suggested meaning (अर्थे) would at the outset direct his effort towards (understanding) the conventional meaning (वाच्ये). (9)
Though he does not want the flame of the lamp, and he wants the light only, he still brings the deepa shikaa because without the flame, there is not going to be any light. The flame of lamp is just an upaayaa – a means to the required end. Vachyaartha is the upaaya or the means. Vengyaartha is the upeya or desired goal. Vengyaartha could come for Vaachyaartha or Lakshyaartha. Lakshanaa is a vyaapaara or function where a meaning is indicated. There can be only one Vaachyaartha. There could be many intended or suggested meanings. In Mammata’s kavya prakaasha,

गतोस्तमर्क: |  गत:+अस्तम्+अर्क:  = अर्क: अस्तम् गत:  |

The vaachyaartha is that the sun has set. The Vaidhika Brahmana understands that it is time for Sandhya vandana. The thief thinks that he should start his work. The students want to start studying. Based on the nature of the listener, the message conveyed differs.

 

Definition of Dhvani

13th Kaarikaa (Important to be memorised)

 

यत्रार्थः शब्दो वा तमर्थमुपसर्जनीकृतस्वार्थौ |

व्यङ्क्तः काव्यविशेषः स ध्वनिरिति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३ ||</*>

 

यत्र+अर्थः शब्द:+वा तम्+अर्थम्+उपसर्जनी+कृतस्वार्थौ |

व्यङ्क्तः काव्य+विशेषः स: ध्वनि:+इति सूरिभिः कथितः || १३ ||

 

The conventional word शब्द: and the conventional meaning अर्थः   (स्व+अर्थौ =  स्व + शब्द: + अर्थः) are abandoned उपसर्जनी+कृत |  अर्थः शब्द:वाव्यङ्क्तः | They become suggested word or meaning. व्यङ्क्तः = प्रतीयमान: अर्थ: भवति | That is a specialty of the poem called Dhvani.

 

That kind of poetry in which the conventional meaning or the conventional word renders its meaning sub-ordinate and suggests the intended or implied meaning, is termed “Dhvani” or “suggestive poetry” by the learned people.

Some time the meaning subdues itself and gives a more beautiful meaning. In other cases, the word does this. It can be shabda shakti mula dhvani or artha shakti mula dhvani.

 

व्यङ्ग्यप्राधान्येहि ध्वनिः |</*>  | 1.13+|

Aanandavardhana authoritatively declares that suggestion becomes possible only when the suggested element is absolutely prominent. This is not so in समासोक्ति (concise speech or condensed metaphor) and the like.

 

Dhvani Defn –Example of non-prominent suggestion

उपोढरागेण विलोलतारकं तथा गृहीतं शशिना निशामुखम् |</****>

यथा समस्तं तिमिरांशुकं तया पुरोऽपि रागाद्गलितं न लक्षितम् ||<//****>| 1.13+|

उपोढ-रागेण विलोल-तारकं तथा गृहीतं शशिना निशा-मुखम् |

यथा समस्तं तिमिर+अंशुकं तया पुरः अपि रागात् गलितं न लक्षितम् ||

The twilight with twinkling stars became brightened by the moon glowing red suddenly so that the whole mass of darkness vanishing in the east due to brightness was not noticed at all.

 

With reference to the lady, “The heroine’s face with its bright pupils was kissed by the hero overcome by passion with such intense love that the black garment which she had put on slipped away even in the very front was not at all noticed due to intense love.”

 

It is the explicit meaning which alone remains prominent and the suggested meaning serves only as subservient to it. In this stanza, the main purport is the description of the night and the moon over which the disposition of a heroine and of a hero are ascribed to them. That is secondary only.

 

In this illustration, the words though are primarily addressed to the moon and the night, also refer to in an implicit way to the disposition of a lover and the beloved, which has been heaped on moon and the night. Therefore the suggested sense is subservient to the conventional meaning. Hence Dhvani can never be included in Samaasookti.

 

Samasokti is compound statement / concise speech. The words of the stanza have double meaning. Note the pun in raaga – meaning redness and love. Taraka means pupil as well as stars. Purah means in front of her and also in the east. Note the masculine gender word for moon and feminine gender word for night.

Dhvani Defn – Dhvani is not a limb

न चावयव एव पृथग्भूतोऽवयवीति प्रसिद्धः |</*>  | 1.13+|

न च+अवयव एव पृथक्+भूत: अवयवी+इति प्रसिद्धः |

“अवयवी अवयव न एव | अवयवी पृथक्+भूत: च |” इति प्रसिद्धः

The limbs cannot be thought of as body.

 

Dhvani cannot be brought under other heads. It is because of the declaration that it is only the full-fledged kinds of poetry that could be called Dhvani. The limbs of poetry are figures of speech, qualities (Gunas) and varieties of diction (वृत्त्य:).The limbs cannot be thought of as body. When we consider them together, it will be a part of the whole but never identical with the whole. Even granting that identity may be possible in some of the instances, suggestive poetry cannot be deemed as conditioned by its limbs stated above, since Dhvani is quite extensive.

 

Dhavani Defn –Example – Dhvani

सुवर्णपुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषास्त्रयः |</*>

शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च यश्च जानाति सेवितुम् ||<//*></*>| 1.13+|

सुवर्ण+पुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषा: त्रयः |
शूर: च कृतविद्य: च य: च जानाति सेवितुम् ||

There are plenty of golden flowers in this world. Only 3 types of people can gather it – namely warriors (valorous in battle), Scholar (one who has mastered any vidya) and people who know how to serve. (Three men will collect flowers of gold out of the earth – the courageous, the learned and he who knows how to serve.  Mahaabharata – 5.35.64)

This is an example of Deepaka alamkaara. Three people have the same common factor of being able to gather the golden flowers. In such verses, there will be Dhvani. But the prominence is not for Dhvani. The prominence is for the one who serves. The common factor applies to the other two types of people also. Deepa iva deepakam. Like the deepa lit in the door step, that lights the house, also lights outside.

Dhvani is classified into two, namely अविवक्षितवाच्य (unintended literal import) and विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य (intended but further extending literal import). In the first one, the literal sense is not intended. In the second one, the literal sense is intended, but is subordinated to a second meaning. This is an example of the first one, avivakshitavaachya. The flower of gold means success or worldly advancement.

Dhavani Defn – Example – विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य

शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम कियच्चिरं किमभिधानमसावकरोत्तपः । </*>
तरुणि येन तवाधरपाटलं दशति बिम्बफलं शुकशावकः ।। 1.13+|

शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम ? कियत् चिरम् ? किम् अभिधानम् असौ अकरोत् तपः । </*>
तरुणि येन तव अधरपाटलं दशति बिम्बफलं शुकशावकः ।। 1.13+|

हे तरुणि | येन तपसा शुकशावकः तव अधरपाटलं बिम्बफलं दशति, किम् अभिधानम् असौ तपः अकरोत् ? क्व नु नाम शिखरिणि तपः अकरोत् ? कियत् चिरं तपः अकरोत् ?

A person tells the parrot that it is very fortunate and it must have done a lot of penance. “On which mountain and for how long a time did this young parrot perform penance and what might be the name of the penance? For, this young parrot has been chewing the limb or fruit which is as red as your lips”. Here the suggested meaning is that he envies it as he was not able to reach his lover whereas it was able to go close to her / the fruit. Dhvani is classified into two, namely अविवक्षितवाच्य (unintended literal import) and विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य (intended but further extending literal import). In this, the literal sense is intended, but is subordinated to a second meaning. So it is विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य.
In its implication, this is a eulogy addressed to a lady by an impassioned lover, who communicates to her his secret desire in an artful manner. What is suggested is a parallel between the action of the parrot and that of the would-be lover – the speaker wishes he were in the position of the parrot, in relation to the maiden’s lips. This meaning, it is argued, flows directly from the expressed meaning of the sentence; there is no secondary meaning here because the literal meaning that “the lucky parrot is pecking at the plum that is red like your lip” is intact. On closer examination, however, we notice that the description of the parrot is the non-contextual meaning – the lover cannot simply be saying “What a lucky guy the parrot must be to peck the plum!” Such a remark would be rather pointless in the lover’s context. This consideration, together with other telltale signs, such as the absurdity of a parrot performing a penance and the likening of the plum to the lady’s lips (which would also have been pointless without an amorous intent on the part of the speaker), leads to the suggestion of a parallel between the explicit subject (the parrot) and the implicit subject (the would-be lover), the latter being the contextual or relevant meaning. Thus, even in this case, there is obstruction to the surface meaning, on the basis of which we arrive at the implied contextual meaning – the parallel of the lover relishing the maiden’s lips.  (Source: Sanskrit Criticism By V. K. Chari)

 

Dhavani Defn – Not Bhakti

भक्त्या बिभर्ति नैकत्वम् रूपभेदादयं ध्वनिः</*>| 1.13+|

भक्त्या बिभर्ति न+एकत्वम् रूपभेदात्+अयं ध्वनिः  |

Suggestion and secondary signification are not one and the same because of the innate different between the two. अयं ध्वनिः रूपभेदात् भक्त्या एकत्वं न बिभर्ति | If that is considered identical with suggestion, it commits the fallacies of “too wide” a definition and “too narrow” a definition.

Among the three functions of the word, the second function is called Lakshana Vyaapaara or Bhakti. Believers of Bhakti are Bhaktaas. They are also called as Laakshanikaas. Suggestion and Bhakti are different since their forms are different (roopa bheda).

 

ध्वन्यलोक २

The different types of Dhvani

  1. अविवक्षितवाच्य: (unintended literal import – लक्षणामूलध्वानि)
    • अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य:
    • अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य:
  2. विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य: (intended but further extending literal import अभिधामूलध्वनि)
    • संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः (Vastu, Alamkaara) (shabda-shakti, artha-shakti)
    • असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्यः (Rasaadi)

Two types within अविवक्षित

अर्थान्तरे सङ्क्रमितमत्यन्तं वा तिरस्कृतम् |</*>

अविवक्षितवाच्यस्य ध्वनेर्वाच्यं द्विधा मतम् || 2.१||

अर्थ+अन्तरे सङ्क्रमितम् अत्यन्तं वा तिरस्कृतम् |

अविवक्षित-वाच्यस्य ध्वनेः वाच्यं द्विधा मतम् || 2.१||

The expressed meaning in the former variety i.e., अविवक्षितवाच्य is sub-divided into two, namely, अर्थान्तरसंक्रमित (transformed into some other sense) and अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत (totally discarded).

Example of अर्थान्तरसंक्रमित

स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतो वेल्लद्बलाका घना
वाताः शीकरिणः पयोदसुहृदामानन्दकेकाः कलाः |
कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोरहृदयो रामोऽस्मि सर्वं सहे
वैदेही तु कथम् भविष्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव ||

कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोर-हृदयः रामः अस्मि सर्वं सहे
वैदेही तु कथम् भविष्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव ||
(Meaning: स्निग्धश्यामलकान्तिलिप्तवियतः, वेल्लद्बलाकाः, घनाः वाताः शीकरिणः, पयोदसुहृदाम् आनन्दकेकाः कलाः | कामं सन्तु दृढम् | कठोर+हृदय: राम: अस्मि | अहं सर्वं सहे | वैदेही तु कथं भविष्यति ? हहा हा | देवि, त्वं धीरा भव |

The quarters are all painted as it was with the glistening dark clouds; the cranes are flying with excitement, forming a circle as it were. The gentle wind is full of moisture; these friends of clouds, i.e., the peacocks are giving out joyous notes in the wind. Let all these confront me (कामं सन्तु). I shall certainly put up with all these (सर्वं सहे), for, I am Rama (राम: अस्मि) whose heart is quite hard as adamantine (made of very hard material) (दृढं कठोर+हृदय:). But how will Sita bear with this (वैदेही तु कथम् भविश्यति)! Alas! Alas!(हहा हा) O my beloved queen!  Bear these with all fortitude or courage (देवि धीरा भव)). 

