Neethi Shastram – #7 (Subhashitam)

Here is an extract from the collection of 222 Subhashitams under the heading Neethi Shastra from the hand written notes of Sri. Skanda Narayanan. Sri Skanda Narayanan has also written down the word-to-word meaning in Tamil.

First post – https://nivedita2015.wordpress.com/2015/10/09/neethi-shastram-1-subhashitam/

६१. कोकिलानां स्वरो रूपम्
कोकिलानां स्वरो रूपं पातिव्रत्यन्तु योषिताम् |
विद्यारूपं विरूपाणां क्षमारूपं तपस्विनाम् ||

कोकिलानां रूपं स्वर: | योषिताम् तु पातिव्रत्यम् | विरूपाणां रूपं विद्या | तपस्विनां रूपं क्षमा |

The beautiful form of the cuckoo bird is its voice. The beauty of the women is in their chastity. Knowledge is the beauty of the bad-looking people. Forgiveness is the beauty of ascetics.

६२. पिबन्ति नद्य: स्वयमेव

पिबन्ति नद्य: स्वयमेव नाम्भ: खादन्ति न स्वादु फलानि वृक्षा: |
पयोधरा: सस्यमदन्ति नैव परोपकाराय सतां विभूतय: ||

नद्य: स्वयम् एव अम्भ: न पिबन्ति | वृक्षा: स्वादु फलानि न खादन्ति |
पयोधरा: सस्यं न अदन्ति एव | सतां विभूतय: परोपकाराय |

The rivers do not drink their own water. The trees do not eat their tasty fruits.  The clouds do not eat the plants (that grow due to its waters). The resources of the good people are meant to help others.

६३. पक्षिणां बलमाकाशम्

पक्षिणां बलमाकाशं मत्स्यानामुदकं बलम् |

दुर्बलस्य बलं राजा बालानां रोदनं बलम् ||

पक्षिणां बलम् आकाशं | मत्स्यानां बलम् उदकं | दुर्बलस्य बलं राजा | बालानां बलं रोदनम् |

The strength of the birds is the sky. The strength of the fishes is the water. The strength of the weak person is the ruler. The strength of the children is their cry.

६४. वृश्चिकस्य विषं पुच्छम्

वृश्चिकस्य विषं पुच्छं मक्षिकस्य विषं शिर: |

तक्षकस्य विषं दंष्ट्रा सर्वाङ्गं दुर्जने विषम् ||

वृश्चिकस्य पुच्छं विषम् | मक्षिकस्य शिर: विषम् | तक्षकस्य दंष्ट्रा: विषम् | दुर्जने सर्वाङ्गं विषम् |

The tail of the scorpion is poisonous. The head of the fly is poisonous. The teeth of the snake is poisonous. In the bad person, every part is poisonous.

६५. पुस्तकेषु च या विद्या

पुस्तकेषु च या विद्या परहस्ते च यद्धनम् |

समये तु परिप्राप्ते न सा विद्या न तद्धनम् ||

या विद्या पुस्तकेषु (अस्ति), यत् धनं परहस्ते (अस्ति) च, समये तु परिप्राप्ते, सा विद्या न, तत् धनं न |

The knowledge that is there in the books and the wealth that is present in another person’s hand is not considered as

knowledge and wealth respectively as they are not obtained in the right time (when the need is there).

६६. नश्यत्यनायकं कार्यम्

नश्यत्यनायकं कार्यं तथैव शिशुनायकम् |

स्त्रीनायकं तथोन्मत्तनायकं बहुनायकम् ||

अनायकं कार्यं नश्यति | तथा एव शिशु+नायकम् (नश्यति ) | स्त्री+नायकम् (नश्यति ) |  तथा उन्मत्त+नायकम् (नश्यति ) | बहु+नायकम् (नश्यति ) |

The task without a leader will perish. Similarly, the tasks having a child or a woman or a mad-person will perish. The task having multiple heads will also perish.

६७. अभ्यासानुसरी विद्या

अभ्यासानुसरी विद्या बुद्धि: कर्मानुसारिणी |

उद्योगसारिणी लक्ष्मी: फलं भाग्यानुसारि च ||

विद्या अभ्यास+अनुसरी | बुद्धि: कर्म+अनुसारिणी | लक्ष्मी: उद्योग+सारिणी | फलं भाग्य+अनुसारि च |

The knowledge gained will depend on the practice done. The intelligence gained will depend on the work done. The wealth gained will depend on the job undertaken. The fruits (of the all the work) will depend on the good fortune.

६८. वसन्तयौवना वृक्षा:

वसन्तयौवना वृक्षा: पुरुषा धनयौवना: |

सौभाग्ययौवना नार्यो बुधा विद्यासु यौवना: ||

वसन्त+यौवना वृक्षा: |  धन+यौवना: पुरुषा:| सौभाग्य+यौवना: नार्य: | विद्यासु यौवना: बुधा: |

The youth of trees is during the monsoon period. The youthfulness of men is when they have money. The youth of women is when they have good fortune.  The wise men have their youth when they are learning.

६९. वृथा वृष्टि:  समुद्रेषु

वृथा वृष्टि:  समुद्रेषु वृथा तृप्तेषु भोजनम् |

वृथा धनपतौ दानं दारिद्र्ये यौवनं वृथा ||

समुद्रेषु वृष्टि: वृथा | तृप्तेषु भोजनं वृथा | धनपतौ दानं वृथा | दारिद्र्ये यौवनं वृथा |

The rain on the ocean is not useful. For a satisfied person, more food does not serve any purpose. For a wealthy person, more money is not useful. For a man in poverty, the youthfulness passes away in vain.

७०. अर्था गृहे निवर्तन्ते

अर्था गृहे निवर्तन्ते श्मशाने मित्रबान्धवा: |

सुकृतं दुष्कृतं चैव गच्छन्तमनुगच्छति ||

गृहे अर्था: निवर्तन्ते | श्मशाने मित्रबान्धवा: (निवर्तन्ते) | सुकृतं गच्छन्तम् अनुगच्छति | दुष्कृतं च एव |

(When a person dies and leaves), the accumulated wealth parts with him in the house itself. The friends and relatives leave the person at the cemetery ground. The good deeds and the bad deeds are the only ones to go along with the person who is leaving (his body).

