Introduction to Smritis – Dr. Gururaja Rao, KSOU

Contact Class for MA KSOU Final Year students in 2015 (and 2016) by Dr. Gururaja Rao

Sruthis and Smritis

स्मृतिः श्रुतिः हरेराज्ञा – is a famous saying from the Vaagdoola Smriti which states that the Smrutis and Shrutis are created by the command of Hari. श्रूयते अनेन इति श्रुतिः – That which is heard is Shruti. The Vedas are अपौरुषेय – not written by man.


The rishis saw the mantra and gave it to others. These rishis are called मन्त्रद्रष्टा and आर्ष. स्त्रीसूद्रब्रह्मबन्धूनां श्रुति गोचरा | There are restrictions and limitations on who can learn the Vedas. Stri means women, shudra means the lower class of civilized human society, and brahma-bandhu means persons who are born in the families of brahmanas but do not follow the rules and regulations carefully.

The importance of Swaras in Veda Paarayana

The Vedic texts are to be read in accordance with the Swaras. The other shlokas can be read in a plain manner or be sung to a tune. But as far as the Vedas is concerned, the Swaras i.e., the accents and the variations in the pitch are very important. While reciting Vedas, care has to be given to recite it as per the stated swara namely Udaatta, Anudaatta, Svarita and Pluta.  The effects could be detrimental if the paaraayana or recitation of the Vedic texts is done in the way any other text like the Smrutis or the shlokas or the modern literature. There are प्रत्यवाय-s or remedial actions suggested for atoning for that improper action of wrong way of recitation. In the shrutis, every akshara becomes the स्थान or the residing place of some deity. When even a single letter or अक्षर is pronounced in a wrong way, the sin of cutting the limbs of the specific deity associated with that akshara is incurred. For example, “आचार्याय प्रियं धनमाहृत्य प्रजातन्तुं मा व्यवच्छेत्सी:”, has to be chanted considering the udaattas and the anudaattas.

[ आचार्याय प्रियं धनमाहृत्य Offering to the Teacher whatever pleases him, प्रजातन्तुं मा व्यवच्छेत्सीः do not cut off the line of progeny  — तैतिरीयः ]

वाणी बाणो बभूव – There is a mythological story that Goddess Saraswati was cursed to be born in the earth. In the Brahma’s assembly, when a mistake was committed in chanting a Veda mantra, the guru Bruhaspati cursed Goddess Saraswati to be born as a human being. And hence she was born as Baana.


The Vedas were classified into Rig, Yajur, Saama and Atharva Vedas by Badaraayana who came to be known as Veda Vyaasa. Each Vedas has four parts namely Samhita, Brahmana, Aaranyaka and Upanishad.


Upanishad is the cream and essence of the Veda placed at the end of the Veda. It is called Vedanta as it is at the end and also since it has the antaranga i.e., the cream and essence of the Veda. The study of the Vedas is considered to be the duty of every person. As the ages passed by, since it was becoming difficult for the people to study the complete Vedas, the essence has been collated in the Upanishads.

If not the study of the Vedas, at least the knowledge of the Upanishads has to be present in every individual. There are 10 Upanishads that are considered to be important.


ज्ञानेनैव परं पदम् |

Since Upanishads are part of the Vedas, and there are restrictions on who can study the Vedas, the Rishis and Munis took out the essence of the Upanisads and created the Smrutis.  Vedic knowledge is importance to gain moksha. For those who are not permitted to study the Vedas, the extracts of the knowledge from the Vedas is made available in the Smritis. The information is provided considering the target audience and the custom of the then times, when it was written by the Rishis. स्मर्यते अनेन इति स्मृतिः | Smruti means “that which is remembered”. It recollects the important points of the Vedas and provides us in a concise manner.  One can attain moksha by following the practices ordained in the Smriti which results in cleansing of the body, senses and mind.

Important Smritis

There are 36 important Smritis. Yajnavalkya Smriti is one of the popular Smritis. Some of the important Smritis are: (1) Manu Smriti (2) Yajnavalkya Smriti (3) Narada Smriti (4) Parashara Smriti (5) Brihaspati Smriti and (6) Katyayana Smriti

Validity of the Smritis

Vedas contain विधि and निषेध – do’s and don’ts – ordained actions and prohibited actions. The Smritis are the commentaries by the Rishis on the Vedic injunctions. श्रुतिस्तु वेदो विज्ञेयो धर्मशास्त्रं तु वै स्मृतिः | Gautama refers to Smruti as the essence of Dharma. These scriptures explain how to practice Dharma, the importance of adhering to it, and the ill-effects of not following the principles of Dharma. While the Vedas are अपौरुषेय, the Smritis are written by Rishis. Vedas are  स्वतः सिद्धप्रमाण – these propositions are self-evident and they do not require any external proof for their correctness. Though Smritis are written by individuals, it is also accepted to be correct since it is based on the Vedas. आप्तवाक्यप्रमाण – It is considered to be correct because it is the words of those Rishis who are concerned with our welfare.  आप्तवाक्यं शब्दः। आप्तस्तु यथार्थवक्ता। The words of our well-wishers is to be taken as the truth as per Shabda Pramaana. Those who state the facts are considered to be our well-wishers. They do explain the Vedic ideals without any misinterpretations.

Characteristics of the Smriti Authors

गुरोक्तमपि न ग्राह्यं यदनर्थे अर्थकल्पनम् | Even the words of the Guru, should not be taken if it states adharma as dharma. बालादपि सुकादपि युक्तियुक्तं वचो ग्राह्यम् | Even if it is a young boy or a parrot, if the spoken words contain pertinent information, it should be accepted.  वक्त्रानुकूल्य, श्रोतानुकूल्य and प्रसङ्गानुकूल्य are the three aspects that should be present for us to accept the words of the preceptor. वक्त्रानुकूल्य is the state of mind of the speaker. He has to be in the right state of mind. श्रोतानुकूल्य – The listener has to be in the right state of mind to grasp what is being said. प्रसङ्गानुकूल्य – The context in which it was stated has to be understood properly. When these three aspects are conducive – namely the disposition of speaker, the disposition of the listener and a conducive atmosphere, whatever is being said has to be taken as आप्त वाक्यम् – the well-wisher’s advice that ought to be followed. The person giving advice should have इन्द्रियसुद्धिः | His sense organs should be functioning properly. Only when there are able to see and hear clearly and understand our situation, they will be able to guide us properly. The Rishis who authored the Smritis have all the required qualifications that their works are to be taken with the same respect given to the Vedas.  They have provided these invaluable instructions for the benefit of their disciples. The Smritikaaras had the intention to lead their disciples in the right path and elevate them to higher levels, as the disciples sought their refuge in them. The Rishis possessed the हित-बुद्धिः – a concern for others.

