Kaavya Prakaasha – Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy, Lecture Series – #1

काव्यप्रकाशः – Kaavya Prakaasha

Notes from Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy’s classes

काव्यप्रकाशः – मम्मटः  – Class #1 on  30-Dec-2015

Kaavya Prakaasha is a work on Sanskrit Literature by Mammatta Bhatta. As the name suggests, it throws some light on the aspects of Kaavya or Poetry. He was present during 12th century. Note:  Dhvanyaloka was written during 10th century.

Mammatta’s contribution in his Kaavya Prakaasha:

He consolidated the theories. He recognized the importance of the various aspects. The words have to be put in the right form so that the meaning can be arrived at. शब्दार्थसहितौ काव्यम् | (भामहः शब्दार्थसहितौ काव्यम् इति काव्यस्य लक्षणम् उक्तवान् । ) Mammata agreed that words, their meaning, Alamkaara, Guna, Reethi, Dhvani, etc., are all important. Ultimately रसो वै सः | रसः = आनन्दः | The ultimate goal is Sat, Chit, Ananda. Ananda is achieved through Rasa.  Rasa leads to bliss or Ananda. There are different causes like Alamkara, Guna, Reethi. Sometimes, if the theme itself is very good, the other aspects are not required and the kaavya still brings happiness.

काव्यलक्षणं तु ..

  1. कवेः कर्म काव्यम् – राजशेखरः |
  2. उक्ति विशेषः काव्यं – विश्वनाथः |
  3. रमणीयार्थप्रतिपादकशब्द: काव्यम् – जगन्नाथः (रसगङ्गादारः) |
  4. तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ सगुणौ अनलंकृती पुनः क्वापि इति – मम्मटः |

Mammata defines Kaavya as the one without dosha or blemishes, i.e., साधु शब्दः without any grammatical mistakes, having proper meanings of the words, having gunas (among the ten gunas defined by Dandhi) , with or without alamkaara (which was considered important  by Bhaama).

Author Lakshana Grantha Soul Highlight Time
Bharata Muni Naatya Shaastra Rasa काव्यस्य आत्मा रस: |
इति वृत्तम् तुकाव्यस्य शरीरम् |
500 BC
Bhaama Kaavyaalamkaara Alamkara काव्यस्य आत्मा अलंकार: | 7th AD
Dhandi Kaavyaadharsha, Kaavyadarpanaa 10 Gunas दश गुणा: एव काव्यस्य आत्मा |  
Vaamana Kaavyaalankaara Sutra Vrutti Reeti रीतिरात्मा काव्यस्य |
(Anupraasaa – the way it is expressed – Reeti)
8th AD
Anandavardhana Dhvanyaaloka Dhvani काव्यस्य आत्मा ध्वनि: | 10th AD
Kuntaka Vakrookti Jivitam (crooked speech) Vakrotti काव्यस्य आत्मावक्रोत्ति: |  
Vishwanatha Saahitya Dharpana   उक्ति विशेषः काव्यं  
Mammata Kaavya Prakaasha   तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ सगुणौ अनलंकृती पुनः क्वापि इति 12th  AD
Jagannatha Pandita Rasa Gangadhaaraa   रमणीयार्थप्रतिपादकशब्द: काव्यम् 18th AD 

काव्यप्रकाशः – प्रथम उल्लासः

काव्यप्रकाशः/प्रथमः उल्लासः – Wikisource

Kaavya Prayojanam

काव्यं यशसेऽर्थकृते व्यवहारविदे शिवेतरक्षतये।
सद्यः परनिर्वृतये कान्तासंमिततयोपदेशयुजे ।। 2 ।।

The poetry brings refinement in one’s behavior which results in fame. Poetry earns money influenced and inspired by poetry. Poetry provides the knowledge of the worldly affairs. Shiva = mangala. Shiva-itara = not mangala. Poetry crushes the inauspicious things. Poetry gives immediate aesthetic pleasure. All these advices are given in the words of the sweet heart.

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