Rama is separated from Sita. He describes the season which causes more pain for the separated lovers. He hopes that Sita is able to bear this pain. He says that he will be able to bear it. Here for the term Rama the meaning to be taken is much more than the son of Dasaratha. He is to be taken as one having the capacity to bear all the pains. It is an example of अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्य: | The suggestion here is that he can bear all the pain (सर्वकष्टसहिश्नुत्वशक्तिमान्) |

Examples of अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत

रविसङ्क्रान्तसौभाग्यस्तुषारावृतमण्डलः | </**>

निःश्वासान्ध इवादर्शश्चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते ||

रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्य: तुषार+आवृत+मण्डलः चन्द्रमा, निःश्वास+अन्ध: आदर्श: इव न प्रकाशते |

“All the charm (brightness) to the sun has disappeared, now that the orb is enveloped by snow. Like a mirror rendered blind by the heaving, the moon does not glow.”

At the advent of morning, the sun is raising and the brightness of moon is fading. The soubhaagyaa of chandra has now been transferred to Sun (रवि+सङ्क्रान्त+सौभाग्य: | ) तुषारावृत+मण्डलः | आदर्श: = दर्पणः = mirror. When we breathe out air on the mirror, the mirror becomes unclear. The person is unable to see clearly. Like that, Chandra has also is not bright now. The literal meaning here is that the mirror has become blind अन्ध: by the breathed out air. There is Dhvani in the shabda “andha” as it means that it is unable to reflect the image clearly. This type of Dhvani is अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्या. The literal meaning is overridden.

Here the word “blinded” is suggestive of the second variety. This is a famous stanza from the epic Valmiki Raamaayana. When we breathe out air on the mirror, the mirror becomes unclear for some time and then becomes bright again. Like that, Chandra is also not bright now, but he will get the light back later on. The literal meaning here is that the mirror has become blind by the breathed out air. There is Dhvani in the shabda “andha” as it means that it is unable to reflect the image clearly. This type of Dhvani is atyanta tiraskruta vaachyaa. The literal meaning is overridden. Through similarity in not being able to reflect or see clearly, the word takes the Lakshana meaning. The conventional meaning of the word “Andha” is completely discarded.

 

गगनं च मत्तमेघं धारालुलितार्जुनानि च वनानि |</**>

निरहङ्कारमृगाङ्का हरन्ति नीला अपि निशाः ||<//**>||2.1 ++||

मत्तमेघं गगनं च, धारालुलित+अर्जुनानि वनानि च, निरहङ्कार+मृगाङ्काः निशाः नीला अपि (मनः) हरन्ति ||

The sky is enveloped with intoxicated or rolling clouds गगनं मत्तमेघंच | the Arjuna trees in the forest have water drops dripping वनानि धारालुलित+अर्जुनानि च | Nights are not bright with moon bereft of pride निशाः निरहङ्कार+मृगाङ्का: | Though black in colour, they capture you नीला अपि (मन:) हरन्ति | मन: is अध्याहार: (supplying the missing text).

Here the words “rolling”, “bereft of pride” are replete (brimming) with suggestion.

Explanation about विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य:

मुख्यतया प्रकाशमानो व्यङ्ग्योऽर्थो ध्वनेरात्मा |</*> | 2.2 + |
स च वाच्यार्थापेक्षयाकश्चिदलक्ष्यक्रमतया प्रकाशते ,
कश्चिद्क्रमेणेति द्विधा मतः ||| 2.2 + |

मुख्यतया प्रकाशमान: व्यङ्ग्य: अर्थ: ध्वने: आत्मा |
स: च वाच्यार्थ अपेक्षया कश्चित् अलक्ष्यक्रमतया प्रकाशते ,
कश्चित् क्रमेण इति द्विधा मतः ||| 2.2 + |

The nature of suggestion is such that the suggested meaning can be conveyed with significance. A variety of it can be grasped along with the expressed since the sequence in comprehending both conventional and suggested meanings cannot be discerned. Another variety is that in which the sequentiality can be easily discerned.

Even when the suggested meaning is present, if it is not enjoining importance and pre-eminence, then it should not be called as Dhvani.

This is the vritti for “The nature of suggestion”. विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य (intended literal import) is also divided into two, namely संलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य (where sequentiality can be discerned) and असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य (where sequentiality cannot be discerned).  One variety in which the suggested meaning is grasped along with the expressed since the sequence in comprehending both conventional and suggested meanings cannot be discerned (separated). Another variety is that in which the sequentiality can be easily discerned.

Explanation about  असंलक्ष्यक्रमव्यङ्ग्य

रसादिरर्थो हि सहैव वाच्येनावभासते |</**>  | 2.3 + | स चाङ्गित्वेनावभासमानोध्वनेरात्मा |

रसादि: अर्थ: हि सह एव वाच्येन+अवभासते | सः च अङ्गित्वेन अवभासमानः ध्वनेः आत्मा |

(Note: This is the vritti to the following kaarikaa
रसभावतदाभासतत्प्रशान्त्यादिरक्रमः |
ध्वनेरात्माङ्गिभावेन भासमानो व्यवस्थितः || २.३ || )

The elements such as Rasa (i.e., Rasa – sentiment, bhaava – emotion, Rasaabhaasa – semblance of sentiment, bhaavaabhaasa – semblance of emotion or mood, and that rise and cessation) would strike the mind along with the conventional i.e., literal, import. If they also shine prominently, there would be the soul of suggestion.

This is the vritti for “Sentiment – Rasa, emotion – bhaava, the semblance of sentiment – rasaabhaasa, semblance of emotion or mood – bhaavaabhaasa and that rise and cessation – all these form un-discerned sequentiality. It is decided that when there is prominent presence of the variety, that would be the very soul of suggestion.

It would seem like the vaachyaartha and the vyangyaartha are coming together. Kaarana has to be present before the Kaarya. Since Vaachyaartha is the Kaarana, it has to be present even before the Kaarya which is the Vyangyaartha. But the gap is so less that it feels as though they are there together. The Rasaadi Dhvanis are inseparable with the Vaachyaartha. They might seem to come together. But there is a clear order in the vastu dhvani and alamkaara dhvani where the vaachyaartha occurs first and then comes the vyangyaartha.

Definition of Rasavadalankaara

प्रधान्येऽन्यत्र वाक्यार्थे यत्राङ्गं तु रसादयः |</***>

काव्ये तस्मिन्नलङ्कारो रसादिरिति मे मतिः || ५||  |2.5|

प्रधान्ये अन्यत्र वाक्यार्थे यत्र अङ्गं तु रसादयः |

काव्ये तस्मिन् अलङ्कारः रसादिः इति मे मतिः ||

If on the other hand, the chief meaning of the sentence should direct towards something else and if Rasa etc. are to figure in only as subsidiary to it – that would be the case of Rasavadalankaara.

 

For eg., it may be easily seen how in hymns of praise (stotras), the sentiments etc. appear as sub-ordinate things. They are treated as examples of Preyas Alankaara (praising god, guru, etc.)

एवं ध्वनेरुपमादीनां रसवदलङ्कारस्य च विभक्तविषयता भवति |</*> |2.6+|

एवं ध्वने: उपमादीनां रसवदलङ्कारस्य च विभक्त-विषयता भवति |

In this way, there is a specific differentiating aspect between Dhvani, alamkaaras like upama, and the Rasavadamkaara.

Difference between Guna and Alamkaara

तमर्थमवलम्बन्ते येऽङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः |</*>

अङ्गाश्रितास्त्वलङ्कारा मन्तव्याः कटकादिवत् || ६  2.7 ||

तम्+अर्थम्+अवलम्बन्ते ये+अङ्गिनं ते गुणाः स्मृताः |
अङ्ग+आश्रिता:+तु+अलङ्कारा: मन्तव्याः कटकादिवत् ||

That which depends upon this main element (here rasa) are considered as “qualities”. The figures of speech are those that are connected with its parts (here the expressed meaning and the expression) in the same way as ornaments like bracelet, etc.

The difference between Alamkaara and Guna is stated here. A person might have decorated himself in a certain way. But his Gunas or qualities are different. The Alamkaaras are decorations of the body and the Gunas always depend on the soul (अङ्गि that which contains the organs). The अङ्गि of kavya is rasa. Prasaad, Ojas, Madhurya and the other gunas are decorations of the soul, the rasa dhvani, which is the अङ्गि. शब्दार्थौ काव्यस्य शरीरम् | The alamkaaras are attached to the body which is the word, shabda and the meaning, vaachya. Yamaka is a shabda alamkara. Upamaa is an arthaalamkaara. ये अङ्गिनं तम् अर्थम् (dhvani) अवलम्बन्ते, ते गुणाः | अङ्ग-आश्रिता: तु अलङ्कारा: | कटकादिवत् = Like the bangle (कटक) and others.

Relation between Guna and Rasa

शृङ्गार एव मधुरः परः प्रह्लादनो रसः |</*>

तन्मयं काव्यमाश्रित्य माधुर्यं प्रतितिष्ठति || २.७  8||

 

Srngaara (sentiment of love) is the sweetest and most relishable of all sentiments. The quality of Maadhurya (sweetness) is declared to be in the poetic composition beaming with this sentiment.

 

Usage of Alamkaara

ध्वन्यात्मभूते शृङ्गारे यमकादिनिबन्धनम् |

शक्तावपि प्रमादित्वं विप्रलम्भे विशेषतः || २.१६ / 2.15 || </*>

ध्वनि+आत्मभूते शृङ्गारे यमकादि-निबन्धनम्
शक्तौ अपि  प्रमादित्वं विप्रलम्भे विशेषतः |

ध्वनि+आत्मभूते शृङ्गारे शक्तौ प्रमादित्वम् अपि यमकादि निबन्धनम् | विप्रलम्भे विशेषतः |

Even granting that the poet is proficient in using the figures like assonance, it would be a lapse on his part in case he were to use them while delineating the sentiment of love which is the very soul of Dhvani, especially in vipralambha shrungaara. (यमकादि शक्तौ प्रमादित्वम् = proficiency in the skill of including alamkaras like Yamaka). In this section, Anandavardhana clarifies the role of Alamkara in Dhvani poetry.

रसाक्षिप्ततया यस्य बन्धः शक्यक्रियो भवेत् |
अपृथग्यत्ननिर्वत्यः सोऽलङ्कारो ध्वनौ मतः || 2.१७ / 2.16 || </*>

रसाक्षिप्ततया यस्य बन्धः शक्यक्रियः भवेत् |
अपृथक्+यत्न+निर्वत्यः सः अलङ्कारः ध्वनौ मतः ||

The poet is permitted to use only such figures the employment of which is made possible only by the emotional exuberance (excitement) of the poet and in the use of which figure there is no special effort used.

Counter-example of Shabdashakti in Samlakshya

तस्या विनापि हारेण निसर्गादेव हारिणौ |</****>

जनयामासतुः कस्य विस्मयं न पयोधरौ ||<//****>||2.22  ++  in book||

हारेण विनापि निसर्गात् एव हारिणौ तस्याः पयोधरौ कस्य विस्मयं न जनयामासतुः |

Her bosoms having no garland though garlanded by active (attractive) as it were, whom should they not amaze.

 

That example in which a figure which is not expressed directly by any word is present and conveys solely, by the suggestive potency of the word itself, should be taken as suggestion based on the potency of the word (shabda-shakti-moola-dhvani). The shlesa on the word हार helps only in conveying a tinge of virodha or paradox on how she is garlanded with a garland. There is no suggestion based on the potency of the word. So this verse is not an example for shadba-shakti-moola-dhvani. But the sentiment of love conveyed here through Slesa or Virodha could be taken as asamlakshyakramaviyanga – suggestion with undiscerned sequentiality.

