I found some reference material for the assignment on avyaya– http://www.sanskritkerala.gov.in/hi/hin-home/17-learn-sanskrit-en/53-avyayani-en.html
The other links that I had referred earlier for some information related to Avyaya are these:
Unedited notes from the session by Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy on Avyayam — for the purpose of this year’s MA KSOU assignment
Avyaya Class on 3rd March 2016
Importance of Avyayas in Sanskrit Grammar
In sanskrit languages there are eight parts of speech. But broadly, sup-tigantam padam.
Subanda – Naamapada, sarvanamapada, visheshana, kriyaavisheshana,
Nipaatas and upsargas form different parts of Avyayas or indeclinables.
स्वरादि निपातम् अव्ययम् (पा) – by this sutra of Panini, all the Nipaatas are termed as Avyayas. All avyayas are not nipaatas.
Panini defines the nipaatas by this sutra. प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः (पा)
There is a list of Avyayas. Only those till … are the nipaatas. दिवा नक्तम् अन्तः प्रातः, etc. express meaning and so they are words. They have some independent meaning.
च, किल, खलु are classified under Nipaatas.
The 22 prefixes or upasargas like प्र, पर, अनु, सम्, etc. also express meaning when they are associated with a word. When the upasargas are associated with a word based on the root like “हृ”, they can give a meaning. They can change the meaning or enhance the meaning or give the opposite meaning of the word or give some other meaning for the word. Aahaara, vihaara, samhaara,
So Nipaatas are not independently used.
द्योतक – it indicates different meanings – it shows. It flashes. वाचक – expressed meaning – dictionary meaning – fixed meaning. The avyayas indicate a particular meaning in association with words depending on the context. So they are not vaachaka. Vaachaka is the expression or the word and Vaachya is the expressed meaning or artha.
Nipaatas and Avyayas do not have their own meaning. They only indicate the meaning based on the context.
All the shashtras have been created for interpreting the Vedas. So all the shashtras explain the language aspect. Based on the spiritual interpretations, different meanings are given to different words in Vedanta. Like that the different shashtra like say mimaamsa or tarka, and sahitya could have different meanings.
There is a group which have accepted the Nipaatas as Dyotaka and some have taken the nipaatas to be only vaachaka.
Only when a nipaata is used together with a word, under a particular circumstances, the meaning that flashes in our mind is the dyotyaartha. Pariharati , praharati, aaharati, samharati, anubhavati, sambhavati, prabhavati. Like this, due to the upasargas, every word can give different meanings. They do not maintain the same meaning as that of the original word derived from the root. In harati and bhavati, the words get their meaning from the root. But upasargas do not have ting pratyaya. There is no suffix for the upasargas, there cannot be any anvaya with them. हृ and भू independently do not have any meaning. Without the use of upasargas, we cannot get the special extra meanings. So upasargas have some meaning.
उपसर्गेण दात्वर्तो बलाद् अन्यः प्रतीयते | By force, the upasarga gives a different meaning.
The avyayas are of two types – sidda and saadita. Sidda-s are the those which are ready to use – hi tu . Saadita-s are the ones that are formed to be used. Taddita pratyayas are kriya visheshana.
Sarvada is an indeclinable. Putravat, putrivat, mitravat – like a son. Bahu – many. Shah बहुशः – in most cases – in general.
Avyayas give the freedom to use them without worrying about the linga, vachana. It is user-friendly. Easy to use.
Krut pratya – ktvanta, lyabanta, tumunaanta are all indeclinable.
There are certain sarva naama which are avyayas. Tasmat , chiraaya, agre , drustyaa – though they seem to indicate some vibhakti.
Avyayayi bhaava samaasa – upanagaram, yathaasakthi.
चादयोऽसत्त्वे । 1- 4- 57 Adravyaarthaaschaadayah nipaatasamjnaa syuh अद्रव्यार्थाश्चादयः निपातसंज्ञा स्युः
The numbers from five onwards are common for all lingams and they are only in plural number. Still they have the forms in all the vibhaktis and so they are not considered as avyayams.
Dvyayam, trayam, chatushtayam – samastapada – only neuter and singular. Check But does it have the 7 vibhaktis?
Side note – dinaardurdvam apaanineh – kshanaardurdvam ataarkikah – even if you leave the studies for a minute, you are no longer a taarkika. If you leave the studies for a day, you are a person who do not know Panini (i.e., you would no longer have the grammar knowledge).