Vedas – Dr. VR, Lecture Series #3 – Udaatta, Anudaatta, Svarita

Accents in RigVeda – Udaatta, Anudaatta and Svarita

Taught by Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy on Feb 10, 2016 to a group of KSOU MA students.

There is one main accent or Swara in Veda which is the Udaatta उदात्त. Udaatta is not marked by any symbol. There are two other accents that exist to mark the presence of Udaatta. They are Anudaatta अनुदात्त and Svarita स्वरित. Anudaatta means “na”+”udaatta” – that which is not Udaatta. The Anudaatta that comes after the Udaatta is called Svarita. The Anudaatta syllable or syllables coming after Svarita are Ekasruti एकश्रुति or prachaya प्रचयः monotone. They are not marked. Like a King’s procession, Udaatta is the main syllable which is preceded and followed by Anudaatta and Svarita respectively. While assigning the accent, only the vowels are considered. स्वयं राजते इति स्वरः | (राजते = प्रकाशते) Vowel is complete on its own i.e., स्वयंपूर्णः | Consonants depend on the vowels and they can’t exist on their own. So they are ignored.  These Swaras occur in the Samhita Patha of Vedas which is the core of the Vedic literature. (For more details refer earlier class’ notes).

Udaatta is the most important swara that was identified by the Rishis when they perceived the mantra. Like the monarch who is preceded and followed by his people, Udaatta is preceded and followed by swaras that are not Udaattas which enable us to identify the Udaatta.

Anudaatta is that which is not Udaataa न उदात्तः अनुदात्तः | So technically, all swaras which are not udaattas are anudaattas only. They get different names based on their position. If it is before the Udaatta, it is called Anudaatta or Nighaata or Anudaattataraa or Nighaata swara. The Swara that follows Udaatta is called Svaritha. After the Svaritha, the swaras are not marked and they are referred to as Ekashruti or Prachaya. It is referred as Monotone.

A –> U –> S –> E

The Anudaatta after the Udaatta will not be marked as Svaritha, if it needs to be marked as Anudaatta to indicate the following Udaatta.

…  A –> U –> A –> U  …..   [Note here that after U there is no S. Instead there is A due to the following U].

The Udaatta in the beginning is called Aadyutaata.

U –> S  ….

The Udaatta at the end is called Antoodaata.

… A –> U

  1. Every padam or word will have a maximum of only one Udaatta. अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम् |
  2. There can be a word without any Udaatta.
  3. Combined terms like mitravarunau could have two Udaatta – one for mitra and one for varuna – which combine to form the dual samastapada.

Process to convert from the संहितापाठः with meters to पदपाठः with meters:

  1. Split the individual padas applying sandhi rules.
  2. Identify the Udaatta.
    1. If a Svaritha is marked, take the previous vowel to be Udaatta. Eg. ह्वया॑मि — व.
    2. If Anudaatta is marked, take the following swara to be the Udaatta. Eg. अ॒ग्निम् – नि
  3. After identifying the Udaatta, make these changes :
    1. If the first vowel in the word is a Svaritha or Ekashruti (due to the effect of the earlier padam) change that first vowel and any Ekashruti following it to Anudaatta.

 

Samhita Pada
…. U  S …… …. U | A ……
…. U S  (0 or more E)  E .… …. U S  (0 or more E)  | A .…

 

  1. If the last vowel in the word is an Anudaatta (due to the effect of the following padam), change it to Svaritha if the previous vowel is identified to be Udaatta; and change it to Ekasruthi if the previous marking is a Svaritha
Samhita Pada
….U A U  …. …. U S | U  ….
….U S (0 or more E) A U  …. …. U S (0 or more E) E | U  ….

 

  1. After padacheda, if a vowel 3 could be split into two vowels 1 and 2.
    1. Take both of them to be Anudaatta, if the combined vowel was Anudaatta.
    2. if the next vowel is an Udaatta, then mark the first vowel in the second word as an Anudaatta;
Samhita 1st Samhita 2nd Pada 1st Pada 2nd Example
 …. A …..  …. A | A ……
 …. A U (0 or more A) U …..  …. A U |  A (0 or more A) U…. सवि॒तायम॒र्यः = स॒वि॒ता । अ॒यम्
 ….. A U  S …..  …. A ? |  U S …. मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से =   इ॒ह | अव॑से
प॒र्यभू॑षत्  = प॒रि॒ऽअभू॑षत्
 (0 or more A) A U  …..  (0 or more A) A U |  ? …. मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से =   इ॒ह | अव॑से
 (0 or more A) A U  …..  (0 or more A) A A | ? …. प॒र्यभू॑षत्  = प॒रि॒ऽअभू॑षत्
 …. U U  ….  …. U S |  U …. रथ्य॑म॒मृताधि॑ = … अ॒मृता॑ । अधि॑
यस्याश्वा॑सः = यस्य॑ । अश्वा॑सः
 …. U A U  ….  …. U S E |  U …. रथे॒ना = रथे॑न । आ
 …. U S (0 or more E) A U  …. …. U S (0 or more E) E E |  U ….