Types of Arthashaktimooladhvani

Samlakshyakramadhvani is classified into shabdashakti-moola-dhvani and arthashakti-mooladhvani. Arthashaktimooladhvani is the case where the meaning which suggests another meaning. It is of two kinds – (1) प्रौढोक्तिः found in ornamented expression. (2) स्वतः सम्भवी naturally existing.  Each of these two types are further classified into (a) वस्तुना वस्तुध्वानिः, (b) वस्तुना अलंकारध्वनिः, (c) अलंकारेण वस्तुध्वनिः, (d) अलंकारेण अलंकारध्वनिः |

Examples of Arthashakti – Svatahsambhavi – Vastunaa vastudhvani

एवंवादिनि देवर्षौ पार्श्वे पितुरधोमुखी |</***>

लीलाकमलपत्राणि गणयामास केवलम् ||<//***>  | 2.23 ++ in book|

एवं+वादिनि देवर्षौ पार्श्वे पितु: अधोमुखी |
लीला+कमल+पत्राणि गणयामास केवलम् || after 2.22

This shloka is from Kumaara Sambhava. The Sapta Rishis have come. Narada comes and tells Himaalaya that Shiva is the suitable groom for Parvathi and that he has agreed to marry Parvathi. When Narada was talking in this way (एवं+वादिनि देवर्षौ), Parvathi was standing next to her father with head facing down (पार्श्वे पितु: अधोमुखी). She was holding a lotus for play (leela) लीला+कमल+पत्राणि.  She started seriously counting its petals (गणयामास केवलम्). The bhava of shyness is suggested.

That example in which one sense leads to another sense through its own potency of suggestion and not out of the denotative potency of words will be an example of suggestion which depends upon the potency of meaning very much akin to resonance – artha-shakti-moola-dhvani. In this case, counting of petal suggests bashfulness. This is

शिखिपिच्छकर्णपूरा जाया व्याधस्य गर्विणी भ्रमति |</*>

मुक्ताफलरचितप्रसाधनानां मध्ये सपत्नीनाम् || 2.२४||<//*>

शिखिपिच्छ-कर्ण-पूरा जाया व्याधस्य गर्विणी भ्रमति |

मुक्ताफल-रचित-प्रसाधनानां मध्ये सपत्नीनाम् ||

शिखि-पिच्छ-कर्ण-पूरा With the plumes of peacock (i.e., an ornament made from the feathers in the peacock’s tail) adorning her ears, व्याधस्य जाया the wife of the hunter गर्विणी भ्रमति walks in pride मुक्ता-फल-रचित-प्रसाधनानां सपत्नीनां मध्ये in the midst of all her co-wives who are possessed of ornaments of pearls.

 

This is an example where the naturally existing sense is that which is akin to what is found in stark world. Her good fortune in the form of her winning her husband’s special love to her and the bad fortune of other wives are suggested without any imaginative twist to the meaning. So this is an example of svatah-sambhavi-arthashaktimoola-dhvani. This also comes under vastunaa vastudhvani.

Example of Vastunaa-alamkaaradhvani – Utpreksa-dhvani

चन्दनासक्तभुजगनिःश्वासानिलमूर्च्छितः |</*>

मूर्च्छयत्येष पथिकान्मधौ मलयमारुतः ||<//*>  | 2.28 ++ |

चन्दन+आसक्त+भुजग+निःश्वासानिल+मूर्च्छितः |

मूर्च्छयति एषः पथिकान्मधौ मलयमारुतः ||

In this spring season the southerly wind raising the breath of snakes reclining on sandal trees causes stupor to travelers.

 

This verse describing the spring season is an example of Utpreksa (poetic fancy) Dhvani. The southerly wind causes stupor (lethargy) in travellers because it generates passionate longing in them. The southerly wind itself is poetically fancied (i.e., imagined by the poet) as stuporous because of its coming in contact with the heaves of snakes which have encircled the sandal trees. This fancy is not directly conveyed by the words like “as it”, etc. But it is conveyed through suggestion by the potency of sense in the sentence. It is just like resonance. Since the cause of the lethargy is an imaginative one, it is an example of हेतूत्प्रेक्षा | Here the suggester is a vastu and hence this is an example of vastunaa alamkaaradhvani.

Example of Yathaasamkhya-dhvani (alamkaarena-alamkaara Dhvani)

अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च सहकारः |</*>

अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च हृदि मदनः ||<//*> | 2.28 ++ |

The mango tree sheds sprouts, converts into leaf, buds and flowers. Love (treasured) in the hearts sprouts, turns into leaf, buds and flowers.

The following is one example of the suggested – यथासंख्यध्वनि: (suggested relative).

Here the resonance-like charm maintaining the same order of occurrence referring to love and mango tree is far far greater than the charm associated with the expressed figure तुल्ययोगिता (combination of equals). The expressed alamkara, tulyayogitaa results in resonance and suggests यथासंख्य alamkara.
(Side note: My understanding of yathasankhya alankara is this – An alamkara where the object and the mirrored object – both follow an enumeration in a fixed order.  Further, I am guessing in this case, since both are not made to follow a single enumeration and rather there is resonance in its place, it does not become that alamkara. But it remains as a suggested alamkaara).

Utility of Alamkaaradhvani

शरीरीकरणं येषां वाच्यत्वे न व्यवस्थितम् |</*>

तेऽलङ्काराः परां छायां यान्ति ध्वन्यङ्गतां गतः || २८||<//*>   | 2.29 |

येषां वाच्यत्वे शरीरीकरणं न व्यवस्थितम्, ते अलङ्काराः ध्वन्यङ्गतां गतः परां छायां यान्ति |

The following aphorism points out the utility of suggested figures. The very same figures of speech (ते अलङ्काराः) which cannot afford to become even the body of poetry (येषां वाच्यत्वे शरीरीकरणं न व्यवस्थितम्), will gain special beauty (परां छायां यान्ति) much more than what they were in their expressed aspect, when they become involved in suggestion (ध्वन्यङ्गतां गतः).

 

ध्वन्यालोकः ३

In this 3rd udhyotta, the different types are listed from the perspective of the Vyanjaka – word while in the earlier chapter, it was based on the Vyangya – meaning.

Example of वाक्यप्रकाशता in अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी | </*>

यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः || <//*>  | 3.1 eg |

 

The following is the example of a suggestive sentence of the sub-class of “Primary sense totally discarded (अत्यन्त तिरस्कृतवाच्य) under the class of “that with intended expressed sense” (अविवक्षितवाच्य).

 

What is night for all beings, the saint keeps himself awake during then; when the beings are awake that will be night for the saint.

 

The expressed sense that one should be awake during night, and remain sleeping during other time is absolutely irrelevant to what is intended. This only suggests predominantly that the wise saint has been with spiritual alertness and has shunned false notions about Reality. The primary meaning thus has been totally discarded and the suggested meaning comes to the forefront in the mind of a connoisseur. Hence it is an instance of a suggestive sentence (वाक्यप्रकाशता).  Suggestive sentence and suggestive word are the two categories under the subdivision of अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्यध्वनि.

Types of Sanghatanaa or Texture of compositions

 

असमासा समासेन मध्यमेन च भूषिता |

तथा दीर्घसमासेति त्रिधा सङ्घटनोदिता|| ५||</***>  | 3.5 |
Composition (texture – सङ्घटना) is of three kinds namely (1) without compounds असमासा (2) with medium compounds मध्यमेन समासेन भूषिता and (3) with long compounds दीर्घसमासा. Gunas or qualities like maadhuryam or sweetness and prasaada or perspicuity (eloquence / articulacy) are constantly found in plenty only when vipralambhashrungaara (love in separation) is delineated. Oojas (forcefulness) goes with Raudra (Furious) and adbhuta (wonder). But the same conformity does not apply to the Sanghatanaa. Thus we find sanghatanaa when we have long compounds even when erotic sentiment is delineated and even when we have no compounds in Raudra Rasa.

Avoid Rasabhanga by avoiding Anuchityaa

अनौचित्यादृते नान्यद्रसभङ्गस्य कारणम् | </*>

प्रसिद्धौचित्यबन्धस्तु रसस्योपनिषत्परा || ३. १४++ ||  | 3.14 |

अनौचित्यात्+ऋते न+अन्यत्+रसभङ्गस्य कारणम् |
प्रसिद्ध+औचित्य+बन्ध:+तु रसस्य+उपनिषद्+परा ||

रसभन्गस्य कारणम् अन्यत् न There could be no other cause for a breach in sentiment अनौचित्यात्+ऋते except impropriety. रसस्य परा उपनिषद् The greatest secret about the delineation of sentiment is प्रसिद्ध+औचित्य+बन्ध: to conform to the well-known and accepted considerations of propriety.

 

An interruption of aesthetic relish is called Rasa bhanga. The main reason for this is anauchitya. Bharata laid down the strict rule that in the stage play par excellence, only a well-known plot and a familiar noble hero should figure in. If this rule is adopted, a poet can ill-afford to go wrong in the matter of maintaining propriety in relation to the hero with impossible super human characteristics while writing a drama with its plot invented by him.

औचित्यम् = propriety – suitableness – it is the bhava of uchita. उचितम् = proper.

[Side note: A Kashmiri poet, Kshemendra (after Anandavardhana) wrote a work called Auchitya Vichaara Charchaa. He states that Guna, Alamkaaraa, Vrutti, Pravrutti or the suggested meaning vyangyaartha – all these should been within the limits of auchitya. Else it will become a laughing stock].

There is the suitability of the character and the suitability of even Vrutti, Pravrutti and Sannivesha (situation) are to be considered. For example, the king taking out his sword to fight enemy is acceptable but if he takes out his sword in a fight with his wife, it is not appropriate. Even in the Natya Shastra, when Indra flies in the sky, it is acceptable for the audience to accept the divine feats only by gods. But when an ordinary man says that he will fly to the heaven, it is inappropriate. Another example – in a drama, there is a pandit. His speech could indicate his knowledge. But the character of a servant cannot be shown to be talking in that same manner. For each rasa like adbhuda, karuna, vira or bhayaanaka, the poem has to be written appropriately. The dialog and the actions for Karuna and Vira will be different. Adbhuda might have a lengthy dialog expressing surprise. Thus the most important factor among the suitability is Rasa Auchitya. The auchitya is decided according to the main rasa. The characters have 3 types of prakruti – daivi prakruti, aasuree prakruti or maanavee prakruti. Based on their prakruti, everything else should match like the dress and the mannerism. There is another thing called Sandarba auchitya. What is appropriate in such situation has to be considered. Most importantly the rasa’s auchitya has to be ensured.

Example of suggestion through Krudanta

अतिक्रान्तसुखाः कालाः प्रत्युपस्थितदारुणाः |

श्वः श्वः पापीयदिवसा पृथिवी गतयौवना || 3.१६++

अतिक्रान्तसुखाः | कालाः प्रत्युपस्थितदारुणाः | श्वः श्वः पापीय-दिवसा | पृथिवी गतयौवना |

Gone are the delights and times pose more and more depression. The earth has become destitute of youth and every next day (tomorrow) is a sinful day.

In the above verse suggestion with alakshyakrama  is communicated through primary suffix – krudantaah (अतिक्रान्त, प्रत्युपस्थित, गत), number – bahu vachaana (सुखाः, कालाः)  and the suggestion with the expressed totally discarded (अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्य) is found in the expression “पृथिवी गतयौवना” |

One Prominent Rasa should be present

प्रसिद्धेऽपि प्रबन्धानां नानारसनिबन्धने |

एको रसोऽङ्गीकर्तव्यस्तेषामुत्कर्षमिच्छता || २१||</******>  | 3.21 |

प्रसिद्धे नाना-रस-निबन्धने अपि प्रबन्धानां तेषाम् उत्कर्षम् इच्छता (कविना) एकः रसः अङ्गी कर्तव्यः |

No doubt, there is a convention that in entire literary composition, there should be more than one sentiment. It is ordained here that one of those sentiments should be made the main by any poet who wants his work to be great.

