Kathopanishad – Class Notes – Part 1

कठोपनिषद् – श्रीमति वनिता रामस्वमि महोदया: कक्षा | निवेदिताया: टिप्पणी | १९-८-२०१५

उपनिषद् – पृष्ठभूमिका

सर्वान् वेदान् संकलैय्य वेदव्यासै: ऋग्वेदः यजुर्वेद: सामवेद: अथर्ववेद: च इति चतुर्वेदा: कृतम् | प्रति वेदे संहिता ब्राह्मणं आरण्यकं उपनिषद् च इति वेदस्य चतुर् भागा: कृतम् | वस्तुत: संहिता ब्राह्मणं आरण्यकं च त्रय: भागा: एव सन्ति | उपनिषद् इति आरण्यकस्य अन्तिम भाग: अस्ति | वेदे ये ये आद्यात्मिक विषया: विद्यते, तान् उपनिषद: संगृह्णुवन्ति |

उपनिषद् – निर्वचनम्

यास्काचार्यस्य निरुक्ते निर्वचननानि विद्यन्ते | षड्वेदाङ्गानिषु एक: निरुक्त: |  तत्र वेदानां ये पदा: सन्ति, तेषां पदानां निर्वचनानि सन्ति | (Derivation of Vedic words are present in Yaaskaa’s Nirukta)| तत्र सर्वं योगिकार्थ: न तु लौकिकार्थ: | “उप”, “नि” उपसर्गद्वय पूर्वक  ‘सद्’ धातो: कृत् प्रत्ययान्त रूपम् उपनिषद् शब्द: इति निरुक्ते उपनिषद् विषये अस्ति | कथम् उपनिषद् इत्युक्ते ब्रह्मविद्या ? यथा “आयुर्वै घृतम्” इति वाक्यं, धृतेन आयु: वर्तते इति कारणात्, धृतमेव आयु: इति सूचयति, तथा उपनिषद: तादर्थ: (secondary meaning) ब्रह्मविद्या इति भवति यत: उपनिषदा ब्रह्मविद्यां वयं प्राप्नूम: | “आयुर्वै घृतम्” इत्यादिवत् तादर्थेन उपनिषद् शब्दस्य “अग्निविद्या” इत्यपि अर्थ: अस्ति |

कठोपनिषद् – पृष्ठभूमिका

प्रमुखासु दशसु उपनिषत्सु  कठोपनिषत्  एका अस्ति | कठोपनिषद: अन्यं अपि नाम अस्ति काठकसंहिता अथवा काठकोपनिषद् इति | एषा उपनिषद् कृष्णयजुर्वेदीय उपनिषद् | कृष्णयजुर्वेदस्य आरण्यकानन्तर या उपनिषद् आगच्छति सा एव कठोपनिषद् | यद्यपि कृष्णयजुर्वेदीय आरण्यकम् इदानीं न उपलब्यते, तथापि कठोपनिषद् कृष्णयजुर्वेदीय आरण्यकविभागस्य अन्तिम भाग: इति निश्चय: कृत: | नचिकेतस्य कथा एव कठोपनिषदि वर्तते |

अनुबन्द चतुष्टयम्

[वेद पठनस्य पूर्वं तस्य वेदस्य ऋषिः देवता छन्दस् ज्ञातव्यम् | तादृशम् एव किमपि ग्रन्तस्य पठनात् पूर्वम् अनुबन्द चतुष्टयं किमिति ज्ञातव्यम् | तथापि एव करतलन्यस्थ आमलक वत् प्रकाशत्वेन अवगम्य शास्त्राद्ययनं कर्तुं शक्नुम: | ]

  1. विषय: – ग्रन्थप्रतिपाद्यवेद्य वस्तु विषया विद्या | परब्रह्मविद्या |
  2. अधिकारी – जिज्ञासुः | एषा विद्या अवगन्तुम् इच्छव: |
    (व्यासस्य ब्रह्मसूत्रे प्रथमसूत्रं “अथातो ब्रह्म जिज्ञासा” | ब्रह्मं ज्ञातुं इच्छा एव जीवनस्य मुख्य कार्यम् | अत्र “अथ” इत्युक्ते साधन चतुष्टयम् (Four Means of practice) कृत्वा इत्यर्थः | )
  3. प्रयोजनम् – ब्रह्मज्ञानम् | आद्यन्तिकी संसार निवृत्ति: , ब्रह्म प्राप्ति: लक्षणम् |
  4. संबन्द: – प्रतिपाद्य प्रतिपादक भाव संबन्द: | (proving the hypothesis)

महाभारते नचिकेतस्य कथा

महाभारते अपि कठोपनिषद: कथा दृश्यते एव | परन्तु तत्र किञ्चित् भेद: दृश्यते | उद्दालकस्य पुत्र: नचिकेत: | उद्दालक: स्वस्य सेवायां नचिकेतं उपयुङ्त: | एकदा स: पुत्रं प्रति एवं उक्तवान् |  “अन्यत्र मम आशक्ति आसीत् | अथ: व्याशक्तमनसा मया कुश: (दर्भ – पवित्र तृणं) इध्मम् (उदाहरणम्, अश्वत्त वृक्षस्य समिथः) इत्यादीकं नदीतीरे विस्मृतम् | तत् स्वीकृत्य गृहम् आनय |”  तेन पुत्रेण अन्विषनं कृतम् | तथापि न अवाप्तम् | नद्या: समीपे उद्दालक: निक्षिप्तवान् | नद्या: वेगात् सर्वं नद्यामेव प्राय: गतम् | नचिकेत: पुनरागतवान् | “न पश्यामि किन्चित् तत्र” इति पितरम् उक्तवान् | कोपेन उद्दालक: , “यमं पश्य |” इति झटिति पुत्रं शपितवान् | “ऋषीणां वाचम् अर्थो अनुधावति” खलु | अथ: सहसा नचिकेत: सर्वं शक्तिम् अपहाय भूमौ अपतत् | उद्दालक: एतद् दृष्ट्वा “किं मया कृतम्?” इति चिन्ताक्रान्त: अभवत् | स: तां रात्रिं परिदेवनेन तत्र एव स्थितवान् | तेन मुक्तैरक्षुभि: सिक्त: पुत्र: पुन: संज्ञां अवाप्तवान् | बहुसन्तोषेण पिता पृष्टवान् “इदानीं भवत: वपु: दिव्य शरीरं इव ज्वलति | त्वया के लोका: जिता:?” इति | “यथा भवाता उक्तं, तथैव आज्ञानुसारं यमलोकं अहं गतवान् |” इति नचिकेत: उक्तवान् | यमनचिकेतयोर्मध्ये संवाद: कठोपनिषदि यद् विद्यते तद् महाभारते नास्ति | वैवस्वत: (यम:) नचिकेतं स्वागतं कृतवान् | “अहं महर्षे: वचनम् असत्यं न करिष्यामि | परन्तु भवान् मृतवान् नास्ति | भवत: पिता यमं पश्य इत्येव उक्तवान् | भवान् गृहं प्रतिनिवर्तस्व | अहं प्रीत: अस्मि | भवान् मम अथिति: | प्रस्थानात् पूर्वं॑ अभीप्सितं वरं वृणीष्व |” इति वैवस्वत: अवदत् | नचिकेत: अवदत् “पुन्यकृतान् लोकं दृष्टुम् इच्छामि” इति |  वैवस्वतोऽपि तान् लोकान् संदर्शयामास | योगारूढेन नचिकेतेन निमिशमात्रेण सर्वं दृष्टम् | गोदानं येन कृतं तेन अनुभवितव्यानि लोकानि अपि अपश्यत् | वैवस्वत: गोदानस्य महत्वमपि उक्तवान् | वैवस्वत: नाचिकेतं “नाचिकेताग्नि:” इति यज्ञं बोदयितवान् | महाभारते उद्दालकस्य पुत्रस्य नाम नाचिकेत: न तु नचिकेत: |

{ “गतं न शोचन्ति महानुभावाः” | “जातस्य मरणं द्रुवम्” | }

कठोपनिषद: विषय:

उपनिषद् शब्दस्य को अर्थ: ? क: विषय: ?  “ब्रह्मयाथात्मज्ञानं अग्निविद्या च कठोपनिषद: शब्द वाच्यम् |” इति शंकराचार्य: वदति |  पर अपर विद्याद्वयमपि ब्रह्मविद्यां अस्ति | परम् – इहलोक सुख: — क्षीने पुण्ये मर्त्य लोकं विशन्ति | अग्निविद्याया: प्रयोजनं किम् ? “स्वर्ग कामो यजेत |” इति उच्यते | कठोपनिषदि प्रथम वल्यां विंशतितमे श्लोकात् आरभ्य तृतीय वरे प्राधान्येन ब्रह्मयाथात्मज्ञानमेव वर्तते |  अस्याम् उपनिषदि अध्यायद्वयं वर्तते । प्रत्येकस्मिन् अपि अध्याये तिस्रः वल्ल्यः विद्यन्ते । कठोपनिषदि षट् वल्ल्यः विद्यन्ते |

षट् वल्ल्यः

प्रथमावल्ल्यां नचिकेत: यम समीपं गच्छति | यम: वरत्रयं ददाति | नचिकेतसा प्रार्थितो प्रथमो वर: प्रथमवल्ल्यां अस्ति | प्रथमावल्ल्यां नचिकेतसा प्रार्थितो द्वितीयो वर:, अग्निविद्या प्रार्थना, मृत्यो: वर धान प्रतिज्ञा, अपि च प्रीर्तेन यमेन दत्त चतुर्थोवर: अस्ति | द्वितीय वल्ल्यां यम: आत्मा तत्त्वस्य स्वरूप विवृणोति |

ॐ अथ कठोपनिषद्
ॐ सह नाववतु ।  सह नौ भुनक्तु । सहवीर्यं करवावहै । तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु । मा विद्विषावहै ॥
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥ ॐ नमो भगवते वैवस्वताय मृत्यवे ब्रह्मविद्याचार्याय नमः |

१.१.१ श्लोक:

ॐ उशन् ह वै वाजश्रवसः सर्ववेदसं ददौ ।
तस्य ह नचिकेता नाम पुत्र आस ॥ १ ॥

उशन् – संतोषम् अनुभवन्

ह वै  (द्वौ निपातौ) किमपि अर्थ: न विद्यते | वृत्तस्य कारणात् द्वौ निपातौ अत्र स्त: |

[ छन्दस् अक्षराणां संख्या उद्दिश्य भवति | वृत्तरत्नाकर ग्रन्तेषु छन्दस: विवरणम् अस्ति | उदाहरणम् – गायत्री छन्दसि पादत्रयं भवति, प्रति पादेषु अष्ट अक्षराणि भवन्ति | मात्र छन्दसि ह्रस्व, दीर्घ, प्लुतः इति त्रीनि मात्राणि भवन्ति | मात्र [राम, रामा, रामा+आ – १, २, ३ syllabic instances]  | मात्र छन्दस् एव वृत्तम् (meter) | ]

वाजश्रवसः – वाजम् = अन्नम्; श्रव: = यश: ; वाजं श्रवो यस्य स: वाजश्रवस् | तस्य अपत्यम् अथवा गोत्रो जात: वाजश्रवसः |   वाजश्रवस: इति महामुनिः यस्य पूर्वजै: अन्नदानेन यश: प्राप्त: |

सर्ववेदसं ददौ = स: विश्वजित् याग: कृतवान् | तस्मिन् यागे सर्वस्वम् दातव्यम् |

तस्य ह नचिकेता नाम पुत्र आस = तस्य नचिकेत: नाम पुत्र: आसीत् |

At the end of his life, desiring Heaven, Vajasravasa (Natcheketas’ father), a pious man, sacrificed a few of his least valuable possessions.

१.१.२ श्लोक:

तँ ह कुमारँ सन्तं दक्षिणासु
नीयमानासु श्रद्धाविवेश सोऽमन्यत ॥ २ ॥

तँ ह कुमारँ सन्तं = यदा स: कुमार: आसीत्

दक्षिणासु नीयमानासु = यदा दक्षिणां ददाति

श्रद्धाविवेश सोऽमन्यत = श्रद्धा आविवेश: = श्रद्धा तस्मिन् प्रवेशं कृता |

सोऽमन्यत = स: गत्वा पश्यति

नचिकेत: इदानीं बाल: एव | युवक: अपि नास्ति | पिता किं करोति, किं ददाति इति द्रष्टुम् आगतवान् |

When the gifts (consisting of cows) were being led (to the priests), faith entered him (Natcheketa), who was still a boy;

4-Sep-2015

१.१.३ श्लोक:

पीतोदका जग्धतृणा दुग्धदोहा निरिन्द्रियाः ।
अनन्दा नाम ते लोकास्तान् स गच्छति ता ददत् ॥ ३ ॥

पीतोदका = पीत+उदका: ; जग्धतृणा = जग्ध+तृणा: ; दुग्धदोहा = दुग्ध+दोहा: ; निरिन्द्रियाः = इन्द्रियेषु शक्ति एव नास्ति |

अनन्दा नाम ते लोका: स्तात् स: गच्छति ता: ददत् = न आनन्दा: अनन्दा: ; मम पिता एतादृशं गां दत्वा अनन्दा: लोका: एव गच्छति इति नचिकेत: चिन्तितवान् |

“These barren cows have yielded all their milk, ate and drunk for the last time. Joyless are the worlds attained by one who offers (give charity) such useless gifts.”

4th Sep 2015

कठोपनिषद् काठक शाकायां भवति  | अथ: काठकोपनिषद् इत्यपि उच्यते | उपनिषद् अथवा वेदान्त: इति वेदस्य अन्तिम: भाग: भवति | वेदानां सारसन्ग्रहनमेव वेदान्त: | वेदान्तशब्द: ज्ञानम्, आद्यात्माज्ञानं (spiritual knowledge) परब्रह्मण: ज्ञानं इत्यादिकं सूचयति | अस्माकं जीवने आत्मज्ञानमेव प्रधानं भवति | अन्यत् सर्वम् अपि क्षणिकसुखस्य विषय: अस्ति | यदि स्थिरसुख: प्राप्तव्यम् अस्माभि: आत्मज्ञानं प्राप्तव्यम् | अस्मिन् मार्गे अस्माकं ऋषयः चतुर्विधपुरुशार्था: इति उक्ता: | धर्मार्थकाममोक्षा: चतुर्विधपुरुषार्था: भवन्ति | तत्र धर्म: तु प्रधान्पुरुशार्थ: भवति | मोक्ष: तु परमपुरुशार्थ: भवति | अर्थकामौ निमित्तकारणौ एव स्थ: | साहायकम्, माध्यम् एव (means to the end) | कामा इति सामान्य इच्छा | नचिकेत: जीवनस्य परमपुरुशार्थ: मोक्ष: इति जानाति | अत: यम: यद्यपि तं प्रति प्रचोदयति “स्त्रियः, धनं, भोगं सर्वं अहं यच्छामि | भवान् मृत्यु विषये प्रश्नं मा करोतु” इति | नचिकेत: न स्वीकृतवान् | स: वदति “अहं एतान् सर्वान् भूगान् निरर्थकान् इति अहं जानामि | अहं अध्यात्म ज्ञानं, ब्रह्मण: ज्ञानं प्राप्तुम् एव इच्छामि” इति |

१.१.४ श्लोक:

स होवाच पितरं तत कस्मै मां दास्यसीति ।
द्वितीयं तृतीयं तँ होवाच मृत्यवे त्वा ददामीति ॥ ४ ॥

तत: स: ह पितरं उवाच “कस्मै मां दास्यसि” इति । द्वितीयं तृतीयं तँ “मृत्यवे त्वा ददामि” इति उवाच ॥ ४ ॥

[ क्रतु: = याग: = अध्वर: = होमम् ] यागात् आनन्दा: संपद: च भवेयु: | अत्र तु क्रतु: असंपत्तिनिमित्तं अभवत् | नचिकेत: चिन्तयति “विष्वजित् यागे सर्वस्य त्याग: करनीय: | मम पिता एतावत् दानं करोति चेत् अनन्दा: लोका: एव गच्छति | सुखप्राप्ति: न भवति | सत्पुत्रेण मया अनिष्टं फलं निवारनीयम् | पितु: ऋते आत्मप्रदानम् अपि कर्तुं सिद्धोऽहं | अहं युवक: अस्मि | यत्कोपि मां प्राप्नोति तस्य कृते अहं सेवां कर्तुं शक्नोमि | यदि मां ददाति चित् मम पिता आनन्दान् लोकान् गन्तुमर्हति” इति नचिकेत: अचिन्तयत् | स: पितरम् उवाच “हे तात |  मां कस्मै ददाति” इति | पिता किमपि उत्तरं न अवदत् | स: मौनेन आसीत्  | स: उपेक्षमान: | औदासीन्येन दृष्ट: | बाल: पुन: पुन: अपृच्छत् | कृद्द: पिता सद्य: उवाच “त्वां अहं मृत्यवे ददामि” इति | ऋष मुखात् अनृतं न आगच्छति | “अर्थो वाचाम् अनुदावति” | पिता बहु दु:खित: अभवत् |

Side Note: यागकार्ये चत्वार: ऋत्विजः सन्ति | ते चतुर्वेदानां प्रतिनिदय: भवन्ति | अद्वर्यु: (ऋग्), हूता (यजुर्), उद्गाता (साम), ब्रह्मा (अथर्व) इति |

१.१.५ श्लोक:

बहूनामेमि प्रथमो बहूनामेमि मध्यमः ।
किँ स्विद्यमस्य कर्तव्यं यन्मयाऽद्य करिष्यति ॥ ५ ॥

“यद्किंचित् मम पितरा उक्तम्, अहं प्रथम: बूत्वा करिष्यामि | कदापि अधम: न अभवत् | पितु: वचनम् असत्यं मा भूत् इति स: चिन्तितवान् | अहं यमस्य प्रयोजनं किं रूपेण भविष्यामि ? यदा अहं यमस्य सकाशं गमिष्यामि, तत्र  कथं मम प्रयोजनं भवति यमाय | कथमपि प्रयोजनकारी भवामि ” इति नचिकेत: चिन्तितवान् |

१.१.६ श्लोक:

अनुपश्य यथा पूर्वे प्रतिपश्य तथाऽपरे ।

सस्यमिव मर्त्यः पच्यते सस्यमिवाजायते पुनः ॥ ६ ॥ २००९.०१, २०१४.०१

पितरं प्रति नचिकेतस: उक्ति: | मम पितृ पितामाहा: पूर्वं यथा चिन्तितवन्त: यथा कृतवन्त: तथैव अहमपि करोमि | ऋषय: वर्तनं कथम् अभवत् ? यथा वृक्षं वा सस्यं वा पक्वं भवति तथा एव मानुषाः अपि मरणं प्राप्य पुन: जायते | एवं उक्त: नचिकेत: | अत: पिता तस्य सत्यतायै पुत्रं प्रेषयामास | स: यम भवनं गत्वा तिस्र: रात्रि: वसनम् अकरोत्  | यम: कर्तव्यस्य प्रतीक: भवति | स: कर्तव्यं प्रतिनिधिं करोति | स: गृहे न आसीत् | नचिकेत: यमस्य सेवक: | अत: यमस्य आज्ञां विना स: अन्नम् न स्वीकरोति | उदकम् अपि न स्वीकरोति | आसनम् अपि न स्वीकरोति | तिस्र: रात्र्य: यजमानस्य यमस्य निरीक्षणं कृत्वा तत्र तिष्ठति |

१.१.७ श्लोक:

वैश्वानरः प्रविशत्यतिथिर्ब्राह्मणो गृहान् ।
तस्यैताँ शान्तिं कुर्वन्ति हर वैवस्वतोदकम् ॥ ७ ॥

अनन्तरं यम: आगतवान् | यमं प्रति भार्याणां अमात्यानां च उक्ति: | अथिति सेवा अवश्यं कर्तव्या | वेशेषत: कोऽपि ब्राह्मण: आगच्छति तथा विशेषतः आदरं आदित्यं करनीयम् | वैश्वानर: इत्युक्ते अग्निः | [वैश्वानरः प्रविशति अतिथि: ब्राह्मण: गृहान् ] अथिति: अग्निस्वरूपे अभ्यागत: स्वयं विष्णु: एव | यदि अर्ग्य पाद्यादिकं सर्वं दत्वा न आदरं करोमि तर्हि स: ब्राह्मण: अग्नि: भूत्वा सर्वं दहति | अत: अथिति: गृहम् आगच्छति चेत् तस्य शान्तिं कुर्वन्ति | उदकं, पाद्यं, आसनम् इत्यादीन् दत्वा सीवां कुर्वन्ति | प्रथमम् अथिते: प्रशमनं करणीयम् | अत: उदकम् आनयितुं उवाच अमात्या: भार्या: च |

१.१.८ श्लोक:

आशाप्रतीक्षे संगतँ सूनृतां      चेष्टापूर्ते पुत्रपशूँश्च सर्वान् ।
एतद्वृङ्क्ते पुरुषस्याल्पमेधसो  यस्यानश्नन्वसति ब्राह्मणो गृहे ॥ ८ ॥

अथिति सेवा अवश्यं कर्तव्या | कोऽपि सन्त: गृहम् आगच्छति चेत् तस्य सेवा करनीया | य: कोऽपि न करोति चित् तस्य नाशनं भवति | यदा अल्पभुद्धियुक्त: पुरुष:, गृहम् आगतं ब्राह्मणं, भाजनं विना, अभुञ्जान: गृहे स्थास्यति तदा   अथिति: तस्य सर्वं नाशयति | आशा, प्रतिक्षा, (सूनृता) प्रियवाक्, (इष्टा) यागजन्यफलानि, (पूर्तं / आपूर्तं) सुकृत कार्यं, पुत्रं, पशुं च एतद् सर्वं नाशयति | सर्वासु अवस्तासु अथिते: आदरणं करनियमेव | यत्किंचित् लब्यते तद् देयम् | अथिति: न उपेक्षनीय: | तस्य विषये औदासीन्यं न करनीयम् |

Selected verses from Kathopanishad – #1

Selected verses from Kathopanishad

Verses collated from the question papers for KSOU MA Sanskrit (2007 to 2014).

Part 1 with notes from the classes conducted by Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy (30-Sep-2015)

Reference:

  • The Kathaka Upanishad with Shri Shankara’s Commentary, edited with notes by Sri Sri Swami Satchidanandendra Saraswati, Adhyatma Prakasha Karyalaya
Online References for Sanskrit Verses and English Translation

1.    अनन्दा नाम ते लोकास्तान् स गच्छति ता ददत् ॥ ३ ॥ २००८.०१, २०१३.०१
Joyless are the worlds attained by one who sacrifices such useless offerings.

पीतोदका जग्धतृणा दुग्धदोहा निरिन्द्रियाः ।
अनन्दा नाम ते लोकास्तान् स गच्छति ता ददत् ॥ ३ ॥
These cows have drunk water, eaten grass and given milk for the last time, and their senses have lost all vigour. He who gives these undoubtedly goes to joyless realms.