The content of the Smritis are in the form of advice of a guru to his disciples. So these are considered as शाषण – the rules that need to be adhered to. In the three types of classification of the scriptures as Prabhu Sammita (stated with an authority), Mitra Sammita (stated in a friendly manner) and Kaantaa Sammita (stated in a loving way), these Smritis come under Prabhu Sammita. These are like the orders of the master that need to be obeyed, failing which there would be punishment. So, whether one likes to follow it or not, the injunctions stated in the Smritis are carried out due to the fear of the punishment.  भयादस्याग्निस्तपति भयात् तपति सूर्य:। भयादिन्द्रश्च वायुश्चमृत्युर्धावति पञ्चम: इति |  Things are happening in a specific order in the world because of the fear of the consequences. The way the message is conveyed differs between the Prabhu Sammita, Mitra sammita and the Kaantaa sammit. Smritis being Prabha Sammita, the message is given in an authoritative tone.

There are many topics that have been repeatedly covered in many Smritis. Even though unnecessary repetition is considered as a fault, when the matter of consideration is important, it is acceptable to repeat it over and over again. Thus we notice that in the Smritis some of the most important aspects being mentioned repeatedly. The repetition could occur across the different Smritis or within a specific Smriti itself the point could have been reiterated multiple times.  One such aspect which has gained the prominence among the subjects dealt with in the Smritis is Varnaashramadharma. The duties to be carried out by the people belonging to different Varnaas are the Varna Dharma. The duties to be carried out by the people considering their present phase of life are the Ashrama Dharma. Sri Krishna mentions in the Gita – B.G. 4.13 – “चातुर्वर्ण्यं मया सृष्टं गुणकर्मविभागशः”. The Varna is determined based on the predominant quality namely Sattva, Rajas or Tamas; and the nature of work undertaken by the person for his livelihood. But in the present world, the caste is based on the father’s caste.

The Smritis talk about Pancha Maha Yagna – the five important rituals that need to be performed. They are Brahma Yagna, Pitru Yagna, Deva Yagna or Gnana Yagna, Maanusha Yagna or Bhojana Yagna, Bhoota Yagna or Bhootadayaa Yagna. While discussing about these important duties, the Smritis have their own interpretations. They are not consistent in the name, the description or the number of these Yagnas. But Brahma Yagna, Pitru Yagna and the Gnana Yagna are usually found in all the interpretations.

The next important topic that is consistently covered in all the Smritis is the three debts or ऋणत्रयम् | They are पितृ-ऋण, देव-ऋण and गुरु-ऋण | The Smritis elaborate on these types of debts, how they are to be repaid, what is the parihaara – remedy in the event of not fulfilling the debts. It is told that as long as we live there is no way to repay the debt towards one’s parents. In Kashyapa Smriti  काश्यपस्मृतिः, condensing the information that is present in the other smritis say this – देवपितृमनुष्यभूतब्रह्मयज्ञानुपसेवमानः | According to him, Smritis mainly deals with – the types of the yagnas; the way to do upaseva of these Yagna to the god, parents, human beings, other beings and towards knowledge; the benefits of doing them; the conclusion – प्रत्याम्नाय; and the remedial action for the sin of non-adherence – प्रायश्चित्त. He summaries the contents of the Smritis in this way.

The Smritis also deal with the duals or Dvandvas which are extremely important like the two eyes in our body. They are सत्य and धर्म or सत्य and निष्ठ. One has to adhere to the Truth not just whenever it is convenient to one self. Truth has to be adhered to at all times until death. Everyone should be honest and have the fear of suffering the consequence of committing any sin.  So न्याय and दण्ड are also important.

There is a rule that Yagna has to be performed. It is also important to get it done by others too. Hence Smritis talk about यजन and याजन | Important is given also to अध्ययन and अध्यापन i.e., studying and teaching. The Smritis elaborate about the Panch-Maha-Yagnas namely Deva Yagna (worship of Devas), Pitr Yagna (worship of one’s forefathers), Manushya Yagna (worship of fellow humans), Bhuta Yagna (worship of other beings), and Brahma Yagna (worship of knowledge).

The smritis talk about दान-परिग्रह – giving and receiving charity. The charity has to be done to the right person, at the right time, and in the right place. The contribution has to be worthy of being given – द्र्व्यशुद्धिः, the act of giving should be done in the right manner – क्रियाशुद्धिः, it has to be done with the right attitude – भावशुद्धिः. The same applies to receiving an offering. One has to be careful while receiving contributions. The giver could get the punya from the receiver and pass on his paapa to him.

In the Katopanishad, the story begins with the scene of doing charity. When Nachiketas finds his father donating useless cows, he questions his father and gets to know that his father’s intention is to give away all of his possessions.

स होवाच पितरम् – तात कस्मै मां दास्यसि – इति। द्वितीयं तृतीयं। तं होवाच – मृत्यवे त्वा ददामि – इति ॥

He said, “To whom will you give me, father?” At first the father ignored his son but Nachiketas persisted, asking a second and third time, “To whom will you give me, father? To whom will you give me?” “To Death I give you!” said the father in anger.

द्र्व्यशुद्धिः, क्रियाशुद्धिः, and भावशुद्धिः are essential in Dhaana. Even in acceptance, care has to be taken to find out the intention behind the charity.

अवश्यं अनुभोक्तव्यं कृतं कर्म शुभाशुभम् | Whether it is the good fortune or the bad fortune, it has to be experienced. The karmas are classified as Sanchita Karmas (accumulated works), Prarabdha Karmas (ripe or fructuous actions) and Kriyamana or Agami Karmas (current works). In Dasar’s poem, it is stated that the difference in Ayus, Arogya and Aishwarya are due to the three kinds of faults performed.

The actions to be undertaken are stated as Dharma. The different types of Dharma are सामान्यधर्म, विशेषधर्म, आपद्धर्म, नित्यकर्म and नैमित्तिककर्म. Samaanya is the general duties. Vishesha dharma are the specific personal duties which differs from person to person. Nitya karma are the Daily Obligatory Duties like Sandhya-vandanam. Naimittika karma  are the Occasional Obligatory duties like the Shraddha done for forefathers. There is also one more called Kaamya karma काम्यकर्म which are rituals performed with a specific objective.

Aapad Dharma is the actions that can be performed in case of a distress. The Smritis deal with this in detail. We use this term to justify our actions.  पट्टने पादमाचारं पथि शूद्रवदाचरेत् – we might say this to justify that we can do only one quarter of the rituals being in the city.  The Smritis clarify which situation can be considered as Aapad – or distress.