Angi rasa – is the prominent rasa which should be present from the beginning till the end of the Kavya. Anga rasa is the secondary rasa which could appear in between at some time.

There are two vibhaavaas namely Aalambana Vibhaavaa and Udeepana Vibhaavaa. The object towards which the rasa is targeted is Aalambana Vibhaavaa. Bhima says that he will drink Dhushaasanaa’s blood. So Bhima is the kaarana or Aalambana Vibhaavaa for Dhushsaasanaa’s fear. When Bhima comes, there are others who come with him making loud noises beating their drums. They become the secondary cause and enhance the fear. They are the Udeepana Vibhaavaa. So the Vibaavaa, Anubhaavaa and Sanchaaribhaavaa included by the poet should enhance the main rasa. It should not be against the main rasa.

Example – Insertion of Opposed sentiment

सत्यं मनोरमा रामाः सत्यं रम्या विभूतयः | </*>

किं तु मत्ताङ्गनापाङ्गभङ्गलोलं हि जीवितम् || <//*> | 3.30 ++ |

 

It is indeed true that women are endearing to the heart (रामाः मनोरमाः सत्यं). It is true that wealth is quite alluring (विभूतयः रम्याः सत्यं). But life (जीवितम्) itself is much transient as to compete with the tremulous glances [ i.e., the incomplete movement (भङ्ग+लोलं) of the corner of the eyes (अपाङ्ग)] of the love-intoxicated (मत्त) lady (अङ्गना). (यथा मत्ताङ्गनाया: अपाङगात् भङ्गं लोलं अशाश्वतं क्षणिकं च, तथैव जीवितम् )

If there be slightest touch of the opposite sentiments while dealing with the Sringaara Rasa and its accessories, there may not arise any defect when the rules governing the non-opposition of sentiments are meticulously followed. Hence indeed there can be no defect with the insertion of an opposed sentiment as one finds in the above verse.

 

ध्वन्यालोकः ४

The prominent rasa of Ramayana

रामायणे हि करुणो रसः | </*> | ४.५ + |

The prominent rasa of Ramayana is being discussed. In Ramayana, there is Shringaara, Vipralambha Shringaara, Karuna, Vira, kroda, etc. Valmiki himself states that शोकः श्लोकत्वमागतः | So shoka or sorrow is the staayibhaava of this entire epic. The last scene ends with Sita entering the earth. As Karuna has been present from start to end, it is the prominent (angi) rasa of Ramayana.

Next, Mahaabhaarata is taken up. In most of the Parvaas it is mainly fight and hence Vira is a rasa. There are also Shringaara and Shoka or Karuna. But Anandavardhana says that the prominent rasa of Mahabharata is Shanta rasa. Anukramani is the table of contents. In the anukramanika of Mahabharata, there is no reference to the term Shanta. Then, how can it be taken as the main rasa? Anandavardhana says that the most obvious thing should not be stated explicitly. It should be understood through Dhvani. In the Anukramanika, there is one verse. ‘ भगवान्वासुदेवश्च कीर्त्यतेऽत्र सनातनः’   — ‘ भगवान्+वासुदेव:+च कीर्त्यते+अत्र सनातनः’ The meaning of Vaasadeva is not the son of Vasudeva. Sanaatanaa is eternal. Vasudeva’s son was not eternal. वसति इति वासु: | वासु: च असौ देव: च वासुदेवः | The praise of that eternal god is being sung in the entire Mahaabhaarata. That god is the personification of Shanta. Even if the other characters like Arjuna and Bhima are described in the Bhaarata, only this Vaasudeva is the main character. Bharata is a Kavya and it is also a Shashtra. As a Kavya, Krishna is the ultimate. As a Shashtra, Shantha is the ultimate. All the rasas culminate in Shantha.

Samvaada or Correspondence or Similarity of Thought

 

संवादास्तु भवन्त्येव बाहुल्येन सुमेधसाम् | </*>

स्थितं ह्येतत् संवादिन्य एव मेधाविनां बुद्धयः | किन्तु – – –

नैकरूपतया सर्वे ते मन्तव्या विपश्चिता || 4.११ ||

11a. There would certainly be plentiful coincidences of ideas presented by the minds.

11b. But all of them need not be considered identical by any stretch of imagination by the recipients.

Anandavardhana talks about Samvaada in the fourth chapter. Assume Shakespeare writes something. If the same thing is also said by our poets, say Kalidasa or Bhaaravi, we say that there is Samvaada or Correspondence or Similarity of thought. For example, what was found (like value of pi) by our great mathematician like Aryabhaatta and Bhaskaracharya was also found independently by European mathematicians. “Great minds think alike”. But, Krithi chauryaa – plagiarism – is stealing someone’s work.  Samvaada is Correspondence or Similarity of thought.

The thoughts of two poets might concur. सु+मेधाः = The ability to retain the knowledge is Medhaa i.e., the धारण after ग्रहण. It is the retentive memory. There will be samvaada among great poets and it cannot be avoided. Refer the earlier notes on three types. In the case where both come up with the same thought, one cannot reject the other, though there is similarity. In other cases, it becomes Kruti Chaurya.

तत्पुनः शरीरिणां प्रतिबिम्बवदालेख्याकारवत्तुल्यदेहिवच्च त्रिधा व्यवस्थितम् | (after 4.11) | (Meaning: Coincidence in poetic themes is recognized as of three types – (1) like that of reflected image of persons in a mirror (2) like that of a picture of a boy, drawn in painting, (3) like that of two individuals resembling one another). It can be like the reflection of a person शरीरिणां प्रतिबिम्बवत्, it can be like the painting आलेख्याकारवत्, or it can be like another person who has the resemblance – तुल्यदेहिवत् | Here further says about these three.

तत्र पूर्वमनन्यात्म तुच्छात्म तदनन्तरम् | तृतीयं तु प्रसिद्धात्म नान्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः || 4.१३||  तत्र पूर्वम् अनन्यात्म तुच्छात्म तत् अनन्तरम् | तृतीयं तु प्रसिद्धात्म नन्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः(Meaning: Of these, the first one has no individual existence of its own, the possibility of the second is not better than a non-entity. The third one of course has a concrete existence. A poet need not have to bypass similarity in themes).  In resemblance, it is अनन्यात्मा – it is not a different person. The painting one is inferior. The resemblance between two people like twins is acceptable since they have their own existence and specialty though they have some similar features. न अन्यसाम्यं त्यजेत्कविः – This should not be given up by the poet. Though it is not a fault to have some idea that resembles the work of an earlier poet, it is better to avoid building on another person’s idea. There are numerous options available and the poet should try to find something new than choosing something that has already been done.

परस्वादानेच्छाविरतमनसो वस्तु सुकवेः सरस्वत्येवैषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती || 4.१७||  परस्वादान+इच्छा+विरत+मनसः वस्तु सुकवेः सरस्वति एषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती || (Meaning: The goddess of speech i.e., Sarasvati herself will help the deserving and talented poets in procuring the ideas provided they shun plagiarism). For a person who is not interested in copying another person’s idea, Goddess Saraswati herself will provide with new ideas as much as needed.

 

Short notes:

Anandavardhana is credited with creating the dhvani theory. He wrote of dhvani (meaning sound, or resonance) in regard to the “soul of poetry.” “When the poet writes,” said Anandavardhana, “he creates a resonant field of emotions.”

Questions from exams

 

Book no./ page no.

 

श्वशूरत्र निमज्जति अत्राहम् दिवसकम् प्रलोक्यम्। १/२५

कस्य वा न भवति । १/२६

उपोढरागेण विलोलतारकम् । १/५२

शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम । १/५५

सुवर्णपुष्पाम् प्ऋथिवीम्। १/५५

गगनम् मत्तमेघम् । २/५

रवि सम्क्रान्त सौभाग्य। २/५

तस्या: विनापि हारेण। २/५९

एवम् वादिनि देवर्षो पार्श्वे। २/७०

शिखिपिच्छकर्णपूरा जाया। २/७२

चन्दनासक्त भुजग। २/७६

अड़्कुरित: पल्लवित:। २/७७

या निशा सर्वभूतानाम्। ३/११

अति क्रान्त सुखा: काला:। ४/७

सत्यम् मनोरमा: रामा:। ४/५४

 

शब्दार्थौ सहितौ काव्यम्

 

अपऋथग्यत्न निर्वव्र्य: सोsलड़्कारो ध्वनौ मत:

 

Concepts  / short notes

अलङ्कारत्वसाधनम्

Different meanings for Dhvani

There are different meanings given to the term Dhvani. One is the best type of poetry – Atyuttama Kaavya. Dhvani also means the suggested meaning. The word that has the suggested meaning is also called Dhvani. The vyanjanaa vyaapaara which is the function that indicates the suggested meaning is also Dhvani. Dhvani is used in five different senses – Suggestive words, suggestive ideas, suggested ideas, suggestion and the composition in which all or any one may be found.

(Additional notes from KSOU Textbook:

  1. व्याञ्जकोऽर्थः – Suggestive meaning due to which the primary sense discards itself
  2. ध्वनिः काव्यम् – A composition where the primary senses are discarded
  3. व्यञ्जनाव्यापारः – The suggestive function through which the primary sense is discarded.
  4. व्जञ्जकः शब्दः ध्वनिः – Suggestive words whose primary sense is discarded
  5. व्यङ्ग्योऽर्थः – Suggested sense for whose sake the expressed meaning is rendered not fruitful.

List of Examples — for Quick Reference

 Dhvani – what it can be

(1) suggestive idea will be prohibitive

भ्रम धार्मिक विस्रब्धः स शुनकोऽद्य मारितस्तेन |

गोदावरी-नदी-कूल-लता-गहन-वासिना दृप्त-सिंहेन ||

(2)suggestive meaning approves.

श्वश्रूरत्र शेते (अथवा निमज्जति) अत्राहं दिवसकं प्रलोकय |</****>

मा पथिक रात्र्यन्धः शय्यायामावयोः शयिष्ठाः ||

(3)suggested meaning relates to something which is absolutely different

कस्य वा न भवति रोषो दृष्ट्वा प्रियायाः सव्रणमधरम् |</*>

सभ्रमरपद्माघ्राणशीले वारितवामे सहस्वेदानीम् ||<//*>| 1.4 ++ |

Dhvani – What it is not

(4) Samaasookti – the suggested sense is subservient to the conventional meaning

उपोढरागेण विलोलतारकं तथा गृहीतं शशिना निशामुखम् |</****>

यथा समस्तं तिमिरांशुकं तया पुरोऽपि रागाद्गलितं न लक्षितम् ||<//****>| 1.13+|

Bhakti is not Dhvani

(*) रामगिरि आश्रमेषु – yaksha – not Bhakti only Dhvani

(*) पत्र शयनं वदति – only lakshanaa. No Dhvani

Types of Dhvani

(5) अविवक्षितवाच्य

सुवर्णपुष्पां पृथिवीं चिन्वन्ति पुरुषास्त्रयः |</*>

शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च यश्च जानाति सेवितुम् ||<//*></*>| 1.13+|

(6) विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य

शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम कियच्चिरं किमभिधानमसावकरोत्तपः । </*>

तरुणि येन तवाधरपाटलं दशति बिम्बफलं शुकशावकः ।। 1.13+|

(7) अर्थान्तरसंक्रमित within

अविवक्षितवाच्य

कामं सन्तु दृढं कठोर-हृदयः रामः अस्मि सर्वं सहे

वैदेही तु कथम् भविष्यति हहा हा देवि धीरा भव ||

(*) रविकिरण-अनुगृहीतानि भवन्ति कमलानि कमलानि |

(8a) अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत within अविवक्षितवाच्य

रविसङ्क्रान्तसौभाग्यस्तुषारावृतमण्डलः | </**>

निःश्वासान्ध इवादर्शश्चन्द्रमा न प्रकाशते ||

(8b) अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत within अविवक्षितवाच्य

गगनं च मत्तमेघं धारालुलितार्जुनानि च वनानि |</**>

निरहङ्कारमृगाङ्का हरन्ति नीला अपि निशाः ||<//**>||2.1 ++||

(*)रसवदलंकारः — हे हेरंब किमम्ब … Hasya over Karuna.