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An introduction to Panini’s Grammar

An introduction to Panini’s Grammar

Session taken by Sri B. Neelesh on Oct 24th, 2015 during the two days shibhiram

The study of Panini’s grammar पाणिनीय व्याकरणम् comprises of 5 books. The first 4 are written by Panini. They are:

  1. अष्टाध्यायी
  2. धातुपाठ:
  3. गणपाठ:
  4. लिङ्गानुशासनम्
  5. उणादिपाठ:

अष्टाध्यायी is also referred to as सूत्रपाठ:. It comprises of sutras. सूत्राणि सन्ति | पाणिनि: wrote this Ashtaadyaayi. शाकटायन:, गार्ग्य:, शाकल्य:, आपिशलि: are among the 10 grammarians who have been referred in Ashtaadyaayi itself indicating there were many grammarians even before Panini. Still Ashtaadyaayi is considered as the primary text of grammar. There were earlier works like निरुक्त: which focused on वैदिक or Vedic words. But Panini defined the basic rules for both Vedic and लौकिक day to day transactional words. It has 8 adhyaayaas or chapters. There are चत्वार पादा: four sections in each chapter. Thus the sutras are referred by the number of the chapter, number of the pada and the sutra number, for example 2.2.28 refers to the 28th sutra in the second section of the second chapter. There are around 4000 sutras (The exact count varies considerably). The first sutra 1.1.1 is वृद्धिरादैच् | The last sutra 8.4.68 अ अ | There are 8*4 = 32 sections. The sections have varying number of sutras. The longest one has 220 sutras.

The sutras are like short formulae. What is not present in Ashtaadyaayi? किं नास्ति ? The dhaatus are not present. There is just a definition भूवादयो धातव: | But the list of roots are not present. सूत्राणां अर्थ:, प्रयोजनम्, उदाहरणानि च नास्ति |

वररुचि: wrote addendums to the sutras. Those are referred as वार्तिका: | Vararuchi provides more details where he feels that the sutra is wrong or incomplete or unclear. The vartikaas are again very crisp like the sutras. पतञ्जलि wrote the महाभाष्यम् |

Let’s take an example. The rule for Natvam or the transformation of न to ण requires the presence of the consonant ष् or र्. Thus we have the other Na in पुष्पेण and हरिणा. But Natvam also happens in the presence of the vowel ऋ as seen in the case of कृपेण. The Panini’s sutra covers only ष् or र्. So here वररुचि: provides the additional clarification about ऋ as ऋवर्णात् नस्य णत्वं वाच्यम् |

Patanjali provides a very detailed explanation for each sutra in his Mahabhasya. It is in the form of question and answers. There are 85 chapters called आन्हिकम् | The entire work is so huge that it would take many years to study it. Where Vararuchi might have found some mistake in the sutra, Patanjali provides a valid reasoning to substantiate Panini’s stand in most of the cases. In the other cases, he agrees with Vararuchi.

These three grammarians are referred to as Munitrayam. When there are contradictory statements among these writers, the work of the latter writer gains validity over the earlier writer. यथोत्तरं मुनीनां प्रामाण्यम् |

धातुपाठ: comprises of all the roots which are around 2000 in number. There are 10 गण or classification for the roots.

गणपाठ: comprises of various lists of words. For example, the sutra 1.1.27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि (सर्व + आदीनि) means sarva and others in that list are pronouns. Another example 1.4.58 प्रादय: (प्र + आदय:) means pra and others in that list are prefixes. But the actual list is not provided there. Such lists are available in the Ganapaata.

There is a gana called नन्द्यादिगण: | This gana is referred in the sutra – नन्दी-ग्रहि-पचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यच: (ल्यु+णिनि+अच) | By this sutra, we have Nandanah which gets the suffix of अन by the ल्यु suffix since the root नन्द् is in the list. Similarly लु becomes लवन: | Also the शोषणम् in उच्छोषणम् (उत् + शोषणम्) in B.G. chapter 2 is based on this sutra.

There are two types of lists. One which is a fixed list where all the entities are included and no additional inclusions are allowed like the list of 22 prefixes or upasargas. The other is आकृतिगण: – Aakruti means skeleton. In such categories, more entries can be included by scholars. It is open-ended with scope for inclusions by grammarians like Bhattoji Deekshita.

लिङ्गानुशासनम् provides the gender. Note that this is different from the Dictionary – अमरकोष: which is also called नामलिङ्गानुशासनम् |

उणादिपाठ: is not complied by Panini. It existed during his times. There is a sutra. 3.3.1 उणादयो बहुलम् | बहुलम् means numerous or various. Regarding the derivation of all the words in Sanskrit, there are two lines of thought. One says that all the words including nouns can be derived from the roots. सर्वे शब्दा: धातुजा: | The other school of thought does not agree that all words can be derived from the roots. For those words which cannot be derived from the roots based on the Panini sutras, there are some sutras present in this Unaadhipaata for their derivation from the root. For example, during the derivation of the word वायु:, it is got from udaanipaata that वा will be followed by उ by the sutra कृवापाजिमिस्वदिसाध्यशूभ्य उण् | By the Panini sutra आतो युक् चिण्कृतोः 7.3.33 the उ following वा is changed to यु thus making it वायु: |

Take the sutra – भूवादयो धातव: | It says that भू, वा, etc. are roots. If वा was not mentioned, भू might have been taken to indicate only the first gana that starts with भू. There is a special reason to take वा instead of any other dhatu to indicate that all ganas are included. वा is a avyayam. And it is also a verbal root वा गन्धने having the form वाति in latlakaar. Here the point is that वा is taken to be a root only when it is used to indicate the verb. Also note that there are other words that indicate action like हिरुक् which are not considered as roots. Thus the roots include only the action words and the nouns are not considered as roots. In the case of भू also, there is भू सत्तायाम् and भू indicating the earth. Only when it is used in the sense of the verb like भवति it is considered as a root.