 

  • else if the next vowel is a Svaritha, then consider the first vowel in the second word to be the Udaatta;
  1. else if the vowel was an Udaatta in the mantra, take it to be an Udaatta in second word if the first word already has a Udaatta;

Additional Points:

(Please watch the second video on swaras for details regarding these points)

  1. A procedure called इतिकरण applies when splitting the terms for pada paatha. This is done to indicate प्रगृह्य संज्ञा  or pragruhya symbol. This indication about pragruhya is used in other forms of recitation like Gana paatha. The rule is this — When there is a word that is in dual number which ends in  इ, उ, ए then they get this symbol and the term is added next to them. There is another instance that when उ  is mentioned, it has to get itikarana, it is elongated and also gets the anuswara thus becoming “ऊँ इति” |
  2. When the word includes a prefix, the prefix is separated from the rest of the word by a Avagraha symbol “ऽ“. In case of compound words also, the terms are split by placing the avagraha symbol in between the different terms.
  3. In certain cases, the number ३ along with Anudaatta and Svaritha symbol would be mentioned. This comes when the letter has to be split to undo the sandhi and when one of it happens to be the Svaritha for a previous Udaatta and the other letter happens to be an Anudaatta for the following Udaatta. This Svaritha is called an independent Svaritha if the Udaatta is in an earlier padam. [We can relate it to the pronoun used in the third sentence while the related noun is present in the first sentence. Because of the continuity in usage, the pronoun still refers to the original noun though there is a sentence in between]. Such independent Svarithas are classified into 4 categories with the first category being called jaatyasvarita and hence all the independent svarithas are referred to as जात्यादिस्वरित |

For KSOU MA exams, we need not get into the complexity of the above mentioned points. With an idea provided above, we need to go through the given mantras, observe how it has been done and try to reproduce it.
संहिता

ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं प्र॑थ॒मं स्व॒स्तये॒ ह्वया॑मि मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से । ह्वया॑मि॒ रात्रीं॒ जग॑तो नि॒वेश॑नीं॒ ह्वया॑मि दे॒वं स॑वि॒तार॑मू॒तये॑ ॥

पदपाठः

ह्वया॑मि । अ॒ग्निम् । प्र॒थ॒मम् । स्व॒स्तये॑ । ह्वया॑मि । मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ । इ॒ह । अव॑से । ह्वया॑मि । रात्री॑म् । जग॑तः । नि॒वेश॑नीम् । ह्वया॑मि । दे॒वम् । स॒वि॒तार॑म् । ऊ॒तये॑ ॥

Process to convert from the mantra with meters to padapaata with meters:

  1. Split the individual padas and identify the udaatta.
  2. ह्वया॑मि
    1. As a Svaritha is marked, take the previous vowel to be Udaatta. ह्वया॑मि –> ह + व् + अ –This is the Udaatta.
  3. अ॒ग्निम्
    1. As Anudaatta is marked, take the following swara to be the Udaatta. अ॒ग्निम्
  4. प्र॒थ॒मम्
    1. As Anudaatta is marked, take the following swara to be the Udaatta. प्रथ॒मम् –> म् + अ – This is the Udaatta.
  5. स्व॒स्तये॑
    1. As Anudaatta is marked, take the following swara to be the Udaatta.
  6. मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ
    1. Note that there are two udaattas – त्रा in Mitra and व in Varuna. After Svaritha, it is ekasruthi.
  7. इ॒ह
    1. ह due to Anudaatta.
  8. अव॑से
    1. अ due to Svaritha.
  9. रात्री॑म्
    1. रा due to Svaritha.
  10. स॒वि॒तार॑म्
    1. As Anudaatta is marked, take the following swara to be the Udaatta.

Make the required changes based on the following rules.

ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं प्र॑थ॒मं स्व॒स्तये॒ ह्वया॑मि मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से । ह्वया॑मि॒ रात्रीं॒ जग॑तो नि॒वेश॑नीं॒ ह्वया॑मि दे॒वं स॑वि॒तार॑मू॒तये॑ ॥

पदपाठः

ह्वया॑मि । अ॒ग्निम् । प्र॒थ॒मम् । स्व॒स्तये॑ । ह्वया॑मि । मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ । इ॒ह । अव॑से । ह्वया॑मि । रात्री॑म् । जग॑तः । नि॒वेश॑नीम् । ह्वया॑मि । दे॒वम् । स॒वि॒तार॑म् । ऊ॒तये॑ ॥