When carrying out any of the actions, these dharmas and karmas, the person should always keep in mind that the ultimate goal is the Moksha Dharma. All the actions done now should lead us towards this highest goal.

This is an overview of the Smritis. The other information that should be learnt is about the authors of each of the 37 Smritis, the number of chapters, the number of shlokas, and the main subject matter of discussion.

Usually the Smritis are in Gadya or Prose form. There are a few which are in Padya or Poetry form set to specific chandas. There are also Smritis which are in Champu style – i.e., a combination of Gadya and Padya.  The importance of Yagnavalkya Smriti among the scriptures has to be known.

Notes for Shikshaa (Level 3) Book 2


मनो हि हेतुः सर्वेषाम् इन्द्रियाणां प्रवर्तने |

मनः हि हेतुः सर्वेषाम् इन्द्रियाणां प्रवर्तने |

सर्वेषाम् इन्द्रियाणां प्रवर्तने मनः हि हेतुः |


राजन् ! कमलपत्राक्ष ! तत्ते भवतु चाक्षयम् ।
आसादयति यद्रूपं करेणु: करणै: विना ॥

राजन् ! कमलपत्राक्ष ! तत् ते भवतु च अक्षयम् ।
आसादयति यद् रूपं करेणु: करणै: विना ॥

राजन् ! कमलपत्राक्ष ! यद् रूपं करेणु: करणै: विना आसादयति, अक्षयं तत्  ते भवतु ।

सामान्यः अर्थ:
हे राजन् ! हे कमलपत्राक्ष ! यद् रूपं गजी इन्द्रियैः विना प्राप्नोति,  तत् रूपं सर्वदा तुभ्यं भवतु ।

वास्तविकः अर्थ:
हे राजन् ! हे कमलपत्राक्ष ! भवते अनन्तः आयु: भवेत् |   {करेणु: इति पदे, क्, र्, ण् इति अक्षराणि त्यजामः चेत्,  अ+ए+उ = ऐ + उ = आय् + उ = आयु  भवति ।  }



माहेश्‍वरसूत्राणि ।। अइउण्; ऋलृक्; एओङ्; ऐऔच्; हयवरट्; लण्; ञमङ्णनम्; झभञ्; घढधष्; जबगडदश्; खफछटतचटतव्; कपय्; शषसर्; हल् |

{ म } + { व्यञ्जनम् } = ं + { व्यञ्जनम् }
अहम् प्रातः = अहं प्रातः

मोऽनुस्वारः” ॥८।३।२३॥ मान्तस्य पदस्य अनुस्वारः स्याद्धलि i.e., स्यात् हलि परतः

हल् = हयवरट्; लण्; ञमङ्णनम्; झभञ्; घढधष्; जबगडदश्; खफछटतचटतव्; कपय्; शषसर्; हल् |

i.e., हल् = ह य व र ल ; ञ म ङ् ण न ; झ भ घ ढ ध ; ज ब ग ड द ; ख फ छ ट त ; च ट त क प ; श ष स ह |

i.e., हल् = क ख ग घ ङ च छ ज झ ञ ट ठ ड ढ ण त थ द ध न प फ ब भ म य र ल व स श ष ह |

वर्गीयव्यञ्जनम् + { स्वरः / मृदुव्यञ्जनम् ) = ग् ज् ड् द् ब्
{ 1, 2, 3, 4 } + { स्वरः / {3, 4, 5} / य र ल व ह } = { 3rd of first } + {second}
जगत् + गुरु = जगद्गुरु

“झलां जशोऽन्ते” ॥८।२।३९॥ पदान्ते झलां जशः स्युः |

झल् = झभञ्; घढधष्; जबगडदश्; खफछटतचटतव्; कपय्; शषसर्; हल्

i.e., झल् = झ भ घ ढ ध ; ज ब ग ड द ;  ख फ छ ट त ; च ट त क प ;  श ष स ह ;

i.e., झल् = क ख ग घ ; च छ ज झ ; ट ठ ड ढ ; त थ द ध ; प फ ब भ ; स श ष ह ;

i.e., झल् = { 1, 2, 3, 4 } i.e., वर्गीयव्यञ्जनम् and { स श ष ह }

जश् = जबगडदश्;

i.e., जश् = ज ब ग ड द

i.e., जश् = 3rd of the varga  ग ज ड द ब


Subhashitam १

दानं भोगो नाशस्तिस्रो गतयो भवन्ति वित्तस्य ।
न ददाति न भुड्क्ते तस्य तृतीया गतिर्भवति ॥


दानं भोगः नाशः स्तिस्रः गतयः भवन्ति वित्तस्य ।
यः न ददाति न भुड्क्ते तस्य तृतीया गतिः भवति ॥


दानं भोगः नाशः च इति वित्तस्य स्तिस्रः गतयः भवन्ति । यः न ददाति न भुड्क्ते, तस्य तृतीया गतिः भवति |


वित्तस्य सञ्चारः त्रिधः भवति । ते दानं भोग: विनाशः इति त्रयः सन्ति | य: निर्धनेभ्यः दानं न ददाति, अपि च स्वसंतोषार्थम् अपि दनं न व्ययीकरोति, तस्य वित्तस्य नाश: एव भवति ।

Subhashitam 4

व्यसनानन्तरं सौख्यं स्वल्पमप्यध्कं भवेत् ।
काषायरसमासाद्य स्वाद्वतीवाम्बु विन्दते ॥


व्यसनानन्तरं सौख्यं स्वल्पम् अपि अधिकं भवेत् ।
काषायरसम् आसाद्य स्वादु अतीव अम्बु विन्दते ॥


व्यसनानन्तरं सौख्यं स्वल्पम् अपि अधिकं भवेत् । काषायरसम् आसाद्य अम्बु अतीव स्वादु विन्दते ॥



यथा औषदं पीत्वा तदनन्तरं जलं पिबामश्चेत् तद् जलमपि अतिमधुरं भासते, तथा  दुःखस्य अनन्तरं सौक्यं किंचिदेव भवति चेदपि अधिकं इव दृश्यते ।



कराग्रे वसते लक्ष्मी करमध्ये सरस्वती । करमूले स्थिता गौरी प्रभाते करदर्शनम् ॥

कराग्रे वसते लक्ष्मी कर-मध्ये सरस्वती । कर-मूले स्थिता गौरी प्रभाते कर-दर्शनम् ॥

लक्ष्मी कराग्रे वसते | करमध्ये सरस्वती वसति । गौरी करमूले स्थिता अस्ति | अतः प्रभाते करदर्शनम् अहं करोमि |

समुद्रवसने देवी पर्वतस्तनमण्डले । विष्णुपत्नी नमस्तुभ्यं पादस्पर्शं क्षमस्वमे |

समुद्र-वसने देवी पर्वत-स्तन-मण्डले । विष्णुपत्नि नमः तुभ्यं पाद-स्पर्शं क्षमस्व मे |

समुद्रवसने । देवी । पर्वतस्तनमण्डले । विष्णुपत्नि | तुभ्यं नमः अस्तु | मे पादस्पर्शं त्वं क्षमस्व |

Arthashastra Session 1 – Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy

Class notes of the session on Arthashaastra taken by Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy on March 17, 2016

The Arthashastra is an ancient Hindu treatise by Chaanakya on trade & commerce, statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit. Note that अर्थशास्त्रम् is a napusakalinga padam.