(*)Shabdashakti in Samlakshya (eg from Kaavya Prakaasha)

भद्रात्मनो दुरधिरोहतनोर्विशाल वंशोन्नतेःकृतशिलीमुखविग्रहस्य । यस्यानुपप्लुतगतेः परवारणस्य दानाम्बुसेकसुभगः सततं करोभूत् ॥१२॥

The verse could mean both a king (contextual) and an elephant belonging to the jaati of Bhadra.

(*) note: NOT example of Sabdashakti in Samlakshya because shlesha with both meaning being contextual

सर्वदोमाधवः = सर्वदः माधवः / सर्वदा उमाधवः

(9) note: NOT example of Shabdashakti in Samlakshya

तस्या विनापि हारेण निसर्गादेव हारिणौ |</****>

जनयामासतुः कस्य विस्मयं न पयोधरौ ||<//****>||2.22  ++  ||

(10a) Arthashakti – Svatahsambhavi – Vastunaa vastudhvani

एवंवादिनि देवर्षौ पार्श्वे पितुरधोमुखी |</***>

लीलाकमलपत्राणि गणयामास पार्वती ||<//***>  | 2.23 ++ |

(10b) Arthashakti – Svatahsambhavi – Vastunaa vastudhvani

शिखिपिच्छकर्णपूरा जाया व्याधस्य गर्विणी भ्रमति |</*>

मुक्ताफलरचितप्रसाधनानां मध्ये सपत्नीनाम् || 2.२४||<//*>

(*) Arthashakti – Kavipraudokti – सज्जयति सुरभिमासः – The month arranges for manmata.

(*)Arthashakti – Kavi-nibhaddha-vaktru-praudokti शिखरिणि क्वनु नाम mentioned earlier.

(11) Vastunaa-alamkaaradhvani – Utpreksa-dhvani

चन्दनासक्तभुजगनिःश्वासानिलमूर्च्छितः |</*>

मूर्च्छयत्येष पथिकान्मधौ मलयमारुतः ||<//*>  | 2.28 ++ |

(12) Yathaasamkhya-dhvani (alamkaarena-alamkaara Dhvani)

अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च सहकारः |</*>

अङ्कुरितः पल्लवितः कोरकितः पुष्पितश्च हृदि मदनः ||<//*> | 2.28 ++ |

(13) वाक्यप्रकाशता in अत्यन्ततिरस्कृत

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी | </*>

यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः || <//*>  | 3.1 eg |

(14) suggestion through Krudanta

अतिक्रान्तसुखाः कालाः प्रत्युपस्थितदारुणाः |

श्वः श्वः पापीयदिवसा पृथिवी गतयौवना || 3.१६++

(15) Insertion of Opposed sentiment

सत्यं मनोरमा रामाः सत्यं रम्या विभूतयः | </*>

किं तु मत्ताङ्गनापाङ्गभङ्गलोलं हि जीवितम् || <//*> | 3.30 ++ |

Kavya Prakasha – Dr. A.N. Bhat

Notes from Kaavya Prakaasha KSOU MA Contact class 2015 (along with one session from 2016) conducted by Dr. A.N. Bhat

Class #1

Mammata

The work of a Kashmiri grammarian, Mammata (1090 – 1160 AD) covering various factors and aspects of Sanskrit Poetics is Kaavyaprakaasa. In the history of Kavyasastra, Mammata is a luminous star, remembered with respect and adoration. Kuvata and kaiyata – brothers. Kaiyata’s son Mammata. Maternal uncle Sriharshah wrote Nashadeeya charitam. His two works are – Kaavyapraakasa and Sabda-vyapara-vicara.

Kaavya Prakaasha

The study of Kavyasasthra is considered incomplete without the study of Kavya Prakasa. The studies on Kavyasastra from Bharatha to Bhoja are beautifully explained in Kavya Prakasa. Kaavya-tattvaanaam prakaashah – mamdyama pada lopi samaasah | Mammataa is called Samanvayakaarah. Alankaara, Gunaah, Reeti, Doshaa, Dhvanihi, Auchityam, Rasah – He consolidated all these aspects.

Chapters or Ullaasa

There are 10 Ullaasa. (In the KSOU MA syllabus, 6 ullaasas are included). The text comprises of Kaarikas, Vrittis and Udhaaharanam. Kaarika are short verses in the form of shlokas. Vrittih is the description. Udhaaharanaani are the examples. The name of the chapter indicates the vishaya or the subject matter. The first ullaasa has the Kaavyas’ Prayojana, Kaarana and Svaroopa.

Mangala shloka

Mangala can be prayer, asheervaada or mention the subject matter of the text. Mangalam is for the completion of the work without any hindrance. Brahman’s creation has aspects of pleasure and pain. On the other hand, the creation of the Kavi or Poet does not have the limitations of the laws of nature. It is full of pleasure. Not dependent on others. Charming with nine rasaas. Let Bhaaratee i.e., Saraswati be victorious.

Purpose of Kaavya

Kavya brings fame and wealth – Even a well-read person is respected;  It gives the sense of life in the world, forbids everything unpleasant and inauspicious (to the student, listener and spectator), offers instant and supreme pleasure, and gives advices on dos and don’ts like a loving wife. [Kantha Sammita – conveys in a loving manner like a beloved one; Prabhu Sammita – states the vidhis or rules – Vedas;  Mitra Sammita – conveys the point through stories in a friendly manner – Puraanas and Epics ]

Apart from fame and wealth, it gives instructions on appropriate behaviour in social life, with different types of people. The most important benefit is the enjoyment of Rasa, which is the inspired stage of ultimate pleasure, untouched by sensuousness.

Those who go through the kaavya learn lessons on how to conduct their life. They are inclined to follow Rama and stay away from the actions of Ravana.

Kavya Kaarana

The cause (Karana) for the evolution of Kavya is combination of, firstly the natural intellectual power of the poet, secondly the faculty attained through the study of the Sasthras, on both spiritual and world matters, and last the training under the direction of the Guru, well versed in the style of construction of Kavya and its critical study.

The cultural basis of poetical talents is the force of intellectual ingenuity or Prathibha without which Kavya would not take shape, and even if produced in any other manner it would remain a mockery. The other requirement is knowledge acquired through exhaustive studies. He should have a thorough understanding about the mundane world. He should also be conversant with the principles of prosody, grammar, vocabulary arts, warfare, works of other great poets as also the Ithihasas. Nipunataa = Vyuthpathi is required – i.e., Loka-gnaana, Kavya-gnana, Shahtra gnana are required. The intellectual faculty and the knowledge thus accrue, along with the training or Abhyasa under the guidance and advice of those who are proficient in making and revising Slokas. All these three in combination cause the construction and development of Kavya. Thus Kavya Hethu is a combination of Prathibha, Vyuthpathi and Abhyasa.

Kavya Lakshana or Svaroopa

तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ सगुणावनलंकृती पुनः व्कापि | i.e., तत् अदोषौ शब्द+अर्थौ स+गुणौ+अन्+अलंकृती ।

Sabdartha devoid of Dosha, combined with Guna (normally with Alankara) and sometimes without Alamkara, is Kavya.  Kaavya should be devoid of faults. It is comprises of meaningful words. It should include qualities or gunas. At times, even there could be absence of alamkara. This is the definition of Kaavya. Words and their meanings are the body of the poem. Sabda and Artha with Alankara should be present throughout, but in certain contexts, even if the alankara is not there, the Kavya aspects remain unaffected.

Kavyas Lakshana

The kavyas are classified into 3 based on their superiority namely Uttama, Madhyama, Adhama or Avaraa (अवरम् = अधमम्).

The Kavya with Dhvani or suggested meaning is supreme. When Vyangyartha (suggested meaning) is more graceful than the Vachyartha (expressed meaning), the Kavya assumes superiority. These are called Dhvani Kavyas. In Dhvani, there are various types namely Vastu Dhvani, Alamkaara Dhvani, Rasa Dhvani. In vastu dhvani, the object or character itself conveys some information – i.e., looking at Raavana we get certain emotions. Alamkaara by itself is not Dhvani. The suggested meaning derived out of the usage of alamkara and the Ananda one experiences reading an Alamkaara is Alamkaara Dhvani.  In Rasa Dhvani, the suggested meaning will flash in our mind and give us happiness. This happiness will not be experienced if the information is stated in a straightforward manner. The grammarians used the word Dhvani to denote Vyangya (suggestion) primarily of Spota nature. Then in the course of time, critics accepted them and started terming such Sabda and Artha as Dhvani (which rendered Vachyartha secondary), and potential enough to express Vyangyartha. “Dhvanianthi spotam vyanakthi ithi Dhvani” whereby Dhvani means words which express Spota. Dhvani is the word expressing Vyangya which is Spotaroopa. Spota is obtained by the audible syllable or Dhvani.  स्फोट = profound and subtle idea which bursts or flashes in one’s mind when a sound is uttered.

Class #2

Second Ullasa – Primary Function of the words

Sabda is the sound waves. For a language that we don’t understand, we would hear the sabda but we will not be able to make out the meaning or Artha. Sabda is सूचक and Artha is ज्ञापक. The sabda has a power to convey the meaning when a word is uttered. We think of the object house when we hear the word “house”. This capacity is the shakti of the word –शक्ति

Different Types of meanings

Meaning   Word Meaning  
Shakti Expressed meaning Vaachaka Koshaarthah, Vaachyaartha, शक्यार्थ power of the word conveyed by the dictionary meaning
Bhakti Indicated or suppressed meaning Lakshana Lakshyaarthah, Lakshanaarthah,
भाक्त
Some element is suppressed (The word bank is suppressed in Gangaayaam goshah – Hamlet on the banks of Ganga and not in Ganges)
Vyakti Suggested meaning Vyangya Dhvaniyarthah, Vyanjanaarthah, vyangyaarthah It shows or reflects or suggests some other meaning. The tone of “Go, go!” might mean “Don’t go”.

 

Explanation शब्दः अर्थः Explanation व्यापारः
Denotive word वाचकः वाच्य: Denoted Meaning अभिधा
Indicative  word लाक्षणिकः लक्ष्यः Indicated Meaning लक्षणा
Suggestive  word व्यञ्जकः व्यङ्ग्यः Suggested Meaning व्यञ्जना

The vyaapaara is the action that happens in the mind – The thought about lotus when the word “kamala” is mentioned is the action or the process that happens.

Sabdartha Prakarana

Vachaka, Lakshanika and Vyanjaka are the three types of words used in Kavya. These also carry the meanings – Vachya, Lakshya and Vyangya in the respective order. There is also a fourth kind, Thathparya (signification). Vachaka is the real technical meaning expressed as Abhidha. The second one is the Lakshanaa or Laakshanika vrutti. Vyangya = dhvanih. The third one is the vyanjanaa vrutti.

Abhida

Abhidha is the technical meaning in relation to Jathi (group or classification). Abhidha is the main meaning. The process that takes place in the Sabda to make this Artha comprehensible is Abhidhasakthi. The capacity to denote an object is the shakti of the word – अभिधा vrutti. व्यापार = वृत्ति It is the Mukhyaa vrutti. It is the meaning assigned to a word by convention which is called सङ्केत – a symbol. ईश्वरेच्छा सङ्केतः – Sanketa is the desire of God.

