An introduction to Panini’s Grammar – Part 2

An introduction to Panini’s Grammar – Part 2

Session taken by Sri B. Neelesh on Oct 25th, 2015 during the two days Shibhiram

अइउण्; ऋऌक्; एओङ्; ऐऔच्; हयवरट्; लण्; ञमङ्णनम्; झभञ्; घढधष्; जबगडदश्; खफछटतचटतव्; कपय्; शषसर्; हल्. इति माहेश्वराणि अणादि संज्ञार्थानि | This is how we should end the Mahashwara sutrani. Note that it is lu and not लृ lru.

What is the significance of the last consonant like ण् as it is not taken into account while extracting the alphabets?  It is used for Pratyaahaara, which is the process of referring to a set of the letters between any starting letter and the ending consonant. We saw that in सुप् also to indicate the pratyayas from सु till सुप् | Starting with अ upto the last letter of the first sutra gives us अण्, which actually stands for the three swaraas अ इ उ | अक् includes  अ इ उ ऋ ऌ |

अच् would mean | would also indicate |Thus अच् indicates all the vowels or स्वरा: | There are nine swaraas.  | There are three variations of most of the swaras. For example, could beह्रस्व:, – deergah,  अ३ – plutah. The time taken is 1 maatra for hrasvah, 2 for deergah and 3 for plutah.

अ    अ३

इ    ई     इ३

उ     ऊ    उ३

    ऋ३

          ऌ३

      ए       ए३

          ओ३

ऐ          ऐ३

        औ३

+ = (so minimum 2 maatra) . So they (e, ai, o, au) have minimum of 2 maatras.

These are the svaraas. Again there is one more level of classification as उदात्त: अनुदात्त: and स्वरित: |

उदात्त: using the front part of tongue उच्चै: उदात्त:

अनुदात्त: using the back part of tongue नीचै:  अनुदात्त: अ॒

स्वरित: using both parts of tongue समाहार: स्वरित: `|  (a small line above the letter)

Thus takes 9 forms based on the उच्चारण कालावधि: (मात्रा) मुखस्थितस्थानम् (स्थानभाग🙂 |

Further, there is yet another classification based on the use of nose – नासिका सहित: (अनुनासिक🙂 अँ | नासिका रहित: (अननुनासिक🙂 | Thus finally has 9 * 2 = 18 forms. All the swaras अच् put together, there are 22* 3* 2 = 132 Swara bheedaah based on the उच्चारण कालावधि:, उच्चारण: स्थानम् and नासिकाया: प्रयोग: |

In the Vedas, there is a difference in the notation. The symbol on the top is put for udaattah. In the grammar, the symbol on the top is put for svaritah. Within the Vedas also there is a different notation for Sama Veda. In Sama Veda, there are numbers 1 – udaattah, 2 – svaritah and 3 – anudaattah indicating the lower, middle and high pitch.

 

The consonents at end of pratyaahaaraas are called Anubandhaas. They get इत् संज्ञा, i.e., the term इत् by the sutra हलन्त्यम् | hal   indicates the consonants. They get elided 1.3.9 तस्य लोप: | The इत् symbol always gets dropped. For example, in डुकृञ्, डु and ञ् get the इत् संज्ञा and hence they are elided leaving only  कृ. There are specific sutras explaining the various cases where इत् संज्ञा will apply.

Sentence वाक्यम् comprises of words or पदम् | Padam can be Subantam or Tinaantam सुबन्त: / तिङन्त: |

प्रातिपदिकम् + सुप् pratyaya = subandam padam.

प्रातिपदिकम् + तद्धित् pratyaya = another प्रातिपदिकम् only.

Thus Krudanta and  Taddhitaanta are all प्रातिपदिकम्. Sup pratyaya is added to them to get a padam.