[Side Note: Vaanijya saashtra refers to Trade and Commerce. The definition of Vedas is वेदयति प्रकाशयति सर्वम् इति वेदः | Vedas encompasses all the knowledge. Yet, there is so separate ancient literature in Sanskrit focusing only on Trade and Commerce. The knowledge related to trade and commerce is present in bits and pieces in the ancient literature. Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy was involved in creating a text book on Trade and Commerce based on the information available in various Sanskrit literatures. This session was based on that text book.]

Trade involves the transaction of Money. In the Rig Veda, it is mentioned – धनेन धनम् इच्छमानः – money can be made only using money. The need for the capital to earn money has been stated in Rig Veda. The definition of Dhanam or money has been provided in this way – व्यवहारात् उत्पन्नं लाभयुक्तं धनम् | The importance of wealth in this world has been stated as धनमूलं जगत् | The futility of life with money is states as निर्धनो मृतः इव | The need to continue to earn even if one seems to have a lot of wealth is stated as यत् प्रभूतेऽपि वित्ते अर्थोपायस्चिन्तनीयः | Even the demi-gods seek wealth – धनेन देवा धनमिच्छमानः |  The prayer is made to have more rather than less of wealth — तन्मे भूयो भवतु मा कनीयो – Atharva Veda|

Traders were spread everywhere. Various concepts of Trade and Commerce like Trade Unions, public sector, private sector, shares, barter system, etc. were present in ancient days. Honesty was the soul of India.


Humility is important to gain any knowledge. Vinayaadhikarana is the first chapter of Arthashaastra.

Side Note: Kautilya advices Chandragupta to maintain secrecy about his intimacy and the sensuous pleasures that he enjoyed, like the crow that mates only in secrecy – काकवत् गुप्तम् |  The adhyaatma vidyaa is also very important for leading a life.

Definition of Arthashaastra

Artha is wealth or possessions. Kaama sutra was written by Vaatsyaayana.  Dharma, Artha, Kaama, Moksha are the four purushaarthaas. Artha and Kaama are Purushaarthas. So Vaatsyaayana in his Kaama Sutra also defines Artha.

[ Side Note: Stree-purusha sambhanda is a value system for enjoyment. It is also created by God. ]

विद्या भूमि हिरण्य पशु धन धान्य भाण्ड+उपस्कर, मित्र+आदिनाम् आर्जनम् , अर्जित्तस्य रक्षणं च विवर्धनम् च – अर्थ

Knowledge, land, gold, cattle, cash, grains, goods, belongings, friends, etc. are all referred to as Artha.  These are to be earned or acquired putting some effort. This is the definition provided in the Kaama Sutra.

Of the many things that are considered as Artha, Vidyaa is the first one. So the first adhikarana is concerning the topic of training called Vinayaadhikara. Knowledge has to be acquired.

[ Sidenote – Even friendship and other relationships are to be acquired. The acquired relationship has to be protected and enhanced. Even life-partners cannot be taken for granted. Continuous effort has to be made to ensure that the other person stays happy. There is nothing like unconditional love. There are always conditions in life with mutual give and take. ]

The acquired wealth – Arjitasya vivardhanam has to be developed further for its vriddhi.

Definition of Arthashaastra:

The spiritual touch is not present in the initial parts of Arthashastra. It is a technical work.  Kautilya, the author of Arthashastra defines his work in this way:

मनुष्याणां वृत्तिः अर्थः मनुश्यवतीभूमिरत्यर्थः तस्याः पृथिव्याः लाभपालनोपायः शास्त्रम् अर्थशास्त्रमिति |

मनुष्याणां वृत्तिः अर्थः  – The person’s profession is called Artha. Arthakari vidyaa – Only when it is a source of earning money, it is considered as a vidyaa. (This does not include aatma / adhyaatmika Vidyaa).

[Side note: Even in the present days, students’ choice of education is based on the earnings. ]

मनुश्यवती भूमिः इत्यर्थः –  Land is a place where people reside.  And so man should possess land. He should develop a right to sit in a place where others assemble. Once a person acquires land, he would take care of the land, get married, and set up his family.

[Side note: Material prosperity becomes the goal.  Loukika marga and adhyaatmika marga are both given importance. When a person directly gets into adhyaatmika path, he might feel that he has missed something. It is always better to experience loukika, realize its futality and then move onto adhyaatmika maarga. Only a few saints who have the poorva janma samskaara take up directly the adhyaatmika life. One should not be forced into adhyaatmika life directly.  Vedas give importance to both इह and पर. ]

तस्याः पृथिव्याः लाभ+पालन+उपायः शास्त्रम् अर्थशास्त्रमिति – Such a land has to be acquired and be taken care of. The science that imparts instruction regarding the means of acquiring and maintaining the earth is called Arthashastra.

Somadeva considers artha to be the cause for all achievements. Sarva prayojana siddhi so arthah |

In Chaanakya niti –  it is mentioned that food is Artha – dhyaanyaa samo arthah.

The Four-fold aims of man can be achieved by Profession. So Vritti is Artha. अर्थमूलौ धर्मकामौ;  अर्थ-प्रतिबद्धश्च लोको वर्तते ।। अर्थशास्त्रम् ०८.३.३२ ||

[ side note: When a girl is getting married, the relatives think in this way –

कन्या वरयते रुपं माता वित्तं पिता श्रुतम् |
बान्धवा: कुलमिच्छन्ति मिष्टान्नमितरेजना: ||


Kautilya teaches this to Chandra Gupta Maurya. Political science – raajya saashtra. Culture is caught – it is not taught. People follow the king.

Krishna makes Yudhishtra learn the political science from Bhishma when he was on his arrow bed.

Kautilya is also a rishi. His work is a Smriti. He had to write his work without contradicting any of the Vedic injunctions or the Shrutis. As the time had changed from the Vedic period, he had to write to suit the current society. For example, he mentions that monetary transactions have to be done in writing.