पीतोदका: drunk water जग्धतृणा: eaten grass दुग्धदोहा: having given milk निरिन्द्रियाः become sterile। अनन्दा नाम Joyless  लोकाः worlds तान् स:  them he गच्छति goes/reaches ता: ददत्  giving away (as gifts) ॥

Among the verses on नचिकेतसो यमसकाशप्राप्ति:, this one is about नचिकेतस: स्वागतं चिन्ता |

This verse shows the dedication of Nachiketa and the ignorance of his father, Vaajasravas. Nachiketa gives importance to charity in the Yagna. There are 3 meanings for the word Yagna – देव पूजा, सङ्गति करण, दान.  Dhaana or charity is very critical. Nachiketa comes out of curiosity to see what things are being given away in charity, by which his father will get to go to the joyful realms – the उत्तम लोका, आनन्दा लोका.  पीतोदका: जग्धतृणा: दुग्धदोहा: निरिन्द्रियाः are all in past participle भूतकृदन्तरूप. They have all done their activity and are not in a position to perform any activity. The cows are not able to drink water, eat grass, give milk or have any strength in their senses to give birth to calf. The result of such a charity will not be good. न नन्दा लोका: अनन्दा लोका: | Nachiketa feels sorry that his father will go to joyless worlds only. This is a preamble to the story of Nachiketa’s meeting with Yama.

Valmiki Ramayana Sundarakandam – Selected Verses (till Sarga 21)

Ramayana Shlokas with Anvaya for KSOU MA & Answers to essay questions

For KSOU MA second year students, some selected verses, from Sundarakandam of Valmiki Ramayanam until Canto 22, are listed here along with anvaya. The main source is ValmikiRamayan.net. Changes and correction have been done where required.  The verses present in the past years’ question papers and the verses covered by Sri Dushyanth Sridhar in his discourse along with a few other shlokas are included. A reference to the year and question number is also mentioned in this format [2010.01].

५-१-१ ततो रावणनीतायाः सीतायाः शत्रुकर्शनः

ततो रावणनीतायाः सीतायाः शत्रुकर्शनः | इयेष पदमन्वेष्टुं चारणाचरिते पथि ||५-१-१

तत: शत्रुकर्शनः रावण-नीतायाः सीतायाः पदम् अन्वेष्टुं चारणाचरिते पथि इयेष |

5.1.1. tataH = after that; shatrukarshanaH = the destroyer of foes (Hanuma); iyeshha = desired to (travel in); pathi = the path; chaaraNaa charite = tread by chaaranas; anveshhTum = to search for; siithayaaH padam = Seetha’s place; raavaNa niitaayaaH = taken away by Ravana.

After that, Hanuma, the destroyer of foes, desired to travel in the sky where celestials like chaaranas tread, to search for Seetha, who was taken away by Ravana.

[Samkshepa  1]

५-१-८ स सूर्याय महेन्द्राय

स सूर्याय महेन्द्राय पवनाय स्वयंभुवे | भूतेभ्यश्चाञ्जलिं कृत्वा चकार गमने मतिम् || ५-१-८

स:, सूर्याय महेन्द्राय पवनाय स्वयंभुवे भूतेभ्य:, च, अञ्जलिं कृत्वा, गमने मतिम् चकार |

5.1.8. saH = He; kR^itvaa = performed; aJNjaliM = salutation with joined palms; suuryaaya = to Sun-God; mahendraaya = to Lord Indra; pavanaaya = to the God of Wind; svayaMbhuve = to Lord Brahma; cha bhuutebhyaH = and to Bhutas; matim chakaara = (and) set his mind; gamane = to leave.

He saluted with joined palms to the Sun-God, Lord Indra, God of Wind, Lord Brahma and Bhutas and decided to leave.

[Dushyant]

५-१-९ अञ्जलिं प्राङ्मुखः कुर्वन्

अञ्जलिं प्राङ्मुखः कुर्वन् पवनायात्मयोनये | ततो हि ववृधे गन्तुं दक्षिणो दक्षिणां दिशम् || ५-१-९

प्राङ्मुखः दक्षिणः, आत्मयोनये पवनाय, अञ्जलिं कुर्वन्, ततः दक्षिणां दिशं गन्तुं, ववृधे हि |

5.1.9. praaN^mukhaH = (Hanuman) facing east; kurvan = offering; aJNjalim = salutation; pavanaaya = Lord of Wind; aatma yonaye = responsible for his own birth; tataH = and then; vavR^idhe hi = increased (his body); gantuM = to go; dakshiNaam dishaM = the southern direction. dakshiNaH = one belonging to southern part.

Hanuman turned towards east, saluted his father, the Lord of Wind and increased his body to go towards southern direction.

Notes: The word  दक्षिणो (Dakshino) was used to indicate that Sri Hanuman is the follower of Dakshinaachara, i.e., the Vedic way life.  Sri Hanuman was described by the Sage Valmiki as expert in all Vedas.

Vaamachara also existed along with Dakshinaachara. The followers of Vaamachara are known to follow 5 Makaaras. Panchamakara, also known as the Five Ms, is a Tantric term referring to the five substances used in a Tantric puja or sadhana…..  http://sriramayanakandukuri.blogspot.in/2014/11/sri-Hanuman-jumps-in-southern-direction.html

[Dushyant]

५-१-१८ स महासत्त्वसंनादः

स महासत्त्वसंनादः शैलपीडानिमित्तजः | पृथिवीं पूरयामास दिशश्चोपवनानि च ||५-१-१८

स: शैल+पीडा+निमित्तजः महा+सत्त्व+संनादः  पृथिवीं दिशः च उपवनानि च पूरयामास |

5.1.18. saH = that; mahaasattvasaMnaadaH = loud noise from creatures; shailapiiDaanimittajaH = formed because of the stress to the mountain; puurayaamaasa = filled; pR^ithiviim = the earth; cha dishaH = all the directions; cha upavanaani = and forests (near that mountain).

That loud noise from creatures which emanated because of stress caused to the mountain, filled the earth and all four directions and forests near that mountain.

Context: Being pressed on all sides by the mountain which itself was being pressed by Hanuman, creatures living in the caves of that mountain shrieked in horrifying tones.

2010.01

५-१-१९ शिरोभिः पृथुभिः सर्पा

शिरोभिः पृथुभिः सर्पा व्यक्तस्वस्तिकलक्षणैः | वमन्तः पावकं घोरं ददंशुर्दशनैः शिलाः ||५-१-१९

सर्पाः, व्यक्त+स्वस्तिक+लक्षणैः, पृथुभिः शिरोभिः, घोरं पावकं वमन्तः (आसन्) | (ते) दशनैः, शिलाः ददंशुः |

5.1.19. sarpaaH = Snakes; vyakta svastika lakshaNaiH = with clear swastika signs (on the hoods); vamantaH = spewed out; ghoram paavakam = frightening flame; pR^ithubhiH shirobhiH = with (their) great heads; dadaMshuH = (and) bit; shilaaH = rocks; dashanaiH = with (their) teeth.

Great snakes with clear swastika signs on their hoods, spewed out frightening flames with their great heads and bit the rocks with their teeth.

[Dushyant]

५-१-३२ ननाद सुमहानादं सुमहानिव तोयदः

दुधुवे च स रोमाणि चकम्पे चाचलोपमः | ननाद सुमहानादं सुमहानिव तोयदः || ५-१-३२

अचल+उपमः स: रोमाणि दुधुवे च | चकम्पे च | सुमहान् तोयदः इव सु+महा+नादं ननाद |

5.1.32. saH = He; achalopamaH = equal to a mountain; dudhuve cha = shook; romaaNi = hair; chakampe cha = quivered (his body); nanaada = (and ) sounded; sumahaanaadam = a great roar; iva sumahaan toyadaH = like a vast cloud.

He, who is equal to a mountain, shook his hair, quivered his body and let out a great roar like a vast cloud.

<Important Question>

५-१-३३ आनुपूर्व्येण वृत्तं च

आनुपूर्व्येण वृत्तं च लाङ्गूलं लोमभिश्चितम् | उत्पतिष्यन् विचिक्षेप पक्षिराज इवोरगम् ||५-१-३३

उत्पतिष्यन् (सः), आनुपूर्व्येण वृत्तं, लोमभि: चितं च, लाङ्गूलं, पक्षिराज: उरगम् इव, विचिक्षेप |

5.1.33. utpatishhyan = About to fly; vichikshepa = (Hanuman) jolted; laaN^guulaM = tail; aanupuurvyeNa vR^ittam = (rolled) in a circle from top to bottom; chitam= covered; lomabhiH = with hair; yathaa = like; pakshi raajaH = the king of birds (Garuda); uragam = (jolts) a snake.

About to fly, Hanuman jolted his tail, which was rolled into a circle from top to bottom, and which was covered with hair, just as Garuda, the king of birds would shake a snake.

2011.01

५-१-३७ मार्गमालोकयन् दुरादूर्ध्वम्

मार्गमालोकयन् दुरादूर्ध्वं प्रणिहितेक्षणः |रुरोध हृदये प्राणानाकाशमवलोकयन् || ५-१-३७

ऊर्ध्वं प्रणिहित+ईक्षणः, दूरादत् मार्गम् आलोकयन्, आकाशम् अवलोकयन्, प्राणान् हृदये रुरोध |

5.1.37. uurdhvam praNihitekshaNaH = With eyes raised up; aalokayan = seeing; maargam = the way; dooraat = from a distance; avalokayan = viewing; aakaasham = the sky; rurodha = (he) held; praaNaan = breath; hR^idaye = in heart.

With his eyes raised up, seeing the way from a distance, viewing the sky, he held his breath in his heart.

[Dushyant]

५-१-३९ यथा राघवनिर्मुक्तश्शरः

यथा राघवनिर्मुक्तश्शरः श्वसनविक्रमः | गच्छेत्तद्वद्गमिष्यामि लङ्कां रावणपालिताम् || ५-१-३९

यथा राघव+निर्मुक्तः श्वसन+विक्रमः शरः गच्छेत् तद्वत् रावण+पालितां लङ्कां गमिष्यामि ||

पदपरिचय:

  • “यथा” वाक्यांशः
    • क्रियापदम् = गच्छेत् [ गम् “गम्लु गतौ” पर. लिङ्. प्रपु. एक. ]
    • कर्तृविशेषणम् = राघवनिर्मुक्तः [ अ. पुं. प्र. एक. ]
    • कर्तृविशेषणम् = श्वसनविक्रमः [ अ. पुं. प्र. एक. ]
    • कर्तृपदम् = शरः [ अ. पुं. प्र. एक. ]
    • सम्योजकपदम् = यथा [ अव्ययम् ]
  • “तद्वत्” वाक्यांशः
    • क्रियापदम् = गमिष्यामि [ गम् “गम्लु गतौ” पर. लृट्. उपु. एक. ]
    • कर्मविशेषणम् = रावणपालिताम् [ आ. स्त्री. द्वि. एक. ]
    • कर्मपदम् = लङ्कां [ आ. स्त्री. द्वि. एक. ]
    • कर्तृपदम् = (अहम्)
    • सम्योजकपदम् = तद्वत् [ अव्ययम् ]

5.1.39. gamishhyaami = I will go; laN^kaaM = to Lanka; raavaNapaalitaam = ruled by Ravana; yathaa = as; sharaH = an arrow; raaghava nirmuktaH= released by Rama; gachchhet = will go; tadvat = like that; shvasana vikramaH = with wind-like speed;

I will go to the city of Lanka, ruled by Ravana just like an arrow released by Rama will go, with wind-like speed.

[samkshepa 2]

५-१-४१ बद्ध्वा राक्षसराजानम्

बद्ध्वा राक्षसराजानमानयिष्यामि रावणम् || ५-१-४१ सर्वथा कृतकार्योऽहमेष्यामि सह सीतया |

राक्षसराजानं रावणं बद्ध्वा आनयिष्यामि | सर्वथा कृतकार्यः अहं, सीतया सह, एष्यामि |

5.1.41. aanayishhyaami = I will get; raavaNam = Ravana; raakshasaraajaanam = the king of raakshasaas; baddhvaa = tied up (in chains); aham eshhyaami = I will return; sarvathaa = in all events; kR^itakaaryaH = successfully; siitayaa saha = along with Seetha;

I will get Ravana the king of raakshasaas tied up in chains without any effort. I will, in all events, return successfully along with Seetha.

[Dushyant]

५-१-४७ ऊरुवेगोद्धता

ऊरुवेगोद्धता वृक्षा मुहूर्तं कपिमन्वयुः |प्रस्थितं दीर्घमध्वानं स्वबन्धुमिव बान्धवाः || ५-१-४७

ऊरु+वेग+उद्धता: वृक्षा: कपिं मुहूर्तम् अन्वयुः | दीर्घमध्वानं प्रस्थितं स्वबन्धुं बान्धवाः इव |

5.1.47. vR^ikshaaH = the trees; uuruvegoddhataaH = lifted up by the force of thighs; anvayuH = followed; kapim = Hanuman; muhuurtam = for some time; baandhavaaH iva = like relatives; svabandhum = (following) a relative; prasthitam = embarking; diirgham maargam = on a long distance.

The trees thus being lifted up by the speed of Hanuman’s thigh, followed him for a while just as relatives would follow their loved ones embarking on a long journey.

2008.01, [Dushyant]

५-१-५७ पिबन्निव बभौ

पिबन्निव बभौ चापि सोर्मिमालं महार्णवम् || ५-१-५७ पिपासुरिव चाकाशं ददृशे स महाकपिः |

स: महाकपिः, स+ऊर्मि+मालं महा+आर्णवम्, पिबन् इव, बभौ च | आकाशं पिपासु: इव अपि च ददृशे |

5.1.57. saH mahaakapiH = that great monkey Hanuman; babhau = shone; pibanniva = like one who is drinking; mahaarNavam = the great sea; sormimaalam = together with waves; dadR^ishe = (He also) looked; pipaasuriva = like one who desires to drink; aakaasham = the sky.

That great monkey shone like one who is drinking the great sea together with its waves. He also seemed like one who desires to drink the whole of sky.

2011.02

५-१-६१ लाङ्गूलं च

लाङ्गूलश्च समाविद्धं प्लवमानस्य शोभते ||५-१-६१अम्बरे वायुपुत्रस्य शक्रध्वज इवोच्छ्रितः |

अम्बरे प्लवमानस्य, वायुपुत्रस्य, समाविद्धं, लाङ्गूलं, उच्छ्रितः शक्र+ध्वजः इव, शोभते च |

5.1.61. laaNguulam = tail; vaayuputrasya = of the son of Vayu; plavamaanasya = floating; ambare = in sky; samaaviddham = which was risen up; shobhate = was shining; shakra dhvajaH iva = like the pillar of Indra; ucchritaH = standing straight.

The tail of Hanuman, the son of Vayu floating in the sky, being risen up was shining like the pillar erected in honour of Indra.

2012.1

५-१-७६ दशयोजनविस्तीर्णा

दशयोजनविस्तीर्णा त्रिंशद्योजनमायता | छाया वानरसिंहस्य जले चारुतराऽभवत् || ५-१-७६

दश+योजन+विस्तीर्णा, त्रिंशत्+योजनम् आयता, वानर+सिंहस्य छाया, जले, चारुतरा, अभवत् |

5.1.76. chaayaa = shadow; vaanara siMhasya = of Hanuman; dasha yojana vistiirNaa = which was ten yojanas wide; trimshat yojanam aayataa = (and) thirty yojanas long; abhavat = appeared; chaarutaraa = very beautiful; jale = on water.

Hanuman’s shadow which was ten yojanas wide and thirty yojanas long appeared very beautiful on water.

Comment : “Yojana” is a measure of length in ancient India like the modern mile. However its value does not seem to be a standard even within India. Some consider it as six miles, some as eight miles and some as two and half miles. Hence it is difficult to have an accurate conversion from yojanas to miles. 1 yojana = approx. 8 miles = more than 10 KM

[Dushyant]

५-१-७८ पक्षवानिव पर्वतः

शुशुभे स महातेजा महाकायो महाकपिः | वायुमार्गे निरालम्बे पक्षवानिव पर्वतः || ५-१-७८

सः महातेजाः महाकायः महाकपिः, पक्षवान् पर्वतः इव, वायु+मार्गे, निरालम्बे, शुशुभे |

5.1.78. saH mahaakapiH = that great monkey; mahaatejaaH = the great resplendent one; mahaakaayaH = with a great body; shushubhe = shone; parvataH iva = like a mountain; pakshavaan = with wings; vaayumaarge = in the path of Vayu – the God of wind; niraalambe = without any support.

That great monkey Hanuman, the great resplendent one with a huge body, shone like a mountain with wings flying in the sky without any support underneath.

[Sri Nochur Venkataraman]

५-१-८२ चन्द्रमा इव लक्ष्यते

प्रविशन्नभ्रजालानि निष्पतंश्च पुनः पुनः | प्रच्छन्नश्च प्रकाशश्च चन्द्रमा इव लक्ष्यते || ५-१-८२

पुनः पुनः अभ्रजालानि प्रविशन् निष्पतन् च (सः), प्रच्छन्नः च प्रकाशः च चन्द्रमा इव, लक्ष्यते |

5.1.82. punaH punaH = repeatedly; pravishan = entering; nishhpataMshcha = and leaving; abhrajaalaani = series of clouds; lakshyate = (Hanuman) is being seen; chandramaaH iva = like moon; prachchhannashcha = (who is) being covered; prakaashashcha = and shining (alternately).

Hanuman who is repeatedly entering and leaving series of clouds as He flies in the sky, is being seen like the moon who shines and is hidden alternately.

[Sri Nochur Venkataraman]

५-१-९६ अस्य साह्यं मया

अस्य साह्यं मया कार्यमिक्ष्वाकुकुलवर्तिनः || ५-१-९६ मम हीक्ष्वाकवः पूज्याः परं पूज्यतमास्तव |

मया, अस्य इक्ष्वाकु+कुल+वर्तिनः साह्यं, कार्यम् हि | इक्ष्वाकवः मम पूज्याः | तव परं पूज्यतमाः |

5.1.96. asya = to this Hanuman; ikshvaaku kula vartinaH = who is a follower of the Iksvaaku dynasty; saahyam = help; kaaryam = should be done; mayaa = by me; ikshvaakavaH = descendants of Ikshvaaku; puujyaaH = are repectable; mama = to me; puujyatamaaH = even more respectable; tava= to you.

“To this Hanuman, who is a follower of the Ikshvaaku dynasty, help should be done by me now. Descendants of Ikshvaaku are repectable to me. They are even more respectable to you.”

Context: Samudraraja spoke to Mainaka parvatham.

[Dushyant]

५-१-१०६ जातरूपमयैः

जातरूपमयैः शृङ्गैर्भ्राजमानैः स्वयंप्रभैः || ५-१-१०६ आदित्यशतसङ्काशः सोऽभवद्गिरिसत्तमः|

स: गिरिसत्तमः, जातरूपमयैः, स्वयं+प्रभैः भ्राजमानैः, शृङ्गैः,  आदित्य+शत+सङ्काशः अभवत् |

5.1.106. saH = that; girisattamaH = best among mountains; abhavat = became; aaditya shata saMkaashaH = equal to a hundred suns; shR^iN^gaiH = with peaks; jaataruupamayaiH = which had a golden hue; bhraajamaanaiH = and which were shining; svayamprabhaiH = with self generated shine.

That best among mountains became equal to a hundred suns with its peaks which had a golden hue and which were shining with a self generated shine.

2012.2

५-१-१०८ स तमुच्छ्रित मत्यर्थं

स तमुच्छ्रितमत्यर्थं महावेगो महाकपिः || ५-१-१०८ उरसा पातयामास जीमूतमिव मारुतः |

सः महावेगः महाकपिः, अत्यर्थम् उच्छ्रितं तं, मारुतः जीमूतम् इव, उरसा, पातयामास |

5.1.108. saH mahaa kapiH = that great monkey Hanuman; mahaa vegaH = one with a great speed; paatayaamaasa = brought down; tam atyartham ucchritam = that great tall mountain; urasaa = with His chest; maarutaH jiimuutamiva = like the God of wind to a cloud.

That great monkey Hanuman with a great speed, brought that great tall mountain (Mainaka) with His chest just as the God of wind would do to a cloud.

५-१-१२० अतिथिः किलपूजार्हः

अतिथिः किल पूजार्हः प्राकृतोऽपि विजानता | धर्मं जिज्ञासमानेन किं पुनस्त्वादृशो महान् || ५-१-१२०

धर्मं जिज्ञासमानेन, विजानता, प्राकृतः अपि, अतिथिः पूजार्हः किल ? किं पुनः त्वादृशः महान् ?

5.1.120. jijJNaasa maanena = By one who wants to know; dharmam = dharma; vijaanataa = by one who knows dharma; atithiH = a guest; praakR^ito api = even though ordinary; puujaarhaH = is suitable to be respected; mahaan = (for) a great man; tvaadR^ishaH = like you; kiM punaH = what else to say.

“By a person who wants to know dharma or by one who knows dharma, a guest even though ordinary is to be respected. What else can I say in the case of a great guest like you.”

[Sri Nochur Venkataraman]

५-१-१३२ त्वरते कार्यकालः

त्वरते कार्यकालो मे अहश्चाप्यतिवर्तते | प्रतिज्ञा च मया दत्ता न स्थातव्यमिहान्तरे || ५-१-१३२

मे कार्यकालः त्वरते  | अहः च अपि अतिवर्तते | मया प्रतिज्ञा च दत्ता | इह अन्तरे न स्थातव्यम्  |

5.1.132. kaalaH = time; me kaaryaH = (to perform) my duty; tvarate = is hastening (me); ahaH cha = the day too; ativartate = is passing; pratijNaa = a promise; dattaa cha = has also been given; mayaa = by me; na sthaatavyam = (I) should not stand; antare = in the middle; iha = here (neglecting my duty).

“The time to perform my duty is hastening me. The day too is passing. A promise has also been given by me. I should not stand here in the middle neglecting my duty.” The courageous Hanuman saying thus, touched the Mainaka mountain with His hand, entered the sky and flew on with a smile.

[Dushyant]

५-१-१५१ मम भक्षः

मम भक्षः प्रदिष्टस्त्वमीश्वरैर्वानरर्षभ | अहं त्वां भक्षयिष्यामि प्रविशेदं ममाननम् || ५-१-१५१

वानरर्षभ | ईश्वरै:, तवम्, मम भक्षः, प्रदिष्टः| अहं त्वां भक्षयिष्यामि | इदं मम आननं प्रविश |

5.1.151. vaanararshhabha = O best among Vanaras! tvam = you; pradishhTaH = have been given; eesvaraiH = by Devas; mama = (as) my; bhakshaH = food; aham = I; bhakshayishhyaami = will eat; tvaam = you; pravisha = enter; idam = (in) this; mama = my; aananam = face.

“O best among Vanaras! You have been given by Devas as my food. I will eat you. Enter my mouth.” So says Surasa, the mother of Nagas.

[Dushyant]

५-१-१६९ प्रविष्टोऽस्मि हि ते

प्रविष्टोऽस्मि हि ते वक्त्रं दाक्षायणि नमोऽस्तु ते |गमिष्ये यत्र वैदेही सत्यश्चासीद्वरस्तव || ५-१-१६९

दाक्षायणि | ते वक्त्रं प्रविष्टः अस्मि हि | ते नमः अस्तु | यत्र वैदेही (तत्र अहं) गमिष्ये | तव वर: सत्यं आसीत् च |

5.1.169. daakshaayaNi = O daughter of Daksha! asmi hi = I indeed; pravishTaH = entered; te = your; vaktram = mouth; namaH astu = (my) regards; te= to you; gamishhye = I will go; yatra = where; vaidehii = Seetha (is located); tava = your; varaH cha = boon also; aasiit = became; satyam = true.