So what is a word in Sanskrit? Sentence वाक्यम् comprises of words or पदम् | Padam can be Subantam or Tinaantam सुबन्त: / तिङन्त:

When the vibhakti pratyayas indicated by सुप्, i.e., starting from prathama vibhakti eka vachanam सु, till the saptami vibhakti bahu vachanam सुप्, are added to the मूलशब्द: or प्रातिपदिकम्, it becomes a सुबन्त: |

सुप् प्रत्यय

विभक्ति                कारक                एकवचनः   द्विवचनः           बहुवचनः

प्रथमा                    कर्ता                   सु                  औ                         जस्

द्वितीया               कर्म                    अम्              औट्                      शस्

तृतिया                   करण                  टा                  भ्याम्                   भिस्

चतुर्थी                    सम्प्रदान्           ङे                   भ्याम्                   भ्यस्

पञ्चमी                  अपादान्            ङसि              भ्याम्                   भ्यस्

षष्ठी                      सम्बन्ध            ङस्               ओस्                     आम्

सप्तमी                  अधिकरण        ङि                 ओस्                     सुप्

राम + सु प्रत्यय: = राम:

राम + औ = रामौ ; राम + औट् = रामौ ;

Why is it mentioned as औट् ? There is a sutra सुडनपुँसकस्य which refers to the Pratyaahaarah सुट् spanning across the first 5 pratyayas starting from सु to औट्.

The definition of प्रातिपदिकम् is अर्थवद् अधातु: अप्रत्यय: प्रातिपदिकम् | Pratipadikam or stems of nouns should have a meaning, it should not be a root, it should not be a suffix. In the following sutra itself, more options are getting included for Pratipadikam. कृत्-तद्धित-समासाश्च. This means अर्थवद् अधातु: कृत्-तद्धित-समासाश्च प्रत्यय: are प्रातिपदिकम् | To the root, certain pratyayaas like Krut are added to get another root. रम् + घञ् प्रत्यय indicating the sense of feeling भाव: = Ramah = the feeling of joy.

There are 124 Krut pratyayas. Over 300 taddhita pratyayas and 4 main samaasas namely द्वन्द्व:, तत्पुरुष:, अव्ययीभाव:, बहुव्रीहि: |

Praatipadikam + sup pratyaya = subandam padam.

Praatipadikam + taddhita pratyaya = another praatipadikam only.

Thus Krudanta and Taddhita are all Praatipadikam. Sup pratyaya is added to them to get a padam.

Example,

विनता + ढक् (अपत्यार्थे) = वैनतेय कुरु + अण् = कौरव:

मद्र (madra desha) + अ (to indicate the king) =  मद्र (king of madra)

Daughter of the king of madra = मद्र + इ = माद्री

Son of the daughter of the king of madra = माद्री + अण् = माद्रेय

His = shashti vibhakti = माद्रेय + ङस् = माद्रेय:

Thus to get a proper noun form, ultimately the sup pratyayas are added.

(continued…. )

 

Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 3 – Shloka 2

Please ignore this post and refer this updated page —  https://nivedita2015.wordpress.com/chapter-3-bhagavad-gita/

Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 3

श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता – तृतीयोऽध्याय: – कर्मयोगः

श्लोकः २

व्यामिश्रेणेव वाक्येन बुद्धिं मोहयसीव मे ।
तदेकं वद निश्चत्य येन श्रेयोऽहमाप्नुयाम् ॥ २ ॥

पदच्छेदः

व्यामिश्रेण इव वाक्येन बुद्धिं मोहयसि इव मे तत् एकं वद निश्चत्य येन श्रेयः अहम् आप्नुयाम् ॥ २ ॥

अन्वयः

व्यामिश्रेण इव वाक्येन मे बुद्धिं मोहयसि इव । तद् येन अहं श्रेयः आप्नुयाम् (तादृशम्) एकं निश्चित्य वद ।

पदपरिचय:

  • प्रथमवाक्यम्
    • वाक्यांशः
      • क्रिया = मोहयसि [ मुह् “मुह वैचित्त्ये” + णिच्, पर. लट्. मपु. एक. ]
      • उपमावाचकम् = इव [ अव्ययम् ]
    • णिजन्तप्रयोजककर्ता = त्वम् [ युष्मद् द. त्रि. प्र. एक. ]
    • वाक्यांशः
      • णिजन्तप्रयोज्यकर्तृसूचककर्म = बुद्धिं [ इ. स्त्री. द्वि. एक. ]
      • सम्बन्धिः = मे (मम) [ अस्मद् द. त्रि. ष. एक. ]
    • वाक्यांशः
      • करणम् = वाक्येन [ अ. नपुं. तृ. एक. ]
      • वाक्यांशः
        • करणविशेषणम् = व्यामिश्रेण [ अ. नपुं. तृ. एक. ]
        • उपमावाचकम् = इव [ अव्ययम् ]
      • द्वितीयवाक्यम्
        • “तत्” वाक्यांशः
          • क्रिया = वद [ वद “वद व्यक्तायां” पर. लोट्. मपु. एक. ]
          • कर्म = (तत्)
          • कर्ता = (त्वम्)
          • वाक्यांशः
            • प्राक्कालिकक्रिया = निश्चित्य [ नि: + चि “चिञ् चयने” + ल्यप्, अव्ययम् ]
            • कर्म = तत् [ त. नपुं. द्वि. एक. ]
            • कर्मविशेषणम् = एकम् [ अ. नपुं. द्वि. एक. ]
            • कर्ता = त्वम् [ युष्मद् द. त्रि. प्र. एक. ]
          • “येन” वाक्यांशः
            • क्रिया = आप्नुयाम् [ आप् “आप्लृ व्याप्तौ” पर. विधिलिङ्. उपु. एक. ]
            • कर्म = श्रेयः [ स. नपुं. द्वि. एक. ]
            • कर्ता = अहम् [ अस्मद् द. त्रि. प्र. एक. ]
            • करणम् = येन [ यत् त. पुं. तृ. एक. ]
          • सन्धि:
            • व्यामिश्रेणेव = व्यामिश्रेण+इव, गुणसन्धि:
            • मोहयसीव = मोहयसि+इव, सवर्नदीर्घसन्धि:
            • तदेकम् = तत्+एकम्, जश्त्वसन्धि:
            • श्रेयोऽहम् = श्रेयः+अहम्, विसर्गसन्धि: (सकार:) रेफ:, उकार:, गुण:, पूर्वरूपं च ।
          • कृदन्त:
            • निश्चित्य = नि: + चि “चिञ् चयने” + ल्यप्
          • तद्धितान्त:
            • श्रेय: = प्रशस्य + ईयसुन् (श्र इति आदेश:) ईयसुन् प्रत्ययान्तं प्रातिपदिकम् – श्रेयस् । पुं. — श्रेयान्, श्रेयांसौ, श्रेयांसः | स्त्री — श्रेयाः, श्रेयसौ, श्रेयसः | नपुं. — श्रेयः, श्रेयसी, श्रेयांसि |