Essential Conditions for Sabdabodha or verbal cognition

आकाङ्क्षा, योग्यता, सन्निधि – expectancy, compatibility and proximity of pronunciation are the essential conditions required to be fulfilled if a sentence has to yield its meaning correctly. पदानां परस्मरम् अपेक्षा = आकाङ्क्षा | The sentence would require a subject and a verb and in case of transitive verbs – akarmaka dhaatu, there is an expectancy for a karma pada. Sannidhi is proximity of the utterance of the words of a sentence. Yogyataa is compatibility of meanings.

Four types of words – जाति, गुण, क्रिया, यदृच्छा

An eternal property, which is universally one and exists in many, individual things may be called Saamaanya or Jaati. For instance, Gotva or Cowness exists in all the cows. There are words that denote specific qualities or Guna like white, tasty, small, etc.  There are words that denote actions or Kriya – पाचकः, चालकः | Yadruchchaa are the names that are arbitrarily given to things like Raama or Raavana.

Lakshana

The word force by virtue of which another meaning is aimed at, and that one, which is superimposed is Lakshana. It happens by any particular signification in the Mukhyartha, or that is in any connected to the Mukhyartha or by Roodhi.

Types of Lakshana

 

गङ्गायां घोषः – Ghosa is a village where cowherds live. A village cannot exist in the stream of water. So the primary meaning is given up and the indicated meaning, namely the river bank, is accepted.

Vyangya

The third function of the word which is different from the derived or intended meaning is Dhvani or Vyangya or the suggested meaning.  नाम कियच्चिरं किमभिधानमसावकरोतप:। सुमुखि येन तवाधरपाटलं दशति बिम्बफलं शुकशावक:॥ A person tells the parrot that bite his lover that it is very fortunate and it must have done a lot of penance. “On which mountain and for how long a time did this young parrot perform penance and what might be the name of the penance? For, this young parrot has been chewing the limb or fruit which is as red as your lips”. Here the suggested meaning is that he envies it as he was not able to reach his lover whereas it was able to go close to her / the fruit.

Class #3

Chapter 3 – अर्थव्यञ्जकता Suggestiveness

अर्थव्यञ्जकता or the suggestive power of three types of meanings namely, Vaacya, Lakshya and Vyangya. Vyanjana or suggestiveness is the function of the word, which is the cause of the cognition of another meaning (different from the denoted meaning). Only those who have imagination or pratibha will be able to understand it. There understanding will be based on the specialty of the speaker वक्तृ or वक्त्रा, the person spoken to श्रोतृ or श्रोत्रा, intonation – modulation – tone काकुः, sentence वाक्यम्, the denoted meaning वाच्या, the presence of another person – सन्निधि, the context or the situation प्रकरणम्, the place विश्य or प्रविश्य, the time – समय, and so on.

[Side note: येन केन प्रकारेण यस्य कस्यापि देहीनः। संतोषं जनयेत्प्राज्ञस्तदेवेश्वरपूजनम्।। ]

तदा मम गण्डस्थलनिमग्नां दृष्टिं नानैषीरत्न्यत्र ।  इदानीं सैवाहं तौ च कपोलौ न च सा दृष्टिः ॥

“Then you did not turn aside your eye fixed on my cheek. Now, I am the same, the cheeks are the same, but your look is not the same”. This actually means “O stealthy lover! You were happily looking at my friend reflected in my cheek. When she moved away, your look immediately changed.” This is an example of Karuna rasa which is not explicitly stated in the Vaakya.

Chapter 4 – Types of Dhvani

 

Avivakshitavaachya – one in which the primary meaning is not intended to be mainly conveyed. There is dominance of the abstruse suggested meaning based upon the indication.  अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्याoriginal meaning is transformed into some other sense. अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्या  – original meaning is totally discarded.

(Side note: from Dhvanyaaloka notes – अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्या – e.g. A lotus will be a lotus only when it is blessed by the sun’s rays. The second time usage of lotus could mean different things like the abode of Lakshmi, sakala soundarya aakara, etc. Here some additional meaning over the derived meaning is suggested. सङ्क्रम is to go from one place to another. Here the meaning changes for one to another).

अर्थान्तरसङ्क्रमितवाच्या  – the primary meaning becomes transformed into another meaning.
त्वामस्मि वच्मि विदुषां समवायोऽत्र तिष्ठति । आत्मीयां मतिमास्थाय स्थितिमत्र विधेहि तत् ॥२३॥

“I am telling you this. Here sits an assembly of scholars. Therefore, remain here, keeping your mind alert.” Here “telling” transforms itself into “advising”.

अत्यन्ततिरस्कृतवाच्या  – Means the totally opposite sense i.e. the primary meaning is totally rejected on account of being incompatible in the given context.
उपकृतं बहु तत्र किमुच्यते सुजनता प्रथिता भवता परम् । विदधदीदृशमेव सदा सखे सुखितमास्स्व ततः शरदां शतम् ॥२४॥

“You have helped me greatly; what can I say? You have exhibited extremely good humaneness. O my friend! Live for a hundred years happily doing acts of the very same kind”. In this example, the person is ironically telling that the other person has caused him grievous trouble (using vipareetalaksana).

विवक्षितान्यपरवाच्य – The primary meaning is intended to be conveyed, but in such a way that it is there to serve another suggested meaning. 

Alaksyakramavyangya  –  in which the sequence is imperceptible.  Here sequence means we first realize the derived meaning and then get the suggested meaning. Vibhaava, Anubhaava and Vyabhichaarins are not themselves Rasa, but Rasa manifests from them, so there is a sequence. But it is not perceived due to subtlety or quickness of comprehension. Rasa, Bhaava, Rasaabhaasa, Bhaavaabhaasa, Bhaavasaanti and the like are considered to be Alaksyakramavyangya, if they are in the state of being embellished, being different from Alankaaras like Rasavat.

(Side note: there are 9 rasas and Bhaavas 52=33+19).

Samlakshyakramavyangya – in which the sequence is perceptible.          

[side note –  सदा संतुष्टचित्तानां सम्पदस्तु दिने दिने ]

[side note –  ना भुक्तं क्षीयते कर्म जन्म कोटि शतैरपि। ]

Rasa

कारणान्यथ कार्याणि सहकारीणि यानि च  । रत्यादेः स्थायिनो लोके तानि चेन्नाट्यकाव्ययोः  ॥ कारिका २७ ॥

कारणं कार्यं सहकारी are respectively विभाव, अनुभाव, सञ्चारीभाव | स्थायिभाव raises to a state where it becomes Rasa. The vishesha bhavaa or bhaavana due to which we see Shakuntala in the heroine is the Vibhava. The reason or kaarana for our pleasure is this character and hence Vibhava is the kaarana. Even when the audience feels sad on seeing the suffering of Sita, they are actually experience a kind of joy. Sanchaaribhaava is a temporary feeling. Rasa = रस्यते आस्वाद्यते इति रसः | The enjoyment is experienced by the mind and not by the senses. Vibhaava, anubhaava, vyabhichaaribhaava samyogaat | Only the Sahurdaya – samaanam hrudayam yasya – one who has the same feelings as that of the poet. In paanaka – it is a mixture of water, jaggery, etc.  Rasa is also a mixture. This nyaaya is called पानक रस न्याय. Karaka and gnaapaka.  Kaaraka is the producer and Jnaapaka is the indicator. Rasa is neither. Such a thing is not seen anywhere else. So it is alaukika. Brahmaananda Sahodarah.  Rasa’s ananda is not permanent. Brahmaananda is permanent bliss. This is kaavyaananda.

Types of Srngaara

Two kinds of Srngaara-rasa. Sambhoga is the love in union and Vipralambha is the love in separation.

शून्यं वासगृहं विलोक्य शयनादुत्थाय किञ्चिच्छनैर्
निद्राव्याजमुपागतस्य सुचिरं निर्वर्ण्य पत्युर्मुखम् ।
विश्रब्धं परिचुम्ब्य जातपुलकामालोक्य गण्डस्थलीं
लज्जानम्रमुखी प्रियेण हसता बाला चिरं चुम्बिता ॥३०॥

“She saw the residence totally empty (of all people except the two lovers), rose gently from the couch, gazed at the face of her beloved husband intently for a long time. He was feigning (pretending)  sleepiness. She kissed him fearlessly but saw there was rising of hair on his cheeks, and bent her face being shy. Her beloved laughed and kissed her for a long time.”

Rasa Dhvani, Alamkaara Dhvani and Vastu Dhvani – all of these result in Ananda.

2016 class रसनिष्पत्तिः – Rasa Nishpatti – Rasa Sutra

Utpatti Vaada उत्पत्तिः

भट्टलोल्लटः put for the utptti vaada.  He was a Kashimiri pandit specializing in Mimaansa मीमांसा (i.e., purva mimaansa).  He said that the Rasa is created by the vibhaava, etc. So he calls रसः as उत्पाद्यः and the other causes विभावः अनुभावः and व्यभिचारिभावः as उत्पादकः |  उत्पाद्य-उत्पादक-भाव-संबन्धः | He says that the Rasa is experienced due to the मुख्यवृत्तिः or मुख्यशक्तिः | अनुकर्ता – नटः,  अनुकार्यः  – रामादिः  | He said that the Rasa is created in the mula vyakti like Rama.

Anumitti अनुमितिः

Sri Shankuka – He was a specialist in न्यायः | He says that we image (अनुमान) the actor to be having the feelings of the character like Rama. So रसः अनुमितिः = ऊहात्मकं ज्ञानम् | It can come in four ways – सम्यक्-प्रतीतिः, मित्या-प्रतीतिः, संशय-प्रतीतिः and सादृश्य-प्रतितिः | (सम्यङ्मिथ्यासंशयसादृश्यप्रतीतिभ्यः after 24.1) We would feel the pain of Sita only if we imagine the actress to be the real Sita. Considering this person to be Sita is सम्यक्-प्रतीतिः | But that is not the case completely.  We also know that she is not sita मित्या-प्रतीतिः | It is not that we doubt whether she might be Sita संशय-प्रतीतिः. It is also not Saadrushya-prateetih that we think that this person is like Sita. The experience of the viewer is not any of the above. It is a different one called सादारणीकरण | It is understood with the analogy of Citra-turaga nyaaya, i.e., the maxim of the picture of the horse. This is like the picture of a horse where we consider it to be a horse though we know that it is not the real horse.

भुक्तिः  

भट्टनायकः – He was an expert in साङ्ख्यशास्त्रम्. The function is called भोगीकृत-व्यापार. (Note: Other details mentioned in the book is that the function of भावकत्व first happens and it generalizes the vibhaavas etc., and brings the sthaayibhaava to a state of relishability. Then it is  relished as Rasa by means of भोग). We enjoy the Rasa.  (विभावादिसाधारणीकरणात्मना भावकत्वव्यापारेण भाव्यमानः स्थायी … भोगेन भुज्यते | )

व्यक्तिः

अभिनवगुप्तः – अभिव्यक्तिः (manifestation) is the final argument that was accepted refuting the earlier arguments. Abhinava Guptaacharya. His works are अभिनवभारति (on bharatha’s naatya shaastra) and लोचना (on Anandavardhana’s Dhvanyaaloka).  He based his argument based on वेदन्तशास्त्रम् |  He says that विभावादयः व्यञ्जकाः, रसः व्यङ्ग्यः | nishpatti  = व्यञ्ज्यते or अभिव्यञ्ज्यते – flashes / manifests by saadaaraneekarana. The rasaasvaada is experienced only by the sahrudayas. The actor only helps for the manifestation of the rasa to happen in the viewers. He says that it is अनिर्वचनीयः – inexplicable. It is a not-worldly experience – अलौकिकः – superhuman – to be experienced in the mind | स्वानुभववेद्यः – to be experienced by one’s own self. आनन्दरूपः – ब्रह्मानन्दस्वरूपम् –  रसोवै सः रसं ह्येवाऽयं लब्ध्वा आनन्दी भवति  | It is said that Kaavya Ananda is Brahmaananda sahodarah | The nava-rasa has to be experienced by one’s own self. Rasa is not an effect or कार्य. The vibhaava, etc. are kaarana. If it were the Kaarya, it would have existed after the kaaranas disappeared unlike the pot which exists even after the disappearance of the kaaranas. It is also not a Kaaranam unlike the dandaa and chakra that are used to make the pot. This is Anandaroopa –  anubhava-vedyah. Rasa is Kaavyaatma. This is given by Abhinava Gupta based on the Naatya Shaastram and Dhvanyaaloka.