“O daughter of Daksha! I indeed entered your mouth. My regards to you. I will now go where Seetha is. Your boon also came true.” Hanuman told Surasa, the mother of Nagas.

2007.01 [ Nochur ]

५-१-१७१ अर्थसिद्ध्यै हरिश्रेष्ठ

अर्थसिद्ध्यै हरिश्रेष्ठ गच्छ सौम्य यथासुखम् | समानयस्व वैदेहीं राघवेण महात्मना || ५-१-१७१

सौम्य | हरिश्रेष्ठ | यथा सुखम् अर्थसिद्ध्यैः गच्छ | महात्मना राघवेण वैदेहीं समानयस्व |

5.1.171. saumya = O gentle; harishreshTha = best among Vanaras; gaccha = go; yathaa sukham = according to your comfort; artha siddhyai = for the (desired) task; samaanayasva = bring together; vaidehiim = Seetha; mahaatmanaa raaghaveNa = with the great Sri Rama.

“O gentle Hanuman! Go according to your comfort to achieve the desired task. Bring Seetha together with the great Sri Rama” so said Surasa, the mother of Nagas.

[Dushyant]

५-१-१८३ अद्य दीर्घस्य कालस्य

अद्य दीर्घस्य कालस्य भविष्याम्यहमाशिता |
इदं हि मे महत् सत्त्वं चिरस्य वशमागतम् || ५-१-१८३

इदं महत् सत्त्वं मे वशम् आगतम् | दीर्घस्य चिरस्य कालस्य (अनन्तरं) अद्य अहं आशिता भविष्यामि हि |

5.1.183. chirasya = (after) a long time; idam = this; mahat = great; sattvam = animal; aagatam = came; me = (into) my; vasham = grasp; diirghasya = (after) long; kaalasya = time; adya = today; bhavishyaami = I will; aashitaa = have (my) meal.

“After a long time, this great animal came into my grasp. After long time, today I will enjoy my meal.”

[Included for understanding the context of the next shloka]

५-१-१८४ इति संचिन्त्य

इति संचिन्त्य मनसा छायामस्य समाक्षिपत् | छायायां गृह्यमाणायां चिन्तयामास वानरः || ५-१-१८४

इति मनसा संचिन्त्य, अस्य छायां समाक्षिपत् | छायायां गृह्यमाणायां (सत्यां) वानरः चिन्तयामास |

5.1.184. iti = thus; samchintya = thinking; manasaa = with mind; samaakshipat = (she) attracted; asya = His; chaayaam = shadow; chaayaayaam gR^ihyamaaNaayaam = while the shadow was being grasped; vaanaraH = Hanuman; chintayaamaasa = thought (thus).

Thinking thus in her mind, Simhika attracted His shadow. While the shadow was thus being grasped, Hanuman thought thus…

५-१-१८८ छायाग्राहि (आग्राहि) महावीर्यं तदिदं नात्र संशयः

छायाग्राहि (आग्राहि) महावीर्यं तदिदं नात्र संशयः |
स तां बुद्ध्वार्थतत्त्वेन सिंहिकां मतिमान्कपिः |
व्यवर्धत महाकायः प्रवृषीव वलाहकः || ५-१-१८८

5.1.188. saH matimaan = that wise; kapiH = Hanuma; buddhvaa = recognizing; taam = that; artatattvena = correctly; simhikaam = as Simhika; vyavarthata = grew;mahaa kaayaH = (into) one with great body; valaahakaH iva = like a cloud; praavR^ishi = in rainy season.

“This animal is indeed the animal that had been told by Sugriva. There is no doubt in that.” That wise Hanuma recognizing that animal correctly as Simhika, increased His body greatly, like a cloud in rainy season.

[2014.05]

५-१-१८९ तस्य सा कायमुद्वीक्ष्य

तस्य सा कायमुद्वीक्ष्य वर्धमानं महाकपेः || ५-१-१८९
वक्त्रं प्रसारयामास पातालान्तरसन्निभम् |

सा, महाकपेः तस्य वर्धमानं कायम् उद्वीक्ष्य, पातालान्तरसन्निभं वक्त्रं, प्रसारयामास |

5.1.189. saa = that Simhika; udviikshya = seeing; vardhamaanam = growing; kaayam = body; mahaakapeH = of the great Hanuman; prasaarayaamaasa = spread; vaktram = mouth; paataaLaantara sannibham = (to be) equal to the middle of Patala.

That Simhika seeing the growing body of the great monkey Hanuman, spread her mouth to be equal to the middle of Patala.

[ some chosen verse ]

५-१-१९२ स तस्या विवृते

स तस्या विवृते वक्त्रे वज्रसंहननः कपिः |
संक्षिप्य मुहुरात्मानं निष्पपात महाबलः || ५-१-१९२

सः वज्र+संहननः महाबलः कपिः, मुहुः संक्षिप्य, तस्याः विवृते वक्त्रे, आत्मानं निष्पपात |

5.1.192. saH kapiH = that Hanuman; mahaabalaH = one with great strength; vajrasaMhananaH = with a body equal (in strength) to a diamond; muhuH = repeatedly; saMkshipya = contracting; aatmaanam = Himself; nishhpapaata = fell; tasyaaH vivR^ite vaktre = into her opened mouth.

That Hanuman with great strength and with a body equal to a diamond, repeatedly contracted His body and fell into her opened mouth.

[ some chosen verse ]

५-१-१९४ ततस्तस्या नखैः

ततस्तस्या नखैस्तीक्ष्णैर्मर्माण्युत्कृत्य वानरः |
उत्पपाताथ वेगेन मनःसंपातविक्रमः || ५-१-१९४

ततः वानरः, तीक्ष्णै: नखैः तस्याः मर्माणि उत्कृत्य, अथ मनःसंपातविक्रमः वेगेन उत्पपात |

5.1.194. tataH = then; vaanaraH = Hanuman; utkR^itya = rending; marmaaNi = internal organs; tasyaaH = of Simhika; tiikshNaiH nakhaiH = with sharp nails; atha= and after that; utpapaata = flew up; vegena = quickly manaH sampaata vikramaH = one who has the capacity to execute the tasks with a speed equal to that of thought.

Then Hanuman, who had the capacity for executing a work as quickly as conceiving it, rend her internal organs with His sharp nails and after that flew up quickly.

[ some chosen verse ]

५-१-१९८ यस्य त्वेतानि चत्वारि

यस्य त्वेतानि चत्वारि वानरेन्द्र यथा तव || ५-१-१९८
धृतिर्दृष्टिर्मतिर्दाक्ष्यं स कर्मसु न सीदति |

वानरेन्द्र | यस्य धृति: दृष्टि: मति: दाक्ष्यं इति एतानि चत्वारि (सन्ति) यथा तव (सन्ति), स: कर्मसु न सीदति |

5.1.198. vaanarendra = O best among Vanaras! yasya = whoever; dhR^itiH = ( has) courage; dR^ishhTiH = vision; matiH = intellect; daakshyam = skill; etaani = (all) these; chatvaari = four (virtues); tava yathaa = like you; saH = that (him); na siidati = will not fail; karmasu = in (any) tasks.

“O best among Vanaras! Whoever has the four qualities of courage, vision, intellect and skill, all these four virtues like you, such a person will not fail in any task.”

[2013.01]

५-२-५ स तु वीर्यवतां श्रेष्ठः

स तु वीर्यवतां श्रेष्ठः प्लवतामपि चोत्तमः | जगाम वेगवाल्लँङ्कां लङ्घयित्वा महोदधिम् || ५-२-५

वीर्यवतां श्रेष्ठः, प्लवतां अपि उत्तमः च, वेगवान् स: तु, महा+उदधिं लङ्घयित्वा, लङ्कां जगाम |

5.2.5. saH tu = that Hanuman; shresahThaH = best; viiryavataam = among the powerful ones; uttamaH = foremost; plavataamapi = also among those who fly; jagaama = went; vegavaan = with (good) speed; lan^kaam = for Lanka; laNGhayitvaa = crossing; mahodadhim = the great ocean.

That Hanuman, the best among powerful ones and the foremost also among those who can fly, reached the city of Lanka by crossing the great ocean with good speed.

2010.02

५-२-२० प्लवमानामिवाकाशे

पालितां राक्षसेन्द्रेण निर्मितां विश्वकर्मणा | प्लवमानामिवाकाशे ददर्श हनुमान् पुरीम् || ५-२-२०

राक्षस+इन्द्रेण पालितां,  विश्वकर्मणा निर्मितां,  आकाशे प्लवमानम् इव, पुरीम् हनुमान् ददर्श |

5.2.20. Hanumanan = Hanuman; dadarsha = saw; puriim = that city; paalitaam = ruled; raakshasendreNa = by the king of Rakshasas; nirmitaam = constructed; vishvakarmaNaa = by Visvakarma – the architect of Gods; plavamaaniva = looked as though it were floating; aakaashe = in the sky.

Hanuman saw that city of Lanka ruled by Ravana the king of Rakshasas, constructed by Visvakarma (architect of Gods), and which looked as though it were floating in the sky.

[Nochur]

५-२-२७ न हि युद्धेन वै लङ्का शक्या जेतुं सुरैरपि

आगत्यापीह हरयो भविष्यन्ति निरर्थकाः | न हि युद्धेन वै लङ्का शक्या जेतुं सुरैरपि || ५-२-२७

इह आगत्यापी, हरयः, निरर्थकाः भविष्यन्ति | सुरैः अपि युद्धेन वै लङ्का जेतुं न शक्या हि |

5.2.27. harayaH = vaanaras; aagatyaapi = even (if they) could come; iha = here; bhavishhyanti = they would become; nirarthakaaH = without success; laN^kaa = Lanka; na shakyaa hi = is not possible; jetum = to be overcome; yuddhena = in war; surairapi = even by Suras.

Hanuman saw that Lanka’s great protection and the ocean and Ravana, the horrible enemy and thought thus.

“Even if Vanaras were to come here they would not meet with success. It is not possible even for Devas to be victorious against Lanka in war”.

2014.14 [Dushyant] <Important>

५-२-२८ इमां तु विषमां

इमां तु विषमां दुर्गां लङ्कां रावणपालिताम् | प्राप्यापि स महाबाहुः किं करिष्यति राघवः || ५-२-२८

सः महाबाहुः राघवः, इमां तु रावण+पालितां विषमां दुर्गां लङ्कां, प्राप्य अपि, किं करिष्यति ?

5.2.28. praapyaapi = even after reaching; imaam = this; vishhamaam = very difficult; durgaam = impenetrable; laN^kaam = Lanka; raavaNa paalitaam = ruled by Ravana; kiM karishhyati saH mahaabaahuH raaghavaH = what can that Sri Rama with mighty arms do?

“Even if He reaches this very difficult and impenetrable Lanka ruled by Ravana, what can that Sri Rama with mighty arms do”?

[Dushyant]

५-२-४० ५-३०-३८ घातयन्ति हि कार्याणि दूताः पण्डित मानिनः |

अर्थ अनर्थ अन्तरे बुद्धिः निश्चिता अपि न शोभते || ५-२-४०  ५-३०-३८ घातयन्ति हि कार्याणि दूताः पण्डित मानिनः |

अर्थ+अनर्थ+अन्तरे बुद्धिः निश्चिता अपि न शोभते | पण्डित मानिनः दूताः कार्याणि घातयन्ति हि |

5.2.40 and 5.30.38. buddhiH = Intellect; na shobhate = does not shine; artha anarthaantare = between worthy and worthless acts; nishchitaapi = even if a decision is taken;duutaaH = messengers; paN^Dita maaninaH = boasting themselves as learned; ghaatayanti hi = indeed ruin; kaaryaaNi = the actions.

“Even a decided mind will not shine when thinking about gain and loss. Mediators who are respected by scholarly people will also harm tasks due to their arrogance.”

Context: Hanuman is wondering how to convey his presence to Sita without drawing the attention of the demonesses and without causing any confusion to Sita – as soon as he lands in Lanka in Sarga 2 and after seeing Sita in the Ashoka Vana in Sarga 30.

<Important>

५-२-४९ सूर्ये चास्तं गते रात्रौ

सूर्ये चास्तं गते रात्रौ देहं संक्षिप्य मारुतिः | वृषदंशकमात्रः सन् बभूवाद्भुतदर्शनः || ५-२-४९

सूर्ये अस्तं गते (सति) च रात्रौ, मारुतिः देहं संक्षिप्य, वृषदंशक+मात्रः सन्, अद्भुतदर्शनः बभूव |

5.2.49. suurye astaM gate cha = After the sun had set; maarutiH = Hanuman; saMkshipya = reduced; deham = body; raatrau = at night; vR^ishhadaMshaka maatraH san = with a body size equal to that of a cat; babhuuva = became; adhuta darshanaH = a wonderful sight (to behold).

After the sun had set, Hanuman reduced His body at night with a size equal to that of a cat and became a wonderful sight to behold.

[Dushyant] [Nochur]

५-२-५८ शङ्खप्रभं क्षीरमृणालवर्ण

शङ्खप्रभं क्षीरमृणालवर्णमुद्गच्छमानं व्यवभासमानम् |
ददर्श चन्द्रं स हरिप्रवीरः पोप्लूयमानं सरसीव हंसम् || ५-२-५८

सः हरिप्रवीरः, शङ्खप्रभं, क्षीर+मृणाल+वर्णम्, उद्गच्छमानं, व्यवभासमानं,  सरसि पोप्लूयमानं हंसम् इव,चन्द्रं, ददर्श |

5.2.58. saH haripraviiraH = that Hanuman; dadarsha = saw; chandram = the moon; udgachha maanam = who was rising up; shaN^kha prabham = with the splendour of a couch-shell; vyavabhaasamaanam = shining; kShiiramR^iNaala varNam = in white colour as milk and lotus-fibre; hamsamiva = and looking like a swan; popluuyamaanam = swimming; sarasi = in a lake.

That Hanuman saw the moon, who was rising up in the sky with the splendour of a couch-shell, shining in white colour as milk or lotus-fibre, and looking like a swan swimming in a lake.

[Dushyant]

५-३-२३ कस्त्वम् केन च कार्येण

कस्त्वम् केन च कार्येण इह प्राप्तो वनालय | कथयस्वेह यत्तत्त्वं यावत्  प्राणा धरन्ति ते || ५-३-२३

वन+आलय | त्वं क: ? केन कार्येण, इह, प्राप्तः, च ? यावत् ते प्राणा: धरन्ति, (तावत्), यत् तत्त्वं, (तत्), इह,  कथयस्व |

5.3.23. vanaalaya = O one who lives in gardens; tvam kaH = who are you; kena kaaryeNa = for what reason; praaptaH iha = did you come here; yaavat dharanti = as long as (you) sustained; te praaNaaH = your lives; (before that); kathayasva = tell; yat = whatever; tattvam = truth; iha = here.

“O one who lives in gardens! Who are you? For what reason did you come here? As long as your lives are sustained, tell me the truth here before that.”

[Dushyant] [Nochur]

५-३-२६ का त्वम् विरूपनयना

का त्वम् विरूपनयना पुरद्वारेऽवतिष्ठसि | किमर्थम् चापि माम् रुद्ध्वा निर्भर्त्सयसि दारुणा || ५-३-२६

विरूप+नयना | का त्वम् ? पुर+द्वारे अवतिष्ठसि | दारुणा | किमर्थं माम् रुद्ध्वा, अपि च निर्भर्त्सयसि ?

5.3.26. avatishhThasi = you are standing; puradvaare = at the entrance to city; viruupanayanaa = O one with ugly eyes; tvam kaa = who are you; daaruNaa = O horrible one; ruddhvaa = stopping; maam = me; kimartham = for what reason; nirbhatyasi = are you threatening me.

“You are standing at the entrance to the city. O one with ugly eyes! Who are you? O horrible one! Stopping me, for what reason are you threatening me?”

[Dushyant] [Nochur]

५-३-३३ द्रक्ष्यामि नगरीं लङ्काम्

द्रक्ष्यामि नगरीं लङ्कां साट्टप्राकारतोरणाम् | इत्यर्थमिह सम्प्राप्तः परं कौतूहलं हि मे || ५-३-३३
साट्ट+प्राकार+तोरणां नगरीं लङ्कां द्रक्ष्यामि  इत्यर्थम् इह सम्प्राप्तः | मे परं कौतूहलं हि |

5.3.33. drakshyaami = I would like to see; laN^kaam nagariim = the city of lanka; saaTTaa praakaara toraNaam = with its palaces; defensive walls and archways; iti artham = for this reason; saMpraaptaH = (I) came; iha = here; param kautuuhalam = (there is) lot of curiosity; me = to me.

“I would like to see the city of Lanka with its palaces, defensive walls and archways. I came here for that reason. I am very curious to see them.” Context: Hanuman tells the deity of Lanka.

2010.03 [Nochur]

५-३-३८ ततः कृत्वा महानादम्

ततः कृत्वा महानादं सा वै लङ्का भयावहम् | तलेन वानरश्रेष्ठं ताडयामास वेगिता || ५-३-३८

ततः सा वै लङ्का, भयावहं महानादं कृत्वा, तलेन, वानरश्रेष्ठं, वेगिता, ताडयामास |

5.3.38. tataH = thereafter; saa lankaa = that Lanka; kR^itvaa = made; mahaanaadam = a great sound; bhayaavaham = causing terror; taaDayaamaasa = hit; vaanarashreshhTham = the best among Vanaras; talena = with the palm; vegitaa = quickly.

Thereafter that Lanka made a great sound causing terror and hit Hanuman, the best among Vanaras, with her palm quickly.

[Dushyant]

५-३-४० ततः सम्वर्तयामास

ततः सम्वर्तयामास वामहस्तस्य सोऽङ्गुलीः| मुष्टिनाभिजघानैनां हनुमान् क्रोधमूर्छितः || ५-३-४०
स्त्री चेति मन्यमानेन नातिक्रोधः स्वयम् कृतः |

ततः सः क्रोधमूर्छितः हनुमान्, वामहस्तस्य अङ्गुलीः, सम्वर्तयामास | एनाम् मुष्टिना अभिजघान | स्त्री च इति मन्यमानेन (तेन), अतिक्रोधः स्वयम् न कृतः |

5.3.40 tataH = thereafter; saH Hanumanan = that Hanuman; krodhamuurchitaH = became dizzy with anger; saMvartayaamaasa = folded; aN^guLiiH = fingers; vaamahastasya = of left hand; abhijaghaana = hit; enaam = her; mushhTinaa = with His fist; strii cha iti = she is a woman (thus); manyamaanena = thinking; ati krodhaH = great anger; svayam na kR^itaH = was not done by Himself.

Thereafter that Hanuman became dizzy with anger and folded his fingers of left hand. He then hit her with His fist. “She is a woman” – thinking thus He did not show much anger by Himself.

[Dushyant]

५-३-४५ अहं तु नगरी लङ्का

अहं तु नगरी लङ्का स्वयमेव प्लवङ्गम || ५-३-४५ निर्जिताहं त्वया वीर विक्रमेण महाबल |

प्लवङ्गम | अहं तु स्वयं एव लङ्का नगरी | वीर | महाबल | अहं विक्रमेण त्वया निर्जिता |

5.3.45 plavangama = O Vanara! aham tu = I am; lankaa nagaryeva = city of Lanka itself; svayameva = myself; mahaa bala = O strong one! viia = O courageous one! aham = I; nirjitaa = have been defeated; tvayaa vikrameNa = by your strength.

“O Vanara! I am myself the city of Lanka. O strong one! O courageous one! I am defeated by your strength.”

2007.02

५-३-४९ सीतानिमित्तंम् राज्ञस्तु

सीतानिमित्तं राज्ञस्तु रावणस्य दुरात्मनः || ५-३-४९  रक्षसां चैव सर्वेषां विनाशः समुपागतः |
सीता+निमित्तं, दुरात्मनः राज्ञः रावणस्य (च), सर्वेषां रक्षसां च एव, विनाशः समुपागतः |

5.3.49 vinaashaH = destruction; samupaagataH = has come; raavaNasya = of Ravana; durraatmanaH = the evil minded; raaJNAH = king; sarveshhaam rakshasaam cha = and to all Rakshasas; siitaa nimittam = due to Seetha.

“The destruction has come for Ravana the evil minded king and to all Rakshasas due to Seetha.”

५-३-५० तत् प्रविश्य हरिश्रेष्ठम्

तत् प्रविश्य हरिश्रेष्ठ पुरीं रावणपालिताम् || ५-३-५०  विधत्स्व सर्वकार्याणि यानि यानीह वाञ्छसि |

हरिश्रेष्ठ | तत् रावणपालिताम् पुरीम् प्रविश्य | यानि यानि इह वाञ्छसि, सर्वकार्याणि विधत्स्व |

5.3.50 hari shreshhTha = O best among Vanaras! tat = for that reason; pravishya = enter; puriim = the city; raavaNa paalitaam = ruled by Ravana; vidhatsva= do; yaani yaani = whatever; vaanchasi = you desire; sarva kaaryaaNi = all those tasks; iha = here.

“O best among Vanaras! For that reason, enter the city of Lanka ruled by Ravana and do here whatever tasks you want to.”

[Dushyant]

५-३-४४ प्रसीद सुमहाबाहो

प्रसीद सुमहाबाहो त्रायस्व हरिसत्तम || ५-३-४४ समये सौम्य तिष्ठन्ति सत्त्वन्तो महाबलाः |

सु+महा+बाहो | प्रसीद | हरिसत्तम | त्रायस्व | सौम्य | महाबलाः सत्त्वन्तः समये तिष्ठन्ति |

5.3.44. su mahaabaaho = O long armed one!; hari sattama = O best among Vanaras!; prasiida = get propitiated; traayasva = protect me; saumya = O gentle one!; mahaabalaaH = those with great strength; sattvavantaH = with courage; tishhThanti = stand; samaye = on tradition.

“O long armed one! O best among Vanaras! Get propitiated and protect me. O gentle one! Those with great strength and courage always stand firm on tradition.”

Context: Lankini tells Hanuman after being hit by him.

[Nochur]

५-४-२ प्रविश्य नगरीं लङ्काम्

प्रविश्य नगरीं लङ्कां कपिराजहितम्करः || ५-४-२ चक्रेऽथ पादं सव्यं च शत्रूणां स तु मूर्धनि |

सः कपि+राज+हितम्करः, लङ्कां नगरीं प्रविश्य, अथ, सव्यं पादं तु, शत्रूणां मूर्धनि, चक्रे |

5.4.2. kapiraaja hitaMkaraH = desiring the benefit of the king of Vanaras; saH = that Hanuman; pravishya = entered; laN^kaam nagariim = the city of Lanka; atha = and; chakre = made; savyaM paadam = left foot; shatruuNaam muurdhani = on enemies’ head.

Desiring the benefit of the king of Vanaras, Sugreeva that Hanuman entered the city of Lanka and thus actually placed His left foot on the enemies’ heads.