[ Side note – When questioned by Chandra Gupta Maurya on who is important between the mother and the wife, Kautilya responds saying Wife is like the body and Mother is like the soul. Wife is considered as a bhooga sthaana – a source of enjoyment. Whereas mother is to be worshipped – pooja sthaana.  As the couple become old, they are no longer the source of enjoyment. They find their own way for salvation individually. Taaraa, Sumitraa, Kausalya, Tulasi – were able to gain salvation irrespective of the progress of their husbands. Tulasi is being worshipped for the long life of one’s husband. To be a Sumangali  means one has got a dependable support system until their death for their security].

We are all Chanakya’s student Chandragupta Maurya when we read his work, like how we become Arjuna when we read the Gita. Chanakya has not left anything.

Dharma Shaastra, Shilba shaastra were all created prior to Artha shaastra. Poorvam poorvam balavattamah – The earlier work is considered to be authoritative, when there is a conflict with the new work. No one can refute the instructions of the Sruthis. In Smruthis, there are only practical advices to carry out the worldly activities in the society of that time. It clarifies how to act when faced with certain situations.

इदम् इत्थम् “This is so” – is the mood of shastra. It is a science. Like the scientific facts, it states the facts. It cannot be denied. There are rules in the shastras. There could be exceptions to the rules. Smriti includes the works until certain Shastras like Dharma Shastras.

The Smrti literature is a vast corpus of derivative work which includes the vedangas, the epics, all the texts leading towards the four purushaarthaas (like Yagnavalkya smriti, Arthashaastra, Gita, Vivekachudamani, etc.), Puranas, Kaavyas, etc.

[ Side Note: A hermit wants to protect the deer that has come into his ashram. The hunter asks the hermit if he had seen the deer. The hermit responds in this way “Hey Hunter, if you are asking the eyes if they saw the deer. The eyes can’t talk. If you are asking the mouth, it does not have the capacity to see and hence it has not seen the deer.” The hunter admires the knowledge of the hermit and becomes the hermit’s disciple. ]

वृतु वर्तने The root Vrit indicates living or being. Raja vritti is raja’s actions or profession. Kautilya starts with the prayers to Sukra and Bruhaspati – the gurus of Asuraas and devas respectively. What is bad has to be explained while explaining the good. So both bad and good have to be learnt together. Man is taught to live in the present world and also to aim for salvation.

Vishnu Gupta is also another name for Kautilya or Chaanakya. He says “तानि संहृत्य एकं इदं अर्थशास्त्रं कृतम्” | This indicates that the information was present in various sources and there was no prior work of consolidation of the information related to Artha that was done before this work. His work is a compilation that is based on the information that is available in various scriptures.

The first chapter is like an index listing the topics that is covered in this scripture.

Dharma and Artha are important. Artha should be based on Dharma. Sankhya, yoga and lokaayatam (Chaarvaka mata) together are called Aanvikshikii. In case of doubt (vyasana), this shastra will be helpful to decide on the path that needs to be taken.  Atharva veda is taken along with itihaasaas as an auxiliary scripture based on the 3 Vedas.

[Side note: The Principle of Krishna in making Yudhistra say “Ashvattamo hatah kujarah” – is based on his choice of giving preference to that action that will benefit the world. ]

Yogi Ramsuratkumar’s Voice – Shloka #6 – Ananyachetaah satatam

Yogi Ramsuratkumar’s Voice – Shloka #6Ananyachetaah satatam


Here is a shloka that Yogi Ramsuratkumar, Godchild, Tiruvannamalai used to recite from Bhagavad Gita Chapter 8. The text, anvaya (prose order) in Sanskrit, along with the transliteration and meaning in English are provided below. You may also listen to his voice.

अनन्यचेताः सततं यो मां स्मरति नित्यशः।
तस्याहं सुलभः पार्थ नित्ययुक्तस्य योगिनः ॥ १४


अनन्यचेताः सततं यो मां स्मरति नित्यशः। तस्याहं सुलभः पार्थ नित्ययुक्तस्य योगिनः ।


पार्थ । अनन्यचेताः य: सततं नित्यशः मां स्मरति तस्य नित्ययुक्तस्य योगिनः अहं सुलभः ।


  • य: वाक्यांशः
    • क्रियापदम् = स्मरति [स्मृ, “स्मृ चिन्तायाम्”, पर. लट्. प्रपु. एक.]
    • क्रियाविशेषणम् = सततम् [अव्ययम्]
    • क्रियाविशेषणम् = नित्यशः [अव्ययम्]
    • कर्मपदम् = माम् [अस्मद् द. त्री. द्वि. एक.]
    • कर्तृपदम् = य: [यद् द. पुं. प्र. एक.]
    • कर्तृविशेषणम् = अनन्यचेताः [अनन्यचेतस् स. पुं. प्र. एक.]
  • स: वाक्यांशः
    • क्रियापदम् = (अस्मि)
    • कर्तृपदम् = अहम् [अष्मद् द. त्रि. प्र. एक.]
    • कर्तृविधेयविशेषणम् = सुलभः [अ. पुं. प्र. एक.]
    • सम्बन्धिपदम् = तस्य [तद् द. पुं. ष. एक.]
    • सम्बन्धिविशेषणम् = नित्य+युक्तस्य [अ. पुं. ष. एक.]
    • सम्बन्धिविशेषणम् = योगिनः [न. पुं. ष. एक.]

Anan’yacētāḥ satataṁ yō māṁ smarati nityaśaḥ
Tasyāhaṁ sulabhaḥ pārtha nityayuktasya yōginaḥ 8.14

  • yah = those who
  • ananyacetāḥ = Those who are devoid of other thoughts
  • māṁ = me
  • satataṁ = always
  • nityaśaḥ = constantly
  • smarati = remember / think
  • pārtha = Hey Arjuna, the son of Pruthaa
  • nitya yuktasya = For those who are always connected with me
  • yoginaḥ = For those Yogis
  • tasya = For them
  • ahaṁ = I am
  • sulabaḥ = Easily attainable

He who, with a mind undistracted  by other things, thinks of Me constantly every day—to the Yogi thus ever- attuned, I am easy of attainment, O son of Pṛthā!

Yogi Ramsuratkumar’s Voice – Shloka #5 – Agnir devo

Yogi Ramsuratkumar’s Voice – Shloka #5 – Agnir devo

Here is a Subhashitam that Yogi Ramsuratkumar, Godchild, Tiruvannamalai used to recite from Chaankya Neeti. The text, anvaya (prose order) in Sanskrit, along with the transliteration and meaning in English are provided below. You may also listen to his voice.