तात्पर्यम्

हे कृष्ण ! ज्ञानस्य श्रेष्ठत्वेन कर्मणश्च कर्तव्यत्वेन उपदिशन् मां भ्रामयन् असि । अतः येन अहं श्रेयः प्राप्नुयां तन्निश्चित्य वद ।

References –

  1. Gita Praveshah – dviteeyabhaaga Part- 1 by Samskrita Bharati [Sanskrit]
  2. Gita Praveshah – prathamabhaaga by Samskrita Bharati [Sanskrit]
  3. Geetadhaturupavalih – A collection of all verb-declensions used in Bhagavad Geeta by H.R. Vishwasa, published by Samskrita Bharati [Sanskrit]
  4. Dhaaturoopanandinee – A collection of all ‘lakaras’ of all ‘dhaatus’ with grammatical notes by Janardana Hedge, published by Samskrita Bharati [Sanskrit]
  5. Krudantaroopanandinee – A collection of nineteen “krudanta” roopas of all “dhaatus” with grammatical notes by Janardana Hedge, published by Samskrita Bharati [Sanskrit]
  6. https://sa.wikipedia.org/s/9sd कर्मयोगः
  7. Samskrita Bharati USA- Bhagavat Gita class-Dr.K.N.Padmakumar -Chapter 3-Sloka 2  https://youtu.be/EhhrfeoEohY

Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 3 – Shloka 1

Please ignore this post and refer this updated page —  https://nivedita2015.wordpress.com/chapter-3-bhagavad-gita/

श्लोकः १

अर्जुन उवाच
ज्यायसी चेत्कर्मणस्ते मता बुद्धिर्जनार्दन ।
तत्किं कर्मणि घोरे मां नियोजयसि केशव ॥ १ ॥

पदच्छेदः

ज्यायसी चेत् कर्मणः ते मता बुद्धिः जनार्दन । तत् किं कर्मणि घोरे मां नियोजयसि केशव ॥

अन्वयः

जनार्दन ! केशव ! बुद्धिः कर्मणः ज्यायसी (इति) ते मता चेत्, तत् घोरे कर्मणि मां किं नियोजयसि ?

पदपरिचय:

  • सम्बोधनम् = जनार्दन[ अ. पुं. संप्र. एक. ]
  • सम्बोधनम् = केशव[ अ. पुं. संप्र. क. ]
  • “चेत्” वाक्यांशः
    • क्रिया = (अस्ति)
    • कर्ता = मता [ आ. स्त्री. प्र. एक. ] (पुंलिङ्गे मत:, नपुंसकलिङ्गे मतम्)
    • कर्तृविशेषणम् = ते (तव) [ युष्मद् द. त्रि. ष. एक. ]
  • कर्मवाक्याम्
    • कर्ता = बुद्धिः [ इ. स्त्री. प्र. एक. ]
    • वाक्यांशः
        • कर्तृविधेयविशेषणम् = ज्यायसी [ स. स्त्री. प्र. एक. ]
        • निर्धारणम् = कर्मणः [ न. नपुं. प. एक. ]
      • संयोजकम् = (इति)
  • संयोजकम् = “चेत्” [ अव्ययम् ]
  • (तर्हि) वाक्यांशः
    • क्रिया = नियोजयसि [ नि + युज् “युजिर् योगे” (उभयपदी) + णिच्, पर. लट्. मपु. एक. ]
    • प्रश्नवाचकतादर्थ्यम् = किम् [ म. नपुं. प्र. एक. ] (किमर्थम् इति अर्थे)
    • णिजन्तप्रयोजककर्ता = त्वम् [ युष्मद् द. त्रि. प्र. एक. ]
    • णिजन्तप्रयोज्यकर्तृसूचककर्म = माम् [ अस्मद् द. त्रि. द्वि. एक. ]
    • अधिकरणम् = कर्मणि [ न. नपुं. स. एक. ]
    • अधिकरणवेशषणम् = घोरे [ अ. नपुं. स. एक. ]
    • संयोजकम् = “तत्” [ द. नपुं. प्र. एक. ]  (तर्हि इति अर्थे)
  • सन्धि:
    • कर्मणस्ते = कर्मणः + ते, विसर्गसन्धि:, सकारदेश:
    • बुद्धिर्जनार्दन = बुद्धिः + जनार्दन, विसर्गसन्धि:, रेफादेश:
  • कृदन्त:
    • The Krut कृत् pratyayaas like ल्यु, ल्युट्, घञ्, अप्, क्तिन्, ण्वुल्, तृच् get attached to dhaatus.
    • मता =   मन् + क्त (कर्मणि वर्तमाने).  Note: Certain roots conveying the meaning of “believe / want / decide / worship” can be used in कर्मणि वर्त्माने | Eg.  believe मतः, want इष्टः , decide निर्णीतः, worship पूजितः and अर्चितः |
    • जनार्दन: = जन + अर्द + णिच् + ल्यु (कर्तरि) The affix “ल्यु” refers to the person who gets the action to happen (कारयति). Another example is मधुसूदन: = मधु + सूद् + णिच् + ल्यु, मधुं सूदयति, one who gets the demon, Madhu, to be killed. There are clear rules regarding which pratyaya or affix can go with which group of dhaatus or roots. The affix “ल्यु” may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by “नन्दि”, whose first dhaatu in this list is नन्द्.
    • जनान् अर्दयति । “अर्द गतौ याचने च” । जना: यथा पुरुशार्थान् याचन्ते तथा करोति इत्यर्थ: । Janaardanah = one who gets the people to beg (for the purusharthas). पुरुशार्थान् प्राप्तुं जनान् प्रेरयति ।
    • There is also another derivation stated for Janaardana based on the other sense in which the root arda is used. “अर्द हिंसायाम्” जनम् अर्दयति = जनम् मारयति । Krishna is called Janaardana as he killed the demon named Jana.
  • तद्धितान्त:
    • The तद्धित् प्रत्यय: or suffix are applied to the stems or प्रातिपदिकम् of nouns or सुबन्ता: like the कृत् प्रत्यय: or suffix that are applied to the roots धातु: of the verbs or तिङन्ता: ।
    • ज्यायसी = प्रशस्य / वृद्ध + ईयसुन् (ज्य इति आदेश:) प्रातिपदिकम् – प्रशस्य or वृद्ध । ईयसुन् प्रत्ययान्तं प्रातिपदिकम् – श्रेयस् or ज्यायस् । पुंलिङ्गे — ज्यायान्, ज्यायांसौ, ज्यायांस: स्त्रीलिङ्गे – ज्यायसी, ज्यायस्यौ, ज्यायस्य: नपुंलिङ्गे — ज्याय:, ज्यायसी, ज्यायांसि