Comment : When entering a city of enemies, one who wishes their destruction should always place one’s left foot first into the city.

2009.01 [Dushyant] [Nochur] [samkshepa 3]

५-५-१ ददर्श धीमान् दिवि भानुमन्तम्

ततः स मध्यंगतमंशुमन्तं | ज्योत्स्नावितानं महदुद्वमन्तम् |
ददर्श धीमान् दिवि भानुमन्तम् | गोष्ठे वृषं मत्तमिव भ्रमन्तम् ||५-५-१

ततः सः धीमान्, दिवि, मध्यं गतं, अंशुमन्तं, ज्योत्स्नावितानं, महत्+उद्वमन्तं, गोष्ठे मत्तं वृषम् इव भ्रमन्तं, भानुमन्तं ददर्श |

5.5.1. tataH = thereafter; dhiimaan saH = that intellectual Hanuman ; dadarsha = saw; bhaanuvantam = the moon; divi = in the sky; madhyamgatam = who obtaining the middle of sky; aomshumantam = who had rays; udvamantam = who spread; mahatjyotsnaavitaanam = a great quantity of moon shine; vR^ishhamiva = moon looked like a bull; mattam = in heat; goshhThebhramantam = among cows.

Thereafter that intellectual Hanuman saw the moon in the sky shining with rays, obtaining the middle portion of sky. Spreading a great quantity of moon shine, moon looked like a bull in heat among cows.

[Nochur]

५-५-३ या भाति लक्ष्मीर्भुवि मन्दरस्था

या भाति लक्ष्मीर्भुवि मन्दरस्था | तथा प्रदोषेषु च सागरस्था |
तथैव तोयेषु च पुष्करस्था | रराज सा चारु निशाकरस्था || ५-५-३

या लक्ष्मीः भुवि मन्दरस्था भाति, तथा प्रदोषेषु च सागरस्था (भाति), तथा एव तोयेषु च पुष्करस्था (भाति), सा चारु निशाकरस्था रराज |

  1. yaa= what ever;lakshmiiH = splendour; mandarasthaabhaati = shines over Mount Mandara; bhuvi = on earth; tathaa = in the same way; saagarasthaa = over ocean; pradoshheshhu = during evenings; tathaiva = in the same way; pushhkarastaatoyeshhu = over lotuses in the waters; saa = the same splendour; raraaja = shone; charunishaakarastaa = on the beautiful moon.

What ever splendour shines over Mount Mandara on earth, on the ocean during evenings, over the lotuses in the waters, the same splendour shone on the beautiful moon.

[Nochur]

५-५-८ स्वर्गप्रकाशो भगवान् प्रदोषः

प्रकाशचन्द्रोदयनष्टदोषः | प्रवृत्तरक्षः पिशिताशदोषः | रामाभिरामेरितचित्तदोषः | स्वर्गप्रकाशो भगवान् प्रदोषः || ५-५-८

प्रकाश+चन्द्र+उदय+नष्ट+दोषः | प्रवृत्त+रक्षः पिशिताश+दोषः | रामाभि+रामेरित+चित्त+दोषः | स्वर्ग+प्रकाशो भगवान् प्रदोषः || ५-५-८

  1. bhagavaan= the Divine;pradoshhaH = evening; prakaashachandrodayanashhTadoshhaH = with lost stain due to rise of shining moon;pravR^ittarakshaHpishitaashadoshhaH = with the stain due to meal of flesh eating rakshasas ; raamaabhiraameritacittadoshhaH = and in which the bitterness of mind of young women and their lover is wiped away; svargaprakaashaH = became with a heavenly glow.

The Divine evening with lost stain due to rise of shining moon, with the stain due to meal of flesh eating rakshasas, and in which the bitterness of mind of young women and their lovers is wiped away, became with a heavenly glow.

<Important>

५-५-१० मत्तप्रमत्तानि समाकुलानि

मत्तप्रमत्तानि समाकुलानि रथाश्वभद्रासनसङ्कुलानि |
वीरश्रिया चापि समाकुलानि ददर्श धीमान् स कपिः कुलानि || ५-५-१०

सः वीरः धीमान् कपिः, मत्तप्रमत्तानि समाकुलानि रथ+अश्व+भद्र+आसन+सङ्कुलानि, श्रिया च अपि समाकुलानि, कुलानि, ददर्श |

5.5.10. saHkapiH = that Hanuman; viiraH = the courageous one; dhiimaan = the intellectual one; dadarsha = saw; kulaani = houses; mattapramattaani = with people in heat; samaakulaani = filled with people; rathaashvabhadraasanasaMkulaani = filled chariots; horses; elephants and best furniture; shriyaa chaapi samaakulaani = and also full of wealth.

That Hanuman the courageous one, the intellectual one, saw houses with people in heat, houses filled with people, full chariots, horses, elephants and best furniture and also full of wealth.

2012.04

५-५-२० अप्रावृताः काञ्चनराजिवर्णाः

अप्रावृताः काञ्चनराजिवर्णाः |काश्चित् परार्थ्यास्तपनीयवर्णाः |
पुनश्च काश्चिच्छशलक्ष्मवर्णाः | कान्तप्रहीणा रुचिराङ्गवर्णाः || ५-५-२०

काञ्चन अप्रावृताः राजिवर्णाः, काश्चित् परार्थ्याः तपनीयवर्णाः, पुनः च काश्चित् शशलक्ष्म+वर्णाः, कान्तप्रहीणाः रुचिर+अङ्गवर्णाः |

5.5.20. kaaJNchanaraajivarNaaH = (Hanuman saw) women with a golden complexion; apraavR^itaaH = lacking clothes; tapaniiyavarNaaH = women with a complexion of refined gold; paraarthyaaH = suitable for mating; kaashchit = and some other women; punashcha = also; shashalakshmavarNaaH = with the colour of moon; kaashchit = and some other women; ruchiraaN^gavarNaaH = with beautiful bodies; kaantaprahiiNaaH = lacking lovers.

Hanuman saw women with golden complexion lacking clothes, women with a complexion of refined gold suitable for mating and some other women also with the colour of moon and some other women with beautiful bodies lacking a lover.

[Dushyant]

५-६-१६ गृहाद् गृहं राक्षसानाम्

गृहाद्गृहम् राक्षसानामुद्यानानि च वानरः | वीक्षमाणो ह्यसंत्रस्तः प्रासादांश्च चचार सः || ५-६-१६

सः असंत्रस्तः वानरः, राक्षसानाम् गृहात् गृहम्, उद्यानानि च, प्रासादान् च, वीक्षमाण: हि, चचार |

5.6.16. saH vaanaraH = That Hanuman; chchaara = moved about; gR^ihaat gR^iham = from one house to another; rakshsaanaam = of rakshasas; udyaanaani cha = and also parks; viikshamaaNaH api = and observing; asantrastaH = without fear; praasaadaamshcha = and also courtyards.

That Hanuman moved about from one house to another of Rakshasas and also parks and observing (in all directions) without fear and also courtyards.

2008.02

५-७-१ स वेश्म जालम्

स वेश्मजालं बलवान्ददर्श | व्यासक्तवैडूर्यसुवर्णजालम् | यथा महत् प्रावृषि मेघजालम् | विद्युत् पिनद्धं सविहङ्गजालम् || ५-७-१

सः बलवान्, वेश्म+जालं, व्यासक्त+वैडूर्य+सुवर्ण+जालं, यथा प्रावृषि महत् मेघ+जालं, विद्युत् पिनद्धं, सविहङ्ग+जालं ददर्श |

5.7.1. saH = That Hanuman; balavaan = the strong one; dadarsha = saw; veshmajaalam = a group of houses; vyaasaktavaiDuuryasuvarNajaalam = with windows in golden hue embedded with cats eye gems; mahat meghajaalam yathaa = like a great group of clouds; praavR^ishhi = in rainy season; vidyutpinaddham = made with lighting; savihaN^gajaalam = together with a group of birds.

That Hanuman, the strong one, saw a group of houses with windows in golden hue, embedded with cat’s-eye gems, like a great group of clouds in rainy season with lighting, together with a group of birds.

[Nochur]

५-७-१४ नियुज्यमानास्तु गजाः

नियुज्यमानास्तु गजाः सुहस्ताः | सकेसराश्चोत्पलपत्रहस्ताः |
बभूव देवी च कृता सुहस्ता |लक्ष्मीस्तथा पद्मिनि पद्महस्ता || ५-७-१४

पद्मिनि नियुज्यमानाः, सकेसराः च, सुहस्ताः च, उत्पल+पत्र+हस्ताः, गजाः, तथा लक्ष्मीः, सुहस्ता, पद्म+हस्ता, देवी, कृता च, बभूव |

5.7.14. gajaaH = Elephants; sakesaraashcha = with filaments of lotus petals on body; suhastaa = with shapely trunks; utpalapatrahastaaH = with lotus petals held in their trunks; niyujyamaanaaH tu = devoted or engrossed; padmini = in a lotus-pool; lakshmiiH = of Goddess Lakshmi; tathaa = and deviicha = (an image of) Goddess Lakshmi also; suhastaa = with graceful hands; padmahastaa = holding lotus in Her hand; kR^itaa babhuuva = was made to exist in Pushpaka;

Images of elephants with filaments of lotus on body, with lotus petals held in their trunks, which were engrossed in a lotus-pool; And also an image of Goddess Lakshmi with four graceful hands and holding lotus in Her hand; was made to exist in Pushpaka.

[Dushyant]

५-८-२ तदप्रमेयाप्रतिकारकृत्रिमम्

तदप्रमेयाप्रतिकारकृत्रिमम् | कृतं स्वयं साध्विति विश्वकर्मणा |
दिवं गतं वायुपथप्रतिष्ठितम् | व्यराजतादित्यपथस्य लक्ष्मवत् || ५-८-२

तत्, विश्वकर्मणा स्वयं साधु इति अप्रमेय+अप्रतिकार+कृत्रिमं कृतम्, आदित्य+पथस्य लक्ष्मवत्, दिवं गतं, वायु+पथ+प्रतिष्ठितं, व्यराजत |

5.8.2. tat = that plane; vyaraajata = shone; lakshmavat = like symbol; aadityapathasya = for solar path; vaayupathapratishhThatam = standing in the aerial path; divamgatam = obtaining in the sky; kR^itam = manufactured; svyam vishvakarmaNaa = by Vishvakarma himself; saadhu iti = and praised by him; aprameyaapratikaarakR^itrimam = one without comparison in beauty.

That plane shone like symbol for solar path standing in the aerial path obtaining the sky. Manufactured by Vishvakarma himself and praised by him as one without comparison in beauty.

[Dushyant]

५-८-४ तपःसमाधानपराक्रमार्जितम्

तपःसमाधानपराक्रमार्जितम् | मनःसमाधानविचारचारिणम् |
अनेकसंस्थानविशेषनिर्मितम् | ततस्ततस्तुल्यविशेषदर्शनम् || ५-८-४

तपःसमाधान+पराक्रम+आर्जितम्,  मनःसमाधान+विचार+चारिणम्,  अनेक+संस्थान+विशेष+निर्मितम्,  ततः ततः तुल्य+विशेष+दर्शनम् |

5.8.4. tapHsamaadhaanaparaakramaarjitam = one that has been obtained by austerities and by prowess; manaHsamaadhaanavichaarachaariNam = one that moves about by the thoughts of concentrated mind; anekasamsthaanavisheshhanirmitam = made from various significant parts; tulyavisheshhanadarshanam = with an appearance of parts of equal significance; tataH tataH = (collected from) here and there

One that has been obtained by austerities and by prowess, one that moves about by thoughts of concentrated mind, made from various significant parts with an appearance of parts of equal significance, collected from here and there from all over the world.

[Dushyant]

५-९-३१ स्वर्गोऽयं देवलोक:

स्वर्गोऽयं देवलोकोऽयमिन्द्रस्येयं पुरी भवेत् | सिद्धिर्वेयं परा हि स्यादित्यमन्यत मारुतिः || ५-९-३१

अयं स्वर्ग:, अयं देव+लोक:, इयं इन्द्रस्य पुरी भवेत् | इयम्, परा हि सिद्धि:, वा स्यात्, इति मारुतिः अमन्यत |

5.9.31. maarutiH = Hanuman; amanyataa = thought; iti = thus; iyam svargaH = this is heaven; iyam devalokaH = this is the aboard of Devas; iyam = this; bhavet = is; indrasya purii = a city of Indra; iyam = this; syaadvaa = might be; paraasiddhiH = the result of great austerity.

Hanuman thought thus : “This is heaven! This is indeed the abode of Devas! This is a city of Indra. This might be the result of a great austerity.”
Context: Hanuman visits the inner apartment of Ravana.

[Dushyant]

५-९-६१ अन्या वक्षसि च

अन्या वक्षसि चान्यस्यास्तस्याः काचित् पुनर्भुजम् | अपरा त्वङ्गमन्यस्यास्तस्याश्चाप्यपरा कुचौ || ५-९-६१

अन्या अन्यस्याः वक्षसि | काचित् पुनः तस्याः भुजम् च | अपरा तु अन्यस्याः अङ्गम्  | अपरा तस्याः कुचौ अपि च |

5.9.61. anyaa = another woman; anyasyaaH vakshasii = (slept) on another’s bosom; kaachitpunaH = again another women; tasyaaH bhujam = (slept) on her shoulder; aparaatu = another woman; anyasyaaH aN^kam = (slept) on another woman’s thigh; aparaa = another; tasyaaH kuchau = (slept) on her breasts.

Another woman slept on another’s bosom, again another woman slept on her shoulder, another woman slept on another woman’s thigh and another slept on her breasts.

[Dushyant]

५-१०-३८ प्रसुप्ता भामिनी भाति बाल पुत्रा इव वत्सला

अन्या कक्ष गतेन एव मड्डुकेन असित ईक्षणा | प्रसुप्ता भामिनी भाति बाल पुत्रा इव वत्सला || ५-१०-३८

अन्या असित+ईक्षणा मड्डुकेन कक्ष+गतेन एव प्रसुप्ता, बाल+पुत्रा वत्सला भामिनी इव, भाति |

  1. anyaa= another woman;asitekshaNaa = with black eyes; prasuptaa = sleeping; maDukena = with an instrument called madduka; kakshagatenaiva = under arm pit; bhaati = shone; bhaaminiiva = like a woman; vatshalaa baalaputraa = (carrying) an infant boy with love.

Another woman with black eyes sleeping with an instrument called madduka under arm pit shone like a woman carrying an infant boy with love.

<Important>

५-१०-५३ तर्कयामास सीता इति

तर्कयामास सीतेति रूपयौवनसम्पदा || ५-१०-५३
हर्षेण महता युक्तो ननन्द हरियूथपः |

हरि+यूथपः, रूप+यौवन+सम्पदा, सीता इति तर्कयामास | महता हर्षेण युक्तः, ननन्द |

5.10.53. saH maarutaatmajaH = that Hanuman; mahaabaahuH = with great arms; taamdR^ishhTvaa = seeing that woman; bhuushhitaam = well decorated; tarkayaamaasa = in logic though; siiteti = this is Seetha; ruupayauvana sampadaa = by the wealth of her appearance and her youth; hariyudhapaH = that warrior of vanaras; nananda = was delighted; mahataa harshhenayuktaH = together with great pleasure.

That Hanuman with great arms seeing the woman well decorated, out of logic thought thus: “This is Seetha by the wealth of her appearance and her youth”. That warrior of Vanaras was delighted together with great pleasure.

[Dushyant]

५-१०-५३ हर्षेण महता युक्तो ननन्द हरि यूथपः

स ताम् दृष्ट्वा महा बाहुर् भूषिताम् मारुत आत्मजः | तर्कयाम् आस सीता इति रूप यौवन सम्पदा || ५-१०-५३ हर्षेण महता युक्तो ननन्द हरि यूथपः |

सः महा+बाहुः मारुत+आत्मजः भूषिताम् ताम् दृष्ट्वा रूप+यौवन+सम्पदा सीता इति तर्कयाम् आस | महता हर्षेण युक्तः हरि+यूथपः ननन्द |

  1. saH maarutaatmajaH= that Hanuma;mahaabaahuH = with great arms; taamdR^ishhTvaa = seeing that woman; bhuushhitaam = well decorated;tarkayaamaasa = in logic though; siiteti = this is Seetha; ruupayauvana sampadaa = by the wealth of her appearance and her youth; hariyudhapaH = that warrior of vanaras; nananda = was delighted; mahataa harshhenayuktaH = together with great pleasure.

That Hanuma with great arms seeing the woman well decorated, out of logic thought thus: “This is Seetha by the wealth of her appearance and her youth”. That warrior of Vanaras was delighted together with great pleasure.

<Important>

५-१०-५४ आश्पोटयामास

आश्पोटयामास चुचुम्ब पुच्छम् | ननन्द चिक्रीड जगौ जगाम |
स्तम्भान् अरोहन् निपपात भूमौ | निदर्शयन् स्वां प्रकृतिं कपीनाम् || ५-१०-५४

आश्पोटयामास | पुच्छम् चुचुम्ब | ननन्द | चिक्रीड | जगौ जगाम | कपीनाम् स्वां प्रकृतिं निदर्शयन्, स्तम्भान् अरोहन्, भूमौ निपपात |

5.10.54. aasphoTayaamaasa = clasped his arms; chuchumbha puchchham = kissed his tail; nananda = he was delighted; chikriiDa = he was playful; jagau= sang; jagaama = paced; nidarshayan = showing; svaam = his; kappiinaam prakR^itim = simian nature; aarohat = climbed; stambaat = pillars; nipapaata bhuumau = and fell down on land.

He clasped his arms, kissed his tail he was delighted, he was playful, sang, paced showing his simian nature, climbed pillars and fell down on land.

Context: He sees Mandodari and thinks her to be Seetha.

2011.04 [Nochur]

५-११-२, ५-११-३ न रामेण वियुक्ता सा

न रामेण वियुक्ता सा स्वप्तुमर्हति भामिनी || ५-११-२ नान्यं नरमुपस्थातुं सुराणामपि चेश्वरम् |
न हि रामसमः कश्चिद्विद्यते त्रिदशेष्वपि || ५-११-३ अन्येयमिति निश्चित्य पानभूमौ चचार सः |

रामेण वियुक्ता, भामिनी, सा, स्वप्तुम् न अर्हति | सुराणाम्  ईश्वरम् अपि च, अन्यं नरम्  उपस्थातुं  न (अर्हति) | त्रिदशेषु अपि रामसमः कश्चित् न हि विद्यते | इयम् अन्या इति निश्चित्य, पानभूमौ, सः चचार |

5.11.2. ;  5.11.3. saa bhaaminii = that Seetha; na arhate = is not suitable; svaptum = to sleep ; raameNa viyuktaa = separated from Rama; upasthaatum = to reach; anyam naram = another man; suraaNaam eshvaram api = even though he were Indra; hi = because; na vidyate hi = there is indeed no; kashchit = one; raamasamaH = equalling Rama; tridasheshhvapi = even among gods; iyam anyaa = this is another woman; iti = thus; nishchitya = deciding; saH = that Hanuman; chachaara = paced; paanabhuumau = in that banqueting hall.

That Seetha is not suitable to sleep separated from Rama, to reach another man even though if he were Indra because there is indeed no one equaling Rama even among gods. This is another woman – thus deciding that Hanuman paced in that banqueting hall.

2014.02

५.११.११ मृगाणां महिषाणां च

मृगाणां महिषाणां च वराहाणां च भागशः ||५-११-११ तत्र न्यस्तानि मांसानि पानभूमौ ददर्श सः |

सः, तत्र, भागशः न्यस्तानि, मृगाणां महिषाणां च वराहाणां च मांसानि, पान+भूमौ ददर्श |

5.11.11. saH = Hanuman; dadarsha = saw; tatra = there; paanabhuumau = in that bar; maamsaani = meat; mR^igaaNaam = of dear; mahishhaaNaam cha = and of buffalo; varaahaaNaam cha = of wild boar; nyastaani = kept; bhaagashaH = separately;

Hanuman saw there in that bar, meat of dear and of buffalo, of wild boar kept separately.

[Dushyant]

५-११-१२ रौक्मेषु च विशलेषु

रौक्मेषु च विशलेषु भाजनेष्वर्धभक्षितान् || ५-११-१२  ददर्श कपिशार्दूल मयूरान् कुक्कुटांस्तथा |

कपि+शार्दूलः, रौक्मेषु विशलेषु भाजनेषु,अर्ध भक्षितान् मयूरान्, तथा कुक्कुटान् च ददर्श |

5.11.12. harishaarduulaH = the best among Vanaras; dadarsha = saw; ardhabhakshitaan = half eaten; mayuraan = peacocks; tathaa = and; kukuTaan = chicken; vishaaleshhu bhaajaneshhu = in wide vessels; raukmeshhu = of golden colour.

The best among Vanaras saw half eaten peacocks and chicken in wide vessels of golden colour.

[Dushyant]

५-११-३७ परदारावरोधस्य

परदारावरोधस्य प्रसुप्तस्य निरीक्षणम् || ५-११-३७ इदं खलु ममात्यर्थं धर्मलोपं करिष्यति |

पर+दार+अवरोधस्य प्रसुप्तस्य मम इदम् निरीक्षणं अत्यर्थं धर्म+लोपं करिष्यति खलु |

5.11.37. mama = my; idam = this; niriikshaNam = seeing; prasuptasya = sleeping; paradaaraavarodhasya = house of other people’s wives; karishhyati = will do; atyartham dharmalopam = a great deficit to dharma.

“My seeing sleeping house of other people’s wives will do a great deficit to dharma.”

[Dushyant] [2015.02.90]

५-११-४३ मनो हि हेतुः

मनो हि हेतुः सर्वेषामिन्द्रियाणां प्रवर्तने || ५-११-४३  शुभाशुभास्ववस्थासु तच्च मे सुव्यवस्थितम् |

शुभ+अशुभासु अवस्थासु सर्वेषाम् इन्द्रियाणाम् प्रवर्तने मनः हि हेतुः | तत् च मे (मनः) सुव्यवस्थितम् |

5.11.43. shubhaashubhaasu = among auspicious or inauspicious; avasthaasu = states; pravartane- in the behavior; sarveshhaanaam indriyaaNaam = of all senses; manaH hetuH = mind is the reason; me = my; tachcha = that mind; suvyavasthitam = is very steady.

“Among auspicious or inauspicious states in the behavior of all senses mind is the reason. That, my mind, is very steady.”

Context: Hanuman contemplates on his action of seeing all the unsuspecting women in Ravana’s inner apartment.

2007.03 [Nochur]

५-१२-५ सुतीक्ष्ण दण्डो बलवांश्चच वानरः

सीताम् अद्ऱ्ष्ट्वा हि अनवाप्य पौरुषम् | विह्ऱ्त्य कालम् सह वानरैः चिरम् |
न मे अस्ति सुग्रीव समीपगा गतिः | सुतीक्ष्ण दण्डो बलवांश्चच वानरः || ५-१२-५

  1. adR^ishhTvaa= without seeing;siitaam = Seetha; anavaapya = not obtaining; paurushham = destiny; vihR^itya = and wandering; chiram kaalam = for a long time; vaanaraiH saH = together with Vanaras; me = to me; gatiH naasthi = there is no path; sugriiva samiipagaa = to go near Sugreeva; vaanaraH = Sugreeva;sutiikshaNadaNDaH = has a sharp punishment; balavaamshcha = and also is strong.