Yogi2 - Copyअग्निर्देवो द्विजातीनां मुनीनां हृदि दैवतम् |
प्रतिमा स्वल्पबुद्धीनां सर्वत्र समदर्शिनः ||


अग्निः देवः द्विजातीनां मुनीनां हृदि दैवतम् प्रतिमा स्वल्पबुद्धीनां सर्वत्र समदर्शिनः |


द्विजातीनां देवः अग्निः अस्ति | मुनीनां हृदि दैवतम् अस्ति | स्वल्पबुद्धीनां देवः प्रतिमा अस्ति | समदर्शिनः देवः सर्वत्र अस्ति |


  • प्रथमवाक्यम्
    • क्रियापदम् = (अस्ति)
    • कर्तृ-विशेषण-सूचक-पदम् = अग्निः
    • वाक्यांश:
      • कर्तृपदम् = देवः
      • सम्बन्ध-पदम् = द्विजातीनाम्
    • द्वितीयवाक्यम्
      • क्रियापदम् = (अस्ति)
      • कर्तृपदम् = दैवतम्
      • अधिकरणपदम् = हृदि
      • सम्बन्ध-पदम् = मुनीनाम्
    • तृतीयवाक्यम्
      • क्रियापदम् = (अस्ति)
      • कर्तृ-विशेषण-सूचक-पदम् = प्रतिमा
      • वाक्यांश:
        • कर्तृपदम् = देवः
        • सम्बन्ध-पदम् = स्वल्पबुद्धीनाम्
      • चतुर्थवाक्यम्
        • क्रियापदम् = (अस्ति)
        • अधिकरणपदम् = सर्वत्र
        • कर्तृपदम् = देवः
        • सम्बन्ध-पदम् = समदर्शिनः

Agnirdēvō dvijātīnāṁ munīnāṁ hr̥di daivatam |
pratimā svalpabud’dhīnāṁ sarvatra samadarśinaḥ ||

  • Dvijaatinaam – For the twice-born (Brahmins)
  • Devah – God
  • Agnih – Fire
  • Muninaam – For the ascetics
  • Daivatam – godliness
  • Hrudi – in the heart
  • Svalpa-buddhinaam – For the ones with limited intelligence
  • Pratimaa – Idol
  • Samadarshinah – For those who view everyone with equanimity
  • Sarvatra – everywhere

For the twice-born (Brahmins), Fire is God. For the ascetics, Godliness is in their hearts. For those with limited intelligence, God is in the statue. For those people who see everyone as equal, God is everywhere.
Note: A Brahmin is considered to be reborn when his Upanayanam ceremony is done.

Related Sites:

    Glimpses of a Great Yogi — Biography of Yogi Ramsuratkumar
  3.  Yogi Ramsuratkumar Ashram

Notes for Shikshaa (Level 3) Book 1

This page will be updated with more details as the online classes progress for Shikshaa.  Come back to check for updates.

Shiksha question papers and answers –

Book 1


सतां हि संदेहपदेषु वस्तुषु प्रमाणमन्तःकरणप्रवृत्तयः |

सतां हि संदेह-पदेषु वस्तुषु प्रमाणम्  अन्तःकरण-प्रवृत्तयः |

संदेहपदेषु वस्तुषु सतां प्रमाणम्  अन्तःकरणप्रवृत्तयः हि  भवन्ति |


१.दम्भेन लोभेन भिया हृिया वा
    प्रायो विनीतो जन एष सर्व: ।
    वैराग्यतस्तवाहृदयं विनीतम्
    नरं वरं दुर्लभमेव मन्ये ।।
दम्भेन लोभेन भिया हृिया वा प्रायः विनीतः जनः एषः सर्व: वैराग्यतः तु आहृदयं विनीतम् नरम् वरम् दुर्लभम् एव मन्ये
एषः सर्व: जनः दम्भेन लोभेन भिया हृिया वा प्रायः विनीतः । वैराग्यतः तु आहृदयं विनीतं वरं नरं दुर्लभम् एव इति अहं मन्ये ।
बहवः जनाः ते उत्तमाः इति प्रकटीकर्तुं कपटेन वा, निरहङ्काराः भवामः चेत् अधिकं प्राप्नुमः इति तृष्णायाः कारणेन वा, वयं तु बलवीनाः इति भीतेः कारणात् वा, अन्ये किं चिन्तयन्ति इति लज्जायाः कारणात् वा विनीतशीलाः भवन्ति । विरागात् येषां सम्पूर्णहृदयं विनीतं भवति, तादृशाः श्रेष्ठपुरुषाः विरलाः इति अहं चिन्तयामि |
२.यथा ह्यकेन चक्रेण न रथस्य गतिर्भवेत् ।
    एवं पुरुषकारेण विना दैवं न सिद्ध्यति  ।।
यथा हि एकेन चक्रेण न रथस्य गतिः भवेत्  एवम् पुरुषकारेण विना दैवम् न सिद्ध्यति ।
यथा एकेन चक्रेण रथस्य गतिः न हि भवेत्, एवं पुरुषकारेण विना दैवं न सिद्ध्यति ।
रथः एकेन चक्रेण गन्तुं न शक्नोति । रथस्य गमनाय न्यूनादिन्यूनं चक्रद्वयं आवश्यकम् । तथा मनुष्यस्य स्वप्रयत्नं विना, केवलं दैवानुग्रहेण  सिद्धिः न प्राप्यते |
page 6 – स्खलति – slips / trips
page 6 – कीलयति – nails up
page 6 –    भाययति – to frighten someone – to cause fear
Page 21 – चक्रिन् + ढौकसे
you bring near — the possessor of chakra   (vishnu because of sudharshana or the potter because of his potter’s wheel)
{ सकार + तवर्ग: } + { शकार: + चवर्गः } = { शकार: + चवर्गः }
( first varga changes to equivalent in the second varga ) (order can be reversed also )
{ त } + { च … ञ श } or { च … ञ श } + { त } –> { च }
{ स } + { च … ञ श } or { च … ञ श } + { स } –> { श }
सत् + चित् = सच्चित्
The sutra or aphorism is स्तोश्चुना श्चुः  |
स्तो refers to स and त वर्ग | श्चुः refers to श and च वर्ग |  श्चुना – 3rd vibhakti.
{ सकार + तवर्ग: } + { षकार: + टवर्गः } = { षकार: + टवर्गः }
( first varga changes to equivalent in the second varga ) (order can be reversed also )
{ त } + { ट … ण ष } or { ट … ण ष } + { त } –> { ट }
तत् + टीका = तट्टीका
Sutra for ष्टुत्वसन्धिः  —  ष्टुना ष्टुः | where ष्टुः refers to ष and ट वर्ग |