धातु: + तिङ् प्रत्यय: = तिङन्तम् |

... भूवादयो धातव: | 1.3.2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्  | 1.3.3 हलन्त्यम्  |  

The following are the तिङ् pratyayas starting from तिप् till महिङ् |

तिप् तस् झि

सिप् थस्

मिप् वस् मस्

आताम्

थास् आथाम् ध्वम्

इट् वहि महिङ्

The first 9 are Parasmaipadi and the next 9 are atmanepadi pratyayas.

तिङस्त्रीणि त्रीणि प्रथममध्यमोत्तमा: | It says that there are 3 * 3 for Prathama, Madhyama and Uttama in Tin pratyayas. तानि एकवचन द्विवचन बहुवचनानि एकशः | Within that the order is singular, dual and plural. 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्  | 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम् |  In the first sutra, it is said that all these pratyayaas are parasmaipadam. लः refers to all the तिङ् pratyayas. In the next sutra, it is clarified that from till महिङ्, which is referred as तङ्, is aatmanepadam.  तङ्+आनौ+आत्मनेपदम् | आनौ refers saanach and kaanach | Those are also considered as aatmanepadam.

प्रातिपदिकम्    + तद्धित् = प्रातिपदिकम्   

  • प्रातिपदिकम्    + सुप्   = पदम्  (सुबन्त🙂
  • धातु:   + तिङ्   = पदम्  (तिङन्त🙂
  • धातु:   + कृत् = प्रातिपदिकम्

There are 10 lakaars. They can be remembered based on the svaras.

लट् लिट् लुट् लृट् लेट् लोट्

लङ् लिङ् लुङ् लृङ्

लट् वर्तमाने लेट् वेदे भूते लुड्. लड्. लिटस्‍तथा ।

विध्याशिषोस्तु लिङ्लोटौ | लुट् लृट् लृड्. च भविष्‍यति ।।

वर्तमाने लट् (3.2.123), परोक्षे लिट् (3.2.115), अनद्यतने लुट् (3.3.15), लृट् शेषे च (3.3.13), लिङ्र्थे लेट् (3.4.7), विधिनिमन्त्रणाऽमन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ् (3.3.161), लोट् च (3.3.162), अनद्यतने लङ् (3.2.111), आशिषि लिङ् लोटौ (3.3.173), लुङ् (3.2.110), लिङ्निमित्ते लृङ् क्रियाऽतिपत्तौ (3.3.139)

 

———————————→←———अद्य ——————→←————————–

—————————————–→← वर्तमाने लट्  →←———————————-

———- भूते लुङ् ——————-→←——————→←——–सामान्ये लृट् ———

अनद्यतने भूते लङ् —–→←→←——————→←→←अनद्यतने लुट् —-

———- परोक्षे लिट् —————-→←——————→←———————————-

For the पठ् धातु:,  

  1. वर्तमाने लट् = पठति | (भू भवति)
  2. (भूते) अनद्यतने लङ् = अपठत् (भू अभवत्)
  3. (भूते) परोक्षे अनद्यतने लिट् = पपाठ (भू बभूव)
  4. (भूते) सामान्यभूते लुङ् = अपाठीत् (भू अभूत्)
  5. भविष्यती लृट् = पठिष्यति (भू भविष्यति)
  6. (विधिनिषेधादिप्रयोग, शुभकामनाशीर्वादवचने) लिङ् = पठेत्  (भू भवेत्) पठ्यात्  (भू भूयात्)
  7. (हेतुहेतुमद्भावप्रयोगे) लृङ् = अपठिष्यत् (भू अभविष्यत्)
  8. (आज्ञाप्रयोगे) लोट् = पठतु (भू भवतु)
  9. अनद्यतने लुट् = पठिता (भू भविता)
  10. वेदे लेट् = पठाति

परोक्षे लिट् means that which happened that was not witnessed by you. Sometime earlier today, if some action was performed, लङ् cannot be used, as it is meant for अनद्यतने | It is wrong to say, अद्य प्राथकाले स: अगच्छत् | लुङ् is one of the most difficult of the lakaaras as it as 12 different sets of pratyayas of which one specific set will apply to any given root.  पठ् अपाठीत् | भू अभूत् | गम् अगमत् | लिख् अलेखीत्