तात्पर्यम्
हे भगवन् ! यदि कर्मणः अपेक्षया ज्ञानमेव श्रेष्ठमिति भवान् अभिप्रैति तर्हि मां किमर्थं क्रूरे युद्धकर्मणि नियोजयसि ?

References –

  1. Gita Praveshah – dviteeyabhaaga Part- 1 by Samskrita Bharati [Sanskrit]
  2. Gita Praveshah – prathamabhaaga by Samskrita Bharati [Sanskrit]
  3. Geetadhaturupavalih – A collection of all verb-declensions used in Bhagavad Geeta by H.R. Vishwasa, published by Samskrita Bharati [Sanskrit]
  4. Dhaaturoopanandinee – A collection of all ‘lakaras’ of all ‘dhaatus’ with grammatical notes by Janardana Hedge, published by Samskrita Bharati [Sanskrit]
  5. Krudantaroopanandinee – A collection of nineteen “krudanta” roopas of all “dhaatus” with grammatical notes by Janardana Hedge, published by Samskrita Bharati [Sanskrit]
  6. https://sa.wikipedia.org/s/9sd कर्मयोगः
  7. Samskrita Bharati USA- Bhagavat Gita class-Dr.K.N.Padmakumar -Chapter 3-Sloka 1 https://youtu.be/SSdwGffICxU

Neethi Shastram – #6 (Subhashitam)

Here is an extract from the collection of 222 Subhashitams under the heading Neethi Shastra from the hand written notes of Sri. Skanda Narayanan. Sri Skanda Narayanan has also written down the word-to-word meaning in Tamil.

First post – https://nivedita2015.wordpress.com/2015/10/09/neethi-shastram-1-subhashitam/

५१. अनभ्यासे विषं शास्त्रम्

अनभ्यासे विषं शास्त्रं अजीर्णे भोजनं विषम् | दरिद्रस्य विषं गोष्ठी वृद्धस्य तरुणी विषम् ||

अनभ्यासे शास्त्रं विषम् | अजीर्णे भोजनं विषम् | दरिद्रस्य विषं गोष्टि: | वृद्धस्य विषं तरुणी |

For the one who has not studied well, the scriptures are poison. For one who has not digested, food is poison. For the poor, the company of entertaining friends is poison. For the old man, the young wife will become the poison.

५२. जिह्वाग्रे वर्तते लक्ष्मी:

जिह्वाग्रे वर्तते लक्ष्मी: जिह्वाग्रे मित्रबान्धवा: | जिह्वाग्रे वन्धनप्राप्ति: जिह्वाग्रे मरणं ध्रुवम् ||

लक्ष्मी: जिह्वाग्रे वर्तते | मित्रबान्धवा: जिह्वाग्रे वर्तते | जिह्वाग्रे वन्धन+प्राप्ति: | जिह्वाग्रे ध्रुवं मरणम् |

Wealth is procured by the tip of the tongue (by its sweet speech). Friends and relatives are made by the tip of the tongue (by speaking good words). The tip of the tongue can cause you to be imprisoned (by speaking harsh words). The tip of the tongue can cause definite death.

५३. आदानदोषेण भवेत् दरिद्र:

आदानदोषेण भवेत् दरिद्रो दारिद्र्यदोषेण करोति पापम् | पापादवश्यं नरकं प्रयाति पुनर्दरिद्र: पुनरेव पापी ||

आदानदोषेण दरिद्र: भवेत् | दारिद्र्य+दोषेण पापम् करोति | पापात् अवश्यं नरकं प्रयाति | पुन: दरिद्र: | पुन: पापी एव |

By not doing charity, a person will be born as a poor man. Because of his poverty, he will commit sin. Due to the sin, he will definitely go to hell. Again, he will be born as a poor man. Again he will be a sinner only.

५४. अतिथिर्बालकश्चैव

अतिथिर्बालकश्चैव स्त्रीजनो नृपतिस्तथा | एते वित्तं न जानन्ति जामाता चैव पञ्चम: ||

अतिथि:, बालक: च एव, स्त्रीजन:, नृपति: तथा, जामाता च एव, एते पञ्चम: वित्तं न जानन्ति |

These five people namely the guest, the young boy, the women, the king and the son-in-law do not know wealth (i.e., the presence or absence of sufficient money).

५५. कुदेशश्च कुमित्रश्च

कुदेशश्च कुमित्रश्च कुराज्यं च कुबान्धवम् | कुभार्याश्च कुराष्ट्रश्च दूरत: परिवर्जयेत् ||

कुदेश: च कुमित्र: च कुराज्यं च कुबान्धवम् च कुभार्या: च कुराष्ट्र: च दूरत: परिवर्जयेत् |

Bad nation, bad friends, bad kingdom, bad relatives, bad wives and bad country are to be left at a distant place itself. (i.e., keep away from them).

५६. स्त्रीणां द्विगुण आहार:

स्त्रीणां द्विगुण आहारो बुद्धिश्चापि चतुर्गुणा | साहसं षट्गुणश्चैव कामोऽष्टगुण उच्यते ||

स्त्रीणां आहार: द्विगुण: | (तासां) बुद्धि: च अपि चतुर्गुणा | (तासां) साहसं षट्गुण: च एव | काम: अष्टगुण: (इति) उच्यते |

It is said that the wives consume twice the amount of food (compared to their husbands). Their intellect is four times that of their husbands. Their daring behavior is six times. Their desire is eight times.