अन्वयरचना – श्लोक: १

परोपकाराय फलन्ति वृक्षा:  परोपकाराय वहन्ति नद्य: ।
परोपकाराय दुहन्ति गाव:  परोपकारार्थमिदं शरीरम् ॥
परोपकाराय, फलन्ति, वृक्षा:,परोपकाराय, वहन्ति, नद्य:, परोपकाराय, दुहन्ति, गाव:, परोपकारार्थम्, इदम्, शरीरम्
परोपकाराय वृक्षा: फलन्ति, परोपकाराय नद्य: वहन्ति, परोपकाराय गाव: दुहन्ति, परोपकाराय इदं शरीरम् अस्ति ।
यथा अन्येषाम् उपकारार्थं  वृक्षा: फलन्ति, यथा अन्येषाम् उपकाराय नद्य: वहन्ति, यथा अन्येषाम् उपकाराय गाव: दुग्धं ददति, तथा परोपकाराय एव एतत् शरीरम् अपि अस्ति ।
अन्वयरचना – श्लोक: २
व्यासं वसिष्ठनप्तारं शक्ते: पौत्रमकल्मषम् ।
पराशरात्मजं वन्दे शुकतातं तपोनिधिम् ॥
व्यासम्,  वसिष्ठनप्तारम्,  शक्ते:, पौत्रम्, अकल्मषम्, पराशरात्मजम्,  वन्दे, शुकतातम्, तपोनिधिम्
अहं वसिष्ठनप्तारं, शक्ते: पौत्रं, पराशरात्मजं, शुकतातम्, अकल्मषं, तपोनिधिं, व्यासं वन्दे ।
अहं वसिष्ठस्य प्रपौत्रं,  शक्ते: पौत्रं, पराशरस्य पुत्रं, शुकस्य पितरम्, दोषरहितं, श्रेष्ठतपस्विं व्यासम् वन्दे ।

उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् । वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।।

उत्तरं यत् समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेः च एव दक्षिणम् । वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।।

यत् समुद्रस्य उत्तरं, यत् हिमाद्रेः दक्षिणम् च एव, यत्र भारती संततिः, तद् वर्षं भारतं नाम ।

रत्नाकराधौतपदां हिमालयकिरीटिनीम् । ब्रह्मराजर्षिरत्नाढ्यां वन्दे भारतमातरम् ।।

रत्नाकरा-धौत-पदां हिमालय-किरीटिनीम् । ब्रह्म-राज-ऋषि-रत्न-आढ्यां वन्दे भारत-मातरम् ।।

रत्नाकरा-धौत-पदां हिमालय-किरीटिनीं ब्रह्म-राज-ऋषि-रत्न-आढ्यां भारत-मातरम् अहं वन्दे ।


प्रहेलिका  (

पर्वताग्रे रथो याति भूमौ तिष्ठति सारथिः ।
चलते वायुवेगेन पदमेकं न गच्छति ॥

पर्वतस्य उपरि रथः सञ्चरति । रथस्य सारथिः भूमौ तिष्ठति । रथः वायुवेगेन चलति ।
किन्तु एकमपि पदम् अग्रे न गच्छति । तर्हि किमेतत् ?

कुलालचक्रदण्डः |  (अत्र रथ: इत्युक्ते कुम्भकारस्य चक्रम् इति ज्ञातव्यम् । एतत् चक्रम् एकस्मिन् पीठे अस्ति | कुम्भकार: भूमौ स्थित्वा भ्रामयति | अतः चक्रं वायु-वेगेन भ्रमति | परन्तु तत् चक्रम् एकं पदम् अपि अग्रे न गच्छति । )


Swamini Svatmavidyananda Session #17 – Amruta Bindu Upanishad

Amruta Bindu Upanishad #17 – Mar 19th 2016  6.30 PM Session (Unedited notes….)

Swamin Svatmananda –  Arsha Vijnana Gurukulam

You see another person as the source of pain or happiness. Karma is the cause for the sorrow or happiness. Sorrow might come and go. As one gets more clarity, they will try not to identify with sorrow. The cause of dukha cannot be something or someone outside. Transference is blaming other person for your sorrow and their reaction is counter-transference. When you direct your anger towards Bhagavan, Bhagavan gives you punya since you approached him. It is a win-win situation. In the meditative state or as a prayer, it has to be done to settle the mind and make it free from Raaga–dvesha – the long standing emotions.

First one is Shabda-Brahmani. A – creator. U-vishnu-sustaining; M – shiva; Consider Om to be Bhagavan’s name and chant it. It will gradually slide into the waker, dreamer, sleeper, jagat, etc. One who has become an expert – i.e. the emotions are divinized. All sources of pains are divinized. Become a person of acceptance. Seeing yourself as Ishvara is just a little slide.


ग्रन्थमभ्यस्य मेधावी ज्ञानवीज्ञानतत्परः । पलालमिव धान्यार्थी त्यजेद्ग्रन्थमशेषतः ॥ १८ ॥

ग्रन्थम् अभ्यस्य मेधावी ज्ञान+वीज्ञान+तत्परः । पलालम् इव धान्यार्थी त्यजेत् ग्रन्थं अशेषतः ॥ १८ ॥

मेधावी ज्ञान+वीज्ञान+तत्परः ग्रन्थम् अभ्यस्य पलालम् इव धान्यार्थी त्यजेत् ग्रन्थं अशेषतः |

After studying the scriptures, an intelligent person intent on gaining knowledge and liberation should discard the scriptures altogether, like one who desires grain discards the husk.

Here is a mandate provided by the Upanishad.

ग्रन्थम् अभ्यस्य – Having studied the manuscript well and understood properly

मेधावी – one who has intelligence (and uses it in the proper manner)

त्यजेत् ग्रन्थं अशेषतः – give it up completely . Abandon the book. (In yati panchakam, the yati-s are expected to keep reading it continuously). Here the Upanishad is asking the reader to give it up.

In Mundakopanishad, Para and Apara are the two knowledge to be learnt. Apara – Vedas. Para – Yayaa aksharam adhigamyate – by which thought-frame, that rises in the mind, the self is realized. The understanding happens – when the teaching is internalized – a miracle takes place. All the complexes vanishes. Unmoolayati – avasaadayati iti Upanishad – ignorance is uprooted totally. So the complexes can’t come back. The words in the book are mitya just like the hunger is mitya and the food we eat is mitya. The parampara of teachers keeps the book alive.  The power of lineage of the teachers brings the words to life. It was not written down. It was only Karna-parampara.

ज्ञान+वीज्ञान+तत्परः – committed to Tat – one whose goal is Tat. Who is headed towards tat. Boat is used to cross the river. Boat’s purpose is over. No need to carry it when you move ahead after crossing the river.  Punarukti dosha  – the fallacy of repetition is not present in the Upanishads. There is a purpose to say ज्ञान and वीज्ञान. (Each santi has a different meaning in shanti, shanti, shantih. Rutam vadishyaami, satyam vadishyaami  – living in accordance to truth is rutam). When ज्ञान and वीज्ञान comes together, ज्ञान indicates aatma gnaana; वीज्ञान – the knowledge that is well ascertained – well assimilated – when I have owned up myself as Ishwara.