“Without seeing Seetha, not obtaining destiny and wandering for a long time together with Vanaras, to me there is not a path to go near Sugreeva. Sugreeva has a sharp punishment and also is strong.”

५-१२-६ वृथा जातो मम श्रमः

दृष्टम् अन्तः पुरम् सर्वम् दृष्ट्वा रावण योषितः | न सीता दृश्यते साध्वी वृथा जातो मम श्रमः || ५-१२-६

अन्तः पुरम् सर्वं दृष्टम् | रावण-योषितः दृष्ट्वा साध्वी सीता न दृश्यते | मम श्रमः वृथा जातः |

  1. sarvam= all;antaHpuram = inner city; dR^ishhTaam = has been seen; raavanayoshhitaH = women of Ravana; dR^ishhTaaH = have been seen; saadhvii = the chaste; siitaa = Seetha; na dR^ishyate = has not been seen; mama shramaH = my effort; jaataH = became; vR^ithaa = wasteful.

“All inner city has been seen. Women of Ravana have been seen. The chaste Seetha has not been seen. My effort became wasteful.”

[Samkshepa 4]

५-१२-१० अनिर्वेदः श्रियो मूलम्

अनिर्वेदः श्रियो मूलमनिर्वेदः परं सुखम् | अनिर्वेदो हि सततं सर्वार्थेषु प्रवर्तकः || ५-१२-१०

श्रियः मूलम् अनिर्वेदः | अनिर्वेदः परं सुखम् | अनिर्वेदः हि सततं सर्व+अर्थेषु प्रवर्तकः |

5.12.10. anirvedaH  = non-depression; mullah = is root; shriyaH = of development; anirvedaH = Absence of despondency; param sukham = is the greatest comfort; anirvedaH = self reliance; satatam = is always; pravartakaH hi = is indeed the promoter; sarvaartheshhu = in all matters.

“Non-depression is root of development. Absence of despondency is the greatest comfort. Self reliance always is indeed the promoter in all matters.”

[Nochur]

५-१२-१६ स विचचार महा कपिः

प्रविशन् निष्पतंश्च अपि प्रपतन्न् उत्पतन्न् अपि |सर्वम् अपि अवकाशम् स विचचार महाकपिः || ५-१२-१६

प्रविशन्,  निष्पतन् च अपि, प्रपतन्न्, उत्पतन्न् अपि, सः महाकपिः सर्वम् अपि अवकाशम् विचचार ||

  1. saH mahaakapiH= the great Hanuma;… pravishan = and entering(inside);nishhpatamshchaapi = coming out; prapatan = climbing down; utpatan api = climbing up; vichachaara = wandered; sarvam avakaasam = all opportunity.

The great Hanuman (flying again and again and jumping down, standing up, walking, opening doors, pushing doors and) entering inside, coming out, climbing down, climbing up wandered all opportunity.

[samkshepa 5]

५-१३-१२ अदुष्टा दुष्ट भावाभिः

अथवा राक्षसेन्द्रस्य पत्नीभिरसितेक्षणा || ५-१३-१२ अदुष्टा दुष्टभावाभिर्भक्षिता सा भविष्यति |

अथवा, असित+ईक्षणा, अदुष्टा, सा, दुष्ट+भावाभि:, राक्षस+इन्द्रस्य पत्नीभि:, भक्षिता भविष्यति |

5.13.12. athavaa = otherwise; adushhTaa = not being evil; asitekshaNaa = with black eyes; saa = she; bhakshitaa bhavishhyati = may have been eaten; raakshasendrasya patniibhi = by the wives of Ravana; dushhTabhaavaabhi = with evil thoughts.

“Otherwise not being evil, with black eyes, she may have been eaten by the wives of Ravana with evil thoughts.”

2009.02 Part 1

५-१३-१३ सम्पूर्णचन्द्रप्रतिमम्

सम्पूर्णचन्द्रप्रतिमं पद्मपत्रनिभेक्षणम् || ५-१३-१३ रामस्य ध्यायती वक्त्रं पञ्चत्वं कृपणा गता |

सम्पूर्ण+चन्द्र+प्रतिमं पद्म+पत्र+निभ+ईक्षणं, रामस्य वक्त्रं ध्यायती, कृपणा, पञ्चत्वं गता |

5.13.13. kR^ipaNaa = the pitiable Seetha; sampuurNachandra pratimam = equaling full moon; padmapatra nibhyekshaNam = with eyes equaling lotus petals; paNchantvam gataa = must have obtained death; dhyaayatii = while meditating; raamasya vaktram = upon Rama’s face.

“The pitiable Seetha must have obtained death while meditating upon Rama’s face which equals full moon, with eyes equaling lotus petals.”

2009.02. Part 2

५-१३-१८ निवेद्यमाने दोषः

निवेद्यमाने दोषः स्याद्दोषः स्यादनिवेदने || ५-१३-१८ कथं नु खलु कर्तव्यं विषमं प्रतिभाति मे |

निवेद्यमाने दोषः स्यात् | अनिवेदने दोषः स्यात् | कथं नु खलु कर्तव्यम् ? मे विषमं प्रतिभाति |

5.13.18. nivedyamaane = to be let known; syaat doshhaH = becomes an error; anivedane = not to let know; syaat = becomes; doshhaH = an error;khatham = how; kartavyam nu khalu = to perform the duty; me = to me; pratibhaati = (this) seems; vishhamam = dire (situation).

“To be let known becomes an error; not to let know becomes an error how to perform the duty? To me this seems dire situation.”

Context – Previous shloka: “It is not fair to let know Rama who has a dear wife if Seetha is lost or is not to be seen or has died.”

2008.03

५-१३-५५ न हि इयम् विचिता मया

अशोकवनिका च अपि महती इयम् महा द्रुमा || ५-१३-५५ इमाम् अभिगमिष्यामि न हि इयम् विचिता मया |

अशोकवनिका चेयम् दृश्यते या महाद्रुमा || ५-१३-५५ इमाम् अभिगमिष्यामि न हि इयम् विचिता मया |

महती महाद्रुमा च अपि इयम् अशोकवनिका | इमाम् अभिगमिष्यामि | इयम् मया न हि विचिता |

5.13.55. yaa = whatever; iyam = this; ashokavanikaa = Ashoka garden; mahaadR^imaa = with great trees; dR^ishyate = is being seen; imam = this; adhigamishhyaami = I will obtain; iyam = this; na vichitaaH = has not been searched; mayaa = by me.

“Whatever this Ashoka garden with great trees is being seen this I will obtain. This has not been searched by me.”

[Samkshepa 6]

५-१३-५६ नमः कृत्वा गमिष्यामि

वसून् रुद्रांस्तथादित्यानश्विनौ मरुतोऽपि च || ५-१३-५६ नमस्कृत्वा गमिष्यामि रक्षसां शोकवर्धनः |

वसून्, रुद्रान्, तथा आदित्यान्, अश्विनौ, मरुतः, अपि च, नमः कृत्वा, रक्षसां शोक+वर्धनः, गमिष्यामि |

5.13.56. namaskR^itvaa = saluting; vasuun = the eight Vasus; rudraan = Rudras; tathaa = and; aadityaan = Adityas; aswinau = the two Aswinis; maruto api cha = seven maruts; gamishhyaami = I will go; shokavardhanaH = to increase the grief; rakshasaam = of Rakshasas.

“Saluting the eight Vasus, Rudras and Adityas, the two Aswinis, seven Maruts, I will go to increase the grief of Rakshasas.”

[Nochur]

५-१३-५८ स मुहूर्तम् इव ध्यात्वा

स मुहूर्तमिव ध्यात्वा चिन्तावग्रथित इन्द्रियः || ५-१३-५८ उदतिष्ठन्महातेजा हनूमान् मारुतात्मजः |

सः, मुहूर्तम् इव ध्यात्वा, चिन्ता+वग्रथित+इन्द्रियः, महा+तेजाः, मारुत+आत्मजः, हनूमान् उदतिष्ठत् |

5.13.58. mahaa tejaaH = the great gloried; maarutaatmajaH = son of Vayu; saH Hanuman = that Hanuman; udatishhTat = got up; chintaaH vagrathitedriyaH = with his senses tied by grief; dhyaatvaa = meditating; muhurtam iva = for a moment.

The gloried son of Vayu that Hanuman whose senses were tied by grief, got up.

[Nochur]

५-१३-५९ नमो अस्तु रामाय

नमोऽस्तु रामाय सलक्ष्मणाय देव्यै च तस्यै जनकात्मजायै |
नमोऽस्तु रुद्रेन्द्रयमानिलेभ्यो नमोऽस्तु चन्द्रार्कमरुद्गणेभ्य: || ५-१३-५९

रामाय सलक्ष्मणाय,  देव्यै जनक+आत्मजायै तस्यै च नमः अस्तु | रुद्र+इन्द्र+यम+अनिलेभ्यः नमः अस्तु | चन्द्र+अर्क+मरुत्+गणेभ्यः नमः अस्तु |

5.13.59. namaH astu = let there be salutations; raamaaya = to Sri Rama; sa lakshmaNaaya = together with Lakshmana; tasyai janakaatmajaayai cha = also to that; daughter of Janaka; devyai = who is divine namaH astu = let there be salutations; rudrendra yamaanilebhyaH = to Rudra; Indra; Yama and Vaayu; namaH astu = let there be salutations; chandrarkamarudgaNebhyaH = to Chandra; Sun and Marut ganas.

“Let there be salutations to Sri Rama together with Lakshmana, also to that, who is divine let there be salutations. To Rudra, Indra, Yama and Vaayu let there be salutations.”

[Nochur]

५-१४-२ स तु सम्हृष्ट सर्व अन्गः

स तु सम्हृष्टसर्वाङ्गः प्राकारस्थो महाकपिः | पुष्पिताग्रान् वसन्तादौ ददर्श विविधान् द्रुमान् || ५-१४-२

सः तु सम्हृष्ट+सर्व+अङ्गः प्राकारस्थः महा+कपिः,वसन्त+आदौ पुष्पित+अग्रान्, विविधान् द्रुमान्, ददर्श ||

5.14.2;5.14.3. saH mahaa kapiH = that great Hanuman; samhR^iSTa sarva angaH = with joyful limbs; praakaarasthaH = being on enclosure wall; dadarsha = saw; vidvidhaan drumaan = various trees; … puSpita agraan = in full blossom; vasanta aadau = at the start of the spring.

That great Hanuman with joyful limbs, being on enclosure wall saw various trees (such as Sal, beautiful Ashoka, Champaka full of flowers, Uddalaka, Naga, mango trees with their fruit in the colour of the snout of a monkey), in full blossom at the start of the spring.

[Nochur]

५-१४-११ पुष्पावकीर्णः शुशुभे

पुष्पावकीर्णः शुशुभे हनुमान् मारुतात्मजः | अशोकवनिकामध्ये यथा पुष्पमयो गिरिः || ५-१४-११

यथा पुष्पमयः गिरिः,  पुष्प+अवकीर्णः,  मारुत+आत्मजः, हनुमान्, अशोक+वनिका+मध्ये, शुशुभे |

5.14.11. maaruta aatmajaH = the son of Lord Vayu; Hanuman = Hanuman; puSpa avakiirNaH = sprinkled with flowers; shushubhe = shone; giriH yathaa = like a mountain; puSpamayaH = of flowers; ashoka vanikaa madhye = in the middle of Ashoka garden.

The son of Lord Vayu, Hanuman sprinkled with flowers shone like a mountain of flowers in the middle of Ashoka garden.

2009.03

५-१४-१२ वसन्त इति मेनिरे

दिशः सर्वाः प्रधावन्तं वृक्षषण्डगतं कपिम् | दृष्ट्वा सर्वाणि भूतानि वसन्त इति मेनिरे || ५-१४-१२

दिशः सर्वाः प्रधावन्तं, वृक्ष+षण्ड+गतं, कपिं , दृष्ट्वा, सर्वाणि भूतानि वसन्तः इति मेनिरे |

5.14.12. dR^iSTvaa = seeing; kapim = Hanuman; prathaavantam = running; sarvaaH dishaH = in all directions; vR^ikSa SaNDa gatam = and being in the middle of trees; sarvaaNi bhuutaani = all living creatures; menire = thought; vasantaH iti = (Him to be) vasanta.

Seeing Hanuman running in all directions and being in the middle of trees, all living creatures thought Him to be Vasanta, the lord of spring.

[Nochur]

५-१४-३६ लताप्रतानैर्बहुभिः

लताप्रतानैर्बहुभिः पर्णैश्च बहुभिर्वृताम् || ५-१४-३६ काञ्चनीं शिंशुपामेकां ददर्श स महाकपिः |
वृताम् हेममयीभिस्तु वेदिकाभिः समन्ततः || ५-१४-३७

सः महा+कपिः, बहुभिः लता+प्रतानैः बहुभि: पर्णैः च वृताम्, हेममयीभिः वेदिकाभिः तु समन्ततः, एकां, काञ्चनीं, शिंशुपां, ददर्श |

5.14.36- 5.14.37. hariyuudhapaH = the monkey warrior Hanuman; dadarsha = saw; ekaam shimshupaam = one shimshupaa tree; kaaJNcaniim = golden colour; vR^itaam = covered; bahubhiH lataa prataanaiH = with many groups of creepers; bahubhiH parNaiH = and with many leaves; vR^itaam = surrounded; samantataH = everywhere; vedikaabhiH = with platforms; hemamayiibhistu = made of gold.

The monkey warrior Hanuman saw one shimshupaa tree golden in colour covered with many groups of creepers and with many leaves surrounded everywhere with platforms made of gold.

५-१५-१ स वीक्षमाणः तत्रस्थो मार्गमाणः

स वीक्षमाणस्तत्रस्थो मार्गमाणश्च मैथिलीम् |अवेक्षमाणश्च महीं सर्वां तामन्ववैक्षत || ५-१५-१

सः वीक्षमाणः तत्रस्थः मार्गमाणः च, मैथिलीम् अवेक्षमाणः च, सर्वां महीं ताम् अन्ववैक्षत |

5.14.1. saH = that Hanuman; tatrastaH = being there; viikSamaaNaH = seeing(and); maargamaaNaH = searching; maithiliim = for Seetha; avekshamaaNaH = observing; sarvaam = all; taam mahiim = that land; anvavaikSata = explored (the garden).

That Hanuman being there, seeing and searching for Seetha, observing all that land, explored the garden.

[Nochur]

५-१५-१८ ततो मलिनसम्वीताम्

ततो मलिनसम्वीतां राक्षसीभिः समावृताम् || ५-१५-१८ उपवासकृशां दीनां निःस्वसन्तीं पुनः पुनः |

ततः मलिन+सम्वीतां, राक्षसीभिः समावृताम्, उपवास+कृशाम्, दीनाम्, पुनः पुनः निःस्वसन्तीं  (ददर्श) |

5.15.18b- 5.15.19. tataH = thereafter; dadarsha = Hanuman saw (Seetha); malina samviitaam = wearing a soiled garment; samaavR^itaam = surrounded; raakSasiibhiH = by raksha women; upavaasa kR^ishaam = emaciated due to fasting; diinaam = looking miserable; niHshvasantiim = sighing; punaH punaH = again and again;

Thereafter Hanuman saw Seetha wearing a soiled garment, surrounded by rakshasa women, emaciated due to fasting, looking miserable, sighing again and again, (like the pure crescent moon at the beginning of a bright fortnight).

[Nochur] [Samkshepa 7]

५-१५-१९ ददर्श शुक्लपक्षादौ

ददर्श शुक्लपक्षादौ चन्द्ररेखामिवामलाम् || ५-१५-१९

शुक्ल+पक्ष+आदौ, अमलां चन्द्र+रेखाम्, इव, ददर्श |

5.15.19. dadarsha = Hanuman saw (Seetha); amalaam candra rekhaam iva = like the pure crescent moon; shukla pakSa aadau = at the beginning of a bright fortnight;

Hanuman saw Seetha like the pure crescent moon at the beginning of a bright fortnight.

[Nochur] [Samkshepa 8 ]

५-१५-२० मन्दं प्रख्यायमानेन रूपेण

मन्दं प्रख्यायमानेन रूपेण रुचिरप्रभाम् | पिनद्धां धूमजालेन शिखामिव विभावसोः || ५-१५-२०

धूम+जालेन पिनद्धां, विभावसोः रुचिर+प्रभां  शिखाम् इव, मन्दं प्रख्यायमानेन रूपेण, (सा आसीत् )|

5.15.20. mandam prakhyaayamaanena = faintly recognisable, ruupeNa = in form,  dhuuma jaalena  = by a cluster of smoke, pinaddhaam = engulfed, rucira prabhaam = with bright shine, vibhaavasoH = of fire, shikhaam iva = like the tip.

Her form was faintly recognisable. She had a lovely radiance on account of her beautiful form. She looked like the tip of burning fire engulfed in a cloud of smoke.

[Nochur]

५-१५-२१ पीतेन एकेन सम्वीताम्

पीतेन एकेन सम्वीतां क्लिष्टेनोत्तमवाससा | सपन्कां अनलम्कारां विपद्माम् इव पद्मिनीम् || ५-१५-२१

एकेन क्लिष्टेन पीतेन उत्तम+वाससा सम्वीतां, सपन्कां, अनलम्कारां, विपद्मां पद्मिनीम् इव (सीतां दृष्टवान्) |

5.15.21. samviitaam = covered; ekena = by a single; uttama vaasasaa = best cloth; piitena = of yellow colour; kliSTena = which was wrinkled; analamkaaraam = without any decorations; padminiim iva = like a lotus plant; vipadmaam = without lotuses; sapankaam = together with mud.

(She was) covered by a single best cloth of yellow colour, which was wrinkled, without any decorations like a lotus plant without lotuses, together with mud.

[Nochur]

५-१५-२२ व्रीडितां दुःखसम्तप्ताम्

व्रीडितां दुःखसन्तप्तां परिम्लानां तपस्विनीम् | ग्रहेणाङ्गारकेणेव पीडितामिव रोहिणीम् || ५-१५-२२

अङ्गारकेण ग्रहेण एव पीडितां रोहिणीम् इव, व्रीडितां, दुःखसन्तप्तां, परिम्लानामं, तपस्विनीं (सीतां दृष्टवान्)|

5.15.22. vriiDitaam = bashful; duhkha samtaptaam = tortured by sorrow; parimlaanaam = worn out; tapasviniim = in a pitiable condition; rohiNiim iva = like the constellation Rohini; piiDitaam = pressed; angaarakeNa graheNa = by the planet mars.

Bashful, tortured by sorrow worn out in a pitiable condition like the constellation Rohini, pressed by the planet mars.

[Nochur]

५-१५-२३ अश्रुपूर्णमुखीं दीनाम्

अश्रुपूर्णमुखीं दीनां कृशामनशनेन च | शोकध्यानपराम् दीनां नित्यं दुःखपरायणाम् || ५-१५-२३

अश्रु+पूर्ण+मुखीं, दीनां, अनशनेन कृशां च, शोक+ध्यान+पराम्, दीनां, नित्यं दुःख+परायणां (सीतां दृष्टवान्)|

5.15.23. ashru puurNa mukhiim = with a face full of tears; diinaam = in a pitiable condition; kR^ishaam = emaciated; anashanena = due to not taking food; shoka dhyaana paraam = immersed in thought with gloom; nityam diinaam = always in a pitiable state; duhkha paraayaNaam = surrendering to sorrow.

With a face full of tears in a pitiable condition, emaciated due to not taking food, immersed in thought with gloom, always in a pitiable state, surrendering to sorrow.

[Nochur]

५-१५-२४ प्रियम् जनम् अपश्यन्तीम्

प्रियं जनमपश्यन्तीं पश्यन्तीं राक्षसीगणम् | स्वगणेन मृगीं हीनां श्वगणाभिवृताम् इव || ५-१५-२४

प्रियं जनम् अपश्यन्तीं, राक्षसी+गणं पश्यन्तीं, स्व गणेन हीनां मृगीं श्व+गण+अभिवृताम् इव, … |

5.15.24. apashyantiim = not seeing; priyam janam = dear people; pashyantiim = seeing; raakSasii gaNam = groups of demonesses; mR^igiim iva = like a female deer; hiinaam = loosing; sva gaNena = her own herd; shva gaNaabhivR^itaam = surrounded by group of hounds.

Not seeing dear people, seeing groups of demonesses, like a female deer loosing her own herd surrounded by group of hounds.

[Nochur]

५-१५-२६ तां समीक्ष्य विशालाक्षीमधिकम्

तां समीक्ष्य विशालाक्षीमधिकं मलिनां कृशाम् || ५-१५-२६ तर्कयामास सीतेति कारणैरुपपादिभिः |

विशाल+अक्षीम्, अधिकं मलिनां, कृशां, ताम्, समीक्ष्य, उपपादिभिः कारणैः, सीता इति तर्कयामास |

5.15.26b – 5.15.27a. samiikSya = observing; taam = that woman; vishaala akSiim = with wide eyes; adhikam malinaam = very untidy; kR^ishaam = emaciated (thin) ; tarkayaam aasa = Hanuman thought (that); siiteti = this is indeed Seetha; upapaadibhiH kaaraNaiH = on logical grounds.

Observing that woman with wide eyes, very untidy, emaciated, Hanuman thought that this is indeed Seetha on logical grounds.

[ Samkshepa 9]

५-१५-३२ संसक्ताम् धूम जालेन शिखाम्

संसक्तां धूमजालेन शिखामिव विभावसोः || ५-१५-३२ तां स्मृतीमिव सन्दिग्धामृद्धिं  निपतितामिव |

विभावसोः शिखाम् इव, धूम+जालेन संसक्तां, तां, सन्दिग्धां स्मृतीम् इव, निपतितां ऋद्धिम् इव … |

5.15.32. taam = (Hanuman saw) Her; vibhaavasoH shikhaam iva = like a tongue of fire; samsaktaam = mixed; dhuuma jaalena = with column of smoke; smR^itiim iva= like an intellect; samdighdaam = together with doubts; nipatitaam R^iddhim iva = like a cast away treasure.

Hanuman saw Her who was like a tongue of fire mixed with column of smoke, like an intellect together with doubts, like a cast away treasure.

[Nochur]

५-१५-३३ विहताम् इव च श्रद्धाम्

विहतामिव च श्रद्धामाशां प्रतिहतामिव || ५-१५-३३ सोपसर्गां यथा सिद्धिं बुद्धिं सकलुषामिव |

विहतां श्रद्धाम् इव च, प्रतिहतां आशाम् इव, यथा स+उपसर्गां सिद्धिं, सकलुषां बुद्धिम् इव … |

5.15.33. vihataam shraddhaam iva = like shattered faith; pratihataam aashaam iva = like a frustrated hope; sa upasargaam siddhim yathaa = like success together with obstacles; sakaluSaam buddhim iva = like an impure mind.

Hanuman saw Her who was like shattered faith, like frustrated hope, like success together with obstacles, like an impure mind.