५७. राजानं राष्ट्रजं पापम्

राजानं राष्ट्रजं पापं राजपापं पुरोहितम् | भर्तारं स्त्रीकृतं पापं शिष्यपापं गुरुं व्रजेत् ||

राष्ट्रजं पापं राजानं व्रजेत् | राजपापं पुरोहितं व्रजेत् | स्त्रीकृतं पापं भर्तारं व्रजेत् | शिष्यपापं गुरुं व्रजेत् |

The sin committed by the nation reaches the king. The sin committed by the king impacts his spiritual guide. The sin of the wife reaches the husband. The sin of the disciple impacts the teacher.

५८. गीते वाद्ये तथा

गीते वाद्ये तथा नृत्ते सङ्ग्रामे रिपुसङ्कटे | आहारे व्यवहारे च त्यक्तलज्जस्सुखी भवेत् |

गीते वाद्ये तथा नृत्ते सङ्ग्रामे रिपुसङ्कटे आहारे व्यवहारे च त्यक्त+लज्ज: सुखी भवेत् |

While singing, playing any instrument, dancing, waging war, while causing suffering to the enemy, while eating, while having dealings, the one who has given up shyness will become happy.

५९. रूपयौवनसंपन्ना

रूपयौवनसंपन्ना विशालकुलसंभवा: | विद्याहीना न शोभन्ते निर्गन्धा इव किंशुका: ||

रूप+यौवन+संपन्ना: विशाल+कुल+संभवा: विद्या+हीना: निर्गन्धा: किंशुका: इव न शोभन्ते |

Even if a person is endowed with youthfulness and beauty, even if he is born in a big family, the illiterate person will not shine, just like the non-fragrant flowers of the coral trees.

६०. त्यजेदेकं कुलस्यार्थे

त्यजेदेकं कुलस्यार्थे ग्रामस्यार्थे कुलं त्यजेत् | ग्रामं जनपदस्यार्थे आत्मार्थे पृथिवीं त्यजेत् ||

कुलस्यार्थे एकं त्यजेत् | ग्रामस्यार्थे कुलं त्यजेत् | जनपदस्यार्थे ग्रामं त्यजेत् | आत्मार्थे पृथिवीं त्यजेत् |

One person could be given up for the sake of a family. For the sake of a village, one family can be given up. For the sake of a nation, one village can be sacrificed. One’s immovable property should be given up for the sake of one’s own self. [Alternate meaning: The entire world should be given up for the sake of self realization].

Selected verses from Kathopanishad – #6

Selected verses from Kathopanishad — Verses collated from the question papers for KSOU MA Sanskrit (2007 to 2014). Part 6 with notes from the classes conducted by Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy (14-Oct-2015)

Reference:

  • The Kathaka Upanishad with Shri Shankara’s Commentary, edited with notes by Sri Sri Swami Satchidanandendra Saraswati, Adhyatma Prakasha Karyalaya
Online References for Sanskrit Verses and English Translation

Upanishad is read as part of the 13th day events, when someone passes away. Shraddha is performed at the residence and also at Gaya. Other places for performing PitruKaarya are at Kashi, Allahabad, Matru Gaya and Nasik in the north and Kokarana in the south. The obstacles in the worldly affairs are removed, when the Shraddha is done at these places for receiving the blessings of the ancestors. There are some rituals that are done for the well-being of the family and there are others that are done for the sake of the departed soul. When the Upanishads are read, the soul gets the Brahma gnana and gets the opportunity to enter a family with good samskaaraas. 

1.     तस्मात्पराङ् पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् । २०१०.०४

Therefore we see the external world and not the self.

पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयम्भू-स्तस्मात्पराङ्पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् ।
कश्चिद्धीरः प्रत्यगात्मानमैक्ष-दावृत्तचक्षुरमृतत्वमिच्छन् ॥ २.१.१ ॥

पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयम्भू: तस्मात् पराङ् पश्यति न अन्तरात्मन् ।
कश्चित् धीरः प्रत्यगात्मानम् ऐक्षत् आवृत्तचक्षु: अमृतत्वम् इच्छन् |

पराञ्चि – outgoing tendencies; खानि – senses (आकाश जन्याणि), व्यतृणत् – disturbed – mixed up things (हिंसितवान् हननं कृतवान्), स्वयम्भू: – the self-existent Brahma, तस्मात् – therefore, पराङ् – external world, पश्यति – see, न – not, अन्तरात्मन् – the self, कश्चित् – some, धीरः – wise man, प्रत्यगात्मानम् – atman within (प्रत्यक् च असौ आत्मा च) , ऐक्षत् – he wished (अपश्यत्), आवृत्तचक्षु: – one having eyes averted (with his senses turned away), अमृतत्वम् – immortality, इच्छन् – desiring.
2.1.1. The self existent self created the senses with outgoing tendencies. Therefore we see the external world and not the self. But the wise turn the senses away from the world and, seeking what is everlasting, realize the self within.

The Self-existent created the senses out-going; for this reason man sees the external, but not the inner Ātman (Self). Some wise man, however, desiring immortality, with eyes turned away (from the external) sees the Ātman within. Among the shlokas on काम एव आत्मज्ञानस्य प्रतिबन्ध:, this one is पराग्दृष्टि: स्वभावो लोकस्य, प्रत्यग्दृष्टिस्तु कस्यचिदेव |

आत्माज्ञानस्य स्वरूप: क: इति वक्तव्यम् | तत् पूर्वम् आत्मज्ञानस्य विघ्ना: के इति वदति | काम एव आत्मज्ञानस्य प्रतिबन्ध: |किमर्थं प्रबन्ध: ज्ञातव्यः ?