पलालम् इव धान्यार्थी –  just like how the grain is retained throwing away the husk.

This Upanishad is famous for this specific verse. It has a revolutionary thought. It is to be noted “grantam abhyasya”  that it is to be given up only after learning it properly.  Without study, one will not get it by one’s own effort.

गवामनेकवर्णानां क्षीरस्याप्येकवर्णता ।

क्षीरवत्पष्यते ज्ञानं लिङ्गिनस्तु गवां यथा ॥ १९ ॥

गवाम् अनेक-वर्णानां क्षीरस्य अपि एक-वर्णता ।

क्षीरवत् पष्यते ज्ञानं लिङ्गिनः तु गवां यथा ॥ १९ ॥

अनेक-वर्णानां गवाम्  क्षीरस्य अपि एक-वर्णता ।  क्षीरवत्  ज्ञानं पष्यते, यथा गवां लिङ्गिनः तु |

Cows of different colors have milk of one color. Knowledge is like the milk and scriptures are like the cows.


Milk is saatvic.  It is wholesome. It is culled from various sources – cows of different colors. The Upanishads are individually different – taiteriya Upanishad – aakaashat agnih, agnir vaayuh ….. – five elements are there and everything comes from Aatma.

The Chandogya talks about three elements. We are not interested in creationism. It is not that the Upanishads are contradictory. There the purport is different. The Upanishad is not interested in the cosmology of creation. It is interested in leading us to happiness. Entire content Veda has Eka-vakyataa. Other means of knowledge cannot contradict this shabda pramaana. “Yam manasaa na manute” – Kenopanishad – “that which is not gained by the mind”. Katopanishad – “manasaa eva idam aaptavyam” – “to be gained by the mind only”. The commentators have clarified how this is to be interpreted. Here it comes in the sense of 7th vibhakti – in the mind. The milch cows yielding milk could be of different colors. The knowledge of the Upanishads is the same. Lingate anena iti linginah – one that indicates – scriptures. Indicatory knowledge – lakshyaartha.  “Sarvopanishado gaavo dokdaa gopala nandanah”  – Gita dhyana shloka – all Upanishads are the cows. We need a person to milk them. Arjuna is the calf.

Mother nourishes her baby with her milk. Upanishad does not abandon the crying jeeva. Like a mother, she feeds it her own self and silences the cry of the baby completely.

घृतमिव पयसि निगूढं भूते भूते वसति विज्ञानम् ।

सततं मन्थयितव्यं  मनसा मन्थानभूतेन ॥ २० ॥

घृतम् इव पयसि निगूढं भूते भूते वसति विज्ञानम् ।

सततं मन्थयितव्यं  मनसा मन्थानभूतेन ॥ २० ॥

पयसि निगूढं घृतम् इव, भूते भूते विज्ञानं वसति । सततं मन्थयितव्यं  मनसा मन्थान-भूतेन |

Like butter hidden in milk, consciousness dwells in every being. It should be constantly churned by the mind with the churning rod of the mind.

पयसि निगूढं घृतम् इव – Ghee is present in the milk and yet it is not recognized individually. It is hidden.

भूते भूते विज्ञानं वसति  – Here bhoota means elements and elementals. The rock does not have the means to express the chit. It does not have the sukhma shareeram. The five elements are all sat-chit-ananda. They do not have to learn about themselves, as they do not have complaints. They do not have a complex centered on the self. Only humans have free-will.

सततं मन्थयितव्यं  – churning of knowledge is mananam. Like the churning stick moves all over the milk in order to get the butter, the mind moves in the milk of the Upanishad. The hidden butter is discovered. It just came out. It was not created.

मनसा मन्थान-भूतेन – by the mind that is converted into a churning stick. It is a blessing from the rishi – may you roll in this Upanishad to discover the existing fact.


ज्ञाननेत्रं समाधाय चोद्धरेद्वह्निवत्परम् ।

निष्कलं निश्चलं शान्तं तद्ब्रह्माहमिति स्मृतम् ॥ २१ ॥

ज्ञाननेत्रं समाधाय उद्धरेत् वह्निवत् परम् ।

निष्कलं निश्चलं शान्तं तत् ब्रह्म अहम् इति स्मृतम् ॥ २१ ॥


ज्ञाननेत्रं – the knowledge in the form of eyes. The eye of the seeker – a true seeker sees differently than others. It could also mean the eyes of a jnani who already knows or is in the process of knowing.  ज्ञाननेत्रं is also the thread that is put between the wood pieces used to generate the fire.

समाधाय – Having assimilated

उद्धरेत् – let one be raised up.

वह्निवत् परम् – Two pieces of wood – arani. Churning of the two pieces of wood causes fire. Indam is called so – as it has the potential of fire. Churning brings out what is already there.

निष्कलं निश्चलं – unmoving

शान्तं Free of all disturbances – adhibautika, adhidaivika, adhyaatmika

तत् ब्रह्म अहम् इति स्मृतम् – When you ask the teacher to teach something, he is actually recollecting what he was taught. The lineage is remembered here. The churning is an assisted churning. Sharavanam, mananam, nitiddyaasanam.


सर्वभूताधिवासं यद्भूतेषु च वसत्यपि ।

सर्वानुग्राहकत्वेन तदस्म्यहं वासुदेवः तदस्म्यहं वासुदेव इति ॥ २२ ॥


सर्वभूताधिवासं यत् भूतेषु च वसति अपि ।

सर्व+अनुग्राहकत्वेन तत् अस्मि अहं वासुदेवः तत् अस्मि अहं वासुदेवः इति ॥ २२ ॥

Phala shruti – the benefit of reading this Upanishad.

सर्वभूताधिवासं यत् – that which is the source of all existence.

भूतेषु च वसति अपि – exists in all beings.

तत् अस्मि अहं वासुदेवः इति – that we are one with the supreme. The shining being which is the indweller – vaasudevah. Deva = self-shining being. Vasati devah iti vaasudevah.  B.Gita – 7th chapter – Vaasudah sarvam iti sa mahatma sudurlabhah.  In Vishnu Sahasranaama also, “Vasanad vasudevasya sasitam bhuvanatrayam”.

सर्व+अनुग्राहकत्वेन – by whose grace — we gain this knowledge that I am that Brahman.  Manushyatvam – human birth; mumukshutvam –  desire for freedom – desire to study; mahaapurusha shramshrayah – obtaining a guru; Sarvaanugraha karaaka – these three are the blessings from Vaasudeva.