[Nochur]

५-१५-३९ दुःखेन बुबुधे सीताम्

दुःखेन बुबुधे सीताम् हनुमाननलङ्कृताम् | संस्कारेण यथा हीनां वाचमर्थान्तरं गताम् || ५-१५-३९

हनुमान्,  अनलङ्कृताम्, यथा संस्कारेण हीनां वाचम् अर्थ+अन्तरं गतां, सीतां, दुःखेन बुबुधे |

  1. Hanumanan= Hanuman;bubudhe = recognized; dukhena = with great sorrow; siitaam = Seetha; analankR^itaam = not decorated; vaacam yathaa = like sentence; artha antaram gataam = which got a different meaning; samskaareNa hiinaam = being devoid of culture

Hanuman recognized with great sorrow Seetha not decorated, like a sentence which got a different meaning being devoid of culture.

[Nochur]

५-१५-४८ इयं कनकवर्णाङ्गी

इयं कनकवर्णाङ्गी रामस्य महिषी प्रिया | प्रणष्टापि सती याऽस्य मनसो न प्रणश्यति || ५-१५-४८

इयं, कनक+वर्ण+अङ्गी, रामस्य महिषी, प्रिया | या सती प्रणष्टा अपि, अस्य (रामस्य) मनसः न प्रणश्यति |

5.15.48. iyam = this She; kanaka varNa angii = of golden colour; raamasya piryaa mahiSii = is indeed Rama’s dear wife; yaa = who ever (Seetha); satii = the chaste one; pranaSTaa api = even though not seen; na praNashyati = is not gone; asya manasaH = from Rama’s heart.

“This She of golden colour is indeed Rama’s dear wife; who ever Seetha the chaste one, even though not seen, is not gone from Rama’s heart.”

५-१५-५० स्त्री प्रनष्टेति

स्त्री प्रनष्टेति कारुण्यादाश्रितेत्यानृशंस्यत: | पत्नी नष्टेति शोकेन प्रियेति मदनेन च || ५-१५-५०

प्रनष्टा स्त्री इति कारुण्यात्, आश्रिता इति आनृशंस्यत:, नष्टा पत्नी इति शोकेन, प्रिया इति मदनेन च (राम: परितप्यते) |

5.15.49 – 5.15.50. saa iyam = this is She; yat kR^ite = for whose sake; raamaH = Rama; paritapyate = is tormented; caturbhiH = in four ways; kaaruNyena = from compassion; aanR^ishamsyataH = from pity; shokena = from grief; madanena = from love; pranaSTaa strii iti = (thinking that) a woman has disappeared; kaaruNyena = from compassion; aashritaa iti = depending on him; aanR^ishamsyataH = from pity; naSTaa patnii iti = wife has been lost; shokena = from grief; priyaa iti = a dear one; madanena = from love.

“This is She for whose sake Rama tormented in four ways from compassion from pity from grief from love; (thinking that) a woman has disappeared from compassion, depending on him from pity, wife has been lost from grief, a dear one from love.”

“She is that same lady for whom Rama has been passing through compassion, benevolence, grief and passion. He is compassionate considering her a woman, kind and benevolent since she is his dependent, stricken with grief for losing a wife and passionate since she is his beloved.

[Selected Verses – Sri Ranganji]

५-१५-५२ अस्या देव्या मनः तस्मिन्

अस्या देव्या मनः तस्मिन् मनः तस्य च अस्याम् प्रतिष्ठितम् | तेन इयम् स च धर्म आत्मा मुहूर्तम् अपि जीवति || ५-१५-५२

अस्या देव्या मनः तस्मिन् प्रतिष्ठितम् | तस्य मनः च अस्याम् (प्रतिष्ठितम्) | तेन इयम् मुहूर्तम् अपि जीवति | स धर्मात्मा च |

5.15.52. asyaaH devyaaH = this lady’s; manaH = heart; tasmin = is in Rama; tasya = His heart; asyaam ca pratiSThitam = is firmly in Her; tena = for that reason;iyam = she; dharmaatmaa sa ca = that noble Rama; muhuurtam api jiivati = are able to live even for a moment.

“This lady’s heart is in Rama, His heart is firmly in Her, for that reason She and that noble Rama are able to live even for a moment.”

[Nochur] [Samkshepa 10]

५-१५-५३ दुष्करं कृतवान् रामः

दुष्करं कृतवान्रामो हीनो यदनया प्रभुः।धारयत्यात्मनो देहं न शोकेनावसीदति।।५-१५-५३

यत्, अनया हीनः, प्रभुः, आत्मनः देहं, धारयति, शोकेन न अवसीदति (च), रामः, दुष्करं कृतवान् ।

5.15.53 Prabhuḥ = lord, rāmaḥ = Rama, anayā = with her, hīnaḥ = separated, ātmanaḥ = his, dēham = body, dhārayati yat = held in this way, śōkēna = with grief, na avasīdati = is not perishing, duṣkaram = a task (difficult), kr̥tavān = accomplished.

Lord Rama had accomplished a difficult task in sustaining the body this way without allowing it to sink and perish during separation from her.

[Nochur]

५-१५-५३ दुष्करं कुरुते रामः

दुष्करं कुरुते रामो य इमां मत्तकाशिनीम् | सीतां विना महाबाहुः मुहूर्तम् अपि जीवति || ५-१५-५३

यः मत्त+काशिनीम् इमां सीतां विना मुहूर्तम् अपि जीवति,  (सः) महा+बाहुः रामः दुष्करं कुरुते |

5.15.53 Yaḥ = he who, imām = such, mattakāśinīm = a lady with intoxicating lustre, sītāṁ vinā = without Sita, muhūrtamapi = even for a while, jīvati = survives, mahābāhuḥ = strong armed, rāmaḥ = Rama, duṣkaram = difficult, kurutē = is doing.
“Rama, the strong-armed hero has accomplished a difficult task by surviving even for a moment without this Sita who has intoxicating lustre”

५-१५-५४  जगाम मनसा रामम्

एवम् सीताम् तदा दृष्ट्वा हृष्टः पवन सम्भवः | जगाम मनसा रामम् प्रशशंस च तम् प्रभुम् || ५-१५-५४

तदा एवम् सीताम् दृष्ट्वा हृष्टः पवनसम्भवः तम् प्रभुम् रामम् मनसा जगाम, प्रशशंस च |

  1. pavanasambhavaH= Hanuman;tadaa = then; dR^iStvaa = seeing; siitaam = Seetha; hR^iSTaH = became happy; evam = thus; jagaama = and went; manasaa= by mind; raamam = to Rama; prashashamsa ca = and also praised; tam prabhum = that lord.

Hanuman, then seeing Seetha became happy thus and went by mind to Rama and also praised that Lord.

[Samkshepa 11]

५-१६-३ मान्या गुरुविनीतस्य

मान्या गुरुविनीतस्य लक्ष्मणस्य गुरुप्रिया |यदि सीतापि दुःखार्ता कालो हि दुरतिक्रमः || ५-१६-३

यदि गुरु+विनीतस्य लक्ष्मणस्य मान्या, गुरु+प्रिया, सीता अपि दुःख+आर्ता, (तर्हि) कालः दुर्+अतिक्रमः हि |

5.16.3. maanyaa = respectable; lakSmaNasya = to Lakshmana; guru viniitasya = instructed by teachers; siita api = Seetha also; guru priyaa = dear to teachers; duhkha aartaa yadi = if She is stricken with grief; kaalaH = destiny; duratikramaH hi = is indeed difficult to withstand.

“Respectable to Lakshmana, instructed by teachers, Seetha is also dear to teachers; if she is stricken with grief, destiny is indeed difficult to withstand.”

५-१६-५ तुल्यशीलवयोवृत्ताम्

तुल्यशीलवयोवृत्ताम् तुल्याभिजनलक्षणाम् | राघवोऽर्हति वैदेहीं तं चेयमसितेक्षणा || ५-१६-५

तुल्य+शील+वयः+वृत्ताम् | तुल्य+अभिजन+लक्षणाम् | राघवः वैदेहीं अर्हति | असित+ईक्षणा इयं (सीता) तं (रामं) च (अर्हति) |

5.16.5. raaghavaH = Rama; arhati = is suited; vaidehiim = to Seetha; tulya shiila vayo vR^ittaam = with Her well matched character age and conduct; tulya abhijana lakSaNaam = with well matched pedigree and characteristics; iyam = this; asitekSaNaa = black-eyed Seetha; tam arhati = is also suited to Him.

“Sri Rama is suited to Seetha with Her well matched character, age and conduct; with well matched pedigree and characteristics this black-eyed Seetha is also suited to Him.”

५-१६-१३ यदि रामः समुद्रान्ताम्

यदि रामः समुद्रान्तां मेदिनीं परिवर्तयेत् | अस्याः कृते जगच्चापि युक्तमित्येव मे मतिः || ५-१६-१३

यदि राम: अस्या: कृते समुद्रान्तां मेदिनीं जगत् परिवर्तयेत् अपि च युक्तम् एव इति मे मति: |

5.16.13. yadi = if; raamaH = Rama; asyaaH kR^ite = for Her sake; parivartayet = turns upside down; mediniim = earth; samudraantaam = with the ocean at the end;jagat ca api = and the entire universe; yuktam iti = it is fair; eva me matiH = this is my opinion.

“If Sri Rama for Her sake turns upside down the earth with the ocean at the end, and the entire universe it is fair, this is my opinion.”

[ Selected Verses – Sri Ranganji]

५-१६-१४ राज्यमं वा त्रिषु लोकेषु

राज्यं वा त्रिषु लोकेषु सीता वा जनकात्मजा |त्रैलोक्यराज्यम सकलं सीताया नाप्नुयात् कलाम् || ५-१६-१४

त्रिषु लोकेषु, राज्यं वा, जनक+आत्मजा सीता वा ? त्रैलोक्य+राज्यं सकलं, सीताया: कलाम्, न आप्नुयात् |

5.16.14. triSu lokeSu = among three worlds; raajyam vaa = kingdom or; siitaa vaa = Seetha; janakaatmaja = the daughter of Janaka; sakalam trailokya raajyam = all the kingdom of three worlds; na aapnuyaat = will not approach; siitaayaaH kalaam = a sixteenth part of Seetha.

“Among three worlds, if it is a choice between kingdom or Seetha, the daughter of Janaka, all the kingdom of three worlds will not approach a sixteenth part of Seetha.”

[ Selected Verses – Sri Ranganji]

५-१६-१८ धर्मज्ञस्य कृतज्ञस्य

धर्मज्ञस्य कृतज्ञस्य रामस्य विदितात्मनः | इयं सा दयिता भार्या राक्षसीवशमागता || ५-१६-१८

इयम्, सा, धर्मज्ञस्य कृतज्ञस्य विदित+आत्मनः रामस्य दयिता भार्या,  राक्षसी वशम् आगता |

5.16.18. iyam = this (in female gender); dayitaa bhaaryaa = dear wife; raamasya = of Rama; dharmaj~nasya = the righteous one; kR^itaj~nasya = grateful one; vidita aatmanaH = knower of Self; aagataa = has obtained; raakSasii vasam = capture of demonesses.

“This dear wife of Rama, the righteous one, grateful one, knower of Self has obtained capture of demonesses.”

2007.04

५-१६-२५ नैषा पश्यति

नैषा पश्यति राक्षस्यो नेमान् पुष्पफलद्रुमान् | एकस्थहृदया नूनं राममेवानुपश्यति || ५-१६-२५

एषा राक्षस्य: न पश्यति | इमान् पुष्पफलद्रुमान् न (पश्यति) | एकस्थ+हृदया रामम् एव अनुपश्यति (इति) नूनं |

5.16.25. eSaa = She; na pashyati = is not seeing; raakSasyaH = demonesses; na = not; puSpa phala drumaan = flowers; fruits or trees; ekastha hR^idayaa= with a single heart; raamam eva anupashyati = is meditating only on Sri Rama; nuunam = this is sure.

“She is not seeing demonesses, not flowers, fruits or trees and with a single heart is meditating only on Sri Rama – this is sure.”

[ selected verses ] [Nochur]

५-१६-२६ भर्ता नाम परम्

भर्ता नाम परं नार्या भूषणं भूषणादपि | एषा हि रहिता तेन शोभनार्हा न शोभते || ५-१६-२६

भूषणात् अपि नार्याः परं भूषणं भर्ता नाम | तेन रहिता, शोभन+अर्हा हि, एषा, न शोभते |

5.16.26. bhartaa naama = husband is; hi = indeed; param bhuuSaNam = the greatest adornment; naaryaaH = for a woman; bhuuSaNaad api = greater than jewellery; eSaa = this Seetha; shobhana arhaa = though deserving of decoration; na shobhate = is not looking charming; tena rahitaa = without Sri Rama.

“Husband is indeed the greatest adornment for a woman greater than jewellery; this Seetha though deserving of decoration, is not looking charming without Sri Rama.”

2009.04, 2010.04, 2012.03

५-१७-४..५-१७-८ दिदृक्षमाणो वैदेहीं हनुमान्

दिदृक्षमाणो वैदेहीं हनुमान् मारुतात्मजः | स ददर्शाविदूरस्था राक्षसीर्घोरदर्शनाः || ५-१७-४
एकाक्षीमेककर्णां च कर्णप्रावरणाम् तथा | अकर्णां शङ्कुकर्णां च मस्तकोच्छ्वासनासिकाम् || ५-१७-५
अतिकायोत्तमाङ्गीं च तनुदीर्घशिरोधराम् | ध्वस्तकेशीं तथाकेशीं केशकम्बलधारिणीम् || ५-१७-६
लम्बकर्णललाटां च लम्बोदरपयोधराम् | लम्बोष्ठीं चुबुकोष्ठीं च लम्बास्यां लम्बजानुकाम् || ५-१७-७
ह्रस्वां दीर्घां च कुब्जां विकटां वामनां तथा | करालां भुग्नवक्त्रां च पिङ्गाक्षीं विकृताननाम् || ५-१७-८

सः, वैदेहीम् दिदृक्षमाणः, मारुतात्मजः, हनुमान्, अविदूरस्थाः, राक्षसीः, घोरदर्शनाः, एक+अक्षीम्, एक+कर्णां च, तथा कर्ण+प्रावरणाम्, अकर्णां, शङ्कु+कर्णां च, मस्तक+उच्छ्वास+नासिकाम्, अतिकायोत्तमाङ्गीं च, तनु+दीर्घ+शिर+उधराम्, ध्वस्त+केशीं, तथा अकेशीं, केश+कम्बल+धारिणीं, लम्ब+कर्ण+ललाटां च, लम्ब+उदर+पयोधराम् | लम्ब+उष्ठीं,  चुबुक+उष्ठीं च, लम्ब+आस्याम्, लम्ब+जानुकाम्, ह्रस्वां, दीर्घां च, कुब्जां, विकटां, तथा वामनां, करालां, भुग्न+वक्त्रां च, पिङ्ग+अक्षीं, विकृत+आननां, ददर्श |

5.17.4; 5.17.5; 5.17.6; 5.17.7; 5.17.8. maarutaatmajaH = Hanuman; didR^ikshamaaNaH = wanting to see; vaidehiim = Seetha; dadarsha = saw; aviduurasthaa = nearby; raakshasiiH = ogresses; ghora darshanaaH = with horrible appearance; ekaakshiim = (ogress) with one eye; ekakarNaam cha = and (another) with a single ear; tathaa = and also; karNapraavaraNaam = one with ears as covering body; saN^ku karNaam = with conch shell like ears; mastakochchvaasa naasikaam = one with fattened nose up to head; Atikāyōttamāṅgīṁ  = one with the main organ surpassing the body ; tanu diirgha shirodharaam = one with a lean and long neck; dhvastakesiim = one with disheveled hair; tathaa = and also; akeshiim = one without hair; keshakambala dhaariNiim = one with hair like a blanket; lamba karNa lalaataam cha = one with hanging ears and forehead; Lamba udara payōdharām = one with hanging stomach and breasts; lamboshhThiim = one with hanging lips; chubukoshhThiim = one with lips at chin; lambaasyaam = one with hanging face; lambajaanukaam = with hanging knees; hrasvaam = one who is short; diirghaam = one who is tall; tathaa = and also; kubjaam = hunch backed one; vikaTaam = one who is distorted; vaamanaam = one is dwarf; tathaa = and also; karaalaam = one with high teeth; bhugna vaktraam cha = and one with crooked mouth; piN^gaakshiim = one with green eyes; vikR^itaananaam = one with a horrible face.

Hanuman wanting to see Seetha saw nearby ogresses with horrible appearance – one with one eye; one with a single ear and also one with ears as covering; one with conch shell like ears; one with fattened nose up to head; one with the main organ surpassing the body; one with lean and long neck; one with disheveled hair and also one without hair; one with blanket like hair; one with hanging ears and forehead; one with hanging stomach and breasts; one with hanging face; one with hanging lips; one with lips at chin; one with hanging face; one with hanging knees; one who is short; one who is tall and also hunch backed one; one who is distorted; a dwarf one and also one with high teeth and one with crooked mouth, one with green eyes and one with a horrible face.

[nochur]

५-१९-१४ पद्मिनीमिव

पद्मिनीमिव विध्वस्तां हतशूरां चमूमिव |प्रभामिव तमोध्वस्तामुपक्षीणामिवापगाम् || ५-१९-१४

विध्वस्तां पद्मिनीम् इव, हतशूरां चमूम् इव,  तमोध्वस्तां प्रभां इव, उपक्षीणाम् अपगाम् इव (सीता आसीत्) |

5.19.14. padminiimiva = (Seetha was) like a lotus; vidhvastaam = destroyed; chamuumiva = like an army; hata shuraam = with killed warriors; prabhaamiva = like light; tamodhvastaam = destroyed by darkness; apaagaamiva = like a river; upakshiiNaam = vanished.

Seetha was like a lotus destroyed, like an army with killed warriors, like light destroyed by darkness, like vanished river.

2011.03

५-१९-३ आच्छाद्योदरमूरुभ्याम्

आच्छाद्योदरमूरुभ्यां बाहुभ्यां च पयोधरौ | उपविष्टा विशालाक्षी रुदन्ती वरवर्णिनी || ५-१९-३

ऊरुभ्याम् उदरम् आच्छाद्य, बाहुभ्यां पयोधरौ च, विशालाक्षी, वरवर्णिनी, रुदन्ती उपविष्टा |

5.19.3. vishaalaakshii = The wide eyed Seetha; varavarNinii = with excellent color; aachchhaadya = covering; udaram = stomach; uurubhyaam = with thighs; payodharau = breasts; baahubhyaam = with hands; upavisshTaa = sat down; rudantii = crying.

The wide eyed Seetha with excellent color covering stomach with thighs and breasts with hands sat down crying.

५-१९-७ समीपं राजसिम्हस्य

समीपं राजसिम्हस्य रामस्य विदितात्मनः | सङ्कल्पहयसम्युक्तैर्यान्तीमिव मनोरथैः || ५-१९-७

सङ्कल्प+हय+संयुक्तै: मनः+रथै:, राज+सिम्हस्य विदित+आत्मन: रामस्य, समीपं, यान्तीम् इव, (सीता आसीत्) ||

5.19.6. yaantiimiva = (Seetha) Was as though going; samiipam = near; raamasya = to Rama; raajasimhasya = a lion among kings; viditaatmanaH = with a famous personality; manorathaiH = with desires as chariot; samkalpahayasamyuktaiH = tied with thoughts as horses

Seetha was as though going near Ramaa, who was a lion among kings, who was a famous personality, with desires as chariot tied with thoughts as horses.

[ Selected Verses – Sri Ranganji]

५-२०-३ कामये त्वाम्

कामये त्वाम् विशालाक्षि बहुमन्यस्व मां प्रिये | सर्वाङ्गगुणसम्पन्ने सर्वलोकमनोहरे || ५-२०-३

विशालाक्षि | प्रिये | सर्वाङ्ग+गुण+सम्पन्ने | सर्वलोकमनोहरे | त्वाम् (अहं) कामये | मां (त्वं) बहुमन्यस्व |

5.20.3. vishaalakshii = O wide eyed one!; sarvaaN^ga guNa sampanne = O one who is endowed with bodily excellencies; sarva loka manohare = pleasing to all people; tvaam kaamaye = I desire you; priye = O lovable one!; maam bahumayasva = respect me.

“O wide eyed one! O one endowed with bodily excellencies, O one pleasing to all people. I desire you. O lovable one! Respect me.”

५-२०-१९ जनकाय प्रदास्यामि

जनकाय प्रदास्यामि तव हेतोर्विलासिनि | ५-२०-१९
विलासिनि  | तव हेतोः (पृथिवीं) जनकाय प्रदास्यामि |

5.20.19. vilaasini = O charmful lady!;  tava hetoH = for your sake; pradaasyaami = I can give; janakaaya = to king Janaka.

“O charmful lady! Conquering the entire earth … for your sake, I can give to king Janaka.

[Nochur]

५-२१-३ तृणमन्तरतः कृत्वा

तृणमन्तरतः कृत्वा प्रत्युवाच शुचिस्मिता | ५-२१-३
शुचि+स्मिता, तृणम् अन्तरतः कृत्वा, प्रत्युवाच |

5.21.2. shuchi smitaa = with pleasant smiles;  kR^itvaa = making; tR^iNam = a grass straw; antarataH = in between (herself and Ravana); pratyuvaacha = spoke in reply.

With pleasant smiles, Seetha, placing a straw in between herself and Ravana, spoke thus in reply.

Reason 1 – Offering seat for guest; 2 – screen in the middle; 3 – before you and grass are same; 4 – bhagavan can come out of the grass also like narasimha; 5 – sukraachaarya who tried to stop Bali was blinded in one eye using a grass by Vaamana; 6 – Rama used a grass to make it a brahmastaram to punish the crow that poked Sita; 7 – it is a witness to my chastity and your bad behavior; 8 – use it to build house once Lanka is burnt; 9 – I myself can order it to burn you and Lanka.

[Dushyant] [Nochur]

५-२१-३ निवर्तय मनो मत्तः

निवर्तय मनो मत्तः स्वजने क्रियतां मनः || ५-२१-३ न मां प्रार्थयितुं युक्तं सुसिद्धिमिव पापकृत् |

मत्तः मनः निवर्तय | मनः स्वजने क्रियताम् | मां प्रार्थयितुं न युक्तम् | पापकृत् सुसिद्धिमिव |

5.21.3. nivartaya = turn back; manaH = mind; mattaH = from me; manaH kriyataam = let your mind be made; svajaH = on your own wives; susiddhimiva = like best emancipation; paapakR^it = (for) a sinner; na yuktam = it is not appropriate; praarthayitum = to pray; maam = me.

Turn your mind away from me and fix it on your wives. You should not expect to seek me just as a sinner cannot hope to seek blessedness.

५-२१-४ अकार्यं न मया

अकार्यं न मया कार्यमेकपत्न्या विगर्हितम् || ५-२१-४ कुलं सम्प्राप्तया पुण्यं कुले महति जातया |

महति कुले जातया, पुण्यं कुलमं सम्प्राप्तया, एकपत्न्या, मया, विगर्हितम् अकार्यं न कार्यम् |

5.21.4. jaatayaa = I was born; mahati = in a great; kule = family; saMpraaptayaa = getting; punyam = meritorious; kulam = family; ekapatnyaa = having one husband; akaaryam = a bad deed; vigarhitam = which is blameable; na kaaryam = is not to be made; mayaa = by me.