नवीनालंकारिकाः

Alamkaarikaas after आनन्दवर्धन are called नवीनालंकारिकाः and those before him are called प्राचीनालंकारिकाः  like Bhaamah, Vaamah, etc.  The later alamkaarikaas were all great scholars. The work that they did was more of compilation only. They were संग्रहकाराः |

  • धनञ्जयः – दशरूपकम्
  • महिमभट्टः – व्यक्तिविवेकः – It deals with Anumitih (Note: anumaana is a saadhana while anumitih is the knowledge).
  • विश्वनाथः – साहित्यदर्पण
  • विश्वेश्वरः – चमत्कारचन्द्रिका
  • भानुदत्तः – भावप्रकाशः
  • मधुसूदनसरस्वतिः – (… ८भक्तिसामान्यनिरूपणम् ९ भगवद्गीतागूढार्थ-दीपिका १० भगवद्भक्तिरसायनम् ११ …)
  • अप्पयदीक्षितः – कुवलयानन्दम्
  • जगन्नाथपण्डितः – रसगङ्गाधरः

(Side Note: Madhusoodhana Saraswati, Rupa Goswami, and Jeeva Goswami consider Bhakti as a rasa rather than a Bhaava. There are two types – Laukika and Alaukika Bhakti).

Vyabhicaarins and Santarasa

वस्तुतः रसः एक एव – उपाधिभेदेन बहुधा दृश्यते | आनन्द is only one. Hence Rasa is only one. Due to its ingredients, it is seen differently.  (Note: He was an Advaiti). Nirveda is the staayeebhaava. From this staayibhaava, the rasa of shaantah comes. This is also called kshamaa. निर्वेदस्थायिभङावोऽस्ति शान्तोऽपि नवमो रसः। यथा “अहौ वा हारे वा कुसुमशयने वा दृषदि वा मणौ वा लोष्टे वा बलवति रिपौ वा सुदृदि वा। तृणे वा स्त्रैणे वा मम समदृशो यान्ति दिवसाः व्कचित्पुण्यारण्ये शिव शिव शिवेति प्रलपतः” (१.३४) ।  Here is an example describing the Sanyaani who has nirveda. शिवः = मङ्गलकरः | I constantly mutter the God’s name. I see no different. I see all things to be equal. अहौ वा हारे वा snake or garland, कुसुमशयने वा दृषदि वा bed or rock, मणौ वा लोष्टे वा gem or sand,  बलवति रिपौ वा mighty foe, तृणे वा स्त्रैणे वा grass or things related to a lady, all are the same for the Sanyaasi.

Class #4

Bhaava Vichaara

रतिर्देवादिविषया व्यभिचारी तथाञ्जितः  ॥ कारिका ३५ ॥ भावः प्रोक्तः …  Love for God, etc. and suggested mood are called Bhava. Because of the happiness experienced, we think that it is Rasa. Love is  रतिः i.e., प्रीतिः | In the definition, “etc.” means sage, guru, king, son, etc. The suggested (or manifested) love for the spouse is Srungaara. Bhakti is the love towards elders like God, guru, etc. Vaatsalya is another kind of love towards those who are younger like devotee, students, child, etc. Vatsalah is the sthaayibhaava from which the bhaava of Vaatsalya comes.  According to Mammatta, Vaatsalya is not a Rasa. It is a bhaava. There is a third type called कान्ताविषया तु व्यक्ता शृङ्गारः ।

Example from स्सिशुपालवध for Bhakti. हरत्यघं संप्रति हेतुरेष्यतः शुभस्य पूर्वाचरितैः कृतं शुभैः ।  शरीरभाजां भवदीयदर्शनं व्यनक्ति कालत्रितयेऽपि योग्यताम् ॥४६॥ It is also called Maaghakaavya. “Your sight, O Narada, destroys sins in the present, causes welfare in the future, and indicates the good deeds of the past”. This is an example of Bhakti Bhaava.

Rasaabhaasa and Bhaavaabhaasa

When the Rasas or Bhaavas are improperly manifested, they are called Rasaabhaasa and Bhaavaabhaasa respectively. तदाभासा अनौचित्यप्रवर्त्तिताः | The kavya containing rasaabhaasa or bhaavaabhaasa is also Uttama Kaavya only. (Side note: In Meghadutam, there is personification of a thing (megha) that is not a person. Like that, here it seems like Rasa but it is not completely rasa. In panchatantra, the animals or birds talk. There is अनौचित्य).

Bhaavashaanti, etc.

Bhaavodaya is the utpatti of a Bhaava from another Bhaava. An on-looker might be laughing watching some Haasya and finally shed some tears. It is the utpatti of another Bhaava. BhaavaSandhi is the joining of two Bhaavas. Bhaavasabalataa is mixture of two rasas.

Bhaavashaanti is subsiding of sentiment. Bhaavodaya is the birth or rise of sentiment. Bhaavasandhi is the junction of two sentiments and Bhaavashabalataa is the admixture of sentiments. All these are types of the Samlakshya Dhvani. These kaavyaas are Uttama Kaavya.

Types of Kaavyas

Dhvanikaavya is Uttamakaavya. There are types of dhvanikaavya – VastuDhvani, AlamkaaraDhvani, Rasadhvani. In अप्रधानध्वनिः which is the Madhyamakaavya – there are apradhaan-Vastu-dhvani, apradhaanaalamkaaradhvani, and apradhaana-rasadhvani. In chitrakaavyam which is the adhamakaavya – there are shabdachitra and arthachitra.

Madhyama Kaavyam or Gunibhutavangya – fifth ullaasa

Gunibhuta – Not primary. There are eight types of Gunibhutavangya. अगूढमपरस्याङ्गं वाच्यसिद्ध्यङ्गमस्फुटम्  । सन्दिग्धतुल्यप्राधान्ये काक्वाक्षिप्तमसुन्दरम्  ॥ कारिका ४५ ॥ They are अगूढम् where the suggested meaning is not properly concealed where it is pretty explicit (It should be सूच्य and not वाच्य),  अपरस्याङ्गम् where the suggested meaning is subservient to something else,  वाच्यसिद्ध्यङ्गम् where the suggested meaning is for the accomplishment of the denoted meaning, अस्फुटम् where the suggested meaning is abstruse or unclear (note: स्फोट is different from स्फुटम्), सन्दिग्धप्राधान्यम्  where the prominence of the suggested and denoted meanings is doubted, तुल्यप्राधान्यम् where the prominence of the suggested and denoted meanings is equal, काक्वाक्षिप्तम् where the suggested meaning is implied by intonation and असुन्दरम् where the suggested meaning is not beautiful – it is ग्राम्य.

Adhama Kaavya – sixth ullaasa

Adhama is also kaavya. It is not that it is bad poetry. Just that it would be so interesting when we go through it again and again, similar to the ornaments that might not seem so attractive when we see it repeatedly. There are two types – Shabda Chitra Adhama Kaavyam and Artha Chitra Adhama Kaavyam. शब्दार्थचित्रं यत्पूर्वं काव्यद्वयमुदाहृतम्  । गुणप्राधान्यतस्तत्र स्थितिश्चित्रार्थशब्दयोः  ॥ कारिका ४८ ॥ The examples where Artha is prominent are present in Kuvalayaanandam. By means of the meaning only we conclude the types of Alamkaara.  There is vaichitrya or importance for Artha. Mammatta says that Alamkaara is optional. Guna is important.  Rasa gives happiness every time. But these adhama kaavyas might seem good during the first reading. But it will not be so interesting that someone wants to read it repeatedly. (Side Note: We enjoy the food every day. But certain special items, though they might seem tasty, cannot be consumed on a regular basis.  The external Alamkaara to the body is also optional. The most important decoration is the guna). Example of artha-chitra is वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये। जगत: पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ ।। Here the meaning gains superiority over other aspects. For shabda-chitra, the examples are the verses with Yamaka, Anupraasaa, etc. present in Bhaaravi’s Kiraartaarjuneeyam. This is an example of सर्वथोबद्रा |

दे   वा   का  नि  नि  का  वा  दे

वा  हि   का  स्व  स्व का  हि  वा

का  का   रे   भ   भ   रे   का  का

नि  श्व   भ   व्य  व्य  भ   श्व  नि

Shabdachitra

Guna is most important and not Alamkaara in Kaavya just as the character is most important in the person and not the ornaments.

(Video) Yajnavalkya Smriti Quotations

Yajnavalkyasmriti quotations from 2007-15 KSOU MA question papers.

 

[१. साधारणव्यवहारमातृकाप्रकरणम्]

व्यवहारान् नृपः पश्येद् विद्वद्भिर् ब्राह्मणैः सह ।
धर्मशास्त्रानुसारेण क्रोधलोभविवर्जितः ॥ यास्मृ२.१ ॥

विद्वद्भिः ब्राह्मणैः सह क्रोध-लोभ-विवर्जितः नृपः धर्मशास्त्रानुसारेण व्यवहारान् पश्येत् ।

The king, free from anger and greed, should administer justice, along with learned braahmanas, in conformity with dharmashaastra, the principles of legal sciences.

श्रुताध्ययनसंपन्ना धर्मज्ञाः सत्यवादिनः ।
राज्ञा सभासदः कार्या रिपौ मित्रे च ये समाः ॥ यास्मृ२.२ ॥

ये रिपौ मित्रे च समाः, श्रुत+अध्ययन-संपन्नाः, धर्मज्ञाः, सत्यवादिनः, राज्ञा (ते) सभासदः कार्याः  |

A king should select as his councilors, those persons, who have accomplished by learning and study, who know the law, who speak always the truth, and who are equal to both friends and foes alike.

अपश्यता कार्यवशाद् व्यवहारान् नृपेण तु ।
सभ्यैः सह नियोक्तव्यो ब्राह्मणः सर्वधर्मवित् ॥ यास्मृ२.३ ॥

कार्यवशात् व्यवहारान् अपश्यता नृपेण तु सभ्यैः सह सर्वधर्मवित् ब्राह्मणः नियोक्तव्यः |

By a King, who is unable to attend to the administration of justice on account of other engagements, a Brahmana, knowing all laws, should be appointed (in his place) to work along with the councilors.

प्रत्यर्थिनोऽग्रतो लेख्यं यथावेदितम् अर्थिना ।
समामासतदर्धाहर्नामजात्यादिचिह्नितम् ॥ यास्मृ२.६ ॥

प्रत्यर्थिनः अग्रतः, यथा वेदितम्, अर्थिना, समा-मास-तदर्धाहः-नाम-जात्यादि-चिह्नितं लेख्यं (करणीयं भवति) |

Whatever is alleged by the plaintiff / applicant should be reduced to writing in the presence of the defendant, and marked with the year, the month, the fortnight, the day, the name, the caste and the like.

श्रुतार्थस्योत्तरं लेख्यं पूर्वावेदकसंनिधौ ।
ततोऽर्थी लेखयेत् सद्यः प्रतिज्ञातार्थसाधनम् ॥ यास्मृ२.७ ॥

पूर्वावेदक-संनिधौ, श्रुतार्थस्य उत्तरं, लेख्यं (भवति) । ततः सद्यः अर्थी प्रतिज्ञात+अर्थ-साधनं लेखयेत् |

The answer (refutation) of the defendant, who has heard the complaint, should be taken down in writing, in the presence of the plaintiff or complainant. Next, the plaintiff should immediately have written down the evidence by means of which the matter in dispute is to be established.

