Neethi Shastram – #10 (Subhashitam)

Here is an extract from the collection of 222 Subhashitams under the heading Neethi Shastra from the hand written notes of Sri. Skanda Narayanan. Sri Skanda Narayanan has also written down the word-to-word meaning in Tamil.

First post –

९१. दुर्वृत्तो वा सुवृत्तो वा

दुर्वृत्तो वा सुवृत्तो वा मूर्ख: पण्डित एव वा |

काशायदण्डमात्रेण यति: पूज्यो न संशय: ||

काशाय+दण्ड+मात्रेण यति: दुर्वृत्त: वा सुवृत्त: वा मूर्ख: (वा) पण्डित वा पूज्य: एव | न संशय: |

There is no doubt that the sanyaasi is to be respected the moment he takes the saffron robe  and the stick (indicating his initiation into sanyaasa), even if he is a man with good practices or a man with bad practices or an idiot or a scholar.

९२. उपकारेण नीचानाम्

उपकारेण नीचानामपकारो हि जायते |

पय: पानं भुजङ्गानां केवलं विषवर्धनम् ||

नीचानां उपकारेण अपकार: हि जायते | भुजङ्गानां पय: पानं केवलं विष+वर्धनम् |

Only harm will arise out of any help done to bad people. The milk given to snake turns into poison only.

९३. ऋणं याच्ना च

ऋणं याच्ना च वृद्धत्वं जारचोरदरिद्रता |

रोगश्च भुक्तशेषश्चाप्यष्टौ कष्टा: प्रकीर्तिता: ||

ऋणं च, याच्ना च, वृद्धत्वं च, जार+चोर+दरिद्रता: च, रोग: च, भुक्त+शेष: च अपि अष्टौ कष्टा: प्रकीर्तिता: |

Eight difficulties are said to exist – loan, begging, old age, lover of a married woman, stealing, poverty, disease, having to eat the left-overs.

९४. दासी भृत्य: सुत:

दासी भृत्य: सुतो बन्धुर्वस्तु वाहनमेवच |

धनधान्यसमृद्धिश्चाप्यष्टभोगा: प्रकीर्तिता: ||

दासी, भृत्य:, सुत:, बन्धु: वस्तु, वाहनं एव च, धन+धान्य+समृद्धि: च अपि अष्ट+भोगा: प्रकीर्तिता: |

Eight enjoyments are said to exist – Maid servants, servants, children, relatives, things, vehicles, wealth and prosperity.

९५. मक्षिका मारुतो वेश्या

मक्षिका मारुतो वेश्या याचको मूषकस्तथा |

ग्रामणीर्गणकस्चैव सप्तैते परबाधका: ||

मक्षिका:, मारुत:, वेश्या, याचक:, मूषक:, तथा ग्रामणी:, गणक: च एव सप्त एते पर+बाधका: |

The fly, windy storm, prostitute, beggar, mouse, in the same way the village head, and accountant – These seven always trouble others.

९६. भूप्रदक्षिणषट्केन

भूप्रदक्षिणषट्केन काशीयात्राऽयुतेनच |

सेतुस्नानशतैर्यच्च तत्फलं मातृवन्दने ||

भू+प्रदक्षिण+षट्केन, काशी+यात्रा+अयुतेन च, सेतु+स्नान+शतै: च  यत् तत् फलं, मातृ+वन्दने |

The benefit gained out of circumambulating the world six times, going on pilgrimages to Kashi ten thousand times, taking bath in the river a hundred times is got by adoring one’s mother.

९७. नान्नोदकसमं दानम्

नान्नोदकसमं दानं न द्वादश्या: परम् व्रतम् |

न गायत्र्या: परो मन्त्रो न मातुर्दैवतं परम् ||

अन्न+उदक+समं दानं न | द्वादश्या: परम् व्रतं न | गायत्र्या: पर: मन्त्र: न | मातु: परं दैवतं न |

There is no charity that is equal to given food and drink. There is no vratham that is greater than the Ekadashi-Dvadashi fasting. There is no mantra that is superior to the Gayatri mantra. There is god greater than one’s own mother.

९८. राजवत्पुत्रदाराश्च

राजवत्पुत्रदाराश्च स्वामिवन्मित्रबान्धवा: |

आचार्यवत्सभामध्ये भाग्यवन्तं स्तुवन्तिहि ||

पुत्र+दारा: च राजवत्, मित्र+बान्धवा: स्वामिवत्, आचार्यवत् सभा+मध्ये च, भाग्यवन्तं स्तुवन्ति हि |

The prosperous person is adored as though he is a king by his wife and children. He is considered as the master by the friends and relatives. In a congregation of learned men, he is honored as the teacher.

९९. कपिलाक्षीरपानेन

कपिलाक्षीरपानेन  ब्राह्मणीसङ्गमेन च |

वेदाक्षरविचारेण शूद्राश्चण्डालतां व्रजेत् ||

कपिला+क्षीर+पानेन च,  ब्राह्मणी+सङ्गमेन च,  वेद+अक्षर विचारेण शूद्रा: चण्डालतां व्रजेत् |

By drinking the milk of the Kapila cow, by associating with a Brahmin woman, by contemplating on the Vedas and scripture, the man of fourth caste, Sudhra becomes an out-caste person.

Note: Kapila is a brown cow whose milk is considered to be superior to that of the regular cows.

१००. लोकयात्रा

लोकयात्रा भयं लज्जा दाक्षिण्यं धर्मशीलता |

पञ्च यस्मिन्नविद्यन्ते न कुर्यात्तेन संगमम् ||

लोकयात्रा, भयं, लज्जा, दाक्षिण्यं, धर्मशीलता च पञ्च यस्मिन् विद्यन्ते, तेन संगमं न कुर्यात् |

One should not get involved with the person who does not have these five qualities namely engagement in worldly affairs, fear, shyness, kindness and noble character.



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