गूढ: आत्मा, सर्वेषुभूतेषु न प्रकाशते | केनापि न दृश्यते वा? अथवा कतिपयेषु दृष्टुं शक्यते वा? इति प्रश्न: अस्ति | स: वदति –अग्रया बुद्ध्यया दृष्टुं शक्यते | अग्रा बुद्धि: इत्युक्ते कुशाग्र मति: – the intellect that has the sharpness of the edge of the Kusha or Dharbha grass. Even these people have obstruction or obstacles – प्रतिबन्ध: | परंतुतस्य अपि काम एव आत्मज्ञानस्य प्रतिबन्ध: |विघ्नस्य ज्ञानम् अस्ति चेत् तस्य निवारणं कर्तुं शक्नुम: | विघ्ननिवारणात् फलं कर्यप्राप्ति:, फलप्राप्ति: | अस्माकं दृष्टिस्तु आत्मज्ञाने अस्ति | विघ्नविचार: किमर्थम्? यदि विघ्ना: निवार्यते तर्हि फलप्राप्ति: सुखकरम् |

In this chapter, Yama is trying to tell Nachiketas about all the obstacles on the road of Atma gnana. There is a question there – We are interested in knowing about the Aatman and attaining the atma gnana. Why are just delaying by talking about these obstacles. For this Yama says, “It is very important because when you know the obstacles your mind will be prepared to watch out for and remove the obstacles. Once the obstacles are avoided, your path will be smooth and you will be able to reach the goal. There is Shreyas or prosperity and well-being only for you by knowing the obstacles. विघ्नस्य अपनयनाय यत्न आरब्धुं शक्यते – न अन्यथा | As long as you are attached to the desires, you will not be able to start getting into that path of Atma Gnana. Only after removing these obstacles, you can progress in your path.

शब्दगुणकमाकाशम् | The sound is the quality of space. The sound is captured by the ears. Sound can’t be heard in Vacuum. पराञ्चि = पराक् गच्छन्ति (अञ्चन्ति). वातावरणे ओंकारः सदा अस्ति | But the ears are not capable of hearing it. The creator has removed the power of hearing that sound from this sense organ. पराङ् = अनात्मभूतान् शब्दादीन् = the sounds in these worldly environment. लौकिकशब्दा: ये सन्ति ते व्यवाहारे एव दृश्यते | अत: व्यवहारे एव ये ते शब्दा: शोत्रुं साद्यम् अस्ति | परन्तु ज्ञानी ओंकारम् एव शृणोति | At the time of creation, the creator disturbed and destroyed the sense so that it cannot hear the omkara and it can hear only the other sounds in the environment. लोकस्य स्वाभाव: एवं सति अपि, कश्चित्, नद्या: प्रतिस्रोत: प्रवर्तनामिव धीर: इन्द्रिय-प्रत्याहरणं कृत्वा प्रत्यगात्मानं अपश्यत् | Even if the nature of the world is like this, there will be some person who will control his senses and he will be able to realize the true self. Every sense wants to experience the pleasure. But a true seeker does not go after such pleasures – अमृतत्वम् अमरन+धर्मत्वं नित्य+स्वभावताम् इच्छन्, महता प्रयासेन स्वभावप्रवृत्तिनिरोधं करोति |

2.    अरण्योर्निहितो जातवेदा गर्भ इव सुभृतो गर्भिणीभिः ।२००७.०२

Like fire is hidden in the two tender sticks and like a fetus is well protected by pregnant women

अरण्योर्निहितो जातवेदा गर्भ इव सुभृतो गर्भिणीभिः ।

दिवे दिव ईड्यो जागृवद्भिर्हविष्मद्भिर्मनुष्येभिरग्निः ।एतद्वै तत् ॥ २.१.८ ॥

अरण्यो: निहित: जातवेदा: गर्भ इव सुभृत: गर्भिणीभिः ।

दिवे दिव ईड्यो जागृवद्भि: हविष्मद्भि: मनुष्येभि: अग्निः । एतत् वै तत् ॥ २.१.८ ॥

अरण्यो: – pair of fire-sticks, निहित: – reside (स्थित:), जातवेदा: – fire, गर्भ – fetus इव – like सुभृत: – well-guarded (सुष्ठु भरित:) गर्भिणीभिः – by the pregnant woman । दिवे दिव – day after day ईड्य: – worshipped, जागृवद्भि: – by wakeful seekers, हविष्मद्भि: – by one who does sacrifice, मनुष्येभि: – by such people, अग्निः – Agni । एतत् वै तत् – Certainly this is that !

2.1.8. The all-seeing consciousness that, like fire, is hidden in wood and concealed like a fetus in the womb is worshipped by self inquirers and ritualists. This is what you wish to know.

Ritualists are also self worshippers although their worship is indirect i.e. through rituals. Even though they worship deities, they actually worship the self in so far as the self works through the deity to bolster their faith.

The all-seeing fire which exists hidden in the two sticks, as the fetus is well- guarded in the womb by the mother, (that fire) is to be worshipped day after day by wakeful seekers (after wisdom), as well as by sacrificers. This verily is That.

Context: Brahman (The supreme self) and aatman (the inner self) are identical.

Among the shlokas on प्रत्यगात्मब्रह्मण: सर्वात्मत्वम्, this one is हिरन्यगर्भस्य सर्वभूतात्मत्वम् |

There is some heat in the atmosphere. All the five elements are present. Agni is virat. Even that is Brahma only. In the Yogis, Agni is present in their heart. The mother eats food which is converted to energy that passes on to the fetus by means of the agni inside the body. Agni is there inside everyone. That is only Brahman and Aatman. अग्निः ऋत्विग्भि: योगिभिश्च सम्यक् भृत: | The Rutvig are the great rishis who conduct the yaga, namely Hotr, Adhvaryu, Udgatr, and Brahman. अध्वरे हृदये च – in the homa and in the hearts.

[Side note: The hotṛ is the reciter of invocations (representing Rig Veda). The adhvaryu is in charge of the physical details of the sacrifice (representing yajurveda). The udgātṛ is a chanter of hymns set to melodies (sāman) drawn from the sāmaveda. The brahman is the reciter of hymns from the atharvaveda who was largely silent and observes the procedures and uses Atharvaveda mantras to ‘heal’ it when mistakes have been made.

Side note: Isa Vasya Upanishad : Agni! Take me in the right path! अग्ने नय सुपथा |] 

Neethi Shastram – #5 (Subhashitam)

Here is an extract from the collection of 222 Subhashitams under the heading Neethi Shastra from the hand written notes of Sri. Skanda Narayanan. Sri Skanda Narayanan has also written down the word-to-word meaning in Tamil.