“I was born in a great family. Getting such meritorious family, having one husband, a bad deed which is blameable is not to be made by me.”

Context: Sita tells Ravana on why his request for submitting herself to him is not proper.

५-२१-६ नाहमौपयिकी भार्या

नाहमौपयिकी भार्या परभार्या सती तव || ५-२१-६ साधु धर्ममवेक्षस्व साधु साधुव्रतम् चर |

परभार्या सती अहं औपयिकी तव भार्या न | धर्मम् साधु अवेक्षस्व | साधु+व्रतम् साधु चर |

5.21.6. aham = I; parabharyaa = who am wife of another; satii = and devoted to husband; na = am not; aupaikii = suitable; bhaaryaa = wife; tava = to you; avekshasva = observe; dharmam = righteousness; saadhu = well; chara = follow; saadhuvratam = course of conduct of virtuous; saadhu = well.

“I who am wife of another and devoted to husband am not suitable wife to you. Observe righteousness well. Follow well course of conduct of virtuous.”

५-२१-१५ शक्या लोभयितुम्

शक्या लोभयितुं नाहमैश्वर्येण धनेन वा || ५-२१-१५ अनन्या राघवेणाहं भास्करेण प्रभा यथा |

अहम् ऐश्वर्येण धनेन वा लोभयितुं न शक्या | यथा भास्करेण प्रभा, राघवेण अहं अनन्या |

2.21.15. aham = I; na shakyaa = am not capable; lobhayitum = to be tempted; aisvaryeNa = by wealth; dhanena vaa = or by money;aham = I; ananyaa = am not separate; raaghaveNa = with Raghava; prabhaa yathaa = like the sun-shine; bhaaskareNa = with the sun.

“I am not capable to be tempted by wealth or by money. I am not separate with Raghava like the sun-shine with the sun.”

५-२१-२० विदितः स हि

विदितः स हि धर्मज्ञः शरणागतवत्सलः || ५-२१-२० तेन मैत्री भवतु ते यदि जीवितुमिच्चसि |

स: धर्मज्ञ: शरण+आगत+वत्सल: (इति) विदित: | यदि (त्वं) जीवितुम् इच्छसि तेन (सह) ते मैत्री भवतु ||

2.21.20. saH = He (Rama); dharmajJNaH = the righteous one; viditaH hi = is indeed known; sharaNaagatavatsalaH = as one who loves those who seek protection; ichchhasi yadi = if you desire; jiivitam = to live; maitrii bhavatu = let there be friendhip; te = to you; tena = with Rama.

“Rama the righteous one is indeed known as one who loves those who seek protection. If you desire to live, let there be friendship between you and Rama.”

[ Selected Verses – Sri Ranganji]

५-२२-९ प्रातराशार्थमालभन्ते

ऊर्ध्वं द्वाभ्यां तु मासाभ्यां भर्तारम् मामनिच्चतीम् | मम त्वां प्रातराशार्थमालभन्ते महानसे || ५-२२-९

ऊर्ध्वं द्वाभ्यां तु मासाभ्यां भर्तारम् मामनिच्चतीम् | मम त्वां प्रातराशार्थमालभन्ते महानसे |

  1. uurdhvam= above;dvaabhyaam maasaabhyaaM = two months; tvaam = you; anichchhatiim = not desiring; mama = me; bhartaaram = as husband;aalabhante = will be killed; mahaanase = in my kitchen; mama praataraashaartham = for my breakfast.

“Above two months you not desiring me as husband will be killed in my kitchen for my breakfast.”

[Nochur]

५-२२-२० भस्म भर्मार्ह तेजसा

असंदेशात्तु रामस्य तपसश्चानुपालनात् | न त्वां कुर्मि दशग्रीव भस्म भर्मार्ह तेजसा || ५-२२-२०

दशग्रीव | रामस्य असंदेशात् तु तपसः अनुपालनात् च भर्मार्ह त्वां तेजसा भस्म न कुर्मि |

  1. dashagriiva= O Ravana!;bhasmaarha = (although you are) suited to be burnt into ashes; asaMdeshaat = not having mandate; raamasya = of Rama; anupaalanaat = (and) preserving; tapasaH = austerity; na kurmi = I am not making; tvaam bhasmam = you into ashes; tejasaa = (with my) glory.

“O Ravana! Although you are suited to be burnt into ashes, not having the mandate of Rama and preserving austerity, I am not reducing you into ashes with my glory.”

[Nochur]

५-२२-२१ नापहर्तुमहं शक्या

नापहर्तुमहं शक्या त्वया रामस्य धीमतः |विधिस्तव वधार्थाय विहितो नात्र संशयः || ५-२२-२१

धीमतः रामस्य  अहं, त्वया अपहर्तुम् शक्या न  | तव वधार्थाय विधिः विहितः | अत्र संशयः न |

5.22.21. dhiimataH = wise; raamasya = Rama’s; aham = I; na shakyaa = am not capable of being; apahartum = abducted; tvayaa = by you; vidhiH = (this) act; vihitaH = has been made; tava = for your; vadhaarthaaya = slaying; atra = in this; na saMshayaH = there is no doubt.

“I belong to wise Rama. I am not capable of being abducted by you. This act has been made for your slaying. In this there is no doubt.”

Context: “O Ravana! Although you are suited to be burnt into ashes, not having the mandate of Rama and preserving austerity, I am not reducing you into ashes with my glory.”

2008.04, 2014.05

References

Answers for Essay questions

RAMAYANAM

  1. Why the name Sundarakandam? Sundarakandasyamahatvam.

SundaresundarilankaasundaresundarikathaaI

Sundaresundariseethasundarekimnasundaramll

सुन्दरे सुन्दरो रामः, सुन्दरे सुन्दरी कथा,

सुन्दरे सुन्दरी सीता सुन्दरे सुन्दरं वनम्।

सुन्दरे सुन्दरं काव्यं सुन्दरे सुन्दरः कपिः

सुन्दरे सुन्दरं मन्त्रं सुन्दरे किं न सुन्दरम्॥

Tilakaa

Beautiful. Sundara rama, sundara sita. Hanuman’s original name was Sundara.

 

Explain.

Sundarakandam is the 5th kandam of Srimad Ramayanam composed by Maharshi Valmiki comprising of  68 sargas and 2885 verses. The very name given to it is distinct from other kandams. In other kandams the names clearly and unambiguously relate to the places where the events took place or to the occasions to which the subject matter refers. A number of speculative interpretations and explanations are available to substantiate the name Sundarakandam.

  1. Literary excellence [shabdasaundarya and kavyasaundarya] of the kanda. It marks the acme of Valmiki’s literary and poetic excellence.
  2. It relieved Sita of her sorrows and so is considered as sundara.
  3. It is believed that Hanuman’s real name was Sundara.
  4. The recovery of something that has been lost is referred to as sundara, hence the name. nashtadravyasyalaabho hi sundarahaprakeertitaha.
  5. Scenic beauty of Lanka. Description of the landscapes, gardens, pushpakavimana, abundant wealth and prosperity of Ravana’s kingdom.
  6. Hanuman’s description of Rama [who does not appear in this kanda].
  7. Previously Hanuman would have wondered as to why Rama was so sorrowful for having lost his wife. On seeing Sita, her beauty and her chastity make him realise that Rama and Sita are meant for each other only.

Sundara Kandam is the fifth section of Ramayana (the story of Lord Rama) written by Sage Valmiki and comprises of 2885 verses spread in 68 chapters. “Sundara” as we all know in the literary sense means ‘beautiful’ and  ‘Kandam’ means ‘section’. The sage has called this section a “beautiful section” of Ramayana possibly because: –

 

  1. This part of Ramayana contains poetic descriptions of several beautiful objects, places and people. Whether the poet describes, Sri Lanka, Pushpaka Vimana, The Asoka forest, The Madhu Vana, Hanuman, Sita, Rama, Ravana, or the moonrise, he goes in to poetic rapture. For example describing the moon in the 5th chapter he writes:-

 

Then the intelligent Hanuman saw the moon, which was in the center of the sky, which was with rays and which was spreading the sheet of moon light, like an enthusiastic bull wandering in its stable.                                                                    1

 

Then he saw the moon, which destroys the sorrows of the world, which increased the levels of the great sea and which traveled by giving light to all beings.                        2

 

That Goddess Lakshmi who shined normally on the Mandhara Mountain of earth, in the sea during dusk and on the lotus in the ponds, at that time shined sitting on the moon. 3

 

The moon in the sky was similar to the swan in the sliver cage, lion in the caves of Mandhara Mountain and the heroic soldier sitting on proud elephant.                       4

 

The moon, which was full of all its crescents, resembled the bullock with its sharpened horns, the silver mountain with its peaks, and the elephant whose tusks were decorated by gold.                                                                                                 5

 

That moon who did not loose the luster due to dense dew drops, who had borrowed light from the sun by which he drove away darkness, who was serving the luminous Lakshmi in his crystal clear mien and who had the rabbit mark, shined in the sky.  6

 

The moon shone with great light like the lion climbing on the stone clusters, like the great elephant reaching the war and like the king getting his kingdom.                      7

 

  1. This section is about the exploits of Hanuman who was an extremely beautiful person as the poet describes him as “a shining handsome person made of Gold”. Hanuman also has a name –“Sundara”

III. It is in this section that a full comprehensive description of Sri Rama, possibly the most handsome person ever born is given (chapter 35) and so the sage must have thought that this deserves that name.

The reason why it is called Sundara Kanda is possibly best given by one of the greatest commentators of Sundara Kanda viz. Tilaka. He says

 

Sundare Sundari Lanka, Sundare Sundari Katha,

Sundare sundari Sita, Sundare kim na Sundaram?

 

Beautiful among the most beautiful is Sri Lanka,

Beautiful among the most beautiful is the Story,

Beautiful among the most beautiful is Sita,

What is there in it, which is not beautiful?

According to the belief of Hindus, Sundara Kandam is a mine where we can draw powers to support oneself in all worldly situations. People believe that reading or hearing the story is a panacea and final solution for all ills and all problems.

Sundara Kanda is one such chapter that does not clearly tell what is there in the chapter. Only in separation, Love can blossom.

 

  1. While crossing Lanka, Hanuman faced three types of hindrance
    1. Bandhu shatru – hindrances caused by friends due to their attachment. Touch and go. Handle with diplomacy.
    2. Prarabda karma – if you try to find a way, it will grow bigger. The only option is to enter and come out with a namaskara. It will give you vairaagya and bless for future.
    3. Doosha – kaama, kroda, etc.They will catch your shadow. Give them a big blow with all the strength.
    4. Mainaka was won by beautiful diplomatic words. Surasa was won by will power. Simhika by Rama namam and strength.

 

Importance of Sundarakanda:

  1. Finding Sita is the high point in the whole of Ramayana.
  2. It conveys a sense of hope and infuses fresh energy to people in despair.
  3. Never-say-die spirit of Hanuman. Moral conveyed through it is, that determination and sincere effort never fails.
  4. Hanuman in this section has been described as one for whom nothing is impossible, and as one who is the embodiment of faith, devotion, and loyalty to the master, fearlessness and self-confidence. The story points out that, success is the outcome of such an attitude. It teaches us that, if we want to be successful in life we have to combine the above qualities
  5. As a piece of literary work it is overflowing with shabda saundarya and kavya saundarya with undertones of dhvani.
  6. All nine rasas are employed effectively. Karuna rasa which is the predominant rasa of the entire kavya is seen in the grieving Sita. Sringara in Ravana’s insane love for Sita [rasaabhasa], Sita longing for Rama [vipralamba]. Vira rasa exemplified in Hanuman, Akshakumara and Indrajit. Simhika, Lankini and other Rakshasiskeeping guard of Sita generate Bhibhatsa, Raudra, Bhayanaka and at times Hasya Discovery of Sita, acceptance of Chudamani and successful return of Hanuman generates Adbhuta rasa. The sense of peace experienced by Rama on hearing that Sita was indeed alive makes one experience Shanta rasa.
  7. Children enjoy while listening to Hanuman’s heroic feat, description of the ugliness of the rakshasis, monkeys rejoicing in Madhuvana after Hanuman’s return.
  8. Spiritually Sundarakanda is understood at a different level. It is said that Rama is the paramatma, Sita is the jeevatma who has been forcefully taken away by the 10 headed Ravana. The 10 heads of Ravana are indicative of the 5 Indriyas and 5 Indriyarthas. The ultimate aim is to reach the paramatma and that is possible only by the grace of a Acharya or guru. Hanuman is considered as the Acharya here as he is instrumental in the union of Sita with Rama.
  9. HanumatahasaagarollanghanamvarNayata

ततोरावणनीतायाःसीतायाःशत्रुकर्शनः |
इयेषपदमन्वेष्टुंचारणाचरितेपथि ||५-१-१

Hanuman then resolved to travel through air, the path travelled by the charanas, in search of Sita who was taken away by Ravana. Standing on the foot of that great mountain by the name of Mahendra, he saluted with joined palms to the Sun-God, Lord Indra, God of Wind, Lord Brahma and Bhutas and decided to leave. He grew immeasurable in size and pressed the mountain hard. Mountain covered with flowers, shone of minerals.

समहासत्त्वसंनादःशैलपीडानिमित्तजः |
पृथिवींपूरयामासदिशश्चोपवनानिच ||५-१-१८

That loud noise from creatures which emanated because of stress caused to the mountain filled the earth and all four directions and forests near that mountain.

ननादसुमहानादंसुमहानिवतोयदः || ५-१-३२

He, who is equal to a mountain, shook his hair, quivered his body and let out a great roar like from a vast cloud. He resolved to return with success only. Either return with Sita or bring Ravana as a prisoner. He flew with a lot of vigour.

प्रस्थितंदीर्घमध्वानंस्वबन्धमिवबान्धवाः || ५-१-४७

The trees thus being held aloft by the speed of Hanuman’s thighs, followed him for a while just as relatives would follow their loved ones embarking on a long journey. That Hanuman who was equal to a cloud, covered with flowers of various kinds, shoots and buds, shone like a mountain with fireflies.

पिबन्निवबभौचापिसोओर्मिमालंमहार्णवम् || ५-१-५७
पिपासुरिवचाकाशंददृशेसमहाकपिः |

That great monkey shone like one who is drinking the great sea together with its waves. He also seemed like one who desires to drink the whole of sky. His eyes shone like 2 fires on a mountain. Reddish face shone like sun,  raised tail looked like a pillar erected for Indra. He looked like a meteor darting with full speed.

दशयोजनविस्तीर्णात्रिंशद्योजनमायता |
छायावानरसिंहस्यजलेचारुतराभवत् || ५-१-७६

Hanuma’s shadow which was ten yojanas wide and thirty yojanas long appeared very beautiful on water. Hanuma who is repeatedly entering and leaving series of clouds as He flies in the sky, is being seen like the moon who shines and is hidden alternately. Then, the Sun did not scorch Hanuma, the best among Vanaras, who was flying for Rama’s welfare. The wind god Vayu also served him with a delightful breeze.

Hanuman stopped by Mainakaparvata who wanted to offer shelter for the traveller. The ocean which feels indebted to Ikshvakukula wants to oblige Hanuman who is in service of Rama.  Mainaka owed a lot to Vayu deva [mainaka was protected by Vayu from the vajrayudha of Indra] and so wanted to oblige Hanuman.

Devas Gandharvas and siddhas command Surasa the mother of Nagas to obstruct Hanuman’s path, in order to test his courage, intelligence and strength.

अहंत्वाभक्षयिष्यामिप्रविशेदंममाननम् || ५-१-१५१

Surasa incident speaks about hanuman’s presence of mind and intelligence.

Simhika the demoness who can assume any form wants to devour Hanuman and so grasps the shadow of Hanuman. He feels powerless[being dragged] and turns around and sees her. He remembers Sugriva warning him about her.

ग्रस्यमानंयथाचन्द्रंपूर्णंपर्वणिराहुणा || ५-१-१९३

Siddhas and Charanas saw Hanuma sinking in her mouth, like the full moon on a full moon day being swallowed by Rahu.

यस्यत्वेतानिचत्वारिवानरेन्द्रयथातव || ५-१९८
धृतिर्दृष्टिर्मतिर्दाक्ष्यंसकर्मसुनसीदति |

He who has determination [perseverance], keen sight, intelligence and patience never fails. That Hanuman the respectable one, thus respected by them [charanas, vidyadharasetc], entered the sky and went like the Garuda with a determined goal.

 

  1. HanumatahalankaapureepraveshavarNanam

He first diminishes his size, not wanting to arouse the curiosity of the rakshasas [compared to Vamanamurthi]. He alighted on a rocky cliff and then he saw the city of Lanka, which resembled Amaravathi [dadarshalankaamamaraavateemiva]

General description of the Trikutaparvatha, which had many trees, flowering plants, beautiful gardens, crystal lakes, tanks with red and white lotuses, swans, cranes. City was surrounded by a moat which was full of lilies and was well guarded by men with bow and arrows.

City was built on the summit of a hill by architect Vishwakarma.

Moon shining in the sky seemed like a swan swimming in the blue waters of a lake. Rakshasas guarding the city made it look like the capital of nether world guarded by uragas. Gates made of gold, threshold inlaid with rubies, gems, and precious stones.

Lanka was lighted all through and there was no patch of darkness. He meets the guardian deity of Lanka. He leaped over the city wall and placed his left foot as if he placed it on the enemy’s head [chakrethapaadamsavyam cha shatrunaamsatumurdhani]

Lofty mansions, sounds of laughter, musical instruments, trumpets, sweet voices of women, jingling sounds of anklets, clapping hands, roaring with joy, vedic chants, Ravana’s praises were all heard.

Mansions covered with gold walls, decorated with gems, floral wreaths, and built in padma or swastika style of architecture. There were well decorated elephants stationed apart from various kinds of chariots, carriages, vehicles and horses.

He found the nishacharas sweet speeched and theistic. Differently dresses, pure generous and pious wives, devoted to their husbands, wearing garlands and ornaments.

 

  1. sitaanveshaNeviphalamanorathasyahanumatahamaanasikamsthitimvishadayata / HanumatvishaadamvarNayata.

In the first sarga he resolves to return only with success.

अदृश्यताम्जनकसुताम्सुपूजिताम् |
सुदुह्खिताम्पतिगुणवेगनिर्जिताम् || ५-७-१६

In the 7th sarga after looking into Ravana’s palace and the pushpakavimana, Hanuman became very gloomy on not seeing that Seetha well worshipped by all and greatly conquered by the virtues of Her husband Sri Rama

अपश्यतो अभवद् अतिदुह्खितम्मनः |

In the 9th sarga, after seeing Ravana and all his wives, Hanuman realises that all the women were in love with Ravana only and they were not abducted like Seeta. He has not forced any one of them and all of them have voluntarily surrendered to him. He feels that Ravana should not have abducted Seeta and instead he should have let Rama and Seeta live happily together. Hanuma became gloomy and thought thus: “Seetha is definitely the best by virtues; then this lord of Lanka even though being great otherwise, did an evil and an un-gentlemanly deed with her.

In the 10thsarga, He mistakes Mandodari to be Seeta due to over anxiousness and rejoices for a moment. But the joy is short-lived as he realises his mistake.

नरामेणवियुक्तासास्वप्तुम्अर्हतिभामिनी |
नभोक्तुम्नअपिअलम्कर्तुम्नपानम्उपसेवितुम् || ५-११-२
न अन्यम्नरम्उपस्थातुम्सुराणाम्अपिचईश्वरम् |
नहि रामसमः कश्चिद्विद्यते त्रिदशेष्वपि || ५-११-३

That Seetha is not suitable to sleep separated from Rama, will not eat, will not decorate also, not suited to drink a beverage, to reach another man even though if he were Indra because there is indeed no one equalling Rama even among gods.

Hanuman thinks that probably Seeta is dead.

सचिन्तयाम्आसततोमहाकपिः |
प्रियाम्अपश्यन्रघुनन्दनस्यताम् |
ध्रुवम्नुसीताम्रियतेयथानमे |
विचिन्वतोदर्शनम्एतिमैथिली || ५-१२-२

That great Hanuman then later not seeing that Seetha dear to Rama thought thus: “to me searching Seetha in whatever way appearance not being obtained, from that Seetha definitely has died.”

“That Seetha standing in the best traditional path being chaste interested, in preserving her character must have been killed by the king of these Rakshasas who performed evil deeds – this is certain.”

“That daughter of King Janaka died of fear seeing the wives of Ravana with crooked appearances – horrible ones without radiance with great faces with long and crooked eyes.”

नमेअस्तिसुग्रीवसमीपगागतिः |
सुतीक्ष्णदण्डोबलवामःचवानरः || ५-१२-५

I cannot go back in front of Sugreeva, unsuccessfully, for he is sure to punish.

दृष्टम् अन्तःपुरम्सर्वम्दृष्ट्वा रावणयोषितः |
न सीता दृश्यते साध्वी वृथा जातो मम श्रमः || ५-१२-६

“All inner city has been seen. Women of Ravana have been seen. The chaste Seetha has not been seen. My effort became wasteful.”

He is worried about being unable to answer the questions of other vanaras, Jambavan, Angada etc.

Self consolation by Hanuman

अनिर्वेदः श्रियो मूलम् अनिर्वेदः परम्सुखम् |
अनिर्वेदोहि सततम्सर्व अर्थेषु प्रवर्तकः || ५-१२-१०

“Non-depression is root of development. Absence of despondency is the greatest comfort. Self-reliance always is indeed the promoter in all matters.”

उद्योगम्वानरइन्द्राणम्प्लवनम्सागरस्यच |
व्यर्थम्वीक्ष्यअनिलसुतःचिन्ताम्पुनर्उपागमत् || ५-१२-२४

Seeing the effort of the best Vanaras and the crossing of ocean as being wasted, Hanuma got depression again.

What might have happened to Sita

क्षिप्रम्उत्पततोमन्येसीताम्आदायरक्षसः || ५-१३-७
बिभ्यतोरामबाणानाम्अन्तरापतिताभवेत् |

“I think while Ravana fearing Rama’s arrows flew quickly carrying Seetha, she might have fallen down in the middle of the journey.” “Or I think the heart of the noble Seetha being stolen in the path served by Siddhas must have sunk at the site of the ocean.” “I think due to great speed of Ravana and due to the torture of Ravana’s shoulders the life has been given up by that noble one with wide eyes.” “Then while being flown upon the surface of the ocean, Seetha definitely fell down in the ocean while wriggling.””Or has the austere Seetha been eaten by this Ravana, the evil minded one while she was protecting her chastity without any relatives near her.””Otherwise not being evil with black eyes, She may have been eaten by the wives of Ravana with evil thoughts.””The pitiable Seetha equaling full moon, with eyes equaling lotus petals must have obtained death while meditating upon Rama’s face.””The daughter of Videha, Seetha. “O Rama! O Lakshmana! O Ayodhya!”, thus weeping greatly may have given up her body.”

Consequences of telling Rama that Sita might have died

विनष्टावाप्रनष्टावामृतावाजनकआत्मजा || ५-१३-१७
रामस्यप्रियभार्यस्यननिवेदयितुम्क्षमम् |

It is not fair to let know Rama who has a dear wife if Seetha is lost or is not to be seen or has died.”