  • If the first vowel in the word is a Svaritha or Ekashruti (due to the effect of the earlier padam) change that first vowel and any Ekashruti following it to Anudaatta.
    1. प्र॑थ॒मं –> प्र॒थ॒मम्
    2. स॑वि॒तार॑मू॒तये॑ –> स॒वि॒तार॑म्
  • If the last vowel in the word is an Anudaatta (due to the effect of the following padam), change it to Svaritha if the previous vowel is identified to be Udaatta; and change it to Ekasruthi if the previous marking is a Svaritha
    1. स्व॒स्तये॒ –> स्व॒स्तये॑
    2. ह्वया॑मि॒ –> ह्वया॑मि (ekasruthi)
    3. रात्रीं॒ –> रात्री॑म् (ekasruthi)
    4. नि॒वेश॑नीं॒ –> नि॒वेश॑नीम् (ekasruthi)
  • After padacheda, if the next vowel is an Udaatta, then mark the first vowel in the second word as an Anudaatta; else if the next vowel is a Svaritha, then consider the first vowel in the second word to be the Udaatta; else if the vowel was an Udaatta in the mantra, take it to be an Udaatta in second word if the first word already has a Udaatta;
    1. ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं –> ह्वया॑मि । अ॒ग्निम् (both anudaatta. marking based on Svaritha and Udaatta)
    2. मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से –> मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ । इ॒ह (both anudaatta. marking based on Svaritha and Udaatta)
    3. मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से –> इ॒ह । अव॑से (First udaatta due to absence and second udaatta due to the following Svaritha)

 

  • ह्वया॑म्य॒ग्निं प्र॑थ॒मं स्व॒स्तये॒ ह्वया॑मि मि॒त्रावरु॑णावि॒हाव॑से । ह्वया॑मि॒ रात्रीं॒ जग॑तो नि॒वेश॑नीं॒ ह्वया॑मि दे॒वं स॑वि॒तार॑मू॒तये॑ ॥
  • पदपाठः
  • ह्वया॑मि । अ॒ग्निम् । प्र॒थ॒मम् । स्व॒स्तये॑ । ह्वया॑मि । मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ । इ॒ह । अव॑से । ह्वया॑मि । रात्री॑म् । जग॑तः । नि॒वेश॑नीम् । ह्वया॑मि । दे॒वम् । स॒वि॒तार॑म् । ऊ॒तये॑ ॥

http://www.vedakosh.com/rig-veda/mandal-1/sukta-035/mantra-rig-01-035-001

संहिता

आ कृ॒ष्णेन॒ रज॑सा॒ वर्त॑मानो निवे॒शय॑न्न॒मृतं॒ मर्त्यं॑ च । हि॒र॒ण्यये॑न सवि॒ता रथे॒ना दे॒वो या॑ति॒ भुव॑नानि॒ पश्य॑न् ॥

पदपाठः

आ । कृ॒ष्णेन॑ । रज॑सा । वर्त॑मानः । नि॒ऽवे॒शय॑न् । अ॒मृत॑म् । मर्त्य॑म् । च॒ । हि॒र॒ण्यये॑न । स॒वि॒ता | रथे॑न । आ । दे॒वः । या॒ति॒ । भुव॑नानि । पश्य॑न् ॥

  1. If the first vowel in the word is a Svaritha or Ekashruti (due to the effect of the earlier padam) change that first vowel and any Ekashruti following it to Anudaatta.
    • निवे॒शय॑न्न॒… –> नि॒ऽवे॒शय॑न् (was Ekashruti)
    • च –> च॒ (was Ekashruti)
    • सवि॒ता –> स॒वि॒ता ( was Ekashruti)
  2. If the last vowel in the word is an Anudaatta (due to the effect of the following padam), change it to Svaritha if the previous vowel is identified to be Udaatta; and change it to Ekasruthi if the previous marking is a Svaritha
    • कृ॒ष्णेन॒ –> कृ॒ष्णेन॑
    • रज॑सा॒ –> रज॑सा (Ekashruti)
    • …य॑न्न॒मृतं॒ –> अ॒मृत॑म्
    • रथे॒ना –> रथे॑न (Ekashruti)
  3. After padacheda, if the next vowel is an Udaatta, then mark the first vowel in the second word as an Anudaatta; else if the next vowel is a Svaritha, then consider the first vowel in the second word to be the Udaatta; else if the vowel was an Udaatta in the mantra, take it to be an Udaatta in second word if the first word already has a Udaatta;
  • रथे॒ना –> रथे॑न आ ( First word already has Udaatta, second is udaatta)

http://www.vedakosh.com/rig-veda/mandal-1/sukta-035/mantra-rig-01-035-002

Please let me know if more explanation is required for any specific point. I will try to make it more clear.

<See the video recording of the sessions on marking swaras in pada paatha. Link is available elsewhere in this blog.> You may reach out to Dr.Vanitha.Ramaswamy@gmail.com for clarifications.

 

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s