First post – https://nivedita2015.wordpress.com/2015/10/09/neethi-shastram-1-subhashitam/

४१. शिलास्थ गन्धलेपश्च

शिलास्थगन्धलेपश्च मार्जारोच्छिष्टभोजनम् | प्रतिबिम्बेक्षणं नीरे शक्रस्यापि श्रियं हरेत् ||

शिलास्थ+गन्धलेप: च, मार्जार+उच्छिष्ट+भोजनम् च, नीरे प्रतिबिम्ब+ईक्षणं च, शक्रस्य अपि श्रियं हरेत् |

Applying the sandalwood paste placed on a stone, eating the food touched by a cat and watching the reflection of self in water – these actions will cause lose of the wealth even for Indra himself.

४२. अजारज: खररज:

अजारज: खररज: तथा सम्मार्जनीरज: | स्त्रीणां पादरजश्चैव शक्रस्यापि श्रियं हरेत् ||

अजा+रज:, खर+रज:, तथा सम्मार्जनी+रज:. स्त्रीणां पाद+रज: च एव शक्रस्य अपि श्रियं हरेत् |

The feet dust of a she-goat, the feet dust of a donkey, the dust of a broom-stick and the feet dust of women – (if they are left to get accumulated) – will cause lose of the wealth even for Indra himself.

४३. कृषतो नास्ति दुर्भिक्षम्

कृषतो नास्ति दुर्भिक्षं जपतो नास्ति पातकम् | मौनत: कलहो नास्ति नास्ति जाग्रतो भयम् ||

कृषत: दुर्भिक्षं न अस्ति | जपत: पातकं न अस्ति | मौनत: कलह: न अस्ति | जागरत: भयं न अस्ति |

There is no famine for the one who farms. There is no sin committed by one who chants the divine names. There is no dispute for one who keeps quite. There is no fear for the one who is ever alert.

४४. एकोऽपि गुणवान्पुत्र:

एकोऽपि गुणवान्पुत्रो निर्गुणै: किं शतैरपि | एकश्चन्द्र: तमो हन्ति नक्षत्रै: किं प्रयोजनम् ||

एक: अपि पुत्र: गुणवान् | शतै: निर्गुणै: अपि किं ? एक: चन्द्र: तम: हन्ति | नक्षत्रै: किं प्रयोजनम् ?

One son with good characters is enough. What is the use of hundred sons with bad character? One moon can dispel the darkness (प्रकाशेत). What is the use of the numerous stars?

४५. प्रस्तावसदृशं वाक्यम्

प्रस्तावसदृशं वाक्यं स्वभावसदृशीं क्रियाम् | आत्मशक्तिसमं कोपं यो जानाति स पण्डित: ||

प्रस्ताव+सदृशं वाक्यं, स्वभाव+सदृशीं क्रियाम्, आत्म+शक्ति+समं कोपं, य: जानाति स: पण्डित: |

One who makes appropriate statements considering the situation; and takes the actions that suit his basic nature; and gets anger matching the amount of his strength is a wise man.

४६. विवादशीलां स्वयमर्थचोरिणी

विवादशीलां स्वयमर्थचोरिणीं परानुकूलां परिहासभाषिणीम् | अग्राशिनीमन्यगृहप्रवेशिनीं त्यजन्ति दशपुत्रमातरम् |

विवाद+शीलां, स्वयम्+अर्थ+चोरिणीं, पर+अनुकूलां, परिहास+भाषिणीं, अग्र+अशिनीम्, अन्य+गृह+प्रवेशिनीं (च) दशपुत्रमातरं (चेतपि) त्यजन्ति |

A lady who has a tendency to get into an argument, steals from her own house, supports outsiders, talks in a humiliating manner, eats before her husband takes his food, enters other houses – such a person is given up by people even if she is the mother of ten children.

४७. कार्येषु दासी

कार्येषु दासी करणेषु मन्त्री रूपेषु लक्ष्मी क्षमया धरित्री | स्नेहे च माता शयने तु वेश्या षट्कर्मयुक्ता कुलधर्मपत्नी ||

कार्येषु दासी, करणेषु मन्त्री, रूपेषु लक्ष्मी, क्षमया धरित्री, स्नेहे च माता, शयने तु वेश्या, षट्+कर्म+युक्ता कुल+धर्म+पत्नी |

The noble lady who protects the lineage and the dharma is endowed with these six actions – a servant in doing work, a minister in giving advice, Goddess Lakshmi in beauty, Mother earth in patience, a mother in friendship and a prostitute in the bed.

४८. न विषं विषमित्याहु:

न विषं विषमित्याहुर्ब्रह्मस्वं विषमुच्यते | विषमेकाकिनं हन्ति ब्रह्मस्वं पुत्र पौत्रकम् ||

विषं ‘विषं न’ इति आहु: | ब्रह्मस्वं विषम् उच्यते | विषं एकाकिनं हन्ति | ब्रह्मस्वं पुत्र पौत्रकम् |

Poison is not poison. The wealth of the Brahmin is poison. Poison kills only one person. The wealth of the Brahmin, when it is stolen from him, kills the children and grandchildren of the thief.

४९. शतनिष्को धनाढ्यश्च

शतनिष्को धनाढ्यश्च शतग्रामेण भूपति: | शताश्व: क्षत्रियो राजा शतश्लोकेन पण्डित: ||

शत+निष्क: धनाढ्य: च, शत+ग्रामेण भूपति:, शत+अश्व: क्षत्रिय: राजा, शत+श्लोकेन पण्डित: |

A person possessing 100 gold coins is a wealthy man. A man owning 100 villages is a landlord. A warrior who has 100 horses is a king. A person who knows 100 verses is a learned man.

५०. शकटं पञ्चहस्तेषु

शकटं पञ्चहस्तेषु दशहस्तेषु वाजिनम् | गजं हस्तसहास्रेण दुष्टं दूरेण वर्जयेत् ||

पञ्चहस्तेषु शकटं वर्जयेत् | दशहस्तेषु वाजिनम् वर्जयेत् | हस्त+सहस्रेण गजं वर्जयेत् | दुष्टं दूरेण वर्जयेत् |

Maintain a distance of 5 feet when a cart passes by. Move away for a distance of 10 feet when a horse passes by. Keep a distance of 1000 feet with the elephant. Stay as far away as possible from the bad person.