तत्सिद्धौ सिद्धिम् आप्नोति विपरीतम् अतोऽन्यथा ।
चतुष्पाद् व्यवहारोऽयं विवादेषू प्रदर्शितः ॥ यास्मृ२.८ ॥

तत्सिद्धौ सिद्धिम् आप्नोति | अतः अन्यथा विपरीतम् (आप्नोति)। अयं व्यवहारः विवादेषू चतुष्पाद् प्रदर्शितः |

If he (the plaintiff) succeeded in accomplishing the point of issue, he obtains success; otherwise, (the non-accomplishment of the proof in any other manner) it brings the reverse (i.e., defeat). This legal procedure is declared to be of four-fold character in litigation. Note: First part – plaintiff complains. Second – defendant answers. Third part – Evidence and proof are produced. Fourth part – decision is taken.

[२. असाधारणव्यवहारमातृकाप्रकरणम्]

अभियोगम् अनिस्तीर्य नैनं प्रत्यभियोजयेत् ।
अभियुक्तं च नान्येन नोक्तं विप्रकृतिं नयेत् ॥ यास्मृ२.९ ॥

एनम् अभियोगम् अनिस्तीर्य न प्रत्यभियोजयेत् । अन्येन अभियुक्तं च न | उक्तं विप्रकृतिं न नयेत् |

Until the accusation or the complaint is disposed of, no counterclaim should be allowed against the complainant. Not should be any other person be allowed to file a complaint against one who is already under a charge nor what has already been alleged should be allowed to be changed.

कुर्यात् प्रत्यभियोगं च कलहे साहसेषु च ।
उभयोः प्रतिभूर्ग्राह्यः समर्थः कार्यनिर्णये ॥ यास्मृ२.१० ॥

कलहे च साहसेषु च प्रत्यभियोगं कुर्यात् । कार्यनिर्णये समर्थः उभयोः प्रतिभूः ग्राह्यः |

A countercharge may be allowed in cases of defamation and assault. From both a security should be taken, who would be competent to satisfy the object of judgement.

साक्षिषूभयतः सत्सु साक्षिणः पूर्ववादिनः ।
पूर्वपक्षेऽधरीभूते भवन्त्युत्तरवादिनः ॥ यास्मृ२.१७ ॥

उभयतः साक्षिषु सत्सु, पूर्ववादिनः साक्षिणः । पूर्वपक्षे अधरीभूते (सति), उत्तरवादिनः (साक्षिणः) भवन्ति |

When there are witnesses for both sides, those for the person who claims priority should be taken first; and if the first claim gets invalidated, then the witnesses of the next claimant should be examined.

स्मृत्योर्विरोधे न्यायस्तु बलवान् व्यवहारतः ।
अर्थशास्त्रात् तु बलवद् धर्मशास्त्रम् इति स्थितिः ॥ यास्मृ२.२१ ॥

स्मृत्योः विरोधे न्यायः तु व्यवहारतः बलवान् । अर्थशास्त्रात् तु बलवद् धर्मशास्त्रम् इति स्थितिः |

Where two smritis conflict, principles of equity as determined by popular usage shall prevail. The rule, however, is that the science of law धर्मशास्त्रम् is stronger than the science of politics अर्थशास्त्रम्. Note that when two smritis conflict, the king was not given any power or discretion to make a choice, but he was required to apply the law as approved by custom and usage by the people themselves.

सर्वेष्वर्थविवादेषु बलवत्युत्तराक्रिया ।
आधौ प्रतिग्रहे क्रीते पूर्वा तु बलवत्तरा ॥ यास्मृ२.२३ ॥

सर्वेषु अर्थ-विवादेषु उत्तरा-क्रिया बलवती (भवति) । आधौ प्रतिग्रहे क्रीते च पूर्वा तु बलवत्तरा |

In all civil disputes regarding property, evidence adduced in support of a later transaction preponderates (i.e., gains more importance). In the case of a pledge (आधिः), a gift and a sale “however” evidence in support of the prior claim preponderates.

नृपेणाधिकृताः पूगाः श्रेणयोऽथ कुलानि च ।
पूर्वं पूर्वं गुरु ज्ञेयं व्यवहारविधौ नृणाम् ॥ यास्मृ२.३० ॥

नृपेण अधिकृताः पूगाः श्रेणयः अथ कुलानि च | नृणाम् व्यवहार-विधौ पूर्वं पूर्वं गुरु (इति) ज्ञेयम् |

In a matter of legal proceedings between men, officers appointed by the King, the Pugas, the Srenis, and the Kulas (each of these) proceedings should be considered to be in the superior order of priority. In descending order of importance, they are (a) officers appointed by the king (b) ‘pugas’ (assemblies of inhabitants of the same village or town), (c) ‘srenis’ (associations of merchants and craftsmen), and (d) ‘kulas’ (families). The decision of a Kula or kin group was subject to revision by the Sreni which, in turn, could be revised by the Puga.

[३. ऋणादानप्रकरणम्]

कान्तारगास्तु दशकं सामुद्रा विंशकं शतम् ।
दद्युर्वा स्वकृतां वृद्धिं सर्वे सर्वासु जातिषु ॥ यास्मृ२.३८ ॥

कान्तारगाः तु दशकं, सामुद्रा विंशकं शतम् । सर्वे सर्वासु जातिषु स्वकृतां वा वृद्धिं दद्युः |

Persons (usually) travelling through forests should pay ten percent and those who travel by sea twenty percent. Or all should pay what they agree to among all classes. The interest is more as there is a danger of the loss of the principal also. The transactions are to be held as per the agreement.

संततिस्तु पशुस्त्रीणां रसस्याष्टगुणा परा ।
वस्त्रधान्यहिरण्यानां चतुस्त्रिद्विगुणा परा ॥ यास्मृ२.३९ ॥

स्त्रीणां तु संततिः पशुः | रसस्य अष्टगुणा परा । वस्त्र-धान्य-हिरण्यानां चतु-स्त्रि-द्विगुणा परा |

In the case of female animals, the interest is their progeny. In the case of fluid the utmost limit for interest is eight-fold. The interest of the principal loan advanced should be four-fold, three-fold, and two-fold in the case of cloth, grain and gold respectively.

सुराकामद्यूतकृतं दण्डशुल्कावशिष्टकम् ।
वृथादानं तथैवेह पुत्रो दद्यान् न पैतृकम् ॥ यास्मृ२.४७ ॥

सुरा-काम-द्यूत-कृतं, दण्ड-शुल्क-अवशिष्टकं, वृथादानं तथा एव इह, पैतृकं पुत्रः न दद्यान् |

The son should not pay the paternal debt which was contracted for the purposes of spirituous liquor, lust or gambling, or which is due as the balance of an unpaid (i.e., remaining portion of) fine or toll, as also a gift without any consideration.

प्रतिपन्नं स्त्रिया देयं पत्या वा सह यत् कृतम् ।
स्वयंकृतं वा यद् ऋणं नान्यत् स्त्री दातुम् अर्हति ॥ यास्मृ२.४९ ॥

प्रतिपन्नं, पत्या सह वा यत् कृतं, स्वयंकृतं वा यद् ऋणं, स्त्रिया देयम् | स्त्री अन्यत् दातुं न अर्हति |

A debt agreed to by her, or which was contracted by her jointly with the husband, or by herself (alone) should be paid by a woman. A woman is not bound to pay any other debt.

[४. उपनिधिप्रकरणम्]

न दाप्योऽपहृतं तं तु राजदैविकतस्करैः ।
भ्रेषश्चेन्मार्गितेऽदत्ते दाप्यो दण्डं च तत्समम् ॥ यास्मृ२.६६ ॥

राज-दैविक-तस्करैः अपहृतं तं तु न दाप्यः । मार्गिते अदत्ते (सति) भ्रेषः चेत् तत् समम् दण्डं दाप्यः च |

That, however, which has been carried away by (an act of) the King, natural calamities, or thieves shall not be caused to be restored. When, however, the loss occurs after demand and non-payment, the depositary should be fined and compelled to pay an amount equal (to the deposit).

[५. साक्षिप्रकरणम्]

त्र्यवराः साक्षिणो ज्ञेयाः श्रौतस्मार्तक्रियापराः । यथाजाति यथावर्णं सर्वे सर्वेषु वा स्मृताः ॥ यास्मृ२.६९ ॥

त्रि+अवराः श्रौत-स्मार्त-क्रियापराः यथा-जाति, यथा-वर्णं, सर्वे सर्वेषु वा स्मृताः, साक्षिणः ज्ञेयाः |

The competent witnesses should be not less than three, and should be devoted to the performance of Srauta and Smaarta rites, each respectively according to their caste or class or all for all castes and classes.

साक्षिणः श्रावयेद्वादिप्रतिवादिसमीपगान् ।
ये पातककृतां लोका महापातकिनां तथा ॥ यास्मृ२.७३ ॥

वादि-प्रतिवादि-समीपगान् साक्षिणः श्रावयेत् – “ये पातककृतां लोकाः महापातकिनां तथा …” |

In the present of the plaintiff and the defendant, the witnesses should be affirmed (in the following form). “Those regions which are meant for the perpetrators of sins and of baser sins, ….. to all these shall he go who gives false evidence.”

[६. लेख्यप्रकरणम्]

विनापि साक्षिभिर्लेख्यं स्वहस्तलिखितं तु यत् ।
तत् प्रमाणं स्मृतं लेख्यं बलोपधिकृताद् ऋते ॥ यास्मृ२.८९ ॥

साक्षिभिः विना अपि यत् लेख्यं तु स्व-हस्त-लिखितं,  बल+उपधिकृताद् ऋते तत् लेख्यं प्रमाणं स्मृतम् |

A writing, which is in one’s own hand, although it be without witnesses, is declared to be evidence, except when it is caused by force or fraud.

ऋणं लेख्यकृतं देयं पुरुषैस्त्रिभिरेव तु ।
आधिस्तु भुज्यते तावद् यावत्तन्न प्रदीयते ॥ यास्मृ२.९० ॥

त्रिभिः पुरुषैः एव लेख्यकृतं ऋणं तु देयम् । यावत् तत् न प्रदीयते तावद् आधिः तु भुज्यते |

A debt evidenced by writing should be paid by persons in three generations only. A pledge, however, is enjoyed as long as it is not paid off.

देशान्तरस्थे दुर्लेख्ये नष्टोन्मृष्टे हृते तथा ।
भिन्ने दग्धेऽथवा छिन्ने लेख्यम् अन्यत् तु कारयेत् ॥ यास्मृ२.९१ ॥

देशान्तरस्थे, दुर्लेख्ये, नष्टोन्मृष्टे, हृते तथा, भिन्ने, दग्धे, अथवा छिन्ने, अन्यत् लेख्यम् तु कारयेत् |

If a document is in another country, is badly written, or is lost, or effaced, as also, if it is stolen, if it is torn, burnt, or cut asunder, another should be allowed (by the King) to be made (in its place).

[७. दिव्यप्रकरणम्] (out of syllabus)

सचैलं स्नातम् आहूय सूर्योदयोपोषितम् ।
कारयेत् सर्वदिव्यानि नृपब्राह्मणसंनिधौ ॥ यास्मृ२.९७ ॥

स्नातं सचैलं  सूर्योदय-उपोषितं आहूय, सर्वदिव्यानि नृपब्राह्मणसंनिधौ कारयेत् |

All these divyas or ordeals (i.e., the tests that the accused is put through hoping to get some divine proof) are to be performed in the presence of the King and the Brahmins, by inviting the person who should have been fasting since sunrise and he should come bathed with his (wet) clothes on him.