निवेद्यमानेदोषःस्याद्दोषःस्याद्अनिवेदने || ५-१३-१८
कथम्नुखलुकर्तव्यम्विषमम्प्रतिभातिमे |

To be let known becomes an error; not to let know becomes an error how to perform the duty? To me this seems dire situation.”

 

“Going there by me for Rama, �Seetha has not been seen’ – thus if I say a very unpleasant word thereafter Rama will give up life.” “Hearing bad word belonging to Seetha that is harsh, horrible, cruel, sharp, sense agonizing, He will not exist.””Seeing that Rama being with troubles, being with a heart towards death, Lakshmana, one with great love and an intellectual will not exist.”

If Lakshmana dies, then he feels thatone after the other, Bharata, Shatrugna, the queen mothers, Sugreeva, Ruma, Tara, Angada and the entire Vanarasena will die.

Considering the above possibilities he decides never to go back if he does not find Sita.

एवम्बहुविधम्दुह्खम्मनसाधारयन्मुहुः || ५-१३-४८
नअध्यगच्चत्तदापारम्शोकस्यकपिकुन्जरः |

Hanuman carrying in mind sorrow of various kinds again and again did not get then the crossing of sorrow.

His depression makes him want to kill Ravana who was responsible for the current situation or take him as a prisoner to Rama.

Finally he consoles himself and realises that he has not searched ashokavanam.

  1. Pushpaka Vimana varnanam

पुष्पआह्वयम्नामविराजमानम् |
रत्नप्रभाभिःचविवर्धमानम् |
वेश्मउत्तमानाम्अपिचउच्चमानम् |
महाकपिःतत्रमहाविमानम् || ५-७-११

It has been described as sighted in the 7th sarga of Sundarakanda. There the great Hanuman saw a great aerial car, the best among best of aerial cars, shining with the name of Pushpaka with the rays of precious stones, and capable of traveling long distances. Artificial birds made of cat’s-eye gems, as well as birds made of silver and coral, wonderful serpents made of various jewels, horses of beautiful limbs suitable by their noble breed were arranged. Birds were made with corals on their wings and together with golden flowers, with good wings, with curved and bent wings in a playful way, shining like helpers of the god of love himself. Images of elephants in a lotus-pool with filaments of lotus on body, with lotus petals held in their trunks, were devoted to the worship of an image of Goddess Lakshmi. And also an image of Goddess Lakshmi with four graceful hands and holding lotus in Her hand was made to exist in Pushpaka.

Further detail description in the 8th sarga.

That Hanuman the courageous one, the son of Lord Vayu, saw the great aerial plane standing in the middle of that building with a surprising hue, due to diamonds, and gems decorated by series of refined gold.

तदप्रमेयाप्रतिकारकृत्रिमम् |
कृतम्स्वयम्साध्वितिविश्वकर्मणाः |
दिवम्गतम्वायुपथप्रतिष्ठितम् |
व्यराजतादित्यपथस्यलक्ष्मिवत् || ५-८-२

That plane shone like symbol for solar path standing in the aerial path obtaining the sky. Manufactured by Vishvakarma himself and praised by him as one without comparison in beauty.

In that plane there is not even a small thing that is not made with great effort, in that there is nothing without the best diamonds, those characteristics definitely are not in Devas also, in that there is nothing that is not of great significance.

तपह्समाधानपराक्रमार्जितम् |
मनःसमाधानविचारचारिणम् |
अनेकसंस्थानविषेषनिर्मितम् |
ततस्ततस्तुल्यविशेषदर्शनम् || ५-८-४

One that has been obtained by austerities and by prowess, one that moves about by thoughts of concentrated mind, made from various significant parts with an appearance of parts of equal significance, collected from here and there from all over the world. Hanuman saw that aerial plane which rakshasas who were great eaters, with a face beautified by earnings, who roamed around in the sky and thousands of genii with round eyes, crooked eyes and wide eyes capable of great speed carrying it.

Hanuman saw the best plane with the name of Pushpaka with a more beautiful appearance than a group of flowers during spring, a more attractive appearance than even the spring season.

Whatever wonderful aeroplane by the name of Pushpaka, decorated with all kinds of precious stones, made by Visvakarma in heaven for LordBrahma, whatever plane Kubera obtained by great austerity from Lord Brahma, Ravana obtained that plane by prowess defeating Kubera.

 

  1. RavaNenasitaampratikritampralobhanaprakaaram.

 

Ravana approaches Sita in the 14th sarga. Ravana goes to the Ashokavana followed by a number of his queens. It was like Indra followed by Gandharvas, nymphs and daughters of the Gods. Ravana looked like cupid himself.

In the beginning he is very courteous towards her, trying to convince her to accept him. He says that he will not touch her without her consent. He even pities her current state of lying on the ground, fasting, not wearing clean clothes.

Then he tries to tempt her by offering wealth, vast kingdom, the status of Ravana’s wife. He then boasts about his prowess. How he was able to defeat the combined forces of Devas and Asuras on the battle field.

He says that Rama cannot offer her all these riches and he himself is wandering in the forest. Ravana tells her that Rama may not even be alive. Even if he were to be alive he could never get a chance to see Sita again. He compares it to a crane which cannot have a glimpse of the moon hidden behind the clouds.

Then Sita starts to reply. She speaks about her high born nature, and how she is a devoted wife. She angers him by saying that a man who is not content with his own wife is a slave of senses and only meets with insults. She says that this could be a costly mistake that will destroy the glorious splendour of Lanka sand reduce it to ruins. She asks him to make peace with Rama by sending her back. She warns him about the possible destruction in the hands of Rama.

Ravana is very infuriated to hear Sita’s words. He says, if not for his love to her, he would have punished or even killed her for those words.

He issues a warning. He says that she has 2 months’ time to accept his proposal or face death.

Sita says that she has the power of chastity to reduce him to ashes at that very moment but does not want to do so without Rama’s permission. She tells him that by abducting her he has invited death.

Angered and red eyed, Ravana breathes like a snake and says that he shall destroy her immediately as the sun destroys darkness. He finally commands the rakshasis to work together or separately and devise plans to change Sita’s mind.

We may say that Ravana, the excellent statesman has employed the sama-dana-bheda-dandayukti to convince Sita. Trying to convince her with sweet talk is sama. Offering her wealth, riches, kingdom and status of queen is daana. Telling her that Rama may not be alive, even if he were so he could never possibly cross the ocean and reach Lanka to save her is bheda. Finally the threat to kill her and using the rakshasis to scare her is danda.

 

 

  1. Ashokavanesthitaayaahaseetayaahasthitimvivrunuta.

 

Hanuman spots her in the 12th sarga. She is lean, fasting, continually heaving heavy sighs, devoid of all ornaments, wore a single piece of dirty yellow cloth. She looked emaciated with grief, like reduced wealth, lost respect. She was surrounded by rakshasis like flame enveloped by smoke, she looked like Goddess Lakshmi without the lotus, like the Rohini star under the grip of ketu. Tears were flowing down her cheeks and she was casting restless glances and was sad for absence of Rama. She looked like the moon enveloped by deep blue clouds.

She looked like a start dropped on the earth due to wane of its virtues. Her body was devoid of ornaments yet she shone in the lustre of her lover for her husband. She was like sharad-chandra covered by clouds, she was tainted by dirt just like a soiled lotus.

She has the argument with Ravana. This further increases her grief. After Ravana’s exit the rakshasis try to convince her and threaten her about the untoward possibilities. She is very disturbed and contemplates on giving up her life. She starts lamenting that she has been very unfortunate to undergo such misery. She even feels that may be Rama has forgotten her [out of sight out of mind], or has decided that as an ascetic there was no need for a wife. Or worst case scenario may be Ravana has killed them. With such conflicting thoughts she contemplates suicide. She feels that there is nobody to help her get a sword or poison. So she decides to give up her life by twisting her hair around her neck.

Sita’s emotion ranges from confidence to helplessness that makes her want to end her life. Although she is capable of destroying Ravana, she awaits Rama. She is sure that he will come to her rescue. But as time passes and she is pressurised by Ravana and the rakshasis, her hope begins to fade. She wonders if Rama remembers her, or even if he were alive. These conflicting thoughts make her more depressed and she is driven to consider the extreme step.

 

Grammatical aspects in Bhaja Govindam verse 4 – Nalinidalagatajalamtitaralam

4.नलिनीदलगतजलमतितरलं – “भज गोविन्दम्” श्लोके स्थिता: केचित् व्याकरणविषयाः

श्लोक:

नलिनीदलगतजलमतितरलं

तद्वज्जीवितमतिशयचपलं

विद्धि व्याध्यभिमानग्रस्तं

लोकं शोकहतं च समस्तम्  || ४ ||

पदच्छेद:

नलिनीदलगतजलम्, अतितरलम्, तद्वत्, जीवितम्, अतिशयचपलम्, विद्धि, व्याध्यभिमानग्रस्तम्, लोकम्, शोकहतम्, च, समस्तम्

पदपरिचय:

  • नलिनीदलगतजलम् – अ. नपुं. प्र. एक.
  • अतितरलम् – अ. नपुं. प्र. एक.
  • तद्वत् – अव्ययम्
  • जीवितम् – अ. नपुं. प्र. एक.
  • अतिशयचपलम् – अ. नपुं. प्र. एक.
  • विद्धि  – विद् (विद् ज्ञाने ) पर. लोट्. म. एक.
  • व्याध्यभिमानग्रस्तम् – अ. पुं. द्वि. एक.
  • लोकम् – अ. पुं. द्वि. एक.
  • शोकहतम् – अ. पुं. द्वि. एक.
  • च – अव्ययम्
  • समस्तम् – अ. पुं. द्वि. एक.
  • अन्वय:

नलिनीदलगतजलम् अतितरलं तद्वत् जीवितम् अतिशयचपलं भवति | समस्तं लोकं व्याध्यभिमानग्रस्तं शोकहतं च विद्धि |

सार:

कमलपत्रगतजलकण इव प्राणिनां जीवितं अत्यन्तचपलं भवति | अहं मम इत्यादि अभिमानरूप महाव्याधिना आक्रान्त: अयं प्रपञ्च: इति पस्तुतत्त्वं विजानीहि |

व्याकरणम्

  • सन्धि:
    • तद्वज्जीवितम्
      • तद्वत् = तत् + वत् – जश्त्वसन्धि: |
      • तद्वत् + जीवितम् = तद्वच् + जीवितम् , श्चुत्वसन्धि: |
      • तद्वच् + जीवितम् = तद्वज्जीवितम् , जश्त्वसन्धि: |
  • समास:
    • नलिनीदलगतजलम् – नलिनया: दलम् नलिनीदलम् – षष्टितत्पुरुष: |
      नलिनीदलं गतम् नलिनीदलगतम् – द्वितीयातत्पुरुष: |
      नलिनीदलगतम् जलम् नलिनीदलगतजलम् – विशेषणपूर्वपद कर्मधारय: |
    • व्याध्यभिमानग्रस्तम् – व्याधि: च अभिमानम् च व्याध्यभिमाने  – इतरेतरद्वन्द्व: |व्याध्यभिमानाभ्यां ग्रस्त: व्याध्यभिमानग्रस्त:, तम् – तृतीयातत्पुरुष: |
    • शोकहतम् – शोकेन हतम्, तम् – तृतीयातत्पुरुष: |
  • अन्य विषय:
    • विशेषान-विशेष्यम् – समस्तं लोकम्

Nalinīdalagatajalamatitaralaṁ
tadvajjīvitamatiśayacapalaṁ
vid’dhi vyādhyabhimānagrastaṁ
lōkaṁ śōkahataṁ ca samastam || 4 ||

Earthly existence is as unsteady as a drop of water on lotus leaf. It is nothing but ego and a bundle of diseases. The world is hooded with dark grief and ends in destruction.

Source for the Sanskrit portion – भज गोविन्दम् अथवा मोहमुद्गर:, Sanskrit Commentary by Dr. S. Geethamani Amma and Dr. S. Sobhana (Teachers, Sree Shankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Kerala) published by Parimal publications Delhi.

English Translation by my grandfather, Sri S.R. Venugopalan. Source: Tattva Darsana http://sribharatamatamandir.org/word/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/TATTVA-DARSANA-32-1-January-June-2015.pdf)

Learn Sanskrit – Step by Step (Sambhashana Shibiram, Gita Sopanam, correspondence courses, and ….)

The proper and easiest way for learning Samskrit is to start with the 10-day Sambhashana Shibiram conducted by Samskrit Bharati. There are different google groups for the different parts of Bangalore. The Samskrita Bharati (SB) Karyakarta for the area will get in touch after the registration is done with SB. http://samskritabharati.in/register

Soon after the 10 day shibiram, while the enthusiasm is very high, Samskrit studies should be continued by learning Samskrit through the Samskrit medium which is possible from Gita Sikshana Kendram by way of Gita Sopanam – 1 & 2 and Gita Pravesha – 1 & 2.  These are classes conducted by Samskrita Bharati at different locations in Bangalore. More details about the courses are available here – http://samskritabharati.in/courses/gita-shikshana.

Here is a link to Sri Manish’s blog where this Samskrit Bharati Karyakarta has shared his experiences regarding the Gita Sopanam courses — http://layers7.blogspot.in/2013/12/for-last-2.html

While attending the Gita Sopanam classes, it would be an added advantage to do the correspondence courses – Pravesha, Parichaya, Shiksha and Kovida. The Kovida completion certificate will be helpful for further Sanskrit studies like MA from KSOU. Here is the link for more details – http://samskritabharati.in/courses/correspondence-course

After the 10-day course, while doing Gita Sopanam and the correspondence courses, the next task would be to attend the Sikshaka Prasikshanam. This 10-day residential camp for training the participants to conduct the 10-day Samskrit Sambhashana Shibhiram is conducted once a year in Karnataka. You may contact SB office for more details.

Samskrita Bharati
“Aksharam”
8th cross, 2nd Main,
Giri Nagar, Bangalore India – 560085
Phone: 080-26721052, 26722576, 26421152
Email :samskritam@gmail.com

For those who want to pursue further studies, there are many organisations including KSOU.  I have shared in a separate post the details related to KSOU MA – https://nivedita2015.wordpress.com/2015/09/29/ksou-ma-sanskrit-general-info-syllabus/.

पठतु संस्कृतम् | वदतु संस्कृतम् |

I thank my teachers, Sri Vasuvaj (for the 10-day Sambhashana Shibiram held a few decades ago),  Sri Manish (Sambhashana Shibiram), Smt. Saritha Dharmvir, Sri. Balamuralikrishna and Sri. Narayana Namboodiri (Gita Sopanam/Gita Pravesha) and Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy (for the classes for KSOU MA students).

KSOU MA Sanskrit – General info & Syllabus

KSOU MA Sanskrit

Registrations for the academic year 2015-2016 is expected start from 15th Nov 2015.

http://karnatakastateopenuniversity.in

Sample question paper

http://karnatakastateopenuniversity.in/m-a-question-paper

Eligibility (as of 2015):

Graduation in any subject + { Show proof of having studied Sanskrit in college as a subject,  or Show proof of having completed courses like Samskrita Bharati’s Kovida, or Take the bridge exam for which the material will be provided by KSOU}

First Year (1-5) and Second Year (6-10) Papers

  1. Classical Sanskrit Literature – Poetry and Prose and Translations (Texts)
  2. Classical Sanskrit Literature – Drama (Texts) and History of Classical Sanskrit Literature.
  3. Tarka and Vyakarana.
  4. Bharatiya Tattvasastra
  5. Alankara – I.
  6. Vedic Hymns, Upanishad, Gita and History of Vedic
  7. Arthshastra, Smriti, Epic (Texts) and Essay.
  8. Vyakarana (Texts) and Linguistics.
  9. Alankara – II (Texts and Poetics – General)
  10. Alankara – III (Texts and Poetics – General and Comparative Studies)

35 books for First year:

Padyabhaga:   – kiraataarjuniyam – 1
Padyabhaga:   – kiraataarjuniyam – 2
Padyabhaga:   – kiraataarjuniyam – 3
gadyabhaaga:  – kaadambarii – 1
gadyabhaaga:  – kaadambarii – 2
gadyabhaaga:  – kaadambarii – 3
Anuvaada:
Naatakam – abhijnaanashaakuntalam – 1
Naatakam – abhijnaanashaakuntalam – 2  –Acts 1 to 4
Naatakam – abhijnaanashaakuntalam – 3
Sanskrutasaahityetihaasah – 1
Sanskrutasaahityetihaasah – 2
Sanskrutasaahityetihaasah – 3 ??
Tarkasangraha – 1
Tarkasangraha – 2
Tarkasangraha – 3
Siddhaantakaumudi – 1
Siddhaantakaumudi – 2 – Intro to Grammer, systems
Siddhaantakaumudi – 2 – Kaaraka Prakaranam 1 – 4th
Siddhaantakaumudi – 3 – Kaaraka Prakaranam 5th – 7th
Siddhaantakaumudi – 4 – Samaasa Prakaranam
Bharatiya Tattvasastra – sarvadarshanasangraha:
Bharatiya Tattvasastra – chaarvaakadarshanam
Bharatiya Tattvasastra – Ramanuja darshanam
Bharatiya Tattvasastra – poorna pajna darshanam
Bharatiya Tattvasastra  – shaiva darshanam
Bharatiya Tattvasastra  – Shankara darshanam – 1
Bharatiya Tattvasastra  – Shankara darshanam – 2
Alamkaara: – Naatya saastram – 1
Alamkaara: – Naatya saastram – 2
Alamkaara: – Naatya saastram – 3
Alamkaara: – kuvalayaananda: – 1
Alamkaara: – kuvalayaananda: – 2
Alamkaara: – kuvalayaananda: – 3
Alamkaara: – kuvalayaananda: – 4

Second year books :

Course-6 Block – 1 Vedic Hymns – 1
Course-6 Block – 2 Vedic Hymns – 2
Course-6 Block – 3 Katopanishat
Course-6 Block – 4 Bhagavad Gita – Karma yoga
Course-6 Block – 5 Vaidika saahityetihaasah – 1
Course-6 Block – 6 Vaidika saahityetihaasah – 2
Course-6 Block – 7 Vaidika saahityetihaasah – 3
Course-7 Block – 8 Arthasaastra – 1
Course-7 Block – 9 Arthasaastra – 2
Course-7 Block – 10 Vaajnavalkyasmrtih -1
Course-7 Block – 11 Vaajnavalkyasmrtih -2
Course-7 Block – 12 Ramayana – 1
Course-7 Block – 13 Ramayana – 2
Course-7 Block – 14 Prabandhah
Course-8 Block – 15 Samaasa Prakaranam – 1
Course-8 Block – 16 Samaasa Prakaranam – 2
Course-8 Block – 17 Samaasa Prakaranam – 3
Course-8 Block – 18 Samaasa Prakaranam – 4
Course-8 Block – 19 Linguistics
Course-8 Block – 20 Linguistics
Course-8 Block – 21 Linguistics
Course-9 Block – 22 Dhvanyaalokah – 1
Course-9 Block – 23 Dhvanyaalokah – 2
Course-9 Block – 24 Dhvanyaalokah – 3
Course-9 Block – 25 Dhvanyaalokah – 4
Course-9 Block – 26 Dhvanyaalokah – 5
Course-9 Block – 27 alankaarashaastrah – 1
Course-9 Block – 28 alankaarashaastrah – 2
Course-10 Block – 29 Alankaara – Kaavyaprakaasa  – 1
Course-10 Block – 30 Alankaara – Kaavyaprakaasa  – 2
Course-10 Block – 31 Alankaara – Kaavyaprakaasa  – 3
Course-10 Block – 32 Alankaara – Kaavyaprakaasa  – 4
Course-10 Block – 33 Alankaara – Kaavyaprakaasa  – 5
Course-10 Block – 34 Alankaara – History of Sanskirt Poetics – 1
Course-10 Block – 35 Alankaara – History of Sanskirt Poetics – 2

 

Nirukta and Patanjali – Gist of the UGC Lecture by Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy at KSU

Gist of the UGC Lecture by Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy on 23-Sep-2015 at Karnataka Sanskrit University on “Nirukta and Patanjali”

Dr. Vanitha Ramaswamy at KSU

Nirukta and Vyaakarana are counted among Veda angaas. Yaaska and Patanjali were the expounders of the respective sciences. All the Vedic commentators, without exception, have fully availed themselves of whatever assistance they could derive from the Nirukta. Even modern linguists have found some advantage in the works of Yaska and Patanjali. These works hold a unique position in a study of linguistic speculation in ancient India.

Nirukta is confined to the Vedic words alone. Some words outside the Vedic literature that come accidently by way of explanation are as also dealt with. Patanjali considers the speculation of both secular and Vedic words because Vyaakarana or grammar has a wider scope. He asks a question केषां शब्दानाम्? And he answers लौकिकानां वैदिकानां च. Panani in fact composed his grammar for the secular language, noticing here and there the peculiarities of the Vedic language also. On the other hand, the Nirukta treats the etymologies of obscure and recondite words. On this account, Yaska proclaims that the Nirukta completes the aim and function of Vyakarana in addition to its own. “tadidam ….. “

Patanjali accepts in total the four fold classification of words as innunciated by Yaaska. “Chatvaari …. ” Panini’s two fold classification of words into Subhanta and Tinganta, does not appeal to Patanjali. These four types of words, as well as some of the definitions, more or less, agree with those of Yaska. In his pushpashaanika, Patanjali tries to glorify the benefits of the study of Vyakarana. There, mostly he echoes the views of Nirukta. This shows that Patanjali was well acquainted with the Nirukta as a Science. “Niruktam vyaakhyaayate ….”

Yaaska is a strong advocate of the theory of radical origin of all nouns that constitute the material language. (i.e., every word originates from some verb). All words are capable of formal as well as semantical analysis and as such no etymologist should leave any word without tracing it to its source. “Natveva …”

Patanjali does not believe in this theory of verbal origin of all nominal stems (praatipadika). Many nominal stems in the language refuse, according to him, any formal analysis. These he calls as Avyutpanna Shabdas. All words derived by the gunaadishu sutras are avyutpanna. Patanjali divides all nominal stems under four heads based on their connotation. Universal (jaati), quality (guna) , action (kriyaa) and signification by mere convention or actions (yadurchaa). “chatushtayii … “

The first three divisions are comprehended under the third in Yaaska’s scheme of classification. Yaaska makes no provision for fourth category called the Yadurchaa shabdas. But the existence of these in any language is quite obvious. Yaaska however recognizes the presence of imitation sounds called the anukarana sabdas as a contributing factor to the vocabulary. “kaaka iti …. “

Patanjali does not hesitate to say that the word under consideration is not analyzable. “unaadayoh … “ The unaadi words are not traceable to regular roots and suffixes. Or in other words, they are irregular formations. It is only with a view to sanction correctness for the Vedic and conventional words, that the unaadi words are admitted in the Panini system. “naigama roodimevam … “ In the case of words, which cannot be traced to well known roots and suffixes, one must guess the suffix. It clearly follows from this that Patanjali considers the derivations of the Unaadi words as merely speculative. This was the attitude of Yaska and Patanjali towards language, words and theories on the origin of words.

<The etymology of some words dealt within these works were discussed further in the session …  >