लिट् is also complex. Looking at the number of swaras, the appropriate pratyayaa has to be applied.  पठ् पपाठ | भू बभूव |

While mentioning about future, अनद्यतने लुट् is the only lakaar that can be used for tomorrow onwards, when the time is specifically stated (: श्व: गन्ता). To refer to the future actions expected to happen today or sometime in the future which is not explicitly stated, सामान्ये लृट् is to be used (: अद्य सायंकाले गमिष्यति | : गमिष्यति | Thus it would be wrong to say, : अद्य सायंकाले गन्ता or : श्व: गमिष्यति or : आगामि सप्ताहे गमिष्यति |

The विधिलिङ् is same as लोट्. आशिर्लिङ् is अप्राप्यस्य इच्छा – a desire for which we do not have the power to obtain – not fully in our controlunreachable desire.  

लृङ् is the mix of लृट् + लङ् – indicating “if it had happened that way”.

लेट् is used only in the Vedas. It might be used in the sense of लट् or लिङ् | The verbal forms that are present in the Vedas that do not fit into any other lakaaras are usually taken as लेट्. These specific words are used only in the context in which they have been already used in the Vedas.

The तिङन्तपदम् is arrived at based on the root, the specific gana and the specific lakaara.  

तिङन्तपदम् = धातु: + <गणविकरणम् for the root’s gana> + <प्रत्यय: for the lakaara>

i.e., पठ् + (for भ्वादिगण🙂 + तिप् (for  लट् लकार🙂 पठति | The इत् characters are elided.

There are 10 ganas of dhaatus.

गणविकरणम्

गण: गणविकरणम् उदाहरणम्
1 भ्वादि (कर्तरि शप्) “भू सत्तायाम्”, “एध” – are the roots. पठ् + अ + ति = पठति
2 अदादि (कर्तरि शप्) अस् + अ + ति is not असति | It is अस्ति due to the लोप: by the sutra अदिप्रभृतिभ्य: शप: | लृक् छन्दसि बहुलम् – in the Vedas, it could come differently.
3 जुहोत्यादि (कर्तरि शप्) दा दा + अ + ति | जुहोत्यादिभ्य: श्लु: | This means that the goes out and the letter doubles (द्वित्वम्) itself in ददाति | भी बिभेति | जु जुहोति | Due to a different sutra, the jaa changes to ha. The पूर्व letter is called अभ्यास: |  This kind of repetition is referred to as पूर्वोभ्यास: |
4 दिवादि श्यन् नृत् नृत् + य + ति = नृत्यति
5 स्वादि श्नु: नु शक् शक् + नु + ति = शक्नोति
6 तुदादि लिख् लिख् + अ + ति = लिखति
7 रुधादि श्नम् छिद् छिद् + न (before the last consonant) + ति = छिनत्ति
8 तनादि कृ करोति = कृ + उ + ति | तन् तनोति | कुरुते | तनुते |
9 क्रयादि श्ना ना क्रीणाति = क्री + ना + ति | ज्ञा जानाति
10 चुरादि (कर्तरि शप्) चोरयति = चुर् + णिच्+ शप् + ति | “… …चुरादिभ्यो निच्” |

By the sutra कर्तरि शप् that states that where there is no Gana vikaranam, in Kartari, शप् is the default one. This results in अ, after eliding the इत् संज्ञा – श् and the इत् संज्ञा – प् |

There is a way in which exceptions are stated in the Panini Sutras. First the general rule will be stated. Then the exceptions अपवादा: will be listed. Thus, here the सामान्य नियमा: general rule – कर्तरि शप्  is stated and it is followed by the  गणविकरणम् for fourth to ninth gana